Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students DM Vasudevan, Sreekumari S, Kannan Vaidyanathan
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, and t refer to table.
A
Abacavir 706
Abetalipoproteinemia 245
Abruption placenta 433
Absorption 516
passive 201
regulation of 537
Acanthocytes 245
Acarbose inhibits 179
Aceruloplasminemia 541
Acesulfame 96
Acetaldehyde 188, 190
Acetaminophen 418
Acetazolamide 412, 462
therapy 447
Acetic acid 101
test 43
Acetoacetate 120, 307
decarboxylation of 61f
reduction of 213
Acetoacetic acid 215
Acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein 207
Acetoacetyl-coenzyme A 213, 313
synthase 221
Acetone 213
smell of 175, 176, 214
Acetyl and acyl group 202b
Acetylation 481, 481f, 620
Acetylcholine 518, 729
clinical application of 518
esterase 55, 67
receptor 20, 20f
synthesis 286, 518
transmits nerve impulse 518f
Acetylcholinesterase 60, 75
Acetyl-coenzyme A 139, 142, 202, 318, 335, 338
accumulates 189
carboxylase 70, 117, 169, 209, 511
activity of 170
carboxylation of 206
complete oxidation of 337
molecule of 202
oxidation of 214
pyruvate to 135
sources of 335, 335f
to cytoplasm, transport of 206
transfer of 206f
units 206
utilization of 335f
Acetyltransacylase 207
Achlorhydria 517, 540
Acid 438
in gastric juice, absence of 517
load, buffering against 441t
loss of 448
output, maximal 404
peptic disease 258
phosphatase 75, 76
secretion 317
regulation of 404
stable 198
Acid-base
abnormalities 450t
balance 437, 444
clinical application of 440b
catalysis 57, 57f
chemistry 437
disturbances 444b, 445b, 447
causes of 449t
chemical pathology of 446
classification of 444
types of 444t
example of 438
parameters 444, 458
assessment of 449
Acidic amino acids 30
carrier for 267
Acidic dyes 42
Acidic pH 60
Acidity favors 528
Acidophils 673
Acidosis 118, 376, 440, 444, 449, 531
chronic respiratory 449
compensated metabolic 447
hyperchloremic 447
inorganic 447t
Aciduria, argininosuccinic 275, 328
Acne 491, 491f
Aconitase 335, 341
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 193, 697, 703, 704f, 775
biochemistry of 703
epidemic of 703
immunology of 705
natural course of disease 704
prevention 706
related symptoms 704
transmission 703
Acquired porphyrias 366
causes of 366t
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 542
Actin 725
Actinomycin D 613, 717
Active methionine 288
formation of 289f
Active transport 21
calcium pump 21
sodium pump 21
Actomyosin ATPase inhibitory subunit 238
Acute myocardial infarction 238, 765
early detection of 74
Acycloguanosine 588
Acyclovir 67, 588, 638
Acylcarnitine accumulates 204
Acyl-cholesterol acyltransferase 228
Acyl-coenzyme A 202, 255
dehydrogenase, medium chain 204
synthetase 200
Addison's disease 459, 461, 463, 532, 678
Addisonian pernicious anemia 516
Adducin 728
Adenine 575
nucleotide transporter 354f, 355
phosphoribosyltransferase 582
Adenosine deaminase deficiency 584
Adenosine diphosphate 122, 725
ribosylation 70, 595
Adenosine monophosphate 119, 506, 577
conversion of 186
Adenosine triphosphate 56, 116, 122, 142, 202, 337, 345, 503, 575, 578f, 724, 725
binding cassette
protein 168
transporter-1 245
cell of 186
citrate lyase 206
formation, method of 135
generation steps 337t
hydrolysis of 284, 403
molecules 254, 267, 335
synthase 350f, 351, 351f
synthesis
energetics of 350
inhibitors of 352
mechanism of 351
regulation of 352
sites of 350
Adenosylcobalamin 515
Adenovirus 192, 650
Adenylate cyclase 668
Adenylosuccinate synthetase 67
Adenylyl cyclase 529, 530, 668, 669
Adipokines 211, 686
Adiponectin 211
Adipose tissue 104, 118, 130, 150, 210, 211, 227, 557, 558f
brown 211
changes in 210t
derived hormones 211, 686
in fasting condition 210
in well-fed condition 210
metabolic profile of 121
metabolism of 210
white 211
Adrenal androgen secretion, assessment of 678
Adrenal cortex 150, 221
Adrenal glands 479
Adrenal hormones, secretion of 676
Adrenal hyperfunction 678, 679t
Adrenal hypofunction 678, 679t
Adrenal insufficiency, causes of 679
Adrenal tumor 448
Adrenaline 163, 171
degradation of 309
sufficiency 461
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 162, 520, 674
Adrenodoxin 479
reductase 479
Adrenogenital syndrome 462, 679, 679t, 775
Adrenoleukodystrophy 14, 254
Adrenomedullin 240
Adriamycin 717
Adult respiratory distress syndrome 401, 474
Advanced glycation 178
end products 178
Aerobic exercise, example of 121
Aflatoxins 569, 708, 709
Agar 95, 96, 737
gel 72
electrophoresis 426
Agarose 95, 96, 737
Aglycone 90
Agranulocytosis, development of 567
Air pollution 125, 568
Ajinomoto 569
Alanine 141, 286, 287, 313, 740
aminotransferase 74, 76, 139, 270f, 765
glyoxalate aminotransferase 285f
transamination of 141f
Albinism 308, 328
Albino monkey 312f
Albino tiger 312f
Albumin 9, 43, 231, 368, 425429, 456
appearance of 411
clinical significance of 428
creatinine ratio 419
estimation of 401
functions of 427
globulin ratio 428
glycated 178
half-life of 427
level, low 428
major functions of 427
reference value of 428
synthesis 397
Albuminuria 428
minimal 419
Alcohol 42, 43, 507
acute toxicity of 189
and cardiovascular system 190
and other diseases 190
dehydrogenase 54, 60, 188, 479, 490
detoxification of 479
groups, oxidation of 480f
intake of 583
metabolism of 188, 189f, 195
related liver disease 764
Alcoholism 212
and liver 189
and nervous system 190
biochemical alterations in 189
Aldehyde 189, 507
dehydrogenase 189, 479
deficiency 189
group 86f, 87
oxidase 544
test 34
Aldolase 55, 60, 132, 186, 187
Aldonic acid 90
Aldose 86, 87
epimerism of 88
ketose isomers 89
Aldosterone
antagonists 412
levels of 679
secretion 444
Aldosteronism, secondary 460
Alemtuzumab 717
Aliphatic amino acids 28
metabolism of 282
Aliphatic carboxylic acids 101
Alkali 43
reserve 440
Alkaline 413
phosphatase 60, 65, 74, 76, 77, 371, 397, 399, 495, 530, 742
isoenzymes 72, 74
secretion of 533
Alkaloids 569
Alkalosis 376, 440, 444, 449, 462, 531
hypochloremic 448, 464
Alkapton bodies 311, 312f
Alkaptonuria 167, 311, 311f, 325, 328
diagnosis of 312
urine of 312f
Alkyl sulfate 103
Allelomorphic genes 627
Allograft, rejection of 692
Allopurinol 67, 68, 474, 476, 583
competes 587
inhibits xanthine oxidase 584f
Allosteric activator 69
Allosteric enzyme 69t, 142
action of 68f
Allosteric inhibition
salient features of 68b
saturation curve of 68f
Allosteric inhibitor 69, 138
Allosteric regulation 68
Allotypes 695
Allozymes 72
Alpha-1 antitrypsin 77, 401, 406, 430
deficiency 427
Alpha-1,4
glucan transferase 144
glycosidic linkages 93
Alpha-1,6
glucosidase 144
linkage 94
Alpha-2 heat
labile alkaline phosphatase 74
stable alkaline phosphatase 74
Alpha-2 macroglobulin 431
Alpha-adrenergic stimulation 168
Alpha-amanitin 609
Alpha-amino
acids 28
group 34, 296
Alpha-amylase 94, 128
Alpha-antiproteinase 430
Alpha-band 367
Alpha-carboxyl group 34
Alpha-chain genes 381
Alpha-fetoprotein 329, 330, 401, 406, 431, 715
appearance of 714
measurement of 467
Alpha-fucosidase 14
Alpha-globulins 396
Alpha-glucosidase 14, 179
Alpha-helix 37
structure of 37f
Alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase 300
Alpha-ketoglutarate 285, 287, 292, 335, 503, 505
dehydrogenase 335, 340, 341, 503
reaction 337f, 338
formation of 335
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid 270
Alpha-lactalbumin 465
Alpha-lipoic acid 179
Alpha-maltose 94
Alpha-mannosidase 14
Alpha-methenyl bridge 367
Alpha-methyldopa 67, 308
Alpha-oxidation 205
Alpha-synuclein 732
Alpha-thalassemia 379, 381
genotype of 382t
phenotype of 382t
Alpha-tocopherol 476, 497, 497f
Alu family 596
Aluminum toxicity 566
Alveolar surfactant 106
Alzheimer's disease 226, 268, 355, 497, 542
Amadori rearrangement 177
Amantadine 638
Amelogenin 20
Ames test 632, 632f
Amethopterin 514
Amide
formation 33
group 29f
reaction of 33
Amino acid 28, 29f, 30, 30f, 31, 31f, 32t, 34, 35, 58f, 60, 70, 117, 124, 240, 267, 282, 287, 318, 332, 339, 395, 481f, 528, 555f, 615, 615t, 685, 739
absorption of 267, 569
activation of 616
aromatic 28, 29f, 306, 307
basic 30
carbon skeletons of 318
carrier for basic 267
classification of 28
clinical application of 267
color reactions of 34, 34t
common 30t
C-terminal 40
decarboxylation of 33f, 478, 508
deficiency in transport of 292
derivatives 34
derived 29
dibasic 29f
general metabolism of 269
general reactions of 33
general structure of 28f
glucogenic 141, 287, 288, 295, 296, 318, 338
group of 40
heterocyclic 29, 307
in proteins
limiting 555t
numbering of 35
sequence of 35
interconversion of 270
interorgan transport of 269, 269f
ionized form of 28f
isoelectric pH of 42
limiting 555
metabolic fates of 318f
metabolism 265f, 396
disorders of 326, 327b
modifications of 619
net transfer of 142
non-alpha 29
non-protein 29
oxidation 504
profile 741f
properties of 31
role of 265
semi-essential 297, 316
separation of 740f
sequence 41f, 674f
number 372
simple 28, 28f
special groups in 30
substitution 378
transport 290
Amino aciduria 188, 292t
Amino alcohol sphingosine 107
Amino groups 33
Amino imidazole carboxamide
ribonucleotide 581
ribose-5-phosphate 513
Amino sugars 91, 91f
interrelations of 191f
metabolism of 190
Amino terminal
end 35, 693
peptide 398, 402
region 618
Aminoaciduria 316, 318, 319t, 328
diagnosis of 319
Aminoacyl site 617
