Handbook of Biochemistry and Nutrition Shivananda B Nayak
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Acetic acid 137, 164
Acetoacetate 173
Acetyl CoA 53, 57
Acetyl transferase 157
Acetylcholine 8
Acid 209
phosphatase 9, 15, 24, 26
Acid-base
analysis, assessment of 216
disturbances 216t
status, extracellular 217
Acid-base balance 209, 213
regulation of 210, 212, 213f
respiratory regulation of 212
Acid-base disorder 213, 216
metabolic 214f
mixed 216
respiratory 215f
Acidosis 213
Acidulants 348
Acquired hyperbilirubinemia 205
Acquired hypogammaglobulinemia, causes of 256
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 310
Acromegaly 74
Actin 270, 272
structure of 271f
Active transport 6, 7, 7f
Acyl carrier protein 157
Addison's disease 237, 305, 320, 326, 373
Adenoma 235
Adenosine diphosphate 45, 48, 49, 181, 186, 187, 365
Adenosine monophosphate 185, 187
Adenosine triphosphate 45, 48, 49, 181, 186, 187, 230, 365
synthetase 225
complexes 223
Adipocytes 231
Adiponectin 188
functions 188
Adipose tissue 64, 142, 183, 151, 163
hormones 188
in starvation 184
Adrenal gland 64, 235, 372
histology of 372f
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital 326
Adrenal insufficiency 373
causes of primary 237
secondary 237
Adrenal medulla 239, 375
tumor of 239
Adrenaline 70, 239
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 187, 231, 232, 236, 373
stimulation test 237, 373
Aerobic glycolysis 47
Alanine 90
transaminase 24
transferase 206
Albumin 96, 100, 361
action of 100
buffering function 100
functions of 100
level 361
nutritive function 100
osmotic function 100
transport function 100
Alcohol
effects of 164f
metabolism 163, 360
Alcoholic cirrhosis 26
Alcoholic liver disease 24
Alcoholism effects 164
Aldehyde 33, 53
oxidase 311
Aldohexose 33
Aldolase 67
reductase 68
Aldopentose 33, 65
Aldosterone 76, 322, 323, 374
deficiency 305, 326
secretion 323
Aldosteronism, primary 239, 375
Alkali denaturation test 200
Alkaline phosphatase 24, 25, 206, 310, 360, 363
Alkalosis 213, 215
chronic 212
Alkaptonuria 121
symptoms of 121
Allergic reactions 143
Allosteric enzymes 23
Allosteric regulation 62
Alpha helix structure 98f
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone 231
Alzheimer's disease 267
Amethopterin 21, 22
action of 21f
Amine-derived hormones 229
Amino acid 70, 90, 94f, 95, 116, 118, 119, 124, 125, 125t, 162, 182, 223, 337
absorption of 115
analysis
C-terminal 106
N-terminal 104
biosynthesis of nonessential 118
catabolism of 115
chemical properties of 93
classification of 93, 93f
composition 104
degradation 182
deletion 198
determination of 366
essential 93
glucogenic 119
ketogenic 94, 94t, 119
metabolism of 114
nonessential 93, 93t
paper chromatography of 105f
substitutions 198
tyrosine 367
Amino groups, removal of 115
Amino sugars 38
Amino transferase 70
Aminoaciduria 366
primary 366
Aminolevulinic acid 204, 283
Aminopeptidase 43
Aminopterin 21, 22
action of 21f
Ammonia
accumulation, symptoms of 117
intoxication 117
metabolic fate of 116
Amniotic fluid 124
Amylase 24, 26, 43
Amylo 1,6 glucosidase splits 61
Amyloidosis 237, 257
Amylopectin 35, 35t
Amylopectinosis 64
Amylose 35, 35t
Anaerobic glycolysis 47, 50, 53
Anaplerotic reactions 56, 56f
Andersen's disease 64
Anemia 329, 339, 366
symptoms 339
variety of 201
Anesthesia 217
Angiopathy 74
Angiotensin converting enzyme 21
Aniline dyes 201
Anion 103
gap 216
Anomerism 36
Anomers 36f
Anorexia 281
Anterior pituitary hormones 186, 231, 369
Anthropometry
advantages of 343
disadvantages of 343
Antibiotics 325
amphotericin B 325
carbenicillin 325
foscarnet 325
gentamicin 325
nafcillin 325
penicillin 325
Antibody 253, 258
containing gel 255
mediated immunity 249
method, single 254
producing cell 253
production, mechanism of 252, 253f
Antidiuretic hormone 233, 299, 320
Anti-EGG white injury factor 285
Antigen 250, 257
complex 249
Antigen-antibody complexes 255
Anti-insulin hormone 240
Antiketogenic substances 162
Antioxidants 261, 263, 264, 267
system of 261
Antioxidation, chain-breaking 265f
Apoenzymes 13
Apoferritin 307
Apotransferrin 307
Arabidopsis thaliana 264
Arachidonic acid 137, 138, 141, 143
Argentaffinoma 123
Arginase 90, 117
Argininosuccinase 117
Argininosuccinic acid synthetase 117
Ariboflavinosis 281, 282
signs of 282f
symptoms of 282f
Ascorbic acid 279, 288
Asparagine 91
Aspartame 189
Aspartate aminotransferase 24, 25, 190
Aspartate transaminase 116
Aspartic acid 91
Aspertate transferase 206
Aspirin 142
Atherosclerosis 68, 75, 169
risk factors for 170
Atrial natriuretic peptide 300
deficiency 300
Atrial natriuretic peptide, role of 300f
Autoimmune diseases 249
severe 259
Autoimmune hepatitis, chronic active 256
Autoimmunity 249
Autosomal recessive disorder 206
B
B cells 250
B lymphocytes 250
Balanced diet 348, 349
components of 349
Balwadi Nutrition Program 356
Bartter syndrome 325
Basal metabolic rate 333
calculation of 335
Bence-Jones protein 102, 257
Benedict's test 37
Benzene 133
Bergh's test 362
Beriberi 280, 329
dry 280
symptoms of 280f
infantile 280
types 280
wet 280, 281
Beta-oxidation, regulation of 153
Beta-thalassemias, types of 198
Bicarbonate 322
buffer system 210
Bicarbonate-carbonate buffer system, role of 210
Bile acid 64, 360
synthesis 160
significance of 160
Bile salts, enterohepatic circulation of 150
Biliary cirrhosis, primary 256
Biliary tract
cells 360f
involvement 361
Bilirubin 203, 266, 360
conjugated 205, 206
direct 362
fate of 203
formation of 362f
indirect 362
metabolism of 362
water-insoluble unconjugated 205
water-soluble 204
Biochemical measurements
advantages of 344
disadvantages of 344
Biological oxidation 222
Biosynthesis 155
Biotin 14, 284, 289
antagonists 285
antivitamin 285
deficiency and symptoms 285
sources 284
Biuret reaction 107
Blood 363
buffer system 210
calcium 235
cholesterol, high 172
glucose 57, 70, 71
level 51
regulation of 52f, 69
heparinized 216
laboratory values 382
plasma 299, 317
pressure
high 172
regulation of 142
specimen 258
sugar regulation 240
fasting 69
sugar, random 70
transport in 309
urea 366
Blurred vision 118
Body electrolyte 299
Body fluid 317
Body mass index 342
Body temperature 334
Bohr effect 197, 197f
Bone 234
abnormalities 310
disorder 24
mature in 250
Brain 183, 309
disorder 24
natriuretic peptide 300, 300f
Branched chain amino acids
catabolism of 124f
metabolism of 124
Bronze diabetes 309
Burns, severe 256
Butylatedhydroxy toluene 140
Butyric acid 137
C
Calcitonin, action of 295
Calcium 294, 366
absorption 295
binding protein 276
effect of 62
functions 295
homeostasis 234
mobilization of 276
reabsorption of 276
regulation of 235f
sources 294
Calmodulin 295
Cancer 266, 267, 333, 349
cells 53, 237
proliferation of 266
chronic 267
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 117
Carbohydrate 6, 33, 38, 43, 79, 330, 349, 360
absorption of 45f
chemistry of 33
complex 330
digestion of 43, 44
foods 352
isomerism in 35
metabolism 43, 46, 74, 182, 183, 184
effects on 70
hormonal regulation of 184
regulation of 185
special 38
Carbonate-bicarbonate buffer 217
Carbonic anhydrase 310
Carbonyl hemoglobin 201
Carboxy hemoglobin 200
Carboxyl group 103, 137
Carboxyl peptidase A 310
Carboxylation reactions 14
Carcinogenesis 266
Cardiac enzymes 25, 25f, 189, 191
Cardiac troponin 190
Cardiolipins 135
Cardiovascular disease 171, 329
nutrition for 354
risk factors for 171, 171f
Carnitine acyltransferase 173
Carotenoid pigments 274
Catalase 9, 264, 307
Cataract 271
Catecholamines 76
formation of 121f
Cell 1, 4
cone 274
death 267
fractionation 8
lung cancer, nonsmall 296
nucleus 237
organelles 1, 9
secretions of 7
structure of 1f
subcellular fractionation of 8f
Cellular immunity 102, 249, 250
Cellular metabolism 7
Cellulose 34, 45
acetate electrophoresis 200f
acetate strip 200
Central nervous system 209, 310
Cerebral beriberi 280, 281
Cerebrosides 136
Ceruloplasmin 24, 101, 265
Chain fatty acids 154
Chaulmoogric acid 139
Cheilosis 282, 284f
Chemiosmotic hypothesis 226f
Chemotaxis 251
Chitin 34
Chloride 306, 322, 327
functions 306, 327
shift 197f
