Textbook of Anatomy for BSc Nursing Students PR Ashalatha
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen 274
back of 391
external oblique muscle of 271
internal oblique muscle of 272
muscles of 271
quadrants of 76
regions of 75, 76f
sagittal section of 90f
soft tissue of 391
surface anatomy of 391
transverse section of 90f
veins of 145, 145f
Abducent nerve 362, 365
Absorption 66
Acetabulum 211, 251
Achilles tendon 295
Achondroplasia 407
Acini 20
Acromion 207
Addison's disease 171
Addisonian crisis 172
Adduction 249
Adductor brevis 291
Adductor canal 136, 136f, 414
contents of 414f
Adductor longus 291
Adductor magnus 291
Adductor pollicis 285
muscle 286f
Adenohypophysis 165
secretion of hormones of 165
Adenosine triphosphate 9
Adipose tissue 22f, 23
Adrenal cortex, control of 171, 173
Adrenal hormones, hormonal imbalance of 171
Adrenogenital syndrome 171
Afferent nerve fiber 178
Agonists 39, 263
Air
passages 44, 44f, 45fc
sinuses 204f
Albinism 407
Albumin 103
globulin ratio 103
Alkalosis 171
Alpha fetoprotein level 408
Alveoli 20, 59
Alzheimer's disease 405
Amniocentesis 409
advantages of 409
disadvantages 409
technique of 409, 409f
Amniotic fluid 409
Amorphous matrix 13
Ampulla 329
Amygdaloid body 354
Anal canal 87, 88t, 146
interior of 87, 87f
Anal fistula 89
Anal opening, absence of 99
Anal sphincters 88
Anaphase 15
Anemia 106, 110, 110t
classification of 110
hemolytic 9
megaloblastic 110, 111f
pernicious 110
Anesthesia, epidural 359, 361
Aneurysms 126
Angina pectoris 120
Angle of Louis 388
Ankle
flexor retinaculum of 260, 260f, 296
joint 256, 260
extensor retinacula of 261f
radiograph of 257f
Anopia 196
Anosmia 362
Ansa cervicalis 415f
Antagonists 39, 263
Anteflexion 326
Anterior abdominal wall
muscles of 271
regions of 391
Anterior cranial fossa 221, 223f, 224f
Antibody 109
Anular pancreas 99
Aorta 122, 122f
abdominal 122, 130f, 131, 131f, 132f
arch of 53, 122, 123f, 124
ascending 57, 122
descending 130
Aortic aneurysm 53
Aortic knob 123, 124f
Aortic knuckle 123, 124f
Apex 56, 238
beat 389
Apocrine 20
Appendicular skeleton 200, 205
Appendix 86f, 368
arterial supply of 85
histology of 86f
position of 85f
Aqueous humor 195
Arachnoid mater 347, 359
Arch
classification of 219
functions of 219
lateral longitudinal 219
maintenance of 219
transverse 219
vertebral 236
Arcuate artery 137
Areola 334
Arm
compartments of 281f
lateral rotation of 5f
medial rotation of 5f
muscles of 280, 281f
upper 207
Armpit 385
Arrector pili muscle 180
Arterial occlusion, effects of 138
Artery 156, 280
brachiocephalic 124
bronchial 59
inferior pancreaticoduodenal 133
lingual 125
maxillary 125
palpation of pulsations of 138t
posterior auricular 125
posterior tibial 137, 137f
pulmonary 59
splenic 133
vertebral 127, 127f, 351, 352f
Articular cartilage 33, 243
Articular disc 249
Artificial joint 253f
Aryepiglotticus 51
Arytenoid cartilages 50
Astrocytes, fibrous 343
Ataxia 358
Atonia 358
Atresia 99
Atria, development of 149
Atrial natriuretic peptide 163
Atrial septal defect 116, 150
Atrioventricular valves 117f, 118
parts of 119
Atrophy 39, 263
Auditory cortex 356
Auditory meatus
external 183, 202f
internal 227
Auditory pathway 188
Auditory tube 186
Auscultation, triangle of 280
Autonomic nervous system 346, 376
subdivisions of 376
Autosomal dominant
disorders 407
traits 407
Autosomal recessive inheritance 407
Axial skeleton 200, 219
Axilla 414
contents of 414f
walls 415
Axillary artery 128, 128f, 279f, 386, 386f
branches of 128t
parts of 128t
Axillary tail of Spence 334
Axon 340, 341t
Azygos vein 53, 144
arch of 53
B
Ball and socket joint 244
Barr body 400, 400f
calculation of number of 400
Bartholin's glands 325
Basal nuclei 354, 354f
functions of 355
Basilic vein 143, 387
Basket cell 18
Basophils 107, 108, 108f
Bell's palsy 266, 367
Berry aneurysm 352
Biceps brachii 281f, 371
Biceps femoris 292
nerve supply of 292
Biconcave shape, advantages of 105
Bigelow ligament 252
Bile duct, common 95
Bipolar neurons 341
Bladder
catheterization of 309
interior of 307
mucosa cells 400
trigone of 308f
Bleeding disorder, congenital 408
Blood
brain barrier 349
constituents of 349f
cells 103
origin of 104
cellular components of 104, 104f
chimeras 404
coagulation of 103
composition of 103, 103fc
course of 114
excessive loss of 110t
functions of 102f
group determination 106
leukocytes 22 23
loss
acute 110
chronic 110
microscopic structure 102
smear, peripheral 110f
vessels 111
general structure of 111, 111f
B-lymphocytes 23
Body 77, 94, 227, 235
defense mechanism of 103
function of 2, 162
longest vein in 147
organ systems of 24
structure of 2
Bone 205
cells 34f
composition of 34fc
formation of 36
forming joint 245, 247, 249, 250, 256
functions of 35, 200
grafting 234
growth 37
factors affecting 37
marrow
aspiration 38
disorders of 110
transplantation 37
metacarpal 210
metatarsal 219
number of 200
parietal 225
structure of 34
tissue, elements of 34
Bony labyrinth 187, 187f
Bony landmarks 382, 385, 388
Bony pelvis 241
Bowman's capsule 305
Bowman's membrane 193
Brachial artery 128, 386, 386f
Brachial plexus 370, 370f, 422f
branches of 370
injuries 371
typical plan of 370
Brachialis 281
Brachiocephalic trunk 124
Brachiocephalic vein 53
Brachioradialis 284
Brachydactyly 407
Brain 349, 353t
base of 363f
ventricle of 347, 347f
Brainstem 349, 357, 357f
dorsal aspect of 348f
Breast 333, 334f
areola 334
arterial supply 334
blood supply 334
cancer 334
mammography 336
treatment 336
lymphatic drainage 334
microscopic structure of 336, 336f
nerve supply 334
nipple 334
structure 334
Broad ligament 327
structures in 326
Bronchi 54
division of 55
intrapulmonary 59
Bronchioles 59
Bronchogram 62
Bronchopulmonary segments 58, 58f, 58t
Bronchoscopy 55
Buccal mucosa 400
Bulbar palsy 368
Bulbs 315
Bursae around joint 246, 255
Bypass surgery, basis of 120f
C
Café au lait’ spots 407
Calcaneus 217
Calcarine sulcus 350
Calcitonin 37
Callosity 181
Calot's triangle 95
Canaliculi 190
Cancer, treatment of 411
Capsular ligament 250, 254
Capsule 156, 166, 167, 170, 251
Carbohydrates, functions of 10
Carbon dioxide transport 106
Carcinoma, bronchogenic 53
Cardiac muscle 39, 40f, 41, 41t, 263, 263f, 264, 264t
Cardiac tamponade 121
Cardiac vein, middle 121
Cardinal ligaments 327
Cardiovascular system 29, 29f
Carina 54
Carotid
artery 415f
common 53, 124, 368, 384
external 124
sheath 415
relations of 415f
system 351
triangle 423, 423f
wall 184
Carpal bones 210, 218
Carpal tunnel 371f
syndrome 286, 372, 387
Carpometacarpal joint 250f
Carpopedal spasm 170
Carrier proteins 9