carries 617
Aminoglycosides 418, 465
Aminolevulinic acid 362, 366, 367, 637
dehydratase 365, 366
deficiency 365
synthase 69, 566
deficiency 365
hepatic 363
repression of 636
Aminopeptidase 266
Aminopterin 514, 514f
Aminopyrine 13, 152
Aminosugars, composed of 720
Aminotransferases 270
levels of 400
Ammonia 45, 270, 275, 319, 567, 588
detoxification of 271, 395, 397
disposal of 271
fate of 270f
formation of 269
mammals excrete 272b
mechanism 442f
minor pathways producing 271
sources of 270f
transportation of 272
trapping of 271, 272f
Ammonium ion 443
excretion of 269, 443
Ammonium sulfate 43
Amniocentesis 188, 329
Amniotic fluid 106, 467
cells 331
normal composition of 467t
Amphibolic pathway 339
Amphipathic nature 105
Ampholytes 31
Amphotericin 418, 465
Ampicillin 460
resistance gene 646
Amylases 76
action of 94
in urine, reference value of 76
Amylodextrin 94
Amyloidosis 696
Amylopectin 94
Amylopectinosis 148
Amylose 93
Anaerobiasis 340
Analbuminemia 428
Anaphylactic reactions 567
Anaphylaxis 317, 695
slow reacting substance of 258
Anaplerotic reactions 339
Andersen's disease 194, 148
Androgens 221, 402, 675
binding protein, synthesis of 680
receptor 680
stimulate spermatogenesis 680
Anemia 376, 383, 520, 566
autoimmune hemolytic 371
causes of 383, 771
classification of 539b
common symptoms of 383f
hypochromic 520
microcytic 381, 509
Angina pectoris 298
Angiogenesis, uncontrolled 686
Angioneurotic edema, hereditary 696
Angiotensin 44
converting enzyme
clinical significance of 458
inhibitors 418, 461, 463
production, pathway of 458f
Angular stomatitis 504
Aniline 13, 708
Animal
and plants, applications of cloning of 651
steroid 220
Anion gap 176, 446
Anion migrate 425
Anion transport 370
Ankyrin 728
Anomeric carbon atoms 88
Anomers 88
Anoxia, brain under conditions of 120
Anserine 288
Antacids 535
Antagonists 458
Antibacterial agents 514
Antibiotics
inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis 15
resistance property 645
Antibody 638
antigen binding part of 693
antimitochondrial 403
antinuclear 403, 729
dependent cell-mediated cytolysis 692
opsonization effect of 694
specific 73, 700
Anticancer agents 587, 717t
Anticancer drugs 514, 580, 716
common 717t
Anticoagulant 95, 750
Antidiuretic hormone 457, 672
influence of 412
secretion 461
Antigen 692, 706
carcinoembryonic 714, 715
concentration, log of 45
molecular structure of 698
presenting cells 701
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody 421
Antihemophilic globulin 433
Antihistamines 317
Antihuman immunodeficiency virus drugs 706
Anti-insulin 171
hormones 162, 171, 172t
Antiketogenic effect 171
Antilipolytic effect 171
Antimalarial drug 152, 514
Antimetabolites 514
Antimutagens 709
Antioxidant 471, 474, 476
activity 542
commercial use of 476
preventive 476
property 491, 520
role of 476
Antiparallel 593
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome 108
Antiport system 22, 22f, 411
Antipyrine 152
Antiretroviral therapy, highly active 706
Antisense therapy 622
principle of 622f
Anti-smooth muscle antibody 403
Antisnake serotherapy 734
Anti-streptolysin-O 247
Antitemplate strand 608
Antithyroid drugs 681
Antiviral agents 638
Antivitamins 569
Apoferritin 538
Apolipoproteins 226
Apoprotein levels 241
Apoptosis 355f, 634, 634f, 714
mediator of 354
pathways 634
Apoptosome complex 355
Appetite, regulators of 557
Aquaporins 19
Aquasomes 96, 662
Arabinose 87, 92
Arachidonic acid 254, 255, 255f, 258
Argemone oil 569
Argentaffinomas, malignant 315
Arginase deficiency 275
Arginine 31, 282, 297, 740
formation of 274
lysine 6
metabolism of 297f
Argininemia 328
Argininosuccinate
formation of 273
lyase 274
deficiency 275
synthetase 273
deficiency 275
Aromatic amines 709
Aromatic ring, cleavage of 307
Arrhythmia, cardiac 463, 464
Arsenate 341
Arsenic toxicity 566
Arsenite 341
Arterial blood gas 750
analyzer 449
measurements of 325
values 450b
Arterial oxygen saturation 450
Artery
cut section of normal 237f
subintimal region of 237
Aryl sulfatase 14
Asbestos 708
Ascites 325, 397, 428
pathogenesis of 397f
Ascorbic acid 152, 166, 167, 307, 502, 519, 520f, 537, 722
biosynthesis of 519
deficiency of 520, 723
metabolism of 519
oxidation of 519
Asialoglycoprotein receptor autoantibody 403
Asparaginase 76, 77
Asparagine 33, 271, 295, 296
synthesis 296f
Aspartame 96
Aspartate 729
aminotransferase 74, 76, 139, 238, 240, 270, 347
protease, mechanism of 61f
transcarbamoylase 69, 586
Aspartic acid 28, 282, 296, 740
ionization of 32f
metabolisms of 295f
Aspartyl aminotransferase 397
Aspartyl proteases 57, 60
Aspergillus flavus 709
Aspirin 68, 75, 179, 245, 310, 403, 427, 480
acetylates serine 257
mechanism of action of 257b
Asthma 125
Ataxia telangiectasia 603
Atherosclerosis 176, 178, 228, 236, 237, 245, 248, 474
development of 220, 232
prevention of 243
progression of 237
risk markers of 241
Atherosclerotic plaque formation 474
Atomic number 756, 757
Atomic weight 757
Atractyloside inhibits 352
Atrial natriuretic peptide 240, 458
Augmented histamine test 405
Autoantibodies 190, 403
Autocrine signaling 667
Autoimmune disorders, hepatic 403
Automated biochemistry analyzer 746
Autoradiography 655, 761
Autosomal dominant
inheritance 628f
trait 364, 365
Autosomal recessive
condition 292, 311
disease 317
inheritance 628, 628f
trait 365, 370
Autotrophs 5
Avastin 686
Avidin 511
Axitinib 686
Azaserine 34, 67, 286, 580, 582
Azidothymidine 706
Azotemia 418
B
B cells 692
B12 deficiency 516
assessment of 517
causes of 516
B12, functional role of 516
Babinski's sign 517
Bacteria 541
irreversible inhibitors in 620
mutant strains of 115
reversible inhibitors in 620
Bacterial cell 5t, 17, 96, 636
Bacterial diseases, diagnosis of 658
Bacterial system 609
Bacteriophages 645
Bad cholesterol 228
Bantu siderosis 540
Barbiturates 152
Bariable light chain 693
Bariatric surgery 179
Barlow's disease 520
Bartter's syndrome 448
Basal acid output 404
Basal secretion 404
Base excision repair 602
Base pairing rule 593, 594f, 610
Basic dyes 42
Batch analyzers 746
Beer's law 743
Beer-Lambert law 744
Bell-shaped curve 65
Bence-Jones proteins 419
Bence-Jones proteinuria 695
Benedict's reaction 89
Benedict's test 92f, 152, 167, 215, 312
positive 166
principle of 90f
Benzene 30
Benzoate, detoxification of 283
Benzoic acid 285
Benzoic sulfimide 96
Benzopyrenes 709
Benzoquinone acetate 311
Benzoylglycine 115, 481
Benzpyrene 13
Beriberi 139, 503
treatment of 503
Beta-alanine 287
Beta-amino
acids, carrier for 267
isobutyric acid 588
Beta-amylases 94
Beta-band 367
Beta-bends 38
Beta-blockers 463
Beta-carotene 476
Beta-D glucose 70
Beta-galactosidase 14
Beta-globulins 396
Beta-glucuronidase 14
Beta-glycosidic linkage 92
Beta-hairpin 39
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin 715f
Beta-lipoprotein 245
Beta-maltose 94
Beta-mercaptoethanolamine 290
Beta-O-glycosidic linkages 191
Beta-oxalyl amino alanine 569
Beta-oxidation
defects in 204
energetics of 203
modified 254
preparative steps for 201
regulation of 204
steps of 202
Beta-pleated sheet 37
structure of 38f
Beta-thalassemia 379, 381
Beta-tubulins 728
Bevacizumab 686, 717
Bhopal Gas Tragedy 568
Bicarbonate
buffer system 439
loss of 464
net generation of 442
primary deficit in 446
primary excess of 448
reabsorption of 442, 442f
represents 440
requirement 448
Biguanides 176, 179
Bile 232
acids 201, 221, 284, 396
binding resins 244
conjugation of 283
formation of 231
secondary 231
structure of primary 231f
duct, obstruction of 201
functions of 232
pigments 367, 367b, 370, 413
presence of 399
tests for 369, 370t
urine analysis for 397
salts 198, 199, 221, 231, 253, 367, 367b, 399, 413
action of 198f
deficiency of 201
enterohepatic circulation of 200, 232
formation of 231, 232f
functions of 232
hydrophobic portions of 198f
production of 396
secretion of 232
Biliary obstruction 75
tests of 398
Biliary stricture 402
Biliary tract 371
Bilinogens 369
Bilirubin 367, 369, 369t, 427, 428, 480
conjugation of 152
diglucuronide, production of 368f
excretion of 368f, 369
generation of 367
metabolism 396
production of 368f
toxicity 372
type of 400
uptake of 370
Biliverdin 367
Binary complexes 238
Binding proteins 683
Bioactivation 478
Biocatalysts 53
Biochemical
defect 311
disturbances 325
genetics 331
historical background of 3
history of 4t
parameters 495
techniques 331
tests 331
Bioenergetics 7, 342
Biogenic amines 300, 300t
Bioinformatics 4, 661
applications of 661
Biological activity, loss of 43
Biological oxidation 254, 334, 343
Biological rhythms 315
Bioluminiscence 745
Biomembranes 105
Biomolecules 4
quantitative preparation of 643
synthesized, major 396
Biosensors 746
Biosynthetic reactions, reductive 344
Biotin 56, 205, 206, 502, 511
antagonists 511
avidin complex 743
coenzyme activity of 511
deficiency 511
split nail in 511f
independent carboxylation reactions 511
requirement of 512
requiring carbon dioxide fixation reactions 511
sources of 512
structure of 511, 511f
Biotransformation 478
Bipolar disorders 544
Birth defects 513
Bisphosphate 134
Bisphosphoglycerate 376
kinase 132, 342
shunt 137, 138f
significance of 137
Bitot's spots 491
Biuret method 45, 425
Biuret reaction 34
Bladder, tumors of 418
Blindness, preventable 491
Blood
aldosterone in 679
ammonia
estimation of 401
high 401