Chloroform 133
Cholecalciferol 275
Cholecystokinin 114, 148
Cholesterol 6, 139, 143, 158, 160, 333
biosynthesis 159
ester 150, 168
estimation 171
excess 169
functions of 139
metabolic fate of 160
metabolism 158
hormonal regulation of 186
structure of 139f
synthesis 64, 159f
regulation of 159, 159f
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein 168
Cholinesterase 24, 26
Chondroitin sulfate 35
Christmas factor 22
Chromatography 104
types of 105f
Chromium 312
deficiency 312
functions 312
sources 312
toxicity 312
Chylomicron 165
composition 165f
transport of 166f
Chymotrypsin 43, 114
Chymotrypsinogen 43
Cirrhosis 324, 361
of liver 309, 363
Citrate synthase 55
Clathrin 167
Cobalamin 287
Cobalt 311
deficiency 311
functions 311
sources 311
toxicity 311
Cod liver oils 274
Coenzyme 14, 14t, 21, 126
functions 14t
Q 224
Cognitive function, impairment of 266
Cohn's syndrome 239, 375
Collagen 99f, 272
structure of 269f
synthesis 279
types of 268
Colocasia 352
Colon polyps 333
Connective tissue diseases 256
Copper 309
functions 309
sources 309
Cori's cycle 59, 60f, 210
Cori's disease 64
Cornea 47, 309
Coronary heart disease 169, 171, 172
Corticotropin-releasing hormone 236, 373
Cortisol 70, 229, 237
inhibit 141
synthesis of 373f
Cortisol secretion 236, 236f
control of 236, 373
regulation of 236
Creatine
kinase 99, 190
phosphokinase 24
synthesis of 126
Creatinine 365
excretion 126
kinase 25
myocardial band 25
Cretinism 233
Crigler-Najjar syndrome 206
Cristae 223
Cryoglobulin 257
Cryoglobulinemia 257
Cushing's disease 237
Cushing's syndrome 74, 302, 325, 237, 238f, 373, 374
causes 238, 373
symptoms 238
Cushinsyndrome 237
Cyanocobalamin 14
Cyanomethemoglobin 201
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 185187, 230
Cystathionine gamma-lyase 283
Cystathionine α-synthase 283
Cystathionuria 126
Cysteine 91
Cystinuria 366
Cytochrome 225
C oxidase 9
Cytosol 9
Cytosolic protein 295
D
De novo synthesis 155
Decarboxylases 283
Dehydration 320
cause of 320
features of 320
treatment 320
Dehydrogenation 222
Dementia 282
Dental caries, deficiency causes 312
Deoxy sugar 38
Deoxyadenosylcobalamin 14
Deoxyhemoglobin 196, 200
neutralizes carbonic acid 212
polymerization of 199f
Deoxyribonucleic acid 230
Dermatan sulfate 35
Dermatitis 282
Dexamethasone 239
suppression test 238, 374
Dextrin 34
Diabetes 349
causes of 73f
insipidus, primary 233
nutrition for 354
symptoms of 73f
Diabetes mellitus 72, 172, 320
complications of 74
diagnose 73
metabolic changes in 74
noninsulin dependent 73
type 1 72, 214
uncontrolled 161, 214
Diabetic ketoacidosis 75, 214
Diacetyl monoxime 365
Diacylglycerol 134, 151
Diarrhea 282
Dietary data, interpretation of 345
Dietary glycerophospholipids 149
Dietary iron
absorption of 308f
transport of 308f
Dietary proteins, digestion of 126
Dihydroxyacetone 33
Dipeptidase 43
Dipeptide 95
Diphenylhydantoin 76
Disaccharides 33, 34t
Disorders Control Program 357
Dopamine 127, 239
synthesis of 121
Double antibody method 254
Dubin-Johnson syndrome 206, 207
E
Edema 281
Edman degradation 105, 106
reaction 106
Edward Jenner's pioneering 249
Elastin 269, 272
Electrolyte
balance 321
distribution of 321, 322
Electron transport chain 164
complexes in 223f
formation, reactions of 223
with inhibitors 224f
Electrophoresis 103
Emphysema 101
Enantiomer 36
Endocrine
glands location 230f
systems 236
Endocytosis 6, 8, 167f
process of 8f
receptor-mediated 8
Endoplasmic reticulum 1, 2, 3f, 9
Energy nutrients 330f
Enzymatic antioxidants 264
Enzymatic reactions 209
Enzyme 13, 16, 27, 159, 264
active site of 15
activity 15f, 16f
catalysis, mechanism of 16
chemical nature of 13
classification of 16, 17t
concentration, effect of 16, 16f
defect 204
diagnostic 24
ferrochelatase 201
hydrolyzes fatty acids 151
inhibition 20
kinetics 18
reaction, velocity of 16
specificity 16, 17t
synthesis of 202
systems 264
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 254, 369
Enzyme-substrate complex 15
Eosinophilia 237
Epimerism 36
Epinephrine 121, 127, 185, 239
Erythropoietic porphyria, congenital 204
Erythropoietic protoporphyria 204
Erythrose 33
Estrogen, levels of 241
Ethanol 214
Ethanolamine 135
Ethylene glycol 214
Eukaryotic cell 4, 5f
cytoplasm of 5
Exocytosis 6, 7
Extrahepatic cholestasis 361
Extrahepatic tissues 143, 173
F
Facilitated diffusion, mechanism of 6f
Fanconi syndrome 325
Fat 133, 330, 331, 349
and oils 352
cells 231
metabolism 74
hormonal regulation of 185, 186
role of 331
unsaturated 332
Fat-soluble vitamins 273, 278, 278t
Fatty acid 64, 137, 138, 140, 143, 155, 182, 223, 263f
activated 152
alpha-oxidation of 155
classification of 137
components of 157
dietary regulation of 158
essential 138, 332
functions of 138
metabolism, regulation of 154f
numbering of 137
oxidation 151, 182
promotes 70
regulation of 153
synthase enzyme complex 156f
synthesis 13, 64, 155, 158
steps of 157f
trans 138
unsaturated 134, 137
Fatty liver 143
Female sex hormones 240
after childbirth 241
infancy 240
menopause 241
pregnancy 241
puberty 240
stages of 240
Ferritin 265
and hemosiderin 307
Fetal hemoglobin 195
Fiber 333
dietary 332
insoluble 333
Fibrinogen 101
FIGLU excretion test 123
Fish liver oils 274
Flavin adenine dinucleotide 14, 281
Flavin mononucleotide 14
functions of 281
Flavoprotein 152, 224, 281
Fluid balance 317, 321t
regulation of 317, 319f
Fluid mosaic model 5
Fluid output 319f
Fluoride 311
functions 312
sources 311
Folacin 288
Folate trap 287
Folic acid 14, 285, 288, 355
active form of 286
deficiency of 286
sources 286
Follicle stimulating hormone 231, 232
Follicular hyperkeratosis 274, 274f
Food
adulteration 348
consumption 182
diary 345
frequency questionnaire 344
nutritive value of 351
poisoning 346
preservation 347
products, digestion of 44f
pyramid 353, 353f
stuffs, respiratory quotient of 329
Food Adulteration Act, prevention of 348
Formaldehyde 214
Formiminoglutamic excretion test 286
Formylmethionine 125
Free fatty acid 136, 187
Free radical and antioxidant 261f
Fructokinase 67
Fructose 33, 34, 46, 47, 330
1,6-bisphosphatase 58
6-phosphate 47
high content of 68
intolerance 67
metabolism 67, 68f
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, role of 52
Fructosuria, essential 67
Fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis 255
G
Galactose 3335, 47, 136, 330
fate of 67
metabolism 66, 67f
Galactosemia 66
Galactosyltransferase 9
Gamma carboxylation 277f
Gamma-globulins 250
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 26, 206
estimation 363
Gastric motility, decreases 148
Gastric ulcer, prevention of 142
Gastrin 114, 148
Gastrointestinal hormones 70
Gastrointestinal loss 325
Gastrointestinal tract 13, 14, 114, 234
enzymes of 43
Gaucher's disease 136
Gel filtration 102
Gene sequencing 258
Gestational diabetes mellitus 74
Gilbert's syndrome 206
Gliossitis 284f
Globin 194
synthesis 202
Globular proteins 270
Globulins 96, 101
Glomerulonephritis, acute 366
Glossitis 282
Glucagon 58, 70, 71, 185, 186, 240
action of 72f
inactivates pyruvate kinase 58
increased secretion of 74
mechanism of action of 72
Glucantransferase 61
Glucocorticoid 72, 163, 185, 186, 235237
hormones, functions of 235
secretion, assessment of 373
Glucogenic acid 93
Glucogenic amino acids 58, 94, 119
Glucokinase 50, 50t, 51, 60, 70, 185
Gluconeogenesis 46, 57, 57f, 58
process of 57
promotes 70
regulation of 58, 58f
substrates for 58, 59f
Glucophage 214
Glucose 33, 34, 4547, 183, 330
6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 66
absorption in intestinal epithelial cells 7
concentration of 69
oxidation 51
production, effect on 70
synthesis of 58, 59
lack of 163
transporter type 45
utilization, effect on 70
Glucose tolerance
abnormal 76, 77, 77f
curve, normal 76, 77f
diminished 77
increased 77
tests 75
Glucose-6-phosphate 47, 58, 63, 60, 64
dehydrogenase 9
Glucose-alanine cycle 58, 59
Glucuronic acid 35
Glutamate 120
metabolic fate of 120
oxaloacetate transaminase 24
pyruvate transaminase 24
Glutamic acid 91, 120, 199
Glutamine 91
formation of 118
Glutathione 95, 264, 265
peroxidase 265
system 265