Cartilage
nutrition of 255
rings 54
structure of 32
types of 34t
Cartilaginous ossification 37
Cataract 197
Cauda equina 360f
Caudate nucleus 354, 357
Cavernous sinus 141, 141f
connections of 141
thrombosis 140, 141
Cecum 83, 368
arterial supply of 85
interior of 84f
Celiac trunk 132, 132f
Cell 8, 32, 34
adhesion molecules 9
body 344, 345
cytoskeleton of 14t
division 15, 397
layers of 317
maintenance 10
matrix adhesion 9
membrane 8, 9f, 10f
carbohydrates of 10
composition of 8
functions of 10
lipids in 8
protein in 8
role of 10
structure of 8
organelles 10, 11f, 11t
parts of 165t
power-generating units of 13
structure of 8
Central line 149
complication of 149
types of 149, 149f
Central nervous system 178, 346
part of 359
Central venous access device 149
Centromere 397
Centrosome 13
Cephalic vein 143, 387
Cerebellar
dysfunction 358
peduncles 358fc
Cerebellum 358
nuclei of 358f
Cerebral
aqueduct 347
artery
anterior 353
middle 353
posterior 353
cortex 178
hemisphere 355f
coronal section of 353f
horizontal section of 355f
inferior surfaces of 352f
Cerebrospinal fluid 187f, 348
flow of 348
functions of 349
Cerebrum 342f, 349, 350f, 351
arterial supply of 352f
blood supply of 351
functions of 353
white matter of 355, 355f
Cervical
enlargement 359
ligaments, transverse 327
muscles, lateral 267
nerve 368
pleura 61, 370, 389
plexus, branches of 370f, 422f
rib 127
vertebrae 236, 237, 237f
Cervix 325
Cesarean section 328
Cheeks 67
Chemical synapses, types of 342f
Chemotaxis 107
Chest 406
normal radiograph of 60f
radiograph of 62f
X-ray of 158
Chimerism 404
Cholecystography 95
Cholecystokinin 163
Cholesterol 8
Chondroblasts 32
Chondrocytes 32
Chondroitin sulfate 22
Chordae tendinae 119
Chorion frondosum 410
Chorionic villi 410, 410f
Chorionic villus sampling 405, 410
advantages of 410
disadvantages 410
technique 410
Choroid plexuses 348
components 348
Christmas disease 408
Chromosomal aberrations 401
causes of abnormalities 401
classification 401
Chromosomal trisomies, types of 402f
Chromosome 15, 396, 400
classification of 15f, 397
complement 397
Denver classification of 398t
karyotyping of 398, 398f
number 402
structure of 396
Ciliary body 193
Circle of Willis 126, 126f, 351, 352f
Circulatory system 101, 102
Circulus arteriosus 126, 126f, 351, 352f
Circumduction 249
Circumflex nerve 373
Cisternae 12
Cisternal puncture 347
Claudication 138
Claustrum 355
Clavicle 205, 205f
conoid tubercle of 203f
peculiarities of 205
Clavipectoral fascia 279
Claw hand 372
Cleft palate 68, 68f
Clitoral hood 325
Clitoris 325
Cloaca 311
Clubbing 182, 182f
Coccyx 240
Cochlea 187, 187f
Cochlear duct 188
Colic artery 133, 134
Colic impression 154
Collagen fibers 22, 33
distribution of 22t
types of 22
Colles’ fracture 209f, 249
Colon
ascending 86
transverse 86
Colostomy 86
indication of 86
Columella 46
Columnar cells 331
Commissural fibers 355
Compact bone 35, 201
microscopic structure of 35, 36f
transverse section of 36f
Compression, effects of 53
Condyles 203f
Condyloid joint 244
Cones 195
Congenital anomalies 63, 150, 305, 307309, 311, 316, 323
Conjunctival sac 190
Conn's syndrome 171
Connective tissue 17, 20, 22f, 59
cell of 22, 23f
classification of 21fc
components of 21
dense
irregular 24
regular 24
fibers of 22
functions of 24
types of 22, 23
Contraction 38, 261
Coracobrachialis 281, 371
Coracoclavicular ligament 245
Coracohumeral ligament 246
Coracoid process 203f, 207
Cornea 192, 193f
histology of 4f
junction of 192f
special features of 193
Corneal epithelium 192
Corniculate 50
Coronary angiography 120
Coronary artery 111, 119, 119f
Coronary bypass surgery 120
Coronary ligament 91
Coronary sinus 121
Corpus callosum 355, 355f, 356f
fibers of 356
forceps minor of 356f
Corpus luteum 174, 332
formation of 174
Corpus spongiosum 315
Cortex 151, 157, 170, 331
functions of 171
Corticospinal tract 341, 357, 358
Costal cartilages 33
Costal margin 388
Costal pleura 61, 389
Costodiaphragmatic recess 61
Costomediastinal recess 61
Cranial fossa
middle 221, 223f
posterior 223, 224f
Cranial nerves 156, 346, 361, 362f, 369, 369t
Cremasteric reflex 319
Cretinism 168
Cricoarytenoid, lateral 51
Cricoid cartilage 49, 383
Cricothyroid 51
Cri-du-chat syndrome 403
Cruciate ligaments 254
Crura 270, 315
Crus 315
Cryptorchidism 319
Crypts of Lieberkühn 80
Cubital fossa 416
boundaries of 416f
contents of 416f
right 143f
Cuboid bone 218
Cumulus oophorus 332
Cuneiform 218
cartilages 50
Cushing's syndrome 172
Cusps 119
Cystic artery, triangle of 95
Cystic duct 95
Cytology 8
Cytoplasm 10, 341
Cytoskeleton 13
Cytosol 10
D
Deep extensor muscles 284, 285f
Deep flexor muscles 295
Deep inguinal
nodes 153
ring 418, 419f
Deep muscles 269, 294
Deep palmar arch 129, 386, 387f
Deep vein 143, 147
thrombosis 148
prevention of 148
Deltoid
ligament 256, 257f
muscle 290
structures undercover of 278, 278f
Dendrites 340, 341t
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 407
Denver classification 398
Deoxyribonucleic acid 13, 396, 411
Dermatan sulfate 22
Dermis 179
Descemet's membrane 193
Deviated nasal septum 46
Dextrocardia 150
Diabetes insipidus 173, 305
Diabetes mellitus 173
classical features of 174
insulin dependent 173
non-insulin dependent 173
secondary 174
type I 173
type II 173
Diapedesis 107
Diaphragm 269, 269f, 270f
foramina in 270
inferior relations of 270f
Diencephalon 353
subdivisions 353
thalamus 353
Digastric triangle 423
Digestion 66
accessory organs of 91
process of 66, 66fc
Digestive system 30, 30f, 65, 66
congenital anomalies of 99
development of 97, 97f
parts of 66, 67f
Digital examination per rectum 87
Digits
abduction of 5f
adduction of 5f
Dinner fork deformity 209f
Diploic bones 201
Dislocation 246, 247
Dispermic chimeras 404
Distal convoluted tubule 305
Distal radius fracture 209f
Dorsal ligament 250
Dorsalis pedis artery 137, 137f, 393
Dorsiflexion 256, 258
Dorsogluteal muscles, position of 290f
Dorsum 44, 69f
Down syndrome 402, 404, 404f, 405
Drainage, areas of 158
Drumstick 400
Dry gangrene 138
Ducts 96f
Ducts of Bellini 305
Ductus deferens 319
Duodenum 80, 80f, 368
first part of 80
microscopic structure of 82f
part of 81
second part of 81, 81f
Dura mater 346, 359
Dural sinuses, paired 140
Dural venous sinuses 140, 140f
Dysarthria 358
Dysdiadochokinesia 359
E
Ear
internal 186
ossicles 185, 185f
parts of 184f
Ectodermal cells 17
Ectopia cordis 150
Ectopic tubal pregnancy 330
Edward syndrome 402
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 24
Ejaculatory ducts 320
opening of 321f
Elastic 34
artery 111, 112f
cartilage 33
fibers 22
Elasticity 38, 261