brain barrier 398, 428
calcium level, homeostasis of 529
capillary 163, 750
cells 761
coagulation cascade 529
components, nephelometric assays of 700
flow studies 761
technetium for 759
glucose 162f, 177f
factors maintaining 161
homeostasis of 162f
level 171f, 173
low 171f
regulation of 161, 162f
self-monitoring of 163
group antigens 44
level 514
loss, chronic 539
phenylalanine 310
pressure 248
fluctuating 365
reduction of 248
soaked filter paper, small circles of 332
transfusion, basis of 698
urea 417, 418b
level 417
nitrogen 417
value, interpretation of 417
vessel 298
formation 686
Blot transfer techniques 655f
Body
buffer systems of 440t
combat acid load of 441f
fluids 455, 465, 736
buffers of 439
compartments, electrolyte concentration of 456t
pH of 437
mass index 174, 556
metabolism 71
water compartments 455f
maintenance of 456
weight, ideal 558
Bohr effect 374
Bond
specificity 70
types of 481
Bone 520
and teeth 529
deformities 495, 495f
demineralization 533
density, reduced 495
diseases 74, 76, 535
growth of 533
inhibits resorption of 531
isoenzyme 495
marrow 293, 775
allogenic 326
morphology 517
transplantation 195, 652
metastatic carcinoma of 74, 532
mineral density 534
mineralization of 494, 533
origin 74
osteoblasts of 74, 494
scanning 761, 759
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 731
Bow legs 495
Bowel cramps 763
Bowman's capsule 410
Brachytherapy 759
Brain 118, 120, 205, 253, 275, 344f
damage 499
metabolic profile of 119
natriuretic peptide 74, 240
tumor 466
Branched chain amino acids 28, 29f, 118, 120, 300
catabolism of 300t
disorders of 327
Branched chain keto acids 300
Branching enzyme 144, 145, 148
Breast
cancer
familial 712
gene 776
milk jaundice 370
Brittle bones 723
Bromo cresol green method 425
Bronchopneumonia 449
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 474
Brown adipose tissue 211, 353
Bruton's disease 696
Buccal cancer 759
Buffer 439, 441
reduced 176, 214
systems, relative capacity of 440
Burkitt's lymphoma 710
Burning foot syndrome 510, 510f
Bursa equivalent organs 692
Butylated hydroxyanisole 476
Butylated hydroxytoluene 476
Butyric acid 101
C
C terminal peptide 706
Cadaverine 297, 300, 478
Cadherins 17
Cadmium, salts of 42
Caffeine 476, 582
Cahill cycle 142
Calbindin 494
Calcinosis 496
Calcitonin 494, 530532
Calcitriol 493, 494, 530, 531
generation of 493f
hormonal level of 494
increases calcium absorption 494f, 528f
receptor 528
regulation of 494
Calcium 56, 103, 412, 418, 427, 527, 529, 544
absorption of 494, 530
based signal transduction 670
channel 20
blockers 21
types of 528
daily requirement of 528
deficiency of 532, 533f
disodium versenate 566
dodecyl edetate 566
functions of 528
homeostasis 530f
in blood 428, 529
in cells 528
load test 532
mechanism of absorption of 528
nutritional deficiency of 495
pump 22
quantitative analysis of 745
sources of 527
Calculi 583
Calibration material 752
Calmodulin 528, 670, 728
mechanism of action of 529f
Calomel 566
electrode 746
Calorie
homeostasis 116
requirement 558
Calorimetry, indirect 550
Calpains 529
Calpastatin 529
Calsequestrin 529
Camp mediated cascade 669f
Cancer 125, 513
antigen-125 716
aspects of 708
biochemistry of 708
cells 603, 714, 760
cervix uteri 759
chemotherapy 700
detection 659
etiology of 708
prevention of 513
prostate 716
tissue 300, 760
characteristics of 116
uterus 759
vagina 759
Capsid antigen, major 704
Captopril 402
Carbamino compound, formation of 33
Carbaminohemoglobin 376
Carbamoyl aspartate 585
Carbamoyl phosphate
formation of 272
synthetase 272, 275, 511
Carbohydrate 108, 117, 170, 314, 338, 339, 549, 552, 552t
absorption of 128, 129b
antigens 715
chemistry of 86
dietary 129t, 552
digestion of 128b
fire of 213
from fat, synthesis of 339
functions of 86
group 96
importance of 551
in animals, reserve 94
ketogenic diet, low 179
metabolic pathways of 186
metabolism 194t, 195, 395, 396, 503, 505
changes in 124
derangements in 175
regulation of 171
molecular formula of 86
protein sparing effect of 553
residues 96
sources of 552t
wick of 339
Carbon
atoms 88, 101, 221, 231, 336f
nomenclature of 103
number of 101
of sugars, reference 87
dioxide 373f, 568, 588
isohydric transport of 375
partial pressure of 374
transport of 375
monoxide 367, 568, 570, 729
poisoning 377
monoxyhemoglobin 377
pool 316
tetrachloride 371
units 205
Carbonic acid 440
primary
deficit of 449
excess of 449
Carbonic anhydrase 60, 442, 442f, 443
action of 443
system, activity of 441
Carboxy terminal 618
end 35, 693
peptide 398, 402
Carboxyhemoglobin 377
Carboxyl 31
group 33
Carboxylase 205
Carboxylation reactions 511f
coenzyme for 511
Carboxypeptidase 60, 266, 267
Carcinogenesis 474, 712f
Carcinogenic effect 632
Carcinogens, environmental 570
Carcinoid
syndrome 507
tumors 315, 405
Carcinoma
chorionic 715f
pancreas 433
prostate, index of 716
Cardiac arrest 463
Cardiac biomarkers 74, 237
Cardiac diseases 232, 463
Cardiac failure 459
chronic congestive 428
congestive 74, 412, 461
Cardiac markers 238b
classification of 238b
Cardiac muscle 118, 119, 724
cells 237
metabolic profile of 121
Cardiac troponins 74, 76, 238
elevation of 239f
Cardiolipin 107, 108, 259
Cardiometabolic syndrome 173
Cardiomyopathy 325, 543
Cardiotonic drugs 21
Cardiotoxins bind 733
Cardiovascular changes 122
Cardiovascular disease 228, 236
risks of 241b, 496
Cardiovascular risk 557
evaluation of 242b
Cardiovascular system 317
Carditis 247
Carnitine 202
acyltransferase 117, 202
deficiency 202
causes of 765
precursor of 296
role of 202, 202f
synthesis of 289
Carnosine 288
Carnosinuria 288
Carpopedal spasm 532f
Casal's necklace 507, 507f
Casein 42, 44
Caspase activation cascade 635, 635f
Cassava 354
Castle's intrinsic factor 404
Castration 675
Catabolic reactions 7, 269
Catabolism 519f
Catalase 14, 344, 361, 473
Catalysts 62, 337
Catalytic activity 71
Catalytic efficiency 71
Catalytic subunit 171
Cataplerotic reactions 339
Cataract 520, 728, 728f
congenital 188
development of 152, 177
formation 178, 474
Catastrophic neonatal presentation 325
Catechins 473
Catecholamines 123, 307
metabolism of 309f
synthesis of 308
Catechol-O-methyltransferase 289, 309
Catenins 17
Cathepsins 14, 268
CAT-I deficiency 202
Caveolae 17
Celiac disease 201, 406
Cell
adhesion molecules 192
culture systems 300
cycle 600, 601f, 632
controls 633, 634f
phases 633f
cytoplasm of 131
death, programmed 634
disease, inclusion 14, 619
energy changes in 11
free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid, analysis of 331
insulin stimulates replication of 171
membranes 12, 74, 75, 170f, 221
powerhouse of 15
quantitative preparation of specific 700
surface
glycoproteins 720
proteoglycans 721
types 651
wall 5
Cellular
buffers 443
death 760
movements 727
oncogenes 711t
oxygen metabolism 768
potassium 462
respiration 117, 341, 352
retinoic acid binding protein 488
theories 732
Cellulose 94
acetate
electrophoresis 73
membrane 737
Central nervous system 298
depression 189, 464
Cephalin 107, 107f
Ceramide 107, 108, 108f
oligosaccharides 108
synthesis of 259, 259f
Cereals 44, 789
aleurone layer of 502
Cerebral
beriberi 503
edema 401
Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome 209
Cerebronic 253
acid 101
Cerebroside, synthesis of 260, 260f
Cerebrospinal fluid 466, 466t, 467, 729, 736
biochemical analysis of 467
electrophoresis of 467
Cerebrovascular thrombolysis 77
Ceruloplasmin 76, 406, 430, 476, 538
function of 541f
levels of 541
Cervical cancer tissue 116
Cesium 759
Cetuximab 717
Cetylpyridinium chloride test 327
Chain breaking antioxidants 476
Channels, clinical application of 20b
Chaperones 620
Chaperonopathies 620
Charlie Chaplin gait 293
Cheilosis 504, 505f
Chemical
amplification 65
bond energy 343
carcinogens 570, 708, 709t
energy 56
to mechanical energy, transduction of 726
nature 497, 673
structure 256
Chemiluminescent immunoassay 678, 745
Chemiosmotic theory 350
Chemolithotrophs 5
Chemotrophs harvest energy 341
Chenodeoxycholic acid 231
Cherry red spots, macular 325
Chimera 645
Chimeric deoxyribonucleic acid
cloning of 646
molecule 645
production of 645f
Chitin 95, 96
Chloramphenicol
inhibits 620
resistance gene 646
Chloride 455, 464, 527, 544
channels 20, 294, 464
compensatory retention of 464
concentration 464
resistant metabolic alkalosis 448
responsive 448
shift 8, 374, 375f, 376
reversal of 376
Chlorine, atomic weight of 757
Chlorofluoromethane 567
Chlorothiazide 535
Chlorpromazine 402
Chlorpropamide 402, 461
Cholagogues 232
Cholanthrenes 709
Cholecalciferol 492, 493
synthesis of 493f
Cholecystectomy 769
Cholecystokinin 232, 267, 405
Cholelithiasis 402
Cholera toxin 260, 670
Choleretics 232
Cholestanol 221
Cholestasis 398, 400
extrahepatic 402
markers of 400
Cholestatic liver disease, causes of 402b
Cholestatic phase 402
Cholesterol 16, 220, 221, 223, 223f, 228, 232, 396, 552, 683
absorption of 221
biosynthesis of 221, 222f
clinical significance of 220, 236
degradation 682
dietary 244
efflux regulator protein 229
ester 199
transfer protein 230
esterase 198
excretion of 224, 224f
functions of 221b
in bile, solubilization of 232
level 246
oxidase 77
pool 224, 224f
reverse transport of 236f
structure of 220, 221f
synthesis 221, 222f
pathway 223f
regulation of 223, 223f
transport, reverse 230
Cholestyramine 232