Glycated hemoglobin testing 78
Glyceraldehyde 33
3-phosphate 47
Glycerol 58, 139
Glycerophospholipids 135
Glycine 91, 119
metabolic fate of 119
Glycochenodeoxycholic acid 160
Glycocholic acid 160
Glycogen 34, 330
breakdown 61
from glucose, synthesis of 60
metabolism of 60
synthetase 70
Glycogen metabolism 62
by insulin, control of 185f
regulation of 63f, 186f
Glycogen storage
diseases 62
disorders, types of 62
Glycogen synthesis 61
decreases 70
Glycogenesis 46, 60, 62, 360
regulation of 62
Glycogenolysis 46, 61, 62, 62f, 70
allosteric regulation of 62
increases 70
regulation of 62
Glycolipids 134, 136
Glycolysis 46, 47, 58, 70, 182
promotes 70
reactions of 48f, 49f
regulation of 51
types of 47
Glycoprotein 38, 251
hormones 230
Glycosides 38
Glycosidic bond 37
Glycosylated hemoglobin 78
Glyoxylate cycle 56
Goiter 234, 312, 313f, 368, 375
Golgi complex 3, 10
functions 3
Gordon's syndrome 326
Grabar-Williams method 255
Granulomatous diseases 297
Graves’ disease 234, 369, 370
Growth hormone 70, 72, 231
role of 231f
signs of 231
symptoms of 231
Guanosine triphosphate 187, 297
H
Harris-Benedict formula 335
Hartnup's disease 123
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 234, 371, 375
Heart disease 171, 172, 267, 349
Heart failure 321, 324
congestive 122
Helper T cells 249
Hematologic disorders 256
Hematologic malignancy 296
Hematuria 366
Heme biosynthesis, regulation of 202
Heme catabolism 203, 203f
Heme synthesis 201, 202f
Hemochromatosis 309
Hemoglobin 99, 194, 195, 195f, 196, 196f, 197f, 217
abnormal 197, 200f
buffer
action of 212
system 212f
catabolism, disorders of 205
compounds, derived 200
deoxygenated 212
detection of abnormal 200
electrophoresis of 200
in disease, role of 203
metabolism 194
normal 200f
quaternary structure of 99f
structure of 194, 194f
Hemoglobinopathy 198
qualitative 198
quantitative 198
Hemolytic anemia 66
chronic 199
Hemosiderin 308
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 209, 210
Heparin 35
Hepatic cells 360f
Hepatic glucuronyl transferase enzyme 206
Hepatitis 26
D 364
E 364
Hereditary coproporphyria 204
Hers’ disease 64
Hexokinase 50, 50t
Hexose 33
monophosphate pathway 181
monophosphate shunt 47
reactions of 65f
High-density lipoprotein 134, 136, 137, 160, 165, 168
cholesterol 170
Histidine 91
metabolism 123
catabolism of 123, 123f
Holoenzyme 13
Homeostasis 181
Homocystinuria 125, 127, 366
signs 125
symptoms 125
treatment 125
types of 126f
Homogentisate oxidase 121
Homogentisic acid 121
Homopolysaccharides 34, 34t
Hormonal action, mechanism of 230, 230f
Hormonal influence 158
Hormonal regulation metabolism 184f
Hormone 151, 189, 229, 334, 360
chemical classes of 229
regulation by 70
role of 70
thyroxine 232
Hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of 151f
Human chorionic gonadotropin 241
Human leukocyte antigen 257, 258
Human serum albumin 254
Humoral immunity 102, 249, 250
Hyaluronic acid 35
Hydrochloric acid 114
Hydrocortisone 236
Hydrogen
bonds 97, 99
peroxide 262
Hydrogenation 222
Hydrolases 17
Hydrolyze 104
Hydrophobic interactions 99
Hydroxyl radical 262
Hydroxylase enzyme 120
Hyperaldosteronism 74, 325
Hyperbilirubinemia 203
inherited
conjugated 206
unconjugated 206
Hypercalcemia 235, 296
signs 297
symptoms 297
treatment 297
Hyperchloremia 306, 327
causes 327
Hypercholesterolemia 171
Hypergammaglobulinemia 256
Hyperglycemia 76, 374
Hyperglycemic hormones 71
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma 75
Hyperinsulinism 77
Hyperkalemia 305, 326
causes 305, 326
signs 305, 326
symptoms 305
treatment 305
Hyperlipidemia 63, 75, 169
Hyperlipoproteinemia 169
Hypernatremia 302, 323, 324
causes of 302
deficiency 302
signs 302
symptoms 302
treatment 302
Hyperparathyroidism
primary 235, 296
secondary 235
Hyperphosphatemia 298
Hyperthyroid diseases 234
biochemical findings 234
normal levels 234
symptoms 234
Hyperthyroidism 368, 369
diagnosis 369
subclinical 370
Hyperuricemia 63
Hypervolemia 321
symptoms of 320
Hypoadrenalism 77
Hypocalcemia 295
symptoms 296
treatment 296
Hypochloremia 306, 327
causes 327
Hypocholesterolemia 171
Hypochromic microcytic anemia 308
Hypocortisolism 373
Hypogammaglobulinemia 256
Hypoglycemia 78, 237
fasting 63, 77, 78
neonatal 78
reactive 78
severe 153
Hypoglycemic hormone 70
Hypokalemia 237, 304, 325
mild 305, 326
symptoms of 305, 326
type of 305
Hyponatremia 237, 300, 301, 323, 324
diagnosis of 301
inadequate volume 301, 324
normal volume 301, 324
symptoms 301
treatment option for 303f
types of 323
Hypophosphatemia 297
Hypopituitarism 77
Hypothalamus 236
Hypothyroid diseases 233
types of 233
Hypothyroidism 77, 368, 369, 375
diagnosis 369
neonatal 312
secondary 369
subclinical 370
Hypovolemia 320
symptoms of 320
Hypoxia 199
I
Ibuprofen 142
Icterus 362
Immune system
disorders 255
protects 249
Immunity 250
types of 102, 250
Immunochemistry 249
Immunoelectrophoresis 255
Immunoglobulin 99, 102, 250, 251, 253
amount of 253
blood test 255
functions of 251
largest 252
levels, causes of 256
structure of 250, 250f
test 253
types of 250t, 251
Immunology 249
Immunotherapy 249
Inhibition, competitive 20f
Inhibitionby drugs 159
Insulin 70, 240
action of 163
causes, action of 181
functions of 240
inhibits gluconeogenesis 185
lowers blood glucose 70
mechanism of action of 71
metabolic effects of 70
receptor 71
secretion
factors inhibiting 70
factors stimulating 70
Insulin-mediated
enzyme synthesis 71
glucose transport 71
Integrated Child Development Services Scheme 356
Intermittent porphyria, acute 204
Intestinal cells 149
Intestinal enzymes 149
Intestinal lymphangiectasia 256
Intestinal obstruction 24
Intracellular enzymes 13
Intracellular fluid 317, 322
Intrahepatic cholestasis 361
Intrauterine hypothyroidism 312
Intravenous glucose tolerance test 78
Intrinsic proteins 5
Inulin 34
Iodine 312
cretinism 312
deficiency
disorder, control of 357
manifestation 312
functions 312
number 140
signs of 340f
sources 312
Ionic calcium 295
Ionic interactions 99
Iron 306, 355
absorption 307
and transport, mechanism of 307
reducing 307t
deficiency 355
anemia 339
functions 306
overload 309
sources 306
Iron-sulfur protein 224
Irritable bowel 332
syndrome 332
Islets of Langerhans 240
Isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme 55
Isocitrate lyase 56
Isoenzymes 23, 25
Isohydric shift 212
Isoleucine 91
Isomaltase 43
Isomaltose 34
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide 22, 284
J
Jamaican vomiting sickness 153
Jaundice 205, 206, 362
hemolytic 171, 205
hepatic 205
neonatal 205
obstructive 24, 26, 171, 205
physiologic 205
posthepatic 205
prehepatic 205
types of 205, 206, 206t, 363t
K
Kayser-Fleischer ring 309
K-dependent carboxylase enzyme 277
Keratan sulfate 35
Keratin 270, 272
Keratomalacia 274, 274f
Ketoacidosis 214
Ketogenesis 71, 161
Ketogenic substances 162
Ketohexose 33
Ketolysis 161, 162f
Ketone 33
Ketone body 161, 173, 214
activation of 162
breakdown of 161
formation of 161
synthesis 70, 162f
utilization of 161
Ketonuria 161
Ketopentose 33, 64
Ketotriose 33
Kidney 234, 309
cancer 296
disease 126
failure 324
function of 213, 364
pathological conditions of 366
response 215
role of 213f
Kreb's citric acid cycle 55
Kreb's cycle 53
Krebs-Henseleit cycle 117
Kwashiorkor 329, 337339, 339t
symptoms of 338, 338f
Kynureninase 283
L
Lacrimal glands, keratinization of 274
Lactase 43, 45
deficiency 45
Lactate dehydrogenase 9, 2325, 99, 190
enzyme 50
Lactic academia 63
Lactic acid 163, 210
accumulation of 210
Lactic acidosis 78, 210, 214
Lactose 34
intolerance 68, 69f
cause for 68
Lactosuria 69
Laurell rocket technique 255
Lean body mass, amount of 335
Lecithin 135, 140
cholesterol acyltransferase 160, 168
Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase, role of 160
Lens 47
protein 271, 272
Leptin 188, 189
functions 189
Lethargy 118
Leucine 91
Leukemia 296
Leukocytes 258
Leukotrienes 141, 143
Liddle syndrome 325
Lineweaver-Burk
equation 21, 23
plot 19f
Linolenic acid 137, 138
Lipase 24, 26
Lipid 133, 148, 230, 360
absorption of 150f
amphipathic nature of 140
chemistry of 133
classification of 133, 134t