Elbow
joint 246, 247f
anterior relations of 248f
posterior relations of 248f
relations of 246
X-ray of 209f
Electron microscope 8
Ellipsoid joint 244
Embolus, pulmonary 148
Endochondral ossification 37
Endocrine disorders 110
Endocrine glands 20, 162, 163f, 163t
functions of 162, 163f
major 162
Endocrine system 28, 28f, 161, 162
Endocytosis 10, 10f
Endodermal cells 17
Endometrium 326, 328
Endoplasmic reticulum 11, 12f
functions of 11
types of 11
Endothelium 17, 193
Eosinophils 23, 107, 108, 108f
Ependyma 347, 360
Ependymal cells 343
Epicondyles 203f
Epicondylitis, lateral 247
Epicranius 264
Epidermis 178
cell of 181
Epididymis 316f, 319
Epigastrium 76
Epiglottis 49
Epineurium 342
Epiphyseal injury 37
Epiphysis cerebri 172
Epiploic foramen, boundaries of 90
Episiotomy 275, 275f
Epispadias 309
Epistaxis 46
Epithelium 17
classification of 17, 17t
functions of 17
keratinized 19
non-keratinized 19
olfactory 182f
pseudostratified 18
transitional 19, 19f
Erb's paralysis 371
Erection, anatomical basis of 315
Erythrocytes 104, 105f
Erythropoiesis 104
Esophageal opening 271
Esophageal varices 146
Esophagus 53, 74, 74f, 75f, 368
constrictions of 74
histology of 75f
lower end of 146
Ethmoid 230
Ethmoidal sinuses 48
Euploidy 401
types of 402t
Exocrine glands 20
Exocytic vesicles 10, 11, 13
Exocytosis 10
stages in 11f
Extensor digitorum
brevis 296
longus 293
Extensor hallucis longus 293
Extensor muscles 288
Extensor retinaculum 259, 260, 260f
External jugular veins 142, 384
surface marking of 384f
Extracellular fluid 8, 171
Extrahepatic biliary apparatus 94, 94f
development of 98, 98f
Extraocular muscles 190
actions of 191
Eye, gross anatomy of 4f
Eyeball 191
coverings of 192
extrinsic muscles of 190f
protrusion of 168f
refractive media of 192t
section of 191f
wall of 192fc
Eyebrows 189, 382
Eyelid 189, 421
drooping of 371
structure of 189f
upper 191
F
Face
dangerous area of 140, 140f
muscles of 265f
veins of 139, 139f
Facial
artery 125, 384, 384f
canal 365
colliculus 365
expression 265, 265t
muscles of 264
nerve 362, 365
branches of 364f
lesion of 366f
vein 139, 384
common 139
Falciform ligament 91
Fallopian tubes 329
development of 323, 323f
histology of 329
Falx cerebri 347, 347f
Fascia
iliaca 417
transversalis 417
Fat
cells 22, 23
ischiorectal pad of 89
Fatty tissue, interlobar 334
Female pelvis 241f, 242, 242t
sagittal section of 308f
Femoral artery 135, 135f, 136, 136f, 393, 393f
Femoral nerve 374
Femoral ring 417
Femoral sheath 148, 148f, 417, 417f
contents 417
formation 417
function 417
subdivisions 417
Femoral triangle 135, 135f, 416, 417f
Femoral vein 148, 393f
Femur 212, 215f
head of 203f, 252
linea aspera of 202f
neck of 253f
pit on head of 202f
Fetal blood sampling 410
Fetal skull 230, 232f
Fetoscopy 410
Fibers 32
parasympathetic 365, 367
Fibrinogen 103
Fibroblasts 22
Fibrocartilage 33
Fibromuscular ligaments 326, 327
Fibrous capsule 245, 246
attachments of 252
Fibula 216, 216f, 295
functions of 216
Fibular collateral ligament 254
Filaments intermediate 11, 14
Filiform 69
Filum terminale 359
Fimbriae 329
Fissure 58
horizontal 58
Fissure of Rolando 350
Fissure of Sylvius 350
Fistula, tracheoesophageal 63
Flail chest 234
Flexion 249
Flexor digitorum
longus 296
profundus 283, 283f
superficialis 282, 283f
Flexor hallucis longus 296
Flexor retinaculum 259, 259f, 260, 260f, 286, 286f, 296, 296f, 387, 387f
superficial relations of 259f
Fluid connective tissue 102
Follicle
forms, part of 332
primary 331
stimulating hormone 163
Follicular cells 331
Fontanelles 242
presence of 230
Foot
arches of 219, 219f
dorsal artery of 137
edema of 405f
eversion of 6f
intrinsic muscle of 296, 297
inversion of 6f
muscles of 296
plate 186
skeleton of 217, 295f
Foramen
magnum 201f
ovale 149f, 227
rotundum 228
spinosum 229
transversarium 237
Forceps
major 356
minor 356
Forearm
bone of 208, 209f
extension of 5f
flexion of 5f
muscles of 282
posterior compartment of 283
pronation of 6f
supination of 6f
Foville's syndrome 357
Fracture 37, 234
Frank blood viewed under microscope 104f
Frankfurt's plane 383
Frozen shoulder 246
Fundus 77, 94, 325, 392
Fungiform 69
G
Galactosemia 407
Gallbladder 94, 392
histology of 94, 95f
parts of 94
Gallstones 95
Ganglia 341, 344, 354, 354f
autonomic 345, 345f
types 344
Gangrene 138
clinical features of 138
Gases, exchange of 10, 44
Gastric
artery
left 77, 132
right 78, 133
short 78
glands 79
impression 154
inhibitory polypeptide 163
ulcers 79
Gastrocnemius 294
Gastroduodenal artery 133
Gastroepiploic artery
left 78
right 78
Gaucher's disease 407
Gene 400
expression, regulation of 400, 401fc
structure of 400, 400f
therapy 411
applications of 411
Genetic disorders, prenatal diagnosis of 408
Genital organs, internal 314
Genitalia
external 314, 324, 324f
internal 314
Genitofemoral nerve 373
Genu 356
Germ line therapy 411
Gigantism 166
Glabrous skin 178
Glands 20
adrenal 170
classification of 20fc
intestinal 80
secretory elements of 21f
submandibular 73, 73f
unicellular 21f
Glandular tissue 334
Glanzmann thrombasthenia 110
Glenohumeral joint 245
Glenohumeral ligaments 246
Glenoid cavity 207f
Gliosis 343
Glisson's capsule 93
Globulin 103
Glomerular capsule 305
Glossopharyngeal nerve 362, 367
functions 367
Gluteal region
extent of 287
muscles of 287
Gluteus maximus 287, 287f, 288f
Gluteus medius 288
actions of 288
Gluteus minimus 287f, 288
actions of 288
Glycolipid 10, 10f
Glycoprotein 10
molecules 10f
Glycosaminoglycan 22
types of 22
Goiter 169
Golgi apparatus 12
functions of 12
Golgi complex 11
structure of 12f
Gomphosis 243
Graafian follicle 332, 332f
Granular endoplasmic reticulum 11
Granulosa cells 332
Grave's disease 168
hallmark of 168
Great arteries, transposition of 150
Great cardiac vein 121
Great saphenous vein 147, 147f, 393, 393f
Greater trochanter 212
Greater vestibular glands 325
Growth hormone 37, 163
inhibitory hormone 166
releasing hormone 166
Gums 67
Gyri 350, 350f
H
Hair 180
parts of 180
Hamstring’ muscles 375
Hand
flexor retinaculum of 286, 286f
intrinsic muscles of 284
skeleton of 205f, 210, 211f
Hard palate 68, 221
Hartmann's pouch 94
Hassall's corpuscle 157f
Head 96, 185, 212, 251
and neck
arteries supplying 124f
landmarks on side of 383f
veins of 139
muscles of 264
Hearing
mechanism of 188
sense of 183
Heart 112, 114, 115
anatomical position of 113, 113f
apex of 113, 388f
auscultatory areas of 389, 389f
base of 113, 118f
blood supply of 119, 119f
borders of 388, 388f, 390f
chambers of 113, 115
conducting system of 121, 121f
coverings of 121
development of 149, 149f