Cholic acid 231
Choline 106, 212, 277, 278, 286, 289, 517
biochemical functions of 518
structure of 518f
synthesis 286
Cholinesterase 75
attacks 733
Chondroitin sulfate 95, 96
units of 95f
Choreoathetosis 325
Choriocarcinoma 715
treatment of 716
tumor marker for 674
Chorionic gonadotropin, beta chain of 715
Chorionic villi 331
sampling 329
Christmas disease 433
Chromatin 594
activity of 595
fibers 595
structure 600
Chromatography 738
adsorption 738
affinity 741, 741f
thin layer 739, 740f
visualization of 739
Chromium 544, 545
deficiency 544
toxicity 544
Chromoproteins 44
Chromosomal aneuploidy 329, 330
Chromosomal disorders 324
Chromosome 13, 594, 595
banding 595f
marker 329
translocation 710
Chronic alcoholism 189, 535
laboratory findings in 190
Chvostek's sign 533
Chylomicrons 200, 201, 224, 227
assembly of 201
fate of 201
function of 227
metabolism of 227, 227f
structure of 227f
synthesis of 227
Chylothorax 201
Chyluria 201
Chymosin 266
Chymotrypsin 40, 60, 61f, 267
action of 60
Chymotrypsinogen 267
Circumcorneal vascularization 504, 505f
Cirrhosis 74, 147, 189, 212, 397, 400, 427, 428, 769
alcoholic 190, 402
biliary 371, 402
chronic 403
suggestive of 401
Cisplatin 465, 717
Cistron 596, 698
Citrate 142, 340, 750
forming cis-aconitate 335
lyase 70
synthase 335, 338f, 340
Citric acid 336f
cycle 273f, 334, 337
enzymes of 335, 346
functions of 334
regulation of 340
significance of 337
formation of 335
Citrulline 273, 275, 319
formation of 273
Citrullinemia 275, 328
Clathrin coated pits 23, 228
Claudins 17
Claviceps purpurea 569
Cleavage 202
Clindamycin 620
Clomiphene citrate competes 680
Clonal selection 692
Cloning, disadvantages of 651
Closed circuit method 550
Clostridium histolyticum 723
Clotting factors 396, 431
clinical significance of 433b
Clover leaf-like structure 613
C-myc oncogene, activation of 710
Coagulation
abnormalities in 433
cascade pathway of 432f
disorders 397
Cobalamin 515
deficiency 293
intake, lack of 772
Cobalophilin 516
Cobalt 544
Cobra, venoms of 734
Cockcroft-Gault equation 416
Cod liver oil 492
Codon, deletion of 631
Coenzyme 55, 56t, 119, 300, 336, 343
A 56, 122, 187, 201, 361, 480, 481, 510
derivatives, reactions of 510f
structure of 201f, 509f, 510f
synthesis of 290
biotin 140
first group of 55
forms 507, 521
Q 346, 348
salient features of 55b
second group of 56
Colchicine 584
Colipase 199
Collagen 39, 520, 721
abnormalities in 723
cross linking 293
degradation of 723
elasticity of 178
extracellular maturation of 722
fiber
cross-links in 722
triple-stranded 722f
fibrils 722f
functions of 723
helix 38
maturation process of 722
post-translational modifications 721
structure of 721
synthesis of 721
Collagenase 14, 714, 723
Collateral circulation, development of 401
Colloid osmotic pressure 9, 456
maintenance of 427
Colon cancer 712
Color blindness 490
Color vision 490
Colorectal cancers 715
Colorimeter 743
Colostral milk 465, 466
Colostrum 465
Coma 176, 214
attacks of 325
hepatic 276
hyperosmolar nonketotic 176
Commiphora mukul 245
Compartmentalization 70, 274
Compensation
maximum limits of 448b
stages of 445t
Competitive inhibition 65, 66, 66f, 67
example of 584f
Complement activation 696
pathways of 696f
Complement system 696
Complex disorders 324
Compound lipids 100, 101, 104, 109, 253
synthesis of 258
Concentration test 420
Condensation 207, 213, 221, 600
Conjugated bilirubin 369, 371
fate of 369
Conjugation 481
reactions 480
Conjunctiva 520
Conn's syndrome 460, 678
Conopsin 490
Consanguinity 329
Constitutive genes 635
Contact inhibition 713
Continuous flow analyzers 746
Conversion chart 787
Convulsions 295, 310
Copeptin 240
Copper 56, 427, 465, 527, 541, 545
abnormal metabolism of 541
atoms 430
binding ATPase 430, 541
containing enzyme 307
deficiency 308, 722, 724
anemia 541
salts of 42
toxicity 542
transport protein for 430
zinc dependent 472
Coproporphyria, hereditary 364366
Coproporphyrin 366, 367
Coproporphyrinogen 366
synthesis of 362
Coprostanol 221
Cordocentesis 329
Cori's cycle 134, 137, 137f, 287
significance of 137
Cori's disease 148, 194
Corneal arcus 246
Corneal opacities 325
Coronary artery disease 236, 245, 293, 513, 557
risk of 513
Coronary vascular disease 125
Corrin ring 515
Corrosives 567
Corticosteroids 462
Cortisol 123, 163, 223
binding globulin 429, 677
blood level of 678
synthesis 676f
Cosmids 645
Cosubstrates 55
Cosyntropin stimulation test 674
Cotranslational glycosylation 618, 619
Co-transport system 22
Covalent bond 5, 5f
Covalent catalysis 58
Covalent modification 62, 70, 138, 223, 286
C-peptide 36
C-reactive protein 237, 242, 247, 430, 698
Creatine 283, 289
clinical application of 284
kinase 76, 239, 726
isoenzyme of 74, 238, 239, 239t
reaction 239f
metabolism 284f
phosphate 283, 284, 345, 726
blood levels of 430
generation of 284f
shuttle 354, 354f
Creatinine 284, 412
clearance
importance of 415
interpretation of 416
test 415
clinical application of 284
coefficient 416
excretion 269
reference values of 415
Crenation 9
Cretinism 684
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 731
Crigler-Najjar syndrome 370, 398
Crohn's disease 201, 406, 772
Crush injury 463
Crustacea, exoskeletons of 95
Crystallins 728
Crystalloids 456
Crystalluria 292
C-type natriuretic peptide 240
Cumulative poison 566
Curcumin 709
Cushing's disease 172, 460, 678
Cushing's syndrome 448, 449, 460, 462, 464, 674, 678
Cyanide 352, 515
inhibits cytochrome oxidase 66
nitroprusside test 292, 293
poisoning 567, 767, 768
Cyanocobalamin 515, 515f
Cyanogen bromide 40
Cyanogenic glycosides 569
Cyanoglycosides like amygdalin 354
Cyanosis 377, 381
Cyclamate 96
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 286, 575, 578f
Cyclic amp 145, 169, 668
generation of 146
mediated activation cascade 145f, 146
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate 575
role of 671
Cyclic hydrocarbons, polymerization of 104
Cyclic nucleotides 578
Cyclins, types of 633
Cyclization 222
Cycloheximide 621
Cyclooxygenase 68, 257
Cyclopentanoperhydro phenanthrene ring system 220
Cyclophilin D 355
Cyclophosphamide 717
Cycloserine 34, 286, 402, 465, 509
Cyclosporine 463
Cyperus rotundus 245
Cystathionase 288
deficiency 294
Cystathionine 288
beta synthase 288
deficiency 293
Cystathioninuria 292, 294
Cystatin C 416
Cysteine 271, 282, 286, 290, 290f, 291f, 481, 553, 740
decarboxylation of 290f
degradation of 290
formation 289f
metabolic functions of 290
metabolisms 292f
sulfinic acid 292
synthesis 289f
transport of 293
Cystic fibrosis 20, 172, 331, 332, 464, 650
Cystine 34, 740
crystals 293
lysinuria 292
stone 293f
Cystinosis 293
Cystinuria 23, 292, 324, 328, 767
Cytidine
monophosphate 577
triphosphate 69
Cytochrome 344, 361
A 349
A3 349
B 349
C 346, 349, 354
C1 349
oxidase 56, 344, 349, 349f
p450 479
enzyme systems 15, 478
reductase 349
Cytogenetics 329
Cytokines 698
Cytopathic effect 639
Cytoplasm 12, 131, 201, 206
Cytoplasmic fatty acid synthase system 206
Cytoplasmic isocitrate dehydrogenase 506
Cytosine 576
arabinoside 67
Cytoskeleton 18, 727
Cytosolic fraction 222
D
D and L isomers 32
D carbohydrates 70
Dansyl chloride 40, 40f
Dark adaptation
mechanism 490
test 492
Dawn phenomena 179
De novo synthesis 206, 207, 208f, 578, 585
Deacylase activity 207
Deamination 271f, 283f
Debranching enzyme 148
Decarboxylase 313
Decarboxylation 33, 148, 222, 290, 585
deficient 300
Deep vein thrombosis 123
Defective transport systems 23t
Defibrinated plasma 425
Deficient enzyme 148, 193
Degenerate 615
Dehydratase 207
Dehydration 176, 207, 214, 418, 464, 532
recurrent attacks of 325
Dehydrocholesterol 493
Dehydrogenases 132, 344
aerobic 344
anaerobic 344
dependent 202
fad linked 202, 344
linked 344
Dehydrogenation
fad dependent 254
steps of 343
Delirium 507
Delta aminolevulinic acid 361
Delta beta thalassemia 379
Dementia 507
Demyelinating disease 261, 729
Demyelination 517
Denaturation 42
reversible 43
Density gradient centrifugation 738
Dental
amalgam 566
caries, development of 552
Deoxy sugars 91, 92f
Deoxyadenosylcobalamin 515
Deoxyhemoglobin 376, 379
Deoxyribonuclease 14
Deoxyribonucleic acid 329, 478, 575, 592, 596t, 607t, 647
antibody against double-stranded 403
binding proteins 598
fibrils 595
fingerprint of 644, 657f
helix unwinds 610
higher organization of 594
hybridization 654
applications of 656
hydrolysis of 603
inactivation of 596
level 116
ligase 600
enzyme 646
melting of 596
methylation 290, 600
mitochondrial 621, 733
molecule 593
polymerase 67, 598, 600, 602f
bacterial 598
mammalian 598
mechanism of action of 62f
probe 310, 655
procedure of 645
profile 657
recombinant technology 646f
repair mechanisms 601, 601t
repeat sequences of 596
replication 596, 597, 608
inhibitors of 604
replisome, components of 598
sequencing 41, 652, 661, 661f
somatic recombination of 697
strands, denaturation of 596
structure 593
features of 593
synthesis 169, 599
reduced 513
technology, recombinant 643
template strand of 608
type of 596
unwinding of 597
viruses 650
Deoxyribonucleoside 577
diphosphates 587f
phosphates 577
Deoxyribonucleotide 577, 578
formation 587
regulation of 587t
Deoxyribose 92
Deoxythymidine nucleotides, synthesis of 587
Dependent cytoplasmic enzyme 188
Dephosphorylates enzyme proteins 169
Dephosphorylation 669
Depressive psychosis 314