compound 134
derived 134, 137
digestion of 148, 149f
functions of 133, 134
lipid 263
metabolism 148, 182, 183, 184
effects on 70
regulation of 163
peroxidation 263
physical properties 139
profile 170
properties of 139
protein 263
synthesis of 163
Lipolysis 71, 154
Lipoprotein 134, 136, 164, 165t, 168
abnormal form of 168
function 136, 164
intermediate-density 136, 165, 167
metabolism 71
separation of 136f, 165f
structure of 136, 136f, 164
viscous barriers 10
Lipotropic factors 143, 143
Live-attenuated vaccines 250
Liver 63, 64, 67, 182, 320
alcohol dehydrogenase 310
cancer of 25
cirrhosis 24
enzymes 206
in lipid metabolism, role of 163
in starvation 184
mitochondria 161
Liver cell 207
damage 361
Liver disease 24, 25, 324, 371
acute 24
basic processes in 361
serum enzymes in 362
Liver function test 360
indications of 360
Lock and key model 16, 17f
Low-density lipoprotein 134, 136, 137, 165167, 169, 266
cholesterol 170
composition of 167f
very 134, 136, 165, 166, 166f, 167, 168
Lung, cancer of 25
Luteinizing hormone 230232
Lymphocytic leukemia, chronic 256
Lymphocytosis 237
Lymphoma 256, 296
Lysine 92
Lysophospholipase enzyme 149
M
Magnesium 298
deficiency 298
functions 298
sources 298
Malabsorption syndrome 171
Malate dehydrogenase enzyme 55
Malate synthase 56
Male infertility 266
etiology of 266
Malonyltransferase 157
Maltase 43
Maltose 34
Mammary gland 64
Manganese 310
containing enzymes 310
deficiency 310
functions 310
sources 310
Mannose 46
Mannosidase 9
Maple syrup urine disease 124
Marasmus 337339, 339t
features of 338f
Mass spectrometry 106
Massive liver enlargement 63
Mcardle's disease 64
Meal planning 350, 350f
Megaloblastic anemia 287
Megaloblasts 339
Melanin 122, 127
Melatonin 265
Membrane
functioning, proteins of 7f
lipid bilayer of 140f
phospholipids 263
Menkes’ syndrome 310
Mental retardation 312
Mental stress, type of 236
Messenger ribonucleic acid 230
Metabolic acidosis 213216
Metabolic alkalosis 213, 215, 216
Metabolic demands 182
Metabolic fates 118f
Metabolic stress 183
Metabolic syndrome diabetes 329
Metabolism 142, 181f, 229
after meal, integration of 188f
during starvation 183
hormonal regulation of 185, 187f
integration of 181, 182f, 183f
pathways of 182
Metalloenzymes 13
Metformin 214
Methanol 214
Methemoglobin 201
Methemoglobinemia, causes of 201
Methionine 92, 124, 125
catabolism 125
from homocysteine, formation of 126
Methyl donor 126
Methyl tetrahydrofolate, deficiency of 125
Methylcobalamin 14
Micelles, mixed 149
Michaelis-Menten equation 18f, 19, 20, 23
Mineralocorticoids 239, 374
Minerals 294, 349
Mitochondria 1, 3, 4, 9, 152, 154, 202, 227
Mitochondrial membrane 173, 223, 226
Mitochondrion 226f
consists 223
longitudinal section of 3f
Molybdenum 311
deficiency 311
metabolic functions 311
sources 311
Monoacylglycerol 134
Monoclonal antibodies 252, 253
Monoclonal components 256
Mono-oxygenase system 155
Monosaccharide 33
absorption of 45
classification of 33t
unit 34
Monounsaturated fatty acids 137, 155
Mouse's spleen 252
Mucin 43
Mucopolysaccharides 34, 35
Multiple myeloma 256, 296
Muscle
glycogenolysis 62
hexokinase 50
Muscular dystrophy 24
Mutarotation 37
Myocardial complications, risk of 143
Myocardial infarction 24, 25, 25f, 190, 190f
diagnosis of 189
laboratory tests in 189
Myoglobin 195, 196, 196f, 197, 225
Myosin 270, 272
filament 271
structure of 271f
Myxedema 171, 233
N
N-acetyl glucosamine 34, 35
National Nutritional Programs 356
Nephron, structure of 364f
Nephropathy 74
Nephrosis 171
Nephrotic syndrome 24, 171, 256, 367, 371
Neurological disorders 309
Neuropathy 74
Niacin 14, 282, 288
coenzyme forms 282
deficiency 282
sources 282
Nicotin 76
Nicotinamide 288
adenine dinucleotide 14, 48, 49, 181
hydrogen 48, 49
Nicotinic acid 282, 288
Niemann-Pick disease 136
Night blindness 274
Ninhydrin reaction 94
Nitrogen
balance 337
state
negative 337
positive 337
Noncompetitive inhibition 22, 22f
Nonenzymatic antioxidants 265
Nonoxidative deamination 116
Nonoxidative irreversible phase 64
Non-protein nitrogen substances, elimination of 365
Noradrenaline 239
Norepinephrine 121, 127, 186, 239
Nucleic acids 297
Nucleotidase 43
Nutrient preservation 346
Nutrition 329
Nutritional anemia 357
Nutritional assessments, methods of 339, 340
Nutritional deficiency, signs of 339, 340t
Nutritional indices 342
O
Obesity 188
and overweight 172
Oleic acid 137
Oligomycin 227
Oligosaccharides 33
Oliguria 366
One carbon, carrier of 14
Optical activity 37
carbohydrates 36
Oral contraceptives 76
Oral glucose tolerance test 75
Organ function tests 360
Organelle separation 9f
Organic acids 214
Organic compounds, group of 90
Organic solvents, precipitation by 102
Organophosphorus poisoning 24
Ornithine transcarbamoylase 117
Osmotic pressure 298
Osteoporosis 234
Ovarian hormones 230
Ovary 67, 241
estrogen 241
progesterone 242
Oxaloacetate 56
lack of 161
Oxidation reactions 14, 263
Oxidation-reduction reactions 222
Oxidative deamination 116
Oxidative decarboxylation 14, 55
Oxidative irreversible phase 64
Oxidative phosphorylation 225, 226f
Oxidative stress 266
Oxidoreductases 17
Oxygen
binding 196
factors affecting 197
dissociation 196
species, reactive 262, 262f
transports 194
Oxyhemoglobin 200
Oxytocin 233
P
Paget's disease 24
Palmitic acid 137, 152, 153f
oxidation, energetics of 152
Palmitoleic acid 137
Pancreas 240
alpha cells of 240
tumor of 74
Pancreatic disease 73
Pancreatic hormones 230
Pancreatitis, acute 24
Pantothenic acid 14, 285, 289
deficiency 285
Para-aminobenzoic acid 21
Paraldehyde 214
Paraproteinemia, benign 257
Parathyroid gland 235
Parathyroid hormone 230, 234, 235, 235f, 295
action of 295
functions 234
role of 296f
Parkinson's disease 122
Pellagra 282
signs of 283f
Penicillamine 310
Pepsinogen 14, 43
Peptide and peptide bond 94
Peptide fragments, digestion into 106
Peptide hormones 229
Peripheral neuritis 280
Peroxidas 307
Peroxidation 140
Peroxide 262
Peroxiredoxins 264
Peroxisomal fatty acid 154
oxidation 154
Peroxisomes 3, 9
pH, effect of 15
Phagocytic cells 251
Phagocytosis 8
process of 8f
Phenotyping 258
Phenyl acetate 121f
Phenylalanine 92, 120
hydroxylase 120
Phenylketonuria 120
Phenyllactate, formation of 121f
Phenylpyruvate 121f
Pheochromocytoma 239, 296
Phosphatases 25
Phosphate
buffer 217
system 211
group 140
Phosphatidyl choline 135
Phosphatidyl ethanolamine 135
Phosphatidyl inositol 135
Phosphatidyl serine 135
Phosphatidylcholine 149
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 58, 185
Phosphoglucomutase enzyme 60, 61
Phosphohexose isomerase enzyme 47
Phospholipase 149
Phospholipids 134, 135, 140, 150
types of 135
Phosphorus 297, 366
sources 297
Phosphotriose isomerase enzyme 47
Physical stress, type of 236
Pinocytosis 8
Pituitary gland comprises 231
Pituitary hormones 230, 231
posterior 233
Plaque formation 169f
Plasma 263
calcium
level, high 275
low 275
cell 256
cholesterol 160
lipoproteins classes and functions 165
membrane 1, 5f, 8, 9, 362
osmolality 299, 322
proteins 100, 101t
separation of 102
Plasmalogens 135
Plasmodium falciparum 199
Platelet aggregation and thrombosis 142
Polycythemia 311
Polydypsia 72, 301
Polypeptide 13, 95
chains 194
Polyphagia 72
Polysaccharides 34, 44
Polyunsaturated fatty acid 137, 160
Polyuria 72, 233
Pompe's disease 63
Porphobilinogen 204
deaminase 203
Porphyrias 203, 204
causes of 204t
Postprandial blood sugar 69
Potassium 302, 325
and sodium, movement of 304f
extracellular 303
functions 304
sources 304
symptoms 304
treatment 305
Preproinsulin 240
Procollagen contains 269
Proenzymes 14
Progesterone, levels of 241
Prolactin 231, 232
inhibiting factor 232
Proline 92, 94
Propionic acid 58, 59
Prostacyclins 141, 142
synthesis, inhibition of 141
Prostaglandin 141
biochemical actions of 142
E1 187
synthesis 141, 141f
Prostanoids 141
Prostate, carcinoma of 24
Prosthetic group 13
Protection against radicals, mechanisms for 263
Protein 95, 330, 331, 337, 349, 354
and weight
gain 331
loss 331
buffer 217
system 211
chemistry of 90
classification of 96
complementary 331
complete 331
conformation 209
conjugated 13, 96t