diaphragmatic surface of 114
disease, ischemic 120, 389
features of 114f
nerve supply of 121
sternocostal surface of 114f
surface of 270f
valves of 118
veins of 121
venous drainage of 120, 120f
Heimlich maneuver 52, 52f
Helicine arteries 315
Helper T cells 109
Hematology 102
Hematoma, extradural 222f
Hematopoiesis 104
Hemianopia 196
heteronymous 196
homonymous 196
right homonymous 196
Hemoglobin 106
destruction of 106
functions of 106
structure of 106f
Hemoglobinopathy 407
Hemophilia 408
A 408
B 408
Hemopoiesis 104, 155
Hemorrhage, extradural 125
Hemorrhoids 146
external 88
internal 88, 88f
Heparan sulfate 22
Hepatic artery 133
fate of 93
Hepatic ducts 94
common 94
right 94
Hepatic nodes 334
Hepatorenal pouch 91
Hernia
diaphragmatic 271
inguinal 419
types of 419
Hesselbach's triangle 419, 420f
Hilton's law 244
Hilum 57, 57f, 154
Hindgut
artery of 133
derivatives of 98
Hinge joint 244, 251
Hip
bone 211, 213f
joint 252t, 253f
anterior relations of 252f
ligaments of 252f
posterior relations of 253f
radiograph of 251f
relations of 252
Histiocytes 23
Hodgkin's lymphoma 53
Holocrine 20
Hordeolum 181
Hormone 9, 162, 165
adrenocorticotropic 163
antidiuretic 163, 165, 305
general 162
local 162
parts of 165t
posterior pituitary 173
regulation of secretion of 163
Horner's syndrome 371, 377
Horseshoe kidney 305, 306f, 311
Human body 1, 2
structural organization of 25f
Human chorionic gonadotropin 163
Human genome project 410
applications of 410
Humerus 207
intertubercular sulcus of 202f
lower end of 203f
surgical neck of 373
Hyaline 34
cartilage 32, 32f
distribution of 33
membrane disease 62
Hyaluronic acid 22
Hydrocele 319f
Hydrocephalus 349
Hydro-pneumothorax 62f
Hymen 333
imperforate 333
Hyoglossus 69
Hyoid bone 383
Hyperacusis 367
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 171
Hypergammaglobulinemia 104
Hyperinsulinism 174
Hyperparathyroidism 169
Hyperpigmentation 172
Hyperplasia, benign prostatic 323
Hyperprolactinemia 166
Hyperproteinemia 104
Hypertension 171
Hyperthyroidism 168
Hypertrophy 39, 263
right ventricular 150
Hypogastric region 391
Hypoglossal nerve 368
Hypoglycemia 174
clinical features of 174
Hypoparathyroidism 169, 170
Hypophysis cerebri 164
Hypoploidy 401
Hypoproteinemia 104
Hypospadias 309, 316
Hypothalamus 172f, 173, 354
endocrine functions of 173
functions 354
Hypothenar 386
eminences 386f
muscles 285
Hypothyroidism 168
Hypotonia 358
Hysterectomy 329
I
Ileocolic artery 133
Ileostomy 86
indication of 86
Ileum 82, 83, 83t, 368
arterial supply of 83
Iliac artery
common 134
external 134
Iliac crest 212
tubercle of 391
Iliac fossa 212
Iliac veins, common 145
Iliofemoral ligament 252
Immunoglobulins 109
Imperforate anus 99
Incisor tooth, longitudinal section of 67f
Incus 185
Inferior alveolar nerve block 365
Inferior vena cava 145, 145f
foramen for 270
groove for 57
Infranuclear lesions 366
Infrapatellar bursa, subcutaneous 256
Infundibulopelvic ligament 330
Ingestion 66
Inguinal canal 418, 418f, 419
boundaries of 418
Inguinal ligament 272, 272f, 417, 418f
middle point of 418
part of 418
reflected part 418
Inlet, boundaries of 232
Integumentary system 26, 26f
Interatrial septum 116
development of 149f
Intercostalis intimus 269
Internal capsule 356, 356f
parts of 356, 356f
Internal carotid
artery 126
course of 352f
origin of 352f
Internal iliac artery 134
anterior division of 134f
posterior division of 134f
Internal jugular vein 142, 149f, 384
surface marking of 384f
Interstitial cells of Leydig 174
Interventricular septum 118
absence of 150
development of 150f
Intervertebral discs 240
Intrabulbar fossa 315
Intracellular fluid 8
Intramuscular injection 214f
advantages of 290
site of 289f
Intrauterine contraceptive device 328
Iris 193
muscles of 193
Iron deficiency anemia 110, 110f
Ischemia 138
Ischiopubic rami, conjoined 212
Ischiorectal fossa 89, 89f
boundaries of 89
Ischium 212
Isochromosome 403
formation of 404f
Isthmus 167, 325, 329
J
Jaundice 107, 197f
Jejunum 82, 83, 83t, 368
arterial supply of 83
Joints 178, 242, 259
acromioclavicular 245, 245f
cartilaginous 242, 243, 243f
cavity 243
classification of 242, 242t
fibrocartilaginous 243
fibrous 242
primary cartilaginous 243
secondary cartilaginous 243
subtalar 258, 258f
types of 242f, 251
Jugulodigastric node 152
Jugulo-omohyoid node 152
Juxtaglomerular apparatus 305, 305f
K
Keratan sulfate 22
Keratinocytes 181
Keratohyalin 179
Kidneys 302, 303, 392
agenesis of 311
anterior relations of 303f
blood supply of 305
coverings 303
development of 310, 310f
histology of 304f
polycystic disease of 311
shape 302
size 302
structure 303
surface anatomy 303
upper pole 303
Klinefelter syndrome 400, 402, 406, 407f
Klumpke's paralysis 371
Knee joint 253, 255t
anterior relations of 255f
ligaments of 254, 254f
posterior relations of 256f
X-ray of 254f
Koilonychia 182, 182f
Kyphosis 240
L
Labia majora 324
Labia minora 324
Laborer's nerve 371, 372
Lacrimal apparatus 190, 190f
Lacrimal gland 190
Lacrimal sac 190
Lacunar ligament 418
Lamellae 35f
Lamina 204f
Laparoscopic tubal ligation 328
Laparoscopy 328
Large artery
function of 112
structure of 111
Large intestine 83, 84, 84t
blood supply of 86
histology of 85, 85f
Large vein 113f
structure of 112
Laryngeal nerves, recurrent 51
Laryngeal stridor 170
Laryngopharynx 71
Larynx 48
cavity of 50
development of 62f
inlet of 50, 50f
ligaments of 50
muscles of 51
skeleton of 49, 49f
ventricle of 50
Latissimus dorsi 279, 280f
Left coronary artery 120
distribution of 120
Left ventricle, internal features of 119f
Leg
anterior 292
compartment of 292f
artery of 136
inferior extensor retinacula of 293f
lateral compartment of 293f
movements 148
muscles of 292
posterior compartment of 294, 295f
skeleton of 214
Lemnisci 341
Lens 195
Lentiform nucleus 354, 355f
Leptomeninges 346
Lesions, effects of 195
Lesser omentum 92
Lesser sac 90
Lesser trochanter 213
Leukemia 107
Leukocytes 104, 107
features of 107
types of 107
varieties of 108f
Leukopoiesis 107
Levator ani muscles 274
Levator glandulae thyroideae 167
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle 2, 191
Levator prostatae 322
Ligaments 243, 245, 246, 249, 250, 251, 256
around knee joint 255f
intrinsic 50
ischiofemoral 252
palpebral 189f
pulmonary 61
Ligamentum
arteriosum 123, 123f
colles 418
patellae 254
venosum, fissure for 92
Light, sense of 195
Limb
anomalies 405
anterior 356
posterior 356
Lingula 56
Lipids
arrangement of 9f
layer, functions of 8
Lips 67
Little's area 46
Liver 91, 92f
bare area of 92
biopsy 94
cirrhosis of 146
development of 98, 98f
functions of 94