Derepression, clinical application of 637
Derived lipids 100, 101, 109
Dermatan sulfate 95, 96
Dermatitis 507
repeated attacks of 365
Desialylated transferrin level 190
Designer medicine 4
Desmosine 541
cross-links 724
Desmosterol 223, 223f
Detect alcohol abuse 75
Detect insulin deficiency 165
Detoxification 291f, 396, 478, 570
functions 396
processes, phases of 479
Deuterium 756
Dexamethasone suppression test 674
Dextran 94, 94b, 96
Dextrin 94b
limit 94
Dextrinosis, limit 148
Dextrorotatory 87
Dextrose 87, 94b
D-fructose 87, 89, 89f
D-glucose 87, 89f
anomers of 88f
epimers of 87f
D-glucuronic acid-beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosamine-4 sulfate 95f
Diabetes
acute complications of 175
first diagnosis of 178
insipidus 420, 672
hereditary nephrogenic 324
laboratory investigations in 177
mellitus 3, 89, 152, 166, 172, 173f, 175f, 176, 211214, 236, 242, 331, 557, 728, 763
chronic complications of 176
clinical presentations in 175
diagnosis of 172
gestational 165, 172, 764
management of 179
non-insulin dependent 172
regulation of 161
type 1 172
type 2 125, 130, 172, 173
uncontrolled 214
Diabetic nephropathy 763
early stages of 419
Diacylglycerol pathway 670
Dialysis 10
clinical importance of 10
Dialyzer 10
Diarrhea 447, 464, 507
Diazotized sulfanilic acid 369
Dicarboxylic aciduria 206, 209
Dicarboxylic amino acids 29f, 271
Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria 296
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 567
Dickens-Horecker pathway 147
Dicobalt edetate 567
Dicoumarol 66, 67, 427, 498, 498f, 499
interaction 428
Dicysteine 34
Didanosine 639, 706
Dideoxy cytidine 706
Dideoxyinosine 639, 706
Dideoxy-thymidine 706
Diet 179, 749
influence of 444
nature of 749
prescription of 557, 558t
Difluoromethyl ornithine 68, 299
Digestion
defective 201
minor 201
Digestive juices, absence of 201
Diglucuronide form 368
Digoxin 21, 463
Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase 138
Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase 138
Dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase 585
Dihydro-orotic acid 585
Dihydrotestosterone 680
Dihydrouridine 614
Dihydroxyacetone 87
Dihydroxycholecalciferol 493
Dihydroxyphenylalanine 308
Diiodotyrosine 310
Di-iodotyrosine 681
Dilute acids 43
Dilute salt solutions 43
Dilution tests 420
Dimercaprol 566
Dimercaptosuccinic acid 566
Dimeric inhibin A 330
Dimethyl nitrosamine 709
Dimethyl thiourea 476
Dimethyl-arginine, asymmetric 299
Dimethyl-benzanthracene 709
Dimethylsulfoxide 476
Dinitrophenylhydrazine test 327
Diodrast clearance 418
Di-oxygenases 345
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine 106
Dipeptidases 267
Dipeptide 34
Diphosphate 134
Diphosphopyridine nucleotide 505
Diphtheria toxin 621
Diphyllobothrium latum infection 516
Direct oxidative pathway 147
Disaccharidase deficiency, congenital 324
Disaccharide 86, 92, 93
reducing 93
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 433
Distal convoluted tubule 411, 443
Distal histidine 372
Disulfide
bonds 41
bridges 36
formation of 34f
Diuretic 535
act, thiazide group of 412
clinical application of 412
therapy 449
Diurnal variation 749
Divalent metal transporter-1 537
Dixon plot 64
Dizygotic twins 248
Docosahexenoic acid 253
Dolichos biflorus 43
Donnan's equation 8
clinical application of 8
Donnan's equilibrium 7, 8
Donnan's membrane equilibrium 8f
Dopa quinone, formation of 307
Dopamine 307, 729
Double displacement reactions 72
Double labeled water method 550
Double marker test 330
Double reciprocal plot 63, 64
Down syndrome 324
Doxorubicin 353
Drug 286
designing 72
detoxification of 151
effect of 152, 509
glucuronides of 166
like barbiturates 363, 365
metabolism 71, 345
metabolites of 410
therapy 244t
Dry analysis 163
Dry beriberi 503
Dry chemistry systems 747
Dubin-Johnson syndrome 370, 398, 402
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 650, 657, 727, 774
Dulcitol 90
Duodenal ulcer 404, 405
Duodenum 528
Dwarfism 674
Dyenin 724
Dynamin 23
Dysfunctional protein, level of 326
Dyskinesia 325
Dyslipidemia 173
Dystonia 325
Dystrophin 657, 727, 728
E
Eating behavior 174
Ecchymosis 520
Echovirus 192
Ectoenzyme 15, 74, 75
Ectopia lentis 293
Edema 325, 427, 428, 460
triad of 419
Edman's degradation
process 41f
technique 40
Edman's reagent 41f
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 723
Ehrlich's aldehyde reagent 369
Ehrlich's test 370, 399
Eicosanoids 256
Eicosapentaenoic acid 253
Elapines 733
Elastase 14, 267
Elastin 39, 723
Electrical field 31
Electrodialysis 10
Electrolyte
balance 455
composition 456t
imbalance, salient features of 459
Electron 756
carrier tetrahydrobiopterin 306
flow 343f
loss of 342
motive force 343
transport chain 117, 334, 343, 346, 347b, 347f, 348
enzymes of 15, 116
inhibitors of 353f
organization of 346
specific inhibitors of 353
transport, inhibitors of 352
Electrophoresis 380, 380f, 425, 736, 737
apparatus 737, 737f
capillary 738
high voltage 738
separation by 225
support medium for 737
Electrophoretic mobility 239
Electrophoretic pattern 426
abnormal 426f
normal 426f
Electrophoretogram 426f
Electrospray ionization 747
Electrostatic attraction 5
Electrostatic bonds 5, 37
Elemental mercury 566
Embden-Meyerhof pathway 130, 131f
Embelia ribes 245
Emission spectroscopy, property of 745
Emphysema 431
Encephalopathy 275
hepatic 397, 401
End organ refractoriness 495
End point
analysis 744
method 63
End product inhibition 69
Endergonic reaction 61
Endocrine
function 418
organ 558f
signaling 667
Endocytic vesicle 23
Endocytosis 23
receptor-mediated 23, 24f
types of 24f
Endometrium, glands in 680
Endonuclease 602, 603, 704
Endopeptidases 266
Endoplasmic reticulum 13, 191, 205, 222, 255, 619, 619f
Endorphins 674
Endosmosis 9
Endosymbiotic theory 621
Endothelial cells 192
Endothermic reaction 61
Enediol 89
formation 89
Energetics 139, 144
Energy
currency 56
deficiency 325
density 549
during pregnancy, requirement for 551
in muscle, store of 284
metabolism 549
requirement 141, 550, 618
and occupation 551t
rich compound 345
sources of 86
storage form of 86
storehouse of 121
transport requires 21
universal currency of 345
utilization 119
yield 135t
Enolase 76
Enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase 202
Enteroglucagon 171
Enterohepatic circulation 369
Enterokinase 267
Enthalpy 7
Entropy 7
effect 58
Enzoyl 207
Enzymatic method 163
Enzymes 39, 53, 57, 59, 69, 70, 76, 77, 119, 121, 128, 135, 136, 143, 341, 343
activation of 65, 169, 291, 528
active center of 59, 60b, 60t
activity 71, 72
factors influencing 62
aldose reductase 728
aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases 616
aminolevulinic acid 284
assays 331
and units 71
based enzymatic assay 178
bifunctional 144
catalysis 54t
cellobiase 94
characteristics of 53
classification of 54, 54b
compartmentalization of 363
concentration 62
effect of 63f
condensing 207
containing metal 56
defect 260, 364
deficiency 71, 188, 283, 325, 364f, 383
deficit 275
digestive 129
engineering 72
enolase 132
fad dependent 504, 505
functional 73
gluconeogenic 117, 137, 139, 142f, 205
glutaminase 271
hydrolyses peptide bond 266f
hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 765
immobilized 77
in mitochondria, location of 346t
inducible 128
inhibition 65
inhibitor complex 65
irreversible inhibition of 257
kinetics 53, 61
like peroxidase 361
linked immunosorbent assay 511, 682, 705, 743f
test 46, 77, 700, 742
lipoprotein lipase 227
malate dehydrogenase 347
marker 12
mechanism of action of 57
mode of action of 57
molecular heterogeneity of 72
molecules of 169
name of 54, 60
nitric oxide synthase 472
patterns 76
peptidyl transferase 617
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 210
phosphorylated form of 210
processive 72
prolyl hydroxylase 318
rate limiting 69, 206
reaction, rate of 61
reduce magnitude 57
regulatory 68
restriction 644t
secrete 403
selected list of 529b
specificity of 70
substrate complex theory 58, 58f
therapeutic use of 77t
thyroperoxidase 681
transketolase 152
uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase 144
Epidemic dropsy 569
Epidermal cells, mature 491
Epidermal growth factor 713
receptor 685
Epidermis, malpighian layer of 493
Epigenetic modifications 639
Epimerase reaction 188
Epinephrine 162, 163, 168, 173, 210, 289, 307, 308
action of 309
degradation of 315
effect of 582
excess 310
synthesis, used for 308
Epiphysis, enlarged 495f
Epithelial cells 403
Epithelial growth factor 711
receptor 717
Epitopes 692
Eponym 193
Epstein-Barr virus 710
Equilibrium 7
constant, derivation of 62b
Erectile function 298
Ergocalciferol 493
Ergot 569
Ergotism 569
Error catastrophe theory 732
Erucic acid 254
Eruptive xanthomata 245
Erythroblastosis fetalis 370
Erythrocyte
membrane integrity 151
sedimentation rate 247
transketolase activity 503
Erythrodextrin 94
Erythrodontia 365
Erythroid porphyrias 364
Erythromycin 402, 620
treatment 400
Erythropoietic porphyria, congenital 364366
Erythropoietin 410, 713
human 360
production of 410
Erythrose 87
Escherichia coli 598
Essential amino acids 31b, 44, 265, 296, 300, 553, 788
source of 553
Ester formation 33, 91, 103
Estrogen 221
influence of 680
receptor 716
Ethanol 143, 509
amine plasmalogen 261
metabolism 570
oxidizes 188
oxidizing system, microsomal 189