denaturation of 99
digestion of 114, 115f
energy malnutrition 337, 340
functions of 96
losing enteropathy 256
metabolism 71, 74, 182, 183, 184
modification of 100
primary structure of 97, 97f
quantity of 104
quaternary structure 99
role of 331
secondary structure 97
sequencing 103
specialized 268
structure of 97, 268
tertiary structure of 98, 98f
tests for 107
total 361
Proteinuria 366
Proteoglycans 38, 268
Proteolytic enzymes 13, 14
Proton gradient 225
Provitamin A carotenoids 273
Pseudohyperkalemia 305, 326
Pseudohypoaldosteronism 326
Pseudohypokalemia 304, 325
symptoms 325
tests 326
treatment 326
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 296
Pyridoxal 288
phosphate 14, 283
Pyridoxamine 288
Pyridoxine 14, 283, 288
active form of 283
antagonists 284
deficiency
manifestations 283
signs of 284f
sources 283
Pyruvate 53, 56, 223
carboxylase 58
dehydrogenase 53
kinase 70
Pyruvic acid 163
R
Radioactive iodine 369
Rancidity 140
Rapoport-Luebering cycle 52f
Reactive oxygen
biological effects of 262
species, formation of 262
Red cells, abnormal 339
Reduction tests 37
Reduction-oxidation reactions, principles of 222
Reductive reaction 14
Refsum's disease 155
Renal failure, chronic 214
Renal function
influence on 142
tests 364
Renal glycosuria 77
Renal kidney failure 322
Reproductive dysfunction 310
Respiratory acidosis 213, 215
Respiratory alkalosis 213, 215
Respiratory chain, structural organization of 223
Respiratory function, effects on 142
Resting metabolic rate 334
Retinoic acid 274
Retinoids 273
Retinopathy 74
Rheumatoid arthritis 255, 256
Rheumatological disease 256
Rhodopsin 274
Riboflavin 14, 281, 288
active form of 281
deficiency of 281
Ribonuclease 43
Ribonucleic acids 4
Ribose 33
5-phosphate keto-isomerase 64
Ribozymes 14
Ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase 64
Rickets 24
Rod cells 274
Rotor syndrome 207
S
Saccharin 189
S-adenosyl methionine 125
formation of 124
Salicylates 214
Salivary amylase hydrolyses 44
Salt fractionation 102
Sanger's reagent 105
Sarcoidosis 297
Satiety hormone 189
Saturated fats 332
Saturated fatty acid 137
Scleroproteins 96
Scottish National Party 356
Scurvy 329
symptoms of 279f
Seborrheic dermatitis 282
Secretin 114, 149
Selenium 265, 311
absorption 311
deficiency 311
sources 311
Sepsis 256
Serine 92
Serotonin, synthesis of 123
Serotyping 258
Serum 322
calcium level, regulation of 295
chloride
high 306
low 306
cholesterol 170
content 308
electrophoresis 103f
enzyme 24, 24t, 206, 363
levels 190f
glutamate pyruvate transaminase 116
immunoglobulin 253
quantitative determination of 254, 255
inorganic phosphate level 297
osmolality 299
potassium 325
protein electrophoresis 361
total protein estimation 361
transaminases 363
Shock 320
Shuttle pathways 51
Sialic acid 38
Sick euthyroid syndrome 371
Sickle cell 205
anemia 199
disease 198
hemoglobin 199
symptoms of 199
red blood cell 199f
trait 199
Sickling test 200
Simple lipids 133, 134
Singlet oxygen 262
Skeletal muscle 183
diseases 25
Sodium 298, 322
balance 322
functions 298
ions, reabsorption of 374
sources 298
thiopental 267
Solitary thyroid nodules 368
Solubility test 200
Somatomammotropin 232
Somatotropin 231
Sorbitol dehydrogenase 67, 68
Sorbitol pathway 67
Special Nutrition Program 356
Sphingomyelin 135
Sphingomyelinase enzyme, deficiency of 136
Sphingophospholipids 135
Spleen 67
Squalene 134
Starch 34, 330
Starvation hormone 189
Stearic acid 137
Stereoisomerism 36
Steroid 139, 229
hormone 143, 242
synthesis 64
Stevia 189
Sticky patch 199
Stroke 172, 349
Stuart-Prower factor 22
Subcellular fractions, marker enzymes of 9t
Subcellular organelles 154
Subclinical disease 370
Substrate concentration, effect of 16, 16f
Succinate dehydrogenase 9, 55, 224
Succinate thiokinase 55
Sucralose 189
Sucrase 43, 45
Sucrose 34
and lactose 44
Sulfates 214
Sulfhemoglobin 201
Sulfite oxidase 311
Sulphanilic acid 204
Superoxide
anion 262
dismutase 264
Suprarenal cortical hormones 230
Suprarenal medullary hormones 230
Synthesis 141, 158
Systemic lupus erythematosus 256
T
Tachycardia 281
Target cell 229, 231
Taurochenodeoxycholic acid 160
Taurocholic acid 160
Testicular hormones 229
Testosterone 229
Tetrahydrofolate 14
formation of 286f
Tetrahydrofolic acid 21
Thalassemia 198
causes of 198
Thiaminase 281
Thiamine 14, 280, 288
pyrophosphate 14
Thiazides 76
Thiokinase enzyme 150
Threonine 92
Thromboxanes 141
synthesis of 143
Thymus 249
Thyroid
autoantibodies 369
cancer 368
cells 367
disease 368
function, tests for 367, 368
hormone 230, 233, 367
biochemical findings 234
deficiency 122
functions of 233
pathophysiology 233
symptoms 234
iodine uptake scan 372
peroxidase antibodies 369
problems 368
stimulating hormone 231
Thyroid-binding globulin 370
Thyroiditis 368370
chronic 371
Thyroid-releasing hormone 367
test 371
Thyroid-stimulating hormone 187, 230, 232, 370t, 371t
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone 95, 229, 232
Thyroxine 72, 186, 371
Thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism 370
Tissue anoxia 214
Tobacco smoke 172
Tocopherol 276
Toxic liver cell necrosis 24
Toxic multinodular goiter 370
Toxic waste product 203
Toxicity 310, 346
Toxoid vaccines 250
Trace elements 294
Trans fat 332
risks 332
Transaminases 283
Transferases 17
Transferrin 265, 307
Transketolase
reaction 14
transfers 65
Transport across membrane 5
Triacylglycerol 133, 140, 150
biosynthesis of 162
fate of 151, 162, 163
synthesis 162f
Tricarboxylic acid 181222
cycle 13, 53
reactions of 54
Triglyceride 133, 134, 140
hydrolysis of 140
Triiodothyronine 371
Trioses 33
Tripeptide 95
Tropoelastin 269
Tropomyosin 270
Troponin 270
Trypsin hydrolyzes peptide bonds 114
Trypsinogen 43
Tryptophan 92
metabolic fate of 122
metabolism of 122
Tuberculosis, treatment for 22
Tubular damage 309
Tubular disease 367
Tyrosinase deficiency 122
Tyrosine 92, 120
catabolism of 120, 120f, 121f
from phenylalanine, synthesis of 120f
metabolic fate of 122
metabolism of 120
synthesis of 120
Tyrosinemia 121
U
Ubiquinone 224
Ubiquitone 266
Urea 365
cycle 117, 117f
inborn errors of 117t
Uric acid 266, 366
Uridine diphosphate 204
Urinary free cortisol level 374
Urinary tract infection 367
Urine 363
analysis of 124
diluted 233
glucose 76, 77
laboratory values 385
osmolality 299, 322
pH of 212
sample collections 238
sodium in 302
urobilinogen in 362
Uronic acid pathway 47
V
Vaccine
development 250
iactivated 250
types of 250
Valine 92
van den Bergh's reaction 362
van den Bergh's test 204, 205, 362
indirect 362
Van der Waals forces 99
Vasopressin 233
Vertebrate hormones 229
Viral hepatitis 24, 363
acute 24
types of 364
Viral infections 255
Vitamin 14, 273, 349, 360
A 133, 273, 274, 278
role of 274
B1 280, 288
B12 14, 287, 289
active form of 287
deficiency 286, 287, 339
roles of 286
sources 287
B2 14, 281, 288
B3 288
B5 289
B6 14, 288
B7 289
B-complex 280
C 140, 264, 265, 279, 288
deficiency 279
functions 279
role of 279f
signs 279
sources 279
symptoms 279
D 133, 273, 275, 278
action of 295
deficiency 276, 295, 340f
functions 275
sources 275
D3 275
deficiency, features of 276f
formation of active 275f
doses of 279
E 133, 140, 264, 265, 276, 278, 311
deficiency 276
functions 276
groups of 273
K 22, 133, 273, 276, 278
antagonists 278
cycle 278f
deficiency 278
exception of 273
functions 277
sources 276
soluble 143
water-soluble 273, 279, 287, 288t
Vitamin-dependent gamma carboxylation 277
Vomiting 118, 281
von Gierke's disease 63
W
Wald's visual cycle 274f
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia 257
Water and electrolyte balance 317
Water balance 317
Water excess 321
causes 321
treatment 321
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 280, 281
White blood cells 262
William's syndrome 270
Wilson's disease, decreases in 24
World Food Program 357
X
Xanthine oxidase 21, 281, 311
Xanthochromatosis 171
Xylose 33
Xylulose 33
Z
Zellweger's syndrome 154
Zinc 310
deficiency 310
functions 310
sources 310
Zona fasciculata 235, 372
Zona glomerulosa 235, 372
Zona reticularis 235, 372
Zymogen 14
activation 114
×
Chapter Notes