histology of 93f
inferior surface of 93
lower border 392
peritoneal folds of 91
physiological lobes of 92f
position of 91f
relations of 92
right border 392
surface
anatomy of 391
marking of 392f
upper border 392
Lobe 58, 91, 321, 350
functional 91
physiological 91
Long bone
gross structure of 35f
parts of 35, 37f
Loop of Henle 304, 305
Loose areolar connective tissue 421
Lower limb 359, 393
arteries of 135, 135f, 135fc
chief artery of 135
deep veins of 147
joints of 251
massage of 148
muscles of 287
skeleton of 211, 212f
veins of 146
Lower motor neuron
effects of 366f
lesions 366
palsy 366f
Lumbar plexus 274, 370, 373, 373f
branches 373
Lumbar puncture 349, 360
contraindication for 349
purposes of 361
Lumbar subarachnoid block 361
Lumbar sympathectomy 377
Lumbar vertebra 237, 238f
Lumbrical muscles 285
Lungs 55, 56f, 58, 58t, 390
apex of 390
blood supply of 59
development of 62f
fissures of 391
hilum of 57f
histology of 59f
horizontal fissure 391
lymphatic drainage of 60
medial surface 56f
nerve supply of 59
oblique fissure 391
parts of 55
surface
anatomy of 389
marking of 390f
Luteinizing hormone 163, 166
Lymph node 53, 150, 151, 423, 423f, 424
axillary 152
cell of 151
cervical 152, 152f, 415f
deep cervical 152
enlargement 158
functions of 151
inguinal 153
structure of 151f
superficial
cervical 152
inguinal 153, 153f
Lymph vessels 150
Lymphatic drainage 60, 70, 78, 78f, 83, 156, 167, 330, 336f
Lymphatic system 29, 29f, 101, 102, 150
Lymphocytes 23, 107, 108f, 109, 111f, 157
Lymphoid tissue 153
Lyon hypothesis 400
Lysosomal glycogen storage disease 13
Lysosomes 11, 13
functions of 13
types of 13fc
M
Mackenrodt's ligaments 327
Macrophages 22, 23
Malar eminences 382
Male pelvis 241f, 242, 242t
sagittal section of 308f
Male urethra 309, 309f, 323
parts of 309f
Malpighian corpuscle 304
Mammary gland 324, 333, 335f
lobes of 335f
parts 333
Mammogram 335f
Mandible 230f
Mandibular canal 201f
Mandibular nerve 364
block 365
branches of 364f
Manubrium 234
sterni 53, 383
Marfan's syndrome 407
Mast cells 22, 23
Masticatory muscles 266
Mastoid wall 184
Maternal serum screening 408
quadruple test 409
triple test 409
Mature ovarian follicle 332, 332f
Maxilla 229, 231f
process of 230
Maxillary sinus 48
McBurney's point 85f
Meatus, inferior 47
Meckel's diverticulum 99
Medial longitudinal arch 219
Medial plantar arteries 137, 138f
Median cubital vein 143, 143f, 387
Median nerve 371, 371f
distribution of 372
Median sacral artery 87
Mediastinal syndrome 53
Mediastinum
anterior 52
middle 52
posterior 52
subdivisions of 52, 52f
superior 52
testis 317
Medulla 151, 157, 171, 331
central canal of 348
functions of 171
oblongata 358
Medullary syndrome 368
Meiosis 16
consequences of 397
significance of 16
Meissner tactile corpuscles 181
Melanocyte 181
stimulating hormone 163
Melanoma, malignant 182
Membrane
bound
cell organelles 11
vesicles 11, 12
fluid mosaic model of 9f
interosseous 247
proteins, peripheral 9
Membranous labyrinth 187f, 188
Memory T cells 109
Meninges 346f
Meningitis 347
Menisci, functions of 255
Meniscus
lateral 254, 255
medial 254
Mesenchymal cells 22, 23
Mesenteric artery, inferior 133, 134f
Mesodermal cells 17
Mesosalpinx 326, 329
Mesovarium 326
Metacarpophalangeal joints 251
Metatarsus 211
Microglia 343
Microtubules 11, 14
Microvilli, presence of 80
Midbrain 357
parts 357
transverse section of 357f
Middle ear 184, 186
boundaries of 185f
muscles of 186, 186f
parts of 184f
Middle meningeal
arteries 125, 125f
vessels 221
Midgut
artery of 133
derivatives of 98
Millard-Gubler syndrome 357
Mineral salts 34
Mitochondria 11, 13, 317
functions of 13
structure of 14f
Mitosis 15
characteristic features of 16
stages of 16f
Mitral valve 119
Moist gangrene 138
Monocytes 107, 108, 108f
Mons pubis 324
Morison's pouch 91
Morris’ parallelogram 303f
Mosaicism 404
Motor fibers 367
Motor unit 39f, 262f
Mouth 66
Mucosa 53, 79, 85
Mucous membrane 156, 330
Multilaminar epithelia 19
Murphy's sign 392
Muscles 17, 39, 178, 207, 246t, 250, 263, 298
abdominal 273
anterior vertebral 267
around
eyelids 265
mouth 264
arrangement of 269f
attaching humerus 278f
buccinator 265
classification of 264
coat 306, 330
craniofacial 264
external intercostal 269
extrinsic 51
fibers 38, 261
inferior
longitudinal 69
oblique 191
infrahyoid 267, 268f, 424
intercostal 269
internal intercostal 269
interosseous 286
intrinsic 51
lateral vertebral 267
papillary 118, 119
producing 249, 251t
eversion 259
extension 247
flexion 247
inversion 258
movements 246, 249, 252, 255, 258
superficial 282f, 294
cervical 267
extensor 284, 284f
superior longitudinal 69
tissues 38
tone 39, 263
transverse 69
vertical 69
weakness severe 171
Muscular coat 75, 79
Muscular system 27, 27f, 260
Muscular triangle 424, 424f
Musculoskeletal system 199, 200, 382
Musician's nerve 372
Myocardial infarction 120
Myocardium, bulk of 120
Myoepitheliocytes cell 18
Myometrium 325, 327
Myxoedema 168
N
Nails 181
parts of 181, 181f
Nasal cavity 45
boundaries of 45
lateral wall of 47f
subdivisions of 45
Nasal meatuses 47t
Nasal septum 45, 45f
arteries supplying 46f
Nasolacrimal duct 190
Nasopharynx 71
Navicular bone 217
Neck 94, 96, 209, 212, 406
anterolateral muscles of 267
muscles of 268f
nerve point of 370
transverse section of 53f
triangle of 421, 422f
veins of 142
Needle vasectomy 320
Nephrectomy 305
Nephron 304f
function of 305, 305t
parts of 304
structure of 305, 305t
Nerve 53, 280
accessory 362, 368, 422f
axillary 372f, 373, 373f
cell bodies, collections of 341
lingual 365
maxillary 364
musculocutaneous 371
palsy 363
plexuses 369
trigeminal 362, 364
Nervi terminalis 369
Nervous system 27, 27f, 339, 340, 346
divisions of 346
parasympathetic 377
subdivisions of 346fc
Nervous tissue 17, 340
Nervus intermedius 365
distribution of 365
Neural arch 236
Neural tube defects 409
Neuralgia, trigeminal 365
Neurites 340
Neurofibrils 340
Neuroglia 343, 343f, 346
astrocytes 343
classification 343
functions of 343
macroglia 343
types of 343f
Neurohypophysis 165
Neuroma, acoustic 367
Neuromuscular junction 39f, 262f
Neurons 340, 340f, 346
cell body of 340, 344
classification of 341
first order 195
multipolar 341
process of 340
types of 341f
Neurotransmitters 341
Neutrophil 107, 108f, 400
hypersegmented 111f
Nipple 334
retraction of 335
Nodes of Ranvier 341
Non-membranous cell organelles 11
Norma
basalis 221, 222f
frontalis 220, 221f
lateralis 221, 222f
occipitalis 220
verticalis 220, 220f
Nose
external features of 45f
lateral wall of 46
Nuchal cyst 405f
Nuclear division, stages of 15
Nuclear membrane 14
Nuclei