Ethanolamine 286
Ethereal sulfate 535
Ethyl alcohol 143
Ethylene glycol poisoning 773
Ethylenediaminetetraacetate 415, 476
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 750
Etoposide 717
Euchromatin 596
Eukaryotes 609, 620, 621t
Eukaryotic
cell 5, 600t
ribosomes 615t
transcription 611t
translation 620t
Euvolemia 458
Ex vivo
gene therapy 649
strategy 649
Excess calories, amount of 211
Excretion 396
rate, reduced 583
Excretory function 396, 407, 418
Exercise 179, 244, 749
anaerobic 121
effect of 121, 727
long-term effects of 727
Exergonic reaction 61
Exocrine glands 317
Exocytosis 22, 23f
Exonucleases 603
Exopeptidases 266
Exosomes 24
Exothermic reaction 61
Expression vectors 646
Extensor plantar reflex 517
Extracellular fluid 457
isotonic contraction of 459
maintenance of 455
osmolality of 176
Extracellular hypertonicity 460
Extracellular matrix 192, 402, 720, 727
abnormalities 721
Extracellular potassium levels 462
Extrahepatic tissues 213
Extrapyramidal signs 325
Eye
diseases of 474
lens of 150, 151
F
Fabry's disease 260, 326, 331
Facial edema 428
Falciparum malaria 75
False positive tests 331
Familial alpha lipoprotein deficiency 245
Fanconi's syndrome 165
Fasting hypoglycemia 147
Fasting plasma glucose 163
level, normal 130
Fat 339, 549
absorption of 200f
balance studies 406
deposition in liver, causes of 212
excessive mobilization of 212
from liver, removal of 212
needs carbohydrate, oxidation of 339f
rancidity of 104
recommended daily intake of 553
soluble vitamin 487, 488, 788
A 487
D 487
E 487
K 487
utilization of 200f
Fatal familial insomnia 731
Fatty acid 101, 200, 205, 253, 338, 553t
absorption 200f
short-chain 200
activation of 201
beta-oxidation of 201, 202, 203f, 245, 346
binding protein 231
branched 101
characteristics of common 101t
Cis and trans forms of 102f
classification of 101
de novo synthesis of 206, 208f
desaturation of 255
digestion of medium chain 253
elevates free 173
elongation of 255
entry of 214
essential 102, 254, 255, 553
esterification of 170
ethyl ester 190
medium chain 200, 200f, 243, 253, 254
metabolism of 198
molecules of 199
oxidation 103, 121
disorder 403
intermediates 332
oxidized 237
properties of 102
short chain 200, 253, 254
synthase complex 206, 207f
synthesis 169, 206
coenzyme of 209
regulation of 209
steps in 206
transport protein 231
Fatty acyl esterase 14
Fatty acyl-coenzyme A
dehydrogenase 348
synthetase 202
Fatty infiltration 212
Fatty liver 175, 189, 211, 212, 518, 556, 765
causes of 212, 212f
Favism 75, 569
Fenton reaction 473f
Ferric chloride test 310, 311, 312, 327
interpretation of 327t
Ferric iron 537f
Ferric reductase 537
Ferritin 537, 538
estimation of 538
synthesis of 538
Ferrochelatase 362
deficiency 365
Ferroportin 537
Ferroprotoporphyrin 361
Ferrous iron 537
Ferroxidase 430
Fetal blood sampling 329
Fetal distress, indications of 106
Fetal hemoglobin 376
hereditary persistence of 378
Fetal liver biopsy 331
Fetal respiration 106
Fetal tissues 331
Fetal warfarin syndrome 499
Feulgen staining 92
Fiber, dietary 96, 552, 552t
Fibrates lead 245
Fibrillin-1 723
Fibrinogen 427, 431, 775
conversion of 431
Fibrinolysis 433
Fibroblast cells, normal 714f
Fibrocalculus pancreatitis 172
Fibrous plaque, advancing 237
Fibrous tissue 189
Figlu excretion test 317, 513
Filtration fraction 418
Final common oxidative pathway 338
Finasteride 680
Finger printing method 41
Fischer's template theory 59, 59f
Fish oils 253, 255, 492
Fish tapeworm 516
Flame photometer 745, 745f
Flavin adenine dinucleotide 202, 575
Flavin mononucleotide 503
Flavones 473
Flavonoids possess 709
Flavonols 473
Fleeting thrombophlebitis 433
Flippases catalyze 16
Floppases catalyze 16
Fluid
and electrolyte balance 458
assessment of 458
compartments, composition of 456f
distribution 396
infusion of 459
mosaic model 15
phase pinocytosis 23
volume, disturbances of 459t
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 329, 656, 656f
Fluoride 66, 132, 527, 542
inhibits enzyme 163
Fluorouracil 67, 587, 717
Foam cells 237, 474
formation of 237
Folate antagonists 514, 514f, 581
Folate deficiency 512, 516
assessment of 514
causes of 512
Folate reductase produces tetrahydrofolic acid 512f
Folate trap 278, 513, 517
Folic acid 293, 316, 502, 512, 514f, 516, 717f
absorption of 512
chemistry of 512
coenzyme functions of 512
deficiency 317, 513f
metabolism 520
scarcity 516
sources of 514
structure of 512f, 514f
therapy 514
toxicity of 514
Follicular hyperkeratosis 491
Food
allergy 267
determine items of 558
exchange system 558, 559t
high carbohydrate 125
hormone regulate digestion of 684
items
cholesterol content of 553t
glycemic index of 560t
nutritive value of 559t
processing, contamination during 569
Foodstuffs
calorific value of 549t
oxidation of 341f
Formaldehyde 567
Formimino group 277
Formiminoglutamic acid 513
conversion of 317
excretion test 517
Formyl aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide 581
Formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide 581
Formyl group 277, 313
Fossil studies 659
Fouchet's test 369, 370, 399
Four pyrrole rings, fusion of 361
Fractional test meal 404
Fragile X syndrome 596
Fragment length polymorphism, restriction 378, 652, 657, 657f
Frameshift mutation 631
Frederickson's classification 236, 245, 246t
Free acidity, estimation of 404
Free bilirubin 369, 369t, 371
Free fatty acid 204, 211, 214, 225, 231
produce 201
Free glucose 144
Free radical 471
formation of 473f
generation of 472
reaction theory 732
scavenger systems 472
scavenging 151, 291f
enzymes 473f
toxicity 475f
Frontal bones, bossing of 495
Fructokinase 186
deficiency of 187
phosphorylates 186
Fructosamines 178
Fructosamino albumin 178
Fructose 87, 89
1,6-bisphosphatase 141, 142, 142f, 143
2,6-bisphosphatase 70
2,6-bisphosphate 135
intolerance 194, 328
metabolism pathway 187f
Fructosuria 166, 187, 194
Frusemide 412
Fuel for brain, source of 300
Fuel molecules, oxidation of 7
Fumarase 336
Fumarate 307
formation of 336
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase 312
Fungal infections 569
Furanose ring structure 89
Furfural derivatives 90
Furosemide 535
Fusion proteins 622
Futile cycles, prevent 145
G
G protein coupled receptors 668
Gabapentin 34
Gag
and pol genes, products of 705
sulfation of 292
Galactitol 152
Galactokinase
deficiency 188
reaction 188
Galactorrhea 123
Galactosamine 91
sulfatase 193
Galactose 87, 88
1-phosphate uridyltransferase 188
metabolism 187, 187f
residues 720
utilizing steps 188
Galactosemia 167, 188, 194, 324, 328, 331, 764
clinical features of 188f
Gallbladder
stone in 371, 402
surgical removal of 769
Gallstones 769
Gamblegrams 446f, 456f
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 34, 294, 729
aminotransferase, congenital deficiency of 295
metabolism 294f
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid 294, 498
synthesis 498f
Gamma-carboxyl group 36
Gamma-carboxylation 619
Gamma-globulin 426, 428, 693
Gamma-glutamyl
cycle 267, 268f
transferase 7476, 397, 481
transpeptidase 750
Gamma-linolenic acid 255
Gangliosides 108, 260
synthesis of 260, 260f
Gangliosidoses, generalized 260
Garrod's tetrad 311
Gas-liquid chromatography 739, 740f
Gastrectomy 165
partial 405
Gastric
atrophy 516
carcinoma 405
cell hyperplasia 405
function 403
assessment of 404
juice 404
analysis, interpretation of 404
occult blood in 405
lipase 198
mucosa 403
pepsin 516
secretions 404
ulcer 542, 766
Gastrin 404, 685
secretion of 404
stimulates production 405
Gastritis 405
Gastrointestinal fluid, loss of 459, 462
Gastrointestinal peptide hormone 404
Gastrointestinal tract 369
argentaffin cells of 315
effects on 258
peptide hormones of 685t
Gaucher's disease 260, 326, 328
Gel filtration chromatography 740
Gelatin 40, 723
Gene 698
amplification 638
cloning of 650
codes 636
deficiency of 331
deletion
large 631
partial 381
expression 635
control of 627
in eukaryotes, regulation of 637
regulation of 635
gun method 650
horizontal transmission of 639
product 331
regulation 490, 636
switching 638
therapy 276, 326, 643, 648, 650t
pioneer physicians of 649f
transcription 169
General amino acid metabolism 265
Genetic
code 615
salient features of 615, 615b
counseling 331
disease 381
diagnosis of 656
disorders 324, 630
diagnosis of 659
factors 248
information, storehouse of 594
marker 657
recombination 643
resistance 705
scrutinizes 622
Genome 622
Genomic library, production of 647f
Gerhardt's test 215
Germ
cell
line 602
tumors 715
layers 651
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease 731
Ghrelin 557, 674
Gibbs free energy concept 7
Gierke's disease 763
Gigantism 674
Gilbert's disease 325, 370
Gingivitis 520f
Glass electrode 746
Glaucoma 193
Glibenclamide 202
Global acute malnutrition 555
Globin chain 372, 376, 378
synthesis 638
quantitative defects in 378
types of 376
Globin, amino acid sequence of 372t
Globosides 108
Globular proteins 44
Globulins 9, 43, 425
Glomerular dysfunction 421
Glomerular filtration rate 123, 411, 416, 417
markers of 414
Glomerular permeability, markers of 418
Glomerulonephritis
acute 417
chronic 474
Glomerulus filtration rate 414
Glossitis 504, 505f
Glucagon 137, 146, 162, 163, 171, 210
blood level of 214
favors ketogenesis 171
inhibits lipogenesis 209
level, high 214