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The CellCHAPTER 1

 
Introduction
Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Humans are a multicellular organism, which contains at least 1014 cells. These cells differ considerably in shape, structure, and function as a result of specialization. An aggregation of cells, which are similar in origin, structure, and function forms tissue. Most of the metabolic activities occur at cellular level.
A typical cell, as seen by the light microscope, is illustrated in Figure 1.1. It contains two compartments, inner nucleus and outer cytoplasm. Nucleus contains nucleoplasm suspended with genetic material. Nuclear envelope separates nucleus from cytoplasm. Cytoplasm composed of aqueous cytosol is suspended with particles and membrane-bound organelles. Externally cytoplasm is limited by plasma membrane.
zoom view
Fig. 1.1: Structure of the cell as seen with light microscope.
Normal cell ranges between 10 and 30 µm in diameter. Figure 1.2 shows the ultrastructure or finer details of typical cell, which has been revealed by the electron microscope.
Briefly explain the structural and functional aspects of cell organelles.
 
Plasma Membrane
  • The cell membrane, which completely envelops the cell, is a thin (75–100 A°), living, dynamic, and selectively permeable membrane.
  • It has specialized surface structures for attachment and communication. Those are (1) tight junctions—produce seal between adjacent cells and (2) gap junctions—allow ions and electric current between adjacent cells. They may also include certain modifications to carry out physiological functions such as microvilli for absorption and invagination or infoldings to carry out transportation.
  • All biological membranes, including the plasma membrane and internal membranes, which form the subcellular structures such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, lysosomes nuclear envelope, peroxisomes, and Golgi complex, are similar in structure, lipoprotein in nature, and consist of lipids (60–40%), proteins (40–60%), and carbohydrates (1–10%).2
  • The membranes separate the cell from external environment and separates different parts of the cell from one another, so that cellular activities are compartmentalized.
zoom view
Fig. 1.2: Ultrastructure of typical cell showing all cell organelles as seen in the electron microscope.
 
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Cytoplasm is traversed by extensive network of interconnecting membrane-bound channels or cisternae (diameter of 40–50 µm), vesicles (diameter 25–500 µm), and tubules (diameter 50–190 µm), which form ER (Fig. 1.3).
  • Membranes of ER are continuous with plasma membrane and outer nuclear envelope.
  • There are two basic morphological types: (1) rough ER (RER)—it possesses rough surface due the attachment of ribosomes. RER occurs mainly in the form of cisternae and concerned with protein synthesis and (2) smooth ER (SER)—it lacks ribosomes on their surface and occurs mainly in the form of tubules. SER is concerned with lipid synthesis.
  • ER provides skeletal framework to cells and gives mechanical support to the colloidal 3cytoplasm. It also plays a role in detoxifying the xenobiotic.
zoom view
Fig. 1.3: Endoplasmic reticulum.
 
Golgi Complex
  • Golgi complex is membrane-bound structure similar to ER, discovered in 1873 by Camillo Golgi.
  • It is a stack of flattened-membrane vesicles (cisternae) surrounded by networking of tubules of 300–500 A° diameters.
  • Cisternae gently curved, convex part cis side faces ER and concave part trans side locates near plasma membrane (Fig. 1.4).
  • Golgi complex functions in association with ER and is a center of reception, finishing, packaging, and transportation of variety of materials.
    zoom view
    Fig. 1.4: Golgi apparatus.
  • Proteins synthesized in ER is added with sulfate, carbohydrates, lipid moieties, etc. and dispatched in the form of secretory vesicles.
  • Golgi complex also gives rise to lipoprotein of plasma membrane and lysosomes.
 
Lysosomes
  • Lysosomes are packets of hydrolases.
  • These are spherical in shape and 1 µm in diameter surrounded by tough carbohydrate-rich lipoprotein membrane enclosing about 50 types of hydrolases such as proteases, lipases, nucleases, transferases, and sulfatases.
  • Lysosomes provide an intracellular digestive system through which macromolecules, foreign bodies, and worn-out unwanted structures are digested.
 
Peroxisomes
  • Circular membrane-bound organelle having about 0.25 µm diameters contains enzymes, peroxidases and catalase.
  • Peroxisomes detoxify various toxic substances and metabolites through peroxidative reactions catalyzed by peroxidases. Catalase degrades H2O2, which resulted from the breakdown of fatty acid and amino acids.
 