anterior group of 353
medial group of 354
ventral group of 354
Nucleoplasm 14
Nucleotides 396
Nucleus 14, 173
functions of 15
pulposus 240
Nutritional deficiency 110
Nystagmus, cerebellar 358
O
Obstruction
arterial 138t
atherosclerotic 138
Obturator nerve 374, 374f
Occipital bone 226, 226f
parts of 226
Occipitofrontalis, aponeurosis of 421
Oculomotor nerve 362, 363
distribution of 364f
palsy 363
Olfaction 362
sense of 182
Olfactory nerve 362, 369
Oligodendrocytes 343
Omenta 90f
Omental bursa 90
Omentum 90
Oogenesis 332
Oogonia 332
Ophthalmic nerve 364
Optic
canal 228
chiasma, lesion of 196
nerve 196, 362, 369
neuritis 363
Oral cavity 67
Orbicularis
oculi 265
oris 265
Orbit, nerve supply of muscles of 191
Orbital fissure, superior 228
Orbital plate 225
Organs
accessory 189
essential 189
external 324
internal 324, 324f
relations of 4f
reproductive 314
Oropharynx 71
Ossicles, position of 186f
Ossification
formation of 36
intramembranous 36
Osteoblast 34, 34f
Osteoclasts 34
Osteocyte 34, 34f
Osteogenesis imperfecta 24, 407
Osteology 200, 201t
Osteoporosis 37
Osteoprogenitor cells 34
Osteosarcoma 34
Ostium, abdominal 329
Otitis media, complications of 186
Ovarian fimbria 329, 330
Ovarian fossa, boundaries of 330
Ovarian hormones 174
Ovary 330, 331f, 392
suspensory ligament of 330
Oxygen transport 106
Oxyphil cells 169
Oxytocin 166, 354
P
Pachymeninx 346
Pacini, lamellated corpuscles of 181
Palate 68, 68f
nerves of 68
Palatine tonsil 152, 155
microscopic structure of 156f
Palmar arch 129
superficial 129, 386
Palmar ligament 250
Palmaris brevis 285
Palpebrae 189
Pampiniform plexus 330
Pancreas 95, 173
body of 96
development of 98, 98f
ducts of 96, 98
histology of 97f
parts of 96f
tail of 96
Papillae 69f
Papilledema 363
Paralysis, signs of 367
Paranasal sinuses
features of 47
functions of 47, 48f
position of 47f
Parathormone 37
Parathyroid 169
glands, position of 169f
histology of 169f
Paratonsillar vein 156
Paraventricular nucleus 173
Parietal bone 225f
Parietal lobe 350, 351
Parieto-occipital sulcus 350
Parotid duct 383, 383f
Parotid gland 72, 72f, 383
surface marking of 383f
Parotid tumor 73f
Pars cystica 98
Pars hepatica 98
Pars intermedia lobe 165
Patau syndrome 402
Patella 216
functions of 217
Peau D'orange 336
Pectinate ligament 418
Pectoralis major 279, 279f
Pectoralis minor 128, 279, 279f
Pedicles 236
Pelvic
diaphragm 274f, 326
inlet, boundaries of 241
organs 392
outlet, boundaries of 241
splanchnic nerves 377f
Pelvis, muscles of 274
Penis 314, 315
artery 315
of bulb 315
body of 315
components of 314f
deep artery 315
dorsal artery 315
lymphatic drainage 315
nerve supply 315
transverse section 315f
veins 315
Pericardiocentesis 121, 389
Pericarditis 121
Pericardium, nerve supply of 121
Perichondrium 32, 33
Pericranium 421
Perimetrium 325
Perineal body 89, 89f, 326
Perineum
boundaries of 89f
subdivisions of 89
Perineurium 342
Periosteum
functions 35
structure 35
Peripheral nerve, structure of 342, 342f
Peripheral nervous system 343fc, 346
Peritoneal dialysis 91
Peritoneal ligament 90, 326, 327
Peritoneum 90, 90f
bursa 90
Peritonitis 330
Peroneal muscles, tendons of 294f
Peroneal retinacula 294f
Peroneus brevis 294
Peroneus longus 294
Peroneus tertius 293
Peroxisomes 11, 13
Phagocytosis 10
process of 108fc
Phagolysosomes 12f
Phagosomes 11, 13
Phalangeal bones 211
Phalanges 219
Pharyngeal artery, ascending 125
Pharynx 48, 71
muscles of 72
nerve supply of 72
parts of 71
Phenylketonuria 407
Pheochromocytoma 172
Phimosis 316
Phlebothrombosis 148
Phospholipid 8
molecule 9f
Phrenic nerve 271, 370
Phrenicocolic ligament 154
Pia mater 347, 359
Pigment cells 22, 23
Piles 146
Pineal body 172f
Pineal gland 172, 172f
Pinocytosis 10
Piriform fossa 72
Piriformis 275
origin of 275f
relations of 275f
upper border of 276
Pituitary dwarfism 166
Pituitary gland 164
parts of 164f
relations of 164f
Pivot joint 244
Placenta 174
Plane joint 244
Plantar arch 137
Plantar arteries
lateral 137, 138f
medial 137
Plantar flexion 256, 258
Plantar muscles 296
Plantaris 295
Plasma 103
membrane 8
proteins 103
functions of 103, 104f
synthesis of 103
volume 171
Platelet 109, 109f
disorders 110
fate of 109
formation of 109
functions of 109, 109f
lifespan of 109
Platysma 267
Pleura 60, 389
nerve supply of 61
Pluripotent stem cell 104
Poliomyelitis 361
Polycythemia 106
Polydeoxyribose nucleotide chains 396
Pons 357
Pontine hemorrhage 357
Popliteal artery 136, 136f, 420
Popliteal fossa 136f, 419, 420f
Popliteal vein 148
Porphyria 407
Portacaval anastomosis 88
Portal vein 93, 146, 146f
thrombosis of 146
Porter's tip hand 371
Portocaval shunt 146
Posterior abdominal wall, muscles of 273, 273f
Posterior compartment, deep muscles of 295f
Potassium depletion 171
Pouch of Douglas 91, 91f
Poupart's ligament 417
Prepatellar bursa, subcutaneous 255
Primordial follicle 331
Pringle's maneuver 92
Proctoscopy 87
Progesterone 174
Pronator
quadratus 283
syndrome 282
teres 282
Pronephros 310
Prostate 321, 322f
gland 321f
lobes of 321f
relations of 322
transurethral resection of 323
Prostatectomy 323
Prostatic urethra 309f, 321f, 322
Prostatic utricle 323
Prosthesis 253f
Proteins
arrangement of 9f
integral 8
layer, functions of 9
peripheral 9
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium 18f
Pseudounipolar neurons 341
Psoas major muscle 274, 274f, 373f
Pterion 125, 221, 383
Pterygoid
medial 267
muscle, lateral 266
Ptosis 363
Pubic symphysis 391
Pubis 212
body of 212
Pubocervical ligaments 327
Pubococcygeus muscle 275
Pubofemoral ligament 252
Pudendal nerve 89, 376
block 376
branches 376
Pudendum 324
Pulmonary bronchus, division of 55fc
Pulsating exophthalmos 141
Pumps 9
Pyloric stenosis, congenital hypertrophic 79f
Pylorus 77
Pyramidal lobe 167
Q
Quadrate lobe 91
Quadriceps femoris 288
R
Radial
artery 128, 386, 386f
collateral ligaments 249
deviation 249
groove 372
nerve 372, 372f
notch 210
tuberosity 209
Radiocarpal joint 247, 248f, 249
inferior 247
middle 247
Ramus 229
Rectal artery
middle 87
superior 87, 134
Rectouterine pouch 91
Rectum 86
flexures of 87
prolapse of 87
Rectus
abdominis 271f, 272
muscles 191
sheath 272, 273f
contents of 272
Red blood cell 104
count, normal value of 105
decreased production of 110t
destruction of 110t
fate of 105fc
functions of 106, 106f
lifespan of 105
Renal artery 305
Renal papilla, apex of 305
Renal pelvis 303
Renal system 301, 302, 392
Renal transplantation 305
Reproductive cell division 15, 16
Reproductive system 313, 314, 406
female 31, 31, 314, 324f
male 31, 31f, 314
Respiration
external 44
internal 44