like peptide 557, 684
mechanism of action of 171
physiological actions of 171
secretion 171f
Glucocorticoids 162, 171, 221, 675
biological effects of 678
effects of 678t
inhibit glycolysis 137
production of 678f
secretion, assessment of 678
Glucogenic pathway 283
Glucokinase 69, 132, 134, 134t, 135
defective 173
Glucometer 163, 747, 747f
Gluconeogenesis 117, 137f, 138, 139, 142f, 162, 162f, 170, 171, 176, 205, 214, 269, 682
clinical significance of 143b
first step in 140f
hormonal regulation of 142, 142f
importance of 124
regulation of 142
regulatory enzyme of 143t
significance of 141
stimulation of 175
substrates for 141
Glucosamine 91
6-phosphate 190
Glucose 61, 87, 89, 128, 163, 168, 462
6-phosphatase 117, 143, 147, 148
deficiency 583, 763
in liver 144
reaction 141
6-phosphate
dehydrogenase 72, 75, 148, 151, 194, 472, 377, 569
fate of 134f
regeneration of 149
absorption of 129, 130f
activation of 144
alanine cycle 142, 142f, 287
by tissues, uptake of 169
clinical importance of 130b
D and L isomerism of 87
diastereoisomers of 87
entry of 161
from acetyl-coenzyme A, synthesis of 318
in body fluids, determination of 163
influx of 169
intestinal absorption of 130f
load dose 163
membrane transport of 169
metabolic pathways of 128
metabolism 121, 130
polyol pathway of 153f
oxidase 76, 77, 163
oxidation products of 90f
phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 324, 371
polyol pathway of 152
regulation, impaired 165
structure 88
tolerance 163
impaired 165, 172, 173
test curve, causes for abnormal 165
transport in lungs 121
transporter 19, 22, 129, 129t, 130, 130f
clinical application of 130
uptake 169
utilization 121, 169
Glucosuria 89, 175, 413
alimentary 165
hyperglycemic 166
Glucuronic acid 90, 480, 481t
pathway 152, 153f
importance of 152
Glucuronides 167
Glucuronyl transferase 480
Glutamate 268, 508, 729
dehydrogenase 271
oxidative deamination of 271
semialdehyde dehydrogenase, deficiency of 318
Glutamic acid 28, 33, 271, 272, 282, 294, 295, 512
gamma carboxylation of 431
Glutaminase 443
Glutamine 33, 271, 272, 272f, 294, 295, 295f, 481
amide group of 190
formation of 33f
metabolism 295f
synthetase 295
Glutaraldehyde 706
Glutaric aciduria 204, 276
Glutathione 44, 151, 267, 290, 290f, 291, 291f, 307, 481, 481f
coenzyme role of 290
formation of 290
peroxidase 287, 473, 497, 543
reductase 151, 291, 473, 583
S-transferase 291, 480, 709
synthesis of 284
Gluten sensitive enteropathy 406
Glycation 177, 191
Glycemia, impaired fasting 165, 172
Glycemic index 560
curve 560f
Glyceraldehyde 87, 132
Glycerol 142
3-phosphate
dehydrogenase 529
shuttle 344f, 348
kinase 210
Glycerophosphatides, synthesis of 258
Glycine 231, 278, 282, 284286, 481, 740
aminotransferase 283
chain 36
cleavage system 277, 283, 283f, 285
formation of 282f
metabolic functions of 283
metabolism 283f
serine choline cycle 287f
synthase 283
titration curve of 32f
uses of 285
utilization of 283
varrier for 267
Glycobiology 191
Glycocalyx 95, 191
Glycoforms 191
Glycogen 94
binding subunit 146
degradation of 143
formation 173
functions of 143
in animals 86
metabolism 143
regulators of 145, 147t
molecule, branched 94f
phosphorylase 70, 117, 143, 147
in liver, regulation of 146
in muscle, regulation of 146
phosphorylated form of 145
reaction of 143f
storage disease 147, 148t, 194, 327
synthase 70, 117, 144, 145, 145f, 147, 169, 529
synthesis
key enzyme for 147
steps of 144
Glycogenesis 144
Glycogenin 94
Glycogenolysis 117, 143, 144f, 162f, 508
hepatic 162
key enzyme for 147
steps of 143
Glycohemoglobin values, interpretation of 177
Glycolipids 108
Glycolysis 130, 131, 131f, 134, 169
anaerobic 131
factors regulating 135
inhibition of 175
irreversible steps in 137
partial reversal of 141
pathway 117
regulation of 135, 136f
regulatory enzyme of 136t
significance of 131
steps of 132, 133f, 141f
Glycolytic enzymes 76, 117, 132, 142f
clinical application of 139b
deficiencies of 139, 327
Glycolytic pathway
enzymes of 131
steps of 130
Glycome 96, 191
Glycomics 96, 191
Glycophorin 95
Glycoproteins 44, 95, 191, 286, 516
catabolism of 191
functions of 192t
hormones 674
Glycosaminoglycans 95, 192t, 720
biosynthesis of 191
synthesis of 152
Glycosides 90, 91, 91f, 91t
Glycosphingolipids 107, 108
synthesis of 260
Glycosuria 166
Glycosyl transferases, specific 191
Glycosylation 177, 191
congenital disorders of 192
disorders of 325
Glyoxalic acid 285f
Glyoxylate 318
Gmelin's test 369, 370
Goiter 683
euthyroid 683, 684
Goitrogens 569, 681
Goitrous belts 681
Goldberg-Hogness box 609
Golgi apparatus 13
Golgi complex 12
Gonadal failure, primary 675
Gonadotropin 675
abnormalities of 675t
releasing hormone, effect of 675
Goodpasture's syndrome 421
Gout 583
acute attack of 584f
attack, location of 584f
clinical findings of 583
primary 583
treatment policies in 583
Gouty arthritis 583, 773
G-protein 670
activates adenylyl cyclase 668
activation of 489f
subunit activation of 668
Gramicidin 21, 36, 44, 352
Granulocyte 23
colony stimulating factor 686, 698, 713
macrophage colony stimulating factor 698
Granulomatous disease, chronic 472, 697
Grave's disease 683, 775
Growth 491
deficiency 193
factors 300, 396, 685, 686, 711, 713, 713t
receptors 685, 711
hormone 162, 163, 171, 647, 673
release 557
stimulation test 674
retardation 331
Guanidinium group 30
Guanido acetic acid 283
Guanine 575
Guanosine
diphosphate, hydrolysis of 617
monophosphate 580, 581f
level of cyclic 298
triphosphate, hydrolysis of 617
Guanylate cyclase, activates 298, 671
Guillain-Barre syndrome 108, 729, 730
Guinea pigs 152
Gusten 542
Gut hormones 684
Guthrie test 310
Gyrase 598
H
Haber-Weiss reactions 473f
Hair, graying of 308
Hairpin ribonucleic acid, short 621
Halogen atoms, number of 103
Halogenation 103
Haloperidol 465
Halothane 402, 727
Hamburger effect 374
Hands and feet, tingling of 772
Haptoglobin 429, 538
Harrison's sulcus 495
Hartnup's disease 23, 267, 315, 324, 328, 507
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 683
Hay's test 399
Heal wounds 521
Hearing, loss of 325
Heart 73
attacks, prevention of 257
disease 193, 552, 568
failure 248, 463
acute 238
congestive 240
lesions, types of 247
Heat coagulation 42, 43f
significance of 43b
Heat generation 353
Heat stability 73
Heavy chain disease 695
Heavy metal 427
ions 66, 341
poisons 565
HeLa cell line 116
Helices 38
Helicobacter pylori 193, 405, 772
Helix-loop-helix 39
Helix-turn-helix 39
Helper function 692
Hematin 362
Hematuria 413
Heme 360
attachment of 372
binding protein 430
biosynthesis of 361
breakdown of 368f
catabolism of 367, 369
containing proteins 536
generation of 362
heme interaction 373f, 374
linkage of 372f
molecule 363f
oxygenase system, microsomal 367
prosthetic group 349
ring 372
structure of 361f
synthesis 284, 362
defect in 383, 539
disorders of 363
enzymes of 363f
regulation of 363
repression of 637f
steps of 362f
Hemin crystals 377
Hemochromatosis 172, 324, 402, 540, 675
Hemodilution 458
Hemoglobin 360, 374, 375f, 376, 379, 380, 381, 418
A2 377
action of 441
C 380
catabolic pathway of 367f
chain 372
D 380
derivatives 377
E 380
embryonic 376
glycated 177, 378
lepore 382
metabolism 520
molecule 39, 373f
removed from 177
S 379
structure of 372
variants 378
inheritance of 381
Hemoglobinopathy 378, 378t, 383, 539
Hemoglobinuria 419
Hemolysis 9, 73, 383, 463, 499, 513, 539, 750
autoimmune 383, 539
Hemolytic agent 106
Hemolytic anemia 513, 569
drug induced 75, 152
Hemolytic diseases 370, 371, 467, 768
Hemopexin 430, 539
Hemophilia 770
A 433
B 433
classical 433
inheritance pattern of 433f
Hemorrhage 383, 539
internal 520
postpartum 257, 433
subarachnoid 466
Hemorrhagic disease 498
Hemorrhoids 539
Hemosiderin 538
Hemosiderosis 540
primary 540
treatment of 541
Henderson equation 449
Henderson-Hasselbalch's equation 438
clinical application of 439b
Henoch-Schönlein purpura 770
Heparan sulfatase 193
Heparin 95, 96, 434, 750
injection of 227
sulfate 95
Hepatic diseases 76
Hepatic excretory function, tests of 398
Hepatic fibrosis
direct markers of 398
indirect markers of 398
markers of 402
Hepatic function, tests of 398
Hepatic lipase hydrolyses 229
Hepatic mitochondrial damage 403
Hepatic porphyria 365
type of 365
Hepatic scavenger receptor 229
Hepatic stellate cells 402
Hepatic triglyceride lipase 230
Hepatic vein thrombosis 397
Hepatitis 400
A virus 402, 403
acute 74
alcoholic 400
autoimmune 402
chronic 403
B virus 212, 402, 403, 643, 710
C 74, 403
chronic active 371
D virus 403
E virus 403
G virus 403
infective 399
Hepatocellular 398
carcinoma 715
progresses to 395
damage, causes of 402b
injury, acute 400
Hepatoflavin 503
Hepatoma, primary 371
Hepatorenal tyrosinemia 312
Hepatosplenomegaly 325
Hepcidin 537
Heptose 86, 87
Herceptin 686, 717
Hereditary fructose intolerance 166, 187
Hers' disease 148, 194
Heterochromatin 596
Heteroglycans 93, 95, 96
Heteroplasmy 621
Heteropolysaccharides 86
Heterotrophs obtain energy 5
Heterotropic interaction 374
Heterozygous state 380
Hexokinase 55, 60, 77, 134, 134t, 135, 137
catalyzes 61
deficiency 139, 194
enzyme 130
Hexokinose 132
Hexose 86, 87
monophosphate
shunt pathway 147, 148, 149f, 150,
significance of 151
High anion gap 449
metabolic acidosis 446, 446t
High density lipoprotein 190, 224226, 229, 236, 245, 553
cholesterol, non 242, 242b