Mitochondria
  • They are spherical, oval, or rod-like bodies, about 0.5–1 µm in diameter and up to 7 µm in length. There are DNA molecules, which encode information for certain mitochondrial proteins (Fig. 1.5).
    zoom view
    Fig. 1.5: Longitudinal section of mitochondrion.
    4
  • Mitochondria are considered to be the powerhouse of the cell, where energy released from oxidation of foodstuffs is trapped as chemical energy in the form of ATP.
  • Mitochondria are respiratory center of cell where pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and ATP generation take place. In addition, beta-oxidation of fatty acid and ketone body synthesis also take place.
 
Centrioles
  • Two cylindrical rod-shaped structures of 0.3–0.7 µm length and 0.1–0.25 µm diameters, lying at right angle to one another near nucleus, are called centrioles.
  • Centriole is an array of nine-triplet microtubules equally spaced from central axis, made up of structural protein tubulin. Centrioles form mitotic poles during cell division.
  • They also give rise to cilia and tail of sperm.
 
Nucleus
  • Nucleus is the command center of cells, which are spherical structure where genetic material is confined.
  • All cells in the human body contain nucleus, except matured red blood cells (RBCs) and upper dead skin cells.
  • Generally, nucleus is spherical or oval in shape and of 3–25 µm in diameter. But squamous epithelial cells contain discoidal and multilobed nucleus as in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
  • Nuclear envelope, which encircles the nucleus, consists of outer and inner nuclear membranes, which is a typical lipoprotein membrane. Outer nuclear membrane is continuous with membranes of ER and found attached with ribosomes on its outer surface. Nuclear envelope contains numerous nuclear pores of 100–1,000 A° diameter, which regulates nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of ions, nucleotides, proteins, mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomal subunits.
  • Nucleoplasm is the gelatinous substance within the nuclear envelope also called karyoplasm and consists of genetic material (chromosomes) and nucleolus. It regulates the passage of molecules between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.
  • Nucleolus is made up of proteins and ribonucleic acids (RNA) and is the site of the formation of ribosomal subunits. The main components are nucleoproteins, proteins, enzymes, minerals, and organic and inorganic substances.
 
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Cells are of two types, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. “Karyose” comes from a Greek word, which means “kernel,” as in a kernel of grain. In biology, we use this word root to refer to the nucleus of a cell. “Pro” means “before,” and “eu” means “true,” or “good.” So “prokaryotic” means “before a nucleus,” and “eukaryotic” means “possessing a true nucleus.” Prokaryotic cells have no nuclei, while eukaryotic cells do have true nuclei (Fig. 1.6).
zoom view
Fig. 1.6: Prokaryotic cell.
How do you differentiate prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells?
 
Differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
  1. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane (Fig. 1.7). 5Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. The purpose of the nucleus is to sequester the DNA-related functions of the big eukaryotic cell into a smaller chamber, for the purpose of increased efficiency. This function is unnecessary for the prokaryotic cell, because it is much smaller size and closer appearance of all materials. Prokaryotic cells also have DNA and DNA functions.
    zoom view
    Fig. 1.7: Eukaryotic cell.
  2. Eukaryotic DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA is circular.
  3. Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with proteins called “histones” and is organized into chromosomes; prokaryotic DNA is “naked” (no histones), and it is not formed into chromosomes. A eukaryotic cell contains a number of chromosomes; a prokaryotic cell contains only one circular DNA molecule and a varied assortment of much smaller circlets of DNA called “plasmids.”
  4. Both cell types have many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell.
    A eukaryotic ribosome is composed of 5 kinds of rRNA and about 80 kinds of proteins, while prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of only 3 kinds of rRNA and about 50 kinds of protein.
  5. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles, which are independent of the plasma membrane.
 
Transport Across Membrane
Biological membranes are lipoprotein viscous barriers. This exists around all living cell and also form structural and functional component of all cell organelles. The membranes contain mainly lipids, proteins, and very little amount of carbohydrates. The contents of these vary according to the nature of the membrane. Lipids are mainly amphipathic phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Proteins are of two types: (1) peripheral or extrinsic proteins and (2) integral or intrinsic proteins.
What is a fluid mosaic model? Explain briefly?
Organization of biological membranes, the arrangement of lipids and proteins was best explained in fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972) (Fig. 1.8). According to this model, membrane is viscous fluid with phospholipid bilayer, in which globular proteins are inserted in a mosaic pattern. Amphipathic phospholipid consists of polar phosphate head, glycerol neck, and nonpolar two fatty acid tails.
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Fig. 1.8: Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane.
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The hydrophobic tails or fatty acids form the middle core of lipid bilayer. The hydrophilic heads line both the sides. Both phospholipids and proteins are amphipathic and form permeability barrier. The degree of saturation and unsaturation of fatty acids, presence of cholesterol and carbohydrates regulate the fluidity and movement of molecules. Hydrophilic heads of inner and outer surface keep constant circulation of water. But hydrophobic fatty acid core acts as selective permeable barrier, protecting the cells and cell organelles from osmotic shocks.
Explain the different transport mechanisms that occur in the membranes.
Important function of the membrane is to withhold unwanted molecules but permit entry of molecules necessary for cellular metabolism. Transport across the membrane occurs in following ways:
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • Exocytosis
  • Endocytosis
 
Passive Transport
  • Passive transport of molecules across the membrane is along the concentration gradient without using energy.
  • Movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration takes place without using energy.
  • Solutes and gases enter the cells passively.
  • They are driven by the concentration gradient.
  • The rate of transport is directly proportional to the concentration gradient of that solute across the membrane.
  • Passive transport of molecules across the biomembranes is in two ways:
    1. Simple diffusion: Small uncharged molecules such as H2O2, O2, CO2, CH4, other gases, urea, and move ethanol across lipid bilayer by simple diffusion.
    2. Facilitated diffusion or carrier-mediated passive transport: Diffusion of molecules across the membrane along the concentration gradient through carrier proteins or permeases. It differs from simple diffusion in certain aspects.
      • The process is stereospecific, i.e., only one of the two possible isomers, l and d, is transported.
      • It shows saturation kinetics.
      • A carrier is required for transport across the membranes (Fig. 1.9).
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Fig. 1.9: Mechanism of facilitated diffusion.
The carrier proteins or permeases are specific integral membrane proteins and are highly specific for molecules, which they transport. Carrier proteins are specific for individual sugars, amino acids, phosphate, etc. As a concentration gradient of a solute across the membrane exists, solute molecules from hypertonic side bind to specific permease of the membrane. This binding triggers some conformational change, producing a pore or tunnel in carrier protein through which ions, glucose, etc., may cross. Following this permease regains its original structure.
 
Uniport, Symport, and Antiport
Carrier proteins, which simply transport a single solute from one side of the membrane to the other, are called uniports. Transport of one solute depends on the simultaneous 7transfer of a second solute, either in the same direction (symport) or in the opposite direction (antiport). Both symport and antiport are collectively called cotransport (Fig. 1.10).
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Fig. 1.10: Carrier proteins of membrane functioning as uniports, symports, and antiports.
Symport: Glucose-Na+ symport protein in intestinal epithelial cell.
Antiport: Na+-K+-ATPase pump, Cl/HCO3 anion exchange permease in erythrocytes.
 
Active Transport
  • The transport of molecules across the membrane against the concentration gradient using energy. Molecules are transported from lower concentration (hypotonic) to higher concentration (hypertonic) with the use of energy (Fig. 1.11).
  • In all cells, a significant portion of energy goes in maintaining concentration gradient of ions across plasma membrane and intracellular membranes.
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    Fig. 1.11: Active transport.
  • In human RBC, 50% of (cellular metabolism) energy is used for the above purpose.
  • Active transport is mainly of two types:
    1. ATP-driven active transport or primary active transport: Transmembrane proteins or carrier proteins form channels to bring the transport of molecules and ions across biological membranes using energy from ATP. The most important active transport in cells is Na+/K+-ATPase pump. All cells maintain high internal concentration of K+ and low concentration of Na+. This Na+/K+ gradient across the membrane is maintained using energy from hydrolysis of ATP. ATPase is large carrier protein, hydrolysis of ATP brings the binding of 3Na+ to ATPase, causing some conformational changes in ATPase, resulting in pumping of 3Na+ outside in exchange of 2K+ pumped in opposite direction.
    2. Ion-driven active transport or secondary active transport: Secondary active transport takes place in the presence of ionic gradient maintained across the membrane by primary active transport. Example: glucose absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Concentration gradient maintained by Na+/K+-ATPase pump across the cell brings the symport of Na+ and glucose molecules into the cell.
 
Exocytosis
Secretions of cell such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are released out of the cell through exocytosis. These secretions are packed in the form of secretory vesicles. As per necessary stimulation, these vesicles move toward and fuse with plasma membrane. In this way, materials inside the vesicles are externalized. Examples: release 8of acetylcholine from synaptic vesicles in presynaptic cholinergic nerves; release of trypsinogen by pancreatic cells; release of insulin by β cells of Langerhans, etc.
 