Respiratory distress syndrome 62
prevention of 62
Respiratory paralysis 54
Respiratory system 30, 30f, 43, 44
development of 62
Resuscitation, cardiopulmonary 122
Reticular tissue 24
Retina 193
rods and cones of 195t
structure of 194f
Retinacula, cover of 293
Rhomboid
fossa 348
major 276, 276f
minor 276, 276f
muscle 276
Rhomboideus muscle 276
Ribbon muscles 424
Ribonucleic acid 13
Ribosomes 11
Ribs 232, 234
counting of 388
typical 233
Rickets 37
Right atrium 115
interior of 116f
internal features of 116f
Right optic
radiation, lesion of 196
tract, lesion of 196
Ring chromosome 403
formation of 404f
Robertsonian translocation 402, 403f
Rods 195
Rotator cuff 246
Rouleaux formation 105
S
Saccular glands 20
Sacral canal 239
Sacral plexus 374
branches of 375f
position of 375f
Sacrum 238, 239f
sex differences 240t
Saddle joint 244
Salivary glands 72
major 72
minor 72
sublingual 74, 74f
Salpingitis 330
Saphenous nerve 374
Saphenous vein 147, 147f
Sarcomere 39, 262
Sarcoplasmic reticulum 12
Sartorius 290
Satellite cells 343
Saturday night palsy 372
Scalp 420, 420f
blood supply of 421
dangerous layer of 421
structure 421
Scalpel vasectomy 320
Scapula 206, 206f
infraspinous fossae of 202f
supraspinous fossae of 202f
winging of 277
Schwann cell 341, 341f, 343
cytoplasm of 341
Sciatic nerve 374, 375f, 393, 393f
branches 375
Sclera 191
Scrotum 316
functions 316
layers of 316
lymphatic drainage 316
nerve supply 316
Sebaceous glands 180
modified 180
Sebum, functions of 180
Secretomotor fibers 367
Sella turcica 223
Sellar joint 244
Semicircular canals 187
Semicircular ducts 188
Semilunar valves 119
Seminal vesicle 320, 321f
Sensations, classification of 178
Sensorineural deafness 367
Sensory ganglia 344, 344f, 345
Sensory organs 177, 178
Sentinel nodes 152
Septomarginal trabecula 118
Septum 323, 324f
blood supply of 46
nerve supply of 46f
Serosa 79, 85
Serratus anterior muscle 277, 277f
Sesamoid bones, peculiarities of 200
Sex
chromatin 400
chromosomes 400
hormones 37
linked inheritance 408
Shoulder girdle
joints of 244
movements of 245
muscles of 276
Shoulder joint 245, 245f, 246t
relations of 246
Sialogram 74
Sialography 74
Sigmoid
arteries 134
colon 86
sinuses 142
Silk, rustle of 121
Simian crease 404f
Simple squamous epithelium 17
Singular labium
majus 324
minus 324
Singular testis 316
Sinus 50, 121
confluence of 142, 226
lateral 142
transverse 141
venarum 116
venosus 121
Skeletal anomalies 406
Skeletal muscle 38, 41, 41t, 261, 264, 264t
attachments of 39, 262
fiber 38f, 39f, 261f, 262f
functions of 38, 261
innervation of 39, 262
pump 139
structure of 38, 38f, 261, 262f
Skeletal system 26, 26f, 32
Skin 178, 372
appendages of 180
blood supply of 181
color of 181
functions of 179
grafting 182
hairy 178
infections of 181
malignant disease of 182
sensory end organs of 181f
types of 178
Skull 3f, 219
bone of 220
exterior of 220
fissures of 229t
foramina of 229t
functions of 220
interior of 221
internal surface of base of 221
joints of 220
Small intestine 79, 84, 84t
histology of 83
Smell, sense of 182
Smith's fracture 249
Smooth membrane, outer 13
Smooth muscle 40, 41, 41t, 263, 264, 264t
distribution of 40, 264
fibers 40f, 263f
Soft palate 68
functions of 68
muscles of 68
Soft tissue landmarks 388
Sole, muscles of 298t
first layer of 296f
fourth layer of 297f
second layer of 297f
third layer of 297f
Somatic
cell 400
senses 178
therapy 411
Sperm 317
Spermatic cord 319
constituents of 319
coverings of 319
Spermatogenesis 317
Spermatogonia 317
Spermatozoon, structure of 317, 318f
Spermiogenesis 317
Sphenoid 228f
bones 224f
pterygoid hamulus of 204f
sinus 48, 48f
Spherocytosis, hereditary 9
Sphincter 89f, 309
external 88, 309
internal 88, 309
Spinal block 361
Spinal cord 342f, 359, 359f, 360f
central canal of 348
coverings of 359
injuries 361
study of 361
Spinal nerves 346, 359
Spinal segments 360, 360f
Spine 204f, 207
Spiral organ of Corti 188
Spleen 153, 392
functions of 155, 155f
gross anatomy of 153f
microscopic structure of 154f
relations of 153f
Squamous cell carcinoma 182
Squint 363
Stapedius 186
paralysis of 367
Stenosis 63
pulmonary 150
Sternal puncture 235
Sternoclavicular joint 244, 245f
Sternocleidomastoid 370f
muscle 267, 268f
Sternum 234, 234f
body of 234
Stomach 76, 78f, 368
bed 77, 78f
blood supply of 77
carcinoma of 79
functions of 77
interior of 78
lymphatic drainage of 78f
microscopic structure of body of 79f
parts of 76f, 77
posterior relations of 78f
Strap muscles 424
Stratified squamous epithelium 19, 19f
Stratum
basale 178
corneum 179
germinativum 179
granulosum 179
lucidum 179
spinosum 179
Stye 181
Styloglossus 69
Styloid apparatus 228f
Subarachnoid space 361f
Subclavian artery 127, 127f, 422f
Subclavian vein 142, 149f
Submucosa 54, 75, 79, 82, 83, 85
Substantia propria 193
Sulci 350f
Sulcus 350
interventricular 114f
lateral 350
Superficial inguinal ring 272, 272f, 418, 419f
Superficial temporal
artery 126
vein 139
Superficial vein 143, 146, 147
thrombosis 148
Superior meatus 46
Superior mesenteric artery 133, 133f
syndrome 82
Superior mesenteric vein 146
Superior radioulnar joint 247
osseofibrous ring of 248f
Superior thyroid artery 124
pair of 167
Superior vena cava 57, 144, 144f
Suppressor T cells 109
Supraclavicular nerve 370
Supraclavicular nodes 152
Supracondylar fracture 209f
Suprahyoid muscles 267, 268f
Supranuclear lesions 366
Supraoptic nucleus 173
Supraorbital vein 139
Suprarenal gland 170, 170f
blood supply of 170f
histology of 171f
Supratrochlear vein 139
Sutures joints 242
Sweat glands 180
atypical 180
modified 180
typical 180
Sympathetic nerves, segmental distribution of 377
Sympathetic preganglionic fiber 377f
Sympathetic system 376, 377
Symphysis 243
menti 382
Synapses 341
types of 341
Syndesmosis 242, 242f
Synovial joints 242, 243, 243f
types of 244, 244f
Systemic veins 146
T
T cells, cytotoxic 109
Tactile menisci 181
Talus 217
articulates, head of 217
Tarsal bones 217, 218
Tarsal plates 189f
Tarsus 211
Taste
bud 70, 71f, 183f
structure of 183
sensation 367
sense of 182, 368
Tay-Sach's disease 13
Tectum 357
Teeth 67
nerves of 68
parts of 67
structure of 67
types of 67
vessels of 68
Telophase 15
Temporal bone 226
Temporalis muscle 266
Tennis elbow 247
Tensor fasciae latae 288
Tensor tympani 186
Tentorium cerebelli 347, 347f, 358
Testis 316, 316f
arterial supply of 318
coverings of 316
descent of 318
external features 316
interstitial cells of 174
size and measurements 316
structure of 317, 318f
torsion of 319
undescended 319
Tetralogy of Fallot 150
Thalamic nuclei, subdivisions of 353f
Thalamus 178