Endocytosis
Endocytosis is the mechanism by which cells uptake macromolecules in the form of endocytic vesicles. Plasma membrane invaginates and encloses the materials, which results into vesicles. There are two types (Fig. 1.12):
  1. Phagocytosis: Ingestion of large particles such as bacteria and cell debris and plasma membrane invaginates in the form of pseudopodia and encloses particles in the form of phagosome. Materials of phagosomes will be digested by lysosomes. Examples: engulfment of bacteria by macrophages and granulocytes.
  2. Pinocytosis: Uptake of nonspecific or specific extracellular molecules in the form of endocytic vesicles. Later it is termed “receptor-mediated endocytosis.” Plasma membranes internalize these receptor-attached molecules in the form of vesicles. Examples: uptake of chylomicrons by liver cells and internalization of LDL through LDL receptors of plasma membrane.
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Fig. 1.12: The process of phagocytosis and endocytosis.
 
Cell Fractionation
The study of biochemical properties of individual organelles requires subcellular fractionation. The subcellular fractionation involves breaking of cell by means of mechanical force to purify organelles.
The steps involved are (Figs. 1.13 and 1.14):
  • Mince the tissue using a buffer.
  • Tissue is carefully broken up in homogenizer using isotonic 0.25 M sucrose solution (the sucrose solution is preferred because it is not metabolized and does not readily pass through the membranes and does not cause interorganelles to swell).
  • The gentle homogenization with an isotonic sucrose solution ruptures the cell membrane and keeps most of the organelles intact. But ER is broken into small pieces that form microsomes.
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    Fig. 1.13: Subcellular fractionation of cell by differential centrifugation.
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    zoom view
    Fig. 1.14: Organelle separation by isopycnic centrifugation.
  • Homogenate is drained to remove connective tissue and fragments of blood vessels by stainless steel sieve.
  • The homogenate thus obtained is centrifuged at a series of increasing centrifugal force.
The nuclei and mitochondria differ in size and specific gravity and therefore sediment at different rates in a centrifugal field. This can be isolated from the homogenate by differential centrifugation. The dense nuclei are sedimented first, followed by the mitochondria and finally by the microsomal fraction. The soluble remnant is the cytosolic portion.
The mitochondria isolated in this way are contaminated with lysosome and peroxisomes. These may be separated by isopycnic centrifugation technique. In this technique, a density gradient is set up in a centrifuge tube (the density of the solution in the tube increases from top to the bottom). Sucrose is used as medium and colloidal materials such as Pecroll, which form density gradients with a low osmotic pressure, are often used. Particles are sedimented to an equilibrium position at which their density equals that of the medium at that point in the tube. Different organelles are separated according to their density.
The purity of the isolated subcellular fraction is assessed by the analysis of marker enzymes. These marker enzymes are located exclusively in a particular fraction and are specific to that fraction. Analysis of marker enzymes confirms the degree of purity and contamination (Table 1.1).
List the enzymes that can be used to identify the cell organelles.
Table 1.1   Marker enzymes of subcellular fractions.
Fraction
Enzyme
Plasma membrane
51 nucleotidase and Na+-K+ ATPase
Golgi membrane
Galactosyltransferase and mannosidase
Endoplasmic reticulum
Glucose-6-phosphatase and cytochrome b reductase
Mitochondria
Succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase
Cytosol
Lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Lysosomes
Acid phosphatase
Peroxisomes
Catalase
Nucleus
DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase
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SUMMARY
SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
  1. Briefly discuss the ultrastructure of a typical cell.
  2. Add a note on the structural aspects of mitochondria and mention the metabolism that takes place in mitochondria.
  3. Explain the fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane.
  4. Write the features and importance of active transport mechanism.
  5. How do you explain the ATP-driven active transport and ion-driven active transport?
  6. Mention significances of endocytosis and exocytosis.
  7. What is ion-driven active transport? Explain with an example.
  8. Explain uniport and antiport transport mechanism with an example.
  9. Why do we call mitochondrion as a powerhouse of the cell?
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Concerning plasma membrane, one of the following statements is not true:
  1. Plasma membrane consists of specialized surface structures for attachment and for communication
  2. Tight junctions produce seal between adjacent cells
  3. Gap junctions does allow ions and electric current between adjacent cells
  4. Consists of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
2. Cytoplasm is traversed by extensive network of interconnecting membrane-bound channels or cisternae, vesicles, and tubules form:
  1. Endoplasmic reticulum
  2. Golgi complex
  3. Ribosomes
  4. Microsomes
3. Concerning the Golgi complex, all of the following statements are true, except:
  1. It is a membrane-bound structure
  2. It is a stack of flattened-membrane vesicles
  3. It does not gives rise to lipoprotein of plasma membrane
  4. It helps in packaging and transportation of variety of materials
4. Concerning mitochondria, one of the following statements is incorrect:
  1. It is considered to be the powerhouse of the cell
  2. They are respiratory center of cell where pyruvate oxidation takes place
  3. It accommodates for glycolysis
  4. It has electron transport chain
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5. Nucleus:
  1. Presents in all cells of the body
  2. Does not have nuclear envelope
  3. Absents in RBCs
  4. Exists in different shapes
6. Concerning passive transport, one of the following statements is incorrect:
  1. It requires ATP
  2. It requires carrier protein
  3. It occurs along the concentration gradient
  4. Its process is stereospecific
7. Concerning active transport, one of the following statements is incorrect:
  1. Transport of molecules across the membrane is against the concentration gradient
  2. It is energy dependent
  3. Most important active transport in cells is Na+–K+-ATPase pump
  4. 2Na+ pumped outside and in exchange 3K+ pumped in opposite direction
8. Glucose absorption in intestinal epithelial cells is:
  1. Ion-driven active transport
  2. Facilitated diffusion
  3. Passive transport
  4. Does not depend on concentration gradient
9. Transport of macromolecules takes place through the following mechanisms, except:
  1. Diffusion
  2. Phagocytosis
  3. Pinocytosis
  4. Exocytosis
10. All of the following are the examples for endocytosis, except:
  1. Uptake of chylomicrons by liver cells
  2. Internalization of LDL through LDL receptors of plasma membrane
  3. Uptake of glucose by intestinal cells
  4. Engulfment of bacteria by macrophages
11. The main function of mitochondria is:
  1. DNA synthesis
  2. Protein processing and packaging
  3. ATP production
  4. RNA synthesis
12. The main function of the Golgi apparatus is:
  1. DNA synthesis
  2. Protein processing and packaging
  3. ATP synthesis
  4. RNA synthesis
13. The following are true of plasma membranes, except:
  1. They are made up of a double layer of lipid molecules in which proteins are embedded
  2. The lipid membranes include phospholipids and cholesterol
  3. The plasma membrane has RNA-binding sites on the inside surface of the membrane resembling rough endoplasmic reticulum
  4. The plasma membrane has both integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins
14. The function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is:
  1. Protein synthesis
  2. Regulation of intracellular calcium distribution
  3. Excretion
  4. Maintain the skeleton of the cell
15. All of the following are the functions of lysosomes, except:
  1. Phagocytosis
  2. Pinocytosis
  3. Exocytosis
  4. Breakdown of some intracellular materials
16. Hydrolytic enzymes are found in:
  1. Golgi apparatus
  2. RER
  3. Lysosomes
  4. Ribosomes
17. The site of lysosomes can be seen using a specific histochemical reaction called:
  1. Alkaline phosphatase
  2. Acid phosphatase
  3. Peroxidase
  4. Succinic dehydrogenase
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18. Organelles most notable for producing and degrading hydrogen peroxide are:
  1. Lysosomes
  2. Mitochondria
  3. Golgi bodies
  4. Peroxisomes
19. The function of attached ribosomes to RER is to synthesize:
  1. Lipid
  2. Carbohydrate
  3. Protein that will be secreted by the cell
  4. Glycogen
20. Ribosomal RNA is formed in:
  1. The euchromatin
  2. The nucleolus
  3. The RER
  4. The heterochromatin
21. Glycogen can be demonstrated using:
  1. Best's carmine
  2. H and E
  3. Sudan black
  4. Silver
22. Euchromatin is predominant in:
  1. Nuclei of metabolically active cells
  2. Nuclei of metabolically inactive cells
  3. Special type of stain
  4. Type of cell organoids
23. The nucleolus is formed of:
  1. Protein and DNA
  2. Protein only
  3. Chromatin
  4. Protein and RNA
24. The nuclear pore:
  1. Is hexagonal in shape
  2. Is bridged by a unit membrane
  3. Is a transient structure
  4. Allows for communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
25. The feature of phospholipids that is essential for their role in biological membranes is:
  1. To form strong rigid membranes
  2. Extremely hydrophobic
  3. To possess hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions
  4. Extremely hydrophilic
ANSWERS
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. c
6. a
7. d
8. a
9. b
10. c
11. c
12. b
13. c
14. b
15. c
16. c
17. b
18. d
19. c
20. b
21. a
22. a
23. d
24. d
25. c