Theca interna
formation of 174
secrete estrogen, cell of 174
Thecal gland 174
Thenar eminence 386, 386f
Thenar muscles 284
Thick skin 178, 179f
Thigh
adductors of 291f
muscles of 288
subdivisions of 288
transverse section of 4f
Thin skin 178, 179f
basic structure of 179f
Thoracic aorta 122, 130f
relations of 131
Thoracic duct 53, 158, 158f
Thoracic pump 139
Thoracic vertebra 237, 238f
Thoracic wall, veins of 144f
Thorax
bone of 232
inlet of 232
muscles of 269
pleural reflections on
back of 390f
front of 390f
skeleton of 231
surface anatomy of 388
transverse section of 61f
veins of 144
Thrombocytes 104, 109
Thrombocytopenia 110
Thrombocytosis 110
Thrombophlebitis 148
Thumb
carpometacarpal joint of 249, 250f
movements of 250f
Thymine 396
Thymocytes 157
Thymus 53, 157, 173
functions of 157
lymphocytes of 157
position of 157f
relations of 157f
Thyroid
arterial supply of 167f
arteries, inferior 167
cartilage 49, 49f, 383
gland 166, 166f, 384, 385f, 424
isthmus 384
lateral lobe 385
level of isthmus of 53f
relations of 167f
subclavian vessels 385
tracheostomy 385
lobe 169f
microscopic structure of 167f
stimulating hormone 163, 166
swelling 168f
Thyrotoxicosis 168, 168f
Tibia 214, 295
Tibial artery, anterior 136
Tibial collateral ligament 254
Tibial tuberosity 203f
Tibialis
anterior 292
posterior 296
Tic douloureux 365
Tissues
fibrous 334
primary 17
T-lymphocytes 23, 398
Tongue 69, 152
carcinoma of 71f
dorsum of 69f
extrinsic muscles of 70f
histology of 70, 70f
intrinsic muscles of 70f
muscles of 69
sensory nerves of 183
Tonsil, position of 155, 155f
Tonsillar bed 155
Tonsillar fossa 155
Trachea 53, 53f, 62f, 391
development of 62f
structure of 54f
Tracheostomy 54
indications for 54
tube 54f
Transversus abdominis 271f, 272
Trapezius 276
muscles 277f
Triceps brachii 281, 282f
Triceps surae, actions of 295
Trigone 307
Trisomy 21 403f, 404
Trochanter 204f
Trochlea 203f
Trochlear nerve 362, 363
lesion of 364
Trochlear notch 210
True vocal cords 50
Truncal vagotomy 80f
Truncus arteriosus, fate of 150
Trunk, muscles of 269
Tubal insufflation test 330
Tubular endoplasmic reticulum 11
Tumors 37
pituitary 196
reason for fixation of 335
Tunica
adventitia 111
albuginea 317
intima 111
media 111
vaginalis 317
vasculosa 317
Turner syndrome 402, 405
causes of 403
management of 406
Tympanic membrane 183, 184f
Typical thoracic vertebra, parts of 235, 236f
U
Ulcer
chronic 79
duodenal 82
Ullrich-Turner syndrome 405
Ulna 210
olecranon process of 282
Ulnar artery 129, 386, 386f
Ulnar collateral ligaments 249
Ulnar nerve 372
branches of 372
Ultrasonography 409
Umbilicus 391
Upper limb 205
anatomical snuffbox 385
arteries of 127, 129f
axilla 385
bones of 205t
joints of 244, 245f, 251t
landmarks in 385
muscles of 276
surface anatomy of 385
veins of 143, 143f
Upper motor neuron 366
effects of 366f
Ureteric calculi 307
Ureteric colic 307
Ureters 302, 306, 306f
constrictions 306
development of 310
extent 306
histology of 307f
length 306
nerve supply 306
parts 306
Urethra 302, 309, 315
Urethral crest 322
Urethral orifice, external 315
Urethral valve, posterior 393
Urethritis 325
Urinary bladder 302, 307, 307f, 308f, 392
blood supply 308
capacity 307
development of 310, 311, 311f
histology of 308f
nerve supply 308
shape 307
Urinary catheterization 311
Urinary system 28, 28f
anatomy of 310
components of 302
parts of 302f
Urogenital diaphragm 327
Urogenital sinus 311
Urothelium 19
Uterine 329
tubes 329, 329f
arterial supply 329
functions 329
infundibulum 329
ligation of 330
lymphatic drainage 329
microscopic structure of 329f
nerve supply 329
parts 329
Uterosacral ligaments 327
Uterus 325, 326f, 392
angulation of 326f
arterial supply 327
bicornuate 323, 324f
blood supply of 327
development of 323, 323f
didelphys 323, 323f
duplication of 323f
histology of 327
ligaments of 327f
lymphatic drainage 327
microscopic structure of 328f
nerve supply 327
parts of 325
prolapse of 328
round ligaments of 327
septum in 324f
supports of 326, 327f
venous drainage 327
wall of 325
Utricle 188
Uvula vesicae 323
V
Vagina 333
angulation of 326f
duplication of 323f
vestibule of 325
Vaginal examination 333
Vagotomy 79
Vagus, nerve 362, 367, 423f
functions 368
lesions of 368
right homonymous 53, 368
Varicocele 319
Varicose vein 147f, 319
Varicosity, causes of 147
Vas deferens 316f, 319
ampulla of 321f
course of 320f
origin of 320f
structure of 320, 320f
Vasectomy 320
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide 163
Vastus lateralis muscle 290
Veins 111, 121, 139, 384f
accessory hemiazygos 145
anterior jugular 142
axillary 386f
brachiocephalic 144
classification of 139
hemiazygos 145
intercostal 145
jugular 142f, 415f
peripheral 148
pulmonary 59
retromandibular 139
splenic 146
Venous drainage 46, 78, 78f, 81, 83, 85, 87, 120 120f, 154, 156, 167, 352
Ventral urogenital sinus 311
Ventricle, development of 150
Ventricular septal defect 150
Ventriculography 349
Ventrogluteal muscles, position of 290f
Vermiform appendix 84
base of 391
Vertebral column 235, 235f
curvatures of 235
movements of 241
Verumontanum 309, 322
Vesicovaginal fistula 333
Vestibule 45, 50, 187, 325
bulbs of 325
Vestibulocochlear nerve 362, 367
Villi, presence of 80
Virchow's nodes 152
Virchow's triad 148
Vision
field of 196f
sense of 188
Visual cortex 356
Visual pathway 195, 195f, 196f, 196fc
Visual receptors 195
Vitamin
A 37
C 37
D 37, 408
Vitreous body 195
Vocal cords 50
abductor of 51
attachments of 51f
Vocal folds 50, 51t
Vocal ligament 50
Vocalis 51
Volkmann's ischemic contracture 128, 209f
Volvulus 83
von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis 407
Vulva 324
W
Waiter's tip hand 371
Waldeyer's ring 71, 72f, 155f
Wallenberg syndrome 358, 368
Water balance, regulation of 173
Webbed neck 406f
Weber's syndrome 357
White blood cell 104
count 107
lifespan of 107
formation of 107
White blood corpuscles, classification of 107fc
White fibrocartilage 33, 33f, 34
White fibrous tissue-collagen fibers 22f
White pulp 154
Wilson's disease 407
Wrist drop 372
Wrist joint 249, 249f, 259
anterior relations of 249f
flexor retinaculum of 259f, 387f
posterior relations of 250f
Wry neck 368
X
Xiphisternal joint 390
Xiphisternum 391
X-linked recessive disorders 408
Y
Y chromosome 408
Yellow body 332
Yellow elastic cartilage 33, 33f
Z
Zona fasciculata 170, 171
Zona glomerulosa 170, 171
Zona pellucida 332
Zona reticularis 171
Zygoma 382
Zygomatic arch 382
Zygomatic branch 366
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Chapter Notes

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