level 173
metabolism of 229, 229f
specific receptors 230
subfractions 231
High energy
bonds 201
compounds 345
phosphate
bond 132, 273
storage forms of 346
High sensitivity
cardiac troponins 238
C-reactive protein 242, 243
High total iron binding capacity 772
Hill equation 64
Hippuric acid 115, 285, 481
synthesis 395
Histamine 34, 317, 404, 478
action of 317t
fast achlorhydria 405
metabolism of 317f
production 405
release of 695
Histidase, deficiency of 317
Histidine 30, 30f, 31, 34, 282, 306, 316, 478, 740
group of 31
load test 513
metabolism 316f
disorders of 327
residues, imidazole groups of 376
Histidinemia 317, 328
Histocompatibility complex, genes of major 698
Histones 595
acetylation of 595
Holo-enzyme 55
Holo-repressor binds 637
Homeostasis 418
Homeostatic model assessment 174
Homocysteine 319
degradation 288
formation 288
level 242
abnormal 517
in blood, clinical importance of 293b
methyltransferase 516
Homocysteinemia 331, 513
Homocystinuria 288, 292, 293, 328, 509, 517, 723, 767
Homogentisate oxidase, deficiency of 311
Homogentisic acid 166, 167, 307, 319
excretion of 311
oxidase 307
absence of 311f
production of 307
Homoglycans 93, 96
Homomultimer 72
Homopolysaccharides 86
Homotropic interaction 374
Homovanillic acid in urine 310
Homoystinuria 517
Homozygotes 380, 627
Hookworm infection 539
Hopanoids 220
Hormonal regulation 116
Hormone 162, 168, 309b, 667, 669, 715
adrenal cortical 675
anabolic 171, 269
anterior pituitary 673
assay of 682
binding activates G-protein 668f
effects of 147f, 163b
epinephrine 146
glucagon 142
hyperglycemic 162, 163, 171
hypoglycemic 163
hypothalamic 672
mechanism of action of 667, 668t
receptor 671
complex 70
regulate 19
digestion 686
food intake 686
response elements 637, 671, 672t
secretion of 529
sensitive lipase 117, 171, 210, 231
cascade activation of 209f
stimulating galactopoiesis 123
with cell surface receptors 667
with intracellular receptors 667, 671
Horse radish peroxidase 77, 742
Human body fat 254
Human chorionic gonadotropin 329, 330, 674, 675
Human chromosomes 630t
Human gene, preparation of 645
Human genome project 4, 647
Human immunodeficiency virus 193, 703, 704
biochemistry of 703
genes 705
infection, course of 704f
replication of 704, 705f
structure 704, 704f
Human insulin
primary structure of 36f
recombinant 646, 647f
regular 179
Human leukocyte antigen 698
Human oncogenic viruses 710t
Human papilloma virus 710, 711f
Human prion diseases 731
Human uterine cervix 711f
Hunter's disease 331
Hunter's syndromes 193, 194, 327
Huntington's chorea 657
Huntington's disease 268
Hurler's disease 193, 325
Hurler's syndrome 764
Hyaluronic acid 95, 96
Hyaluronidase 14
deficiency 195
increases tissue 733
Hybrid cells 699
Hybridization 655f
technique 654, 654f
principle of 654
Hybridoma 116
production of 699
technology 652, 699, 700f
Hydatidiform mole 715
Hydration 202
removes water of 42
Hydrazide 66
Hydrocarbon 568
chain
length of 101
nature of 101
hydroxylases, aromatic 479
Hydrochloric acid 567
secretion 404f
mechanism of 403
normal 404t
Hydrogen 5, 55, 56
acceptance of 506f
atoms, number of 369
bond 5, 37, 593
fad accepts 504
ion 437, 438t
ATPase 443
concentration 62
excretion of 442f
functions of 437
net excretion of 442
peroxide 75, 254, 344, 471, 582
Hydrogenation 102, 103
Hydrolases 55, 307, 480, 480f, 681
Hydrolysis
complete 40
mechanism of 61f
partial 40
Hydrolytic rancidity 104
Hydroperoxidases 344
Hydroperoxyl radical 471
Hydrophobic bond 6, 37
Hydrophobic interaction 6, 6f
Hydroxy amino acids 28, 29f
Hydroxy fatty acids 101
Hydroxy indole acetic acid 313
Hydroxy lysine residues 722
Hydroxyapatite crystals 533
Hydroxybeta-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A
lyase deficiency 209
reductase 67, 70, 222
inhibitors 244
kinase 70
synthase 222
Hydroxycobalamin 515
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid 315
Hydroxyl groups 221
phosphorylation of 619
Hydroxyl ions 438t
Hydroxyl radical 471, 471f
Hydroxylase 345
deficiency 679
Hydroxylation reactions 231
Hydroxylysine 296
Hydroxymethyl group 277
Hydroxymethylbilane 362
synthase 366
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, regulation of 224f
Hydroxyproline 317, 318, 520f
disorders of 327
Hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase 257
Hymphocyte subpopulations, enumeration of 700
Hyperacidity 405
causes for 405b
Hyperaldosteronism 448, 462, 678
Hyperammonemia 275, 276, 325, 397, 766
acquired 276
differential diagnosis of 276f
hyperornithinemia homocitrullinuria 276
management of 276
Hyperargininemia 275
Hyperbilirubinemia 369, 370, 499
acquired 370
congenital 370
conjugated 398
Hypercalcemia 531, 535
benign familial 532
causes of 532b
management of 532
symptoms of 532
Hyperchloremia 464
Hypercholesterolemia 247, 765
familial 246, 619, 766
Hyperchylomicronemia 247
Hyperemesis 176, 214
Hyperestrogenism 397
Hypergammaglobulinemia 428, 696
Hyperglycemia 163, 175
Hyperglycinemia 331
atypical nonketotic 285
Hyperhomocysteinemias, acquired 294
Hyperhydroxyprolinemia 318
Hyperinsulinemia 174
Hyperkalemia 447, 463
causes of 463
Hyperlipidemias 174, 175, 236, 245, 247, 765
classification of 247t
electrophoretic pattern of 246f
secondary 246t
Hyperlipoproteinemia 246t, 247
causes for 247t
familial 236
Hyperlysinemias 296
Hypermagnesemia 465
Hypermethioninemia 293
causes of 293
Hypernatremia 459, 460
causes of 460
correction of 461
Hyperornithinemia 275, 327
Hyperoxaluria, primary 14, 285, 619
Hyperparathyroidism 74, 531, 532, 535, 772
Hyperphenylalaninemias 327
Hyperphosphatemia, causes of 535
Hyperplasia, congenital adrenal 679
Hypersensitivity, delayed type 692
Hypertension 242, 248, 249, 249t, 459, 557
complications of 248
gestational 248
malignant 417, 768
prevention of 249
primary 248
secondary 248
Hyperthermia, malignant 143, 727
Hyperthyroidism 165, 683, 683t
primary 683
secondary 683
Hypertonic
contraction 459
expansion 460
solution 9
Hypertriglyceridemia 247
Hypertyrosinemias 312, 327
Hyperuricemia 147, 583
Hyperventilation 441
hysterical 449
Hypervitaminosis
A 492
D 496
E 497
K 499
Hypervolemia 458
Hypoacidity 405
causes for 405b
Hypoalbuminemia 428, 532, 556, 769
Hypoalphalipoproteinemia 245
Hypobetalipoproteinemia, familial 245
Hypocalcemia 532, 535, 772
causes of 532
treatment of 533
Hypochloremia, causes for 464
Hypofunction, anterior pituitary 675
Hypogammaglobulinemia 696
Hypoglycemia 163, 179, 187189, 325, 556, 764
hypoketotic 325
postprandial 179
Hypoglycemic effect 170
Hypokalemia 448, 462, 556
causes of 462
treatment of 463
Hypolipidemic drugs 244
Hypolipoproteinemias 245
classification of 245t
Hypomagnesemia 462, 464, 556
causes of 465
Hyponatremia 460, 461
causes of 461
dilutional 457
hypertonic 461
treatment of 461
Hypoparathyroidism 465, 535
causes of 772
Hypophosphatemia
causes of 535
hereditary 535
Hypopigmentation 310
biochemical basis of 776
Hypopituitarism 683
Hypoproteinemia 428
Hypothalamic disorders 675
Hypothalamic releasing factors 673, 673t
Hypothalamus 557
Hypothesis, signal 618, 619f
Hypothyroidism 236, 683, 684t
congenital 331, 683
primary 683
secondary 684
Hypotonic
contraction 459
expansion 459
solution 9
Hypouricemia 584
Hypoventilation 448
Hypovolemia 458
Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 582, 585
Hypoxia 340, 380
Hypusine residue 299
I
Ibuprofen 257
Idiot acid 311
Iduronate sulfatase 193
deficiency 194
Ileum 516
extensive surgical removal of 406
Imatinib 717
Imidazole 30
aminoaciduria 317
pyruvic acid 317
Imino acid 29, 30
carrier for 267
Immortalization 116
Immune
deficiency, primary 427
effector cells 692f
spleen cells 700f
Immune response 692
modulator of 495
primary 697, 697f
secondary 694, 697, 697f
Immunglobulin molecule 693f
Immunity
active 697
against infections 692
cell mediated 692
effects on 258
humoral 692
passive 697
Immunoassays 741
Immunochemistry 691
Immunodeficiency 585
secondary 697
severe combined 650
states 697
subacute combined 696
virus antibody 743
Immunoelectrophoresis 738, 738f
Immunofluorescence 743f
Immunoglobulin 693
A 694
classes 694t
E 695
functions of 694t
molecule of 39
M 694
monoclonal origin of 426
structure of 693
synthesis 638
Immunological system 490
Immunoperoxidase technique 656f
In situ hybridization 655, 656
In situ strategy 649
In vivo anticoagulant 431
In vivo strategy 649
Incretin 684
hormones 168
Indian Council of Medical Research 700
Indinavir 639
Indocyanine green 395
Indole ring 313
Indolequinone, formation of 307
Industrial pollution 568
Infantile beriberi 503
Infantile Refsum disease 205
Infections
bacterial 402
chronic 426, 428
recurrent 125
Infectious diseases, detection of 659
Inflammation
acute 474
chronic 474
effects on 258
Inflammatory edema 398
Influenza virus 193
Ingram's technique 41
Inherited autosomal recessive disease 315
Inherited coagulation defects 433
Inherited metabolic disorders, diagnosis of 331
Inherited X-linked recessive disease 433
Inhibition
clinical importance of 66b
types of 67t
Inhibitor 73, 458
molecules 65
site specific 352
Injury, hepatic 396
Inosine monophosphate 186, 581f
Inositol 518
biochemical functions of 519
structure of 518f
Inositoltriphosphate 519
Insecticides 567
Insulin 94b, 150, 167, 172t, 214, 223, 227, 462, 542
action of 170
activates protein phosphatase 169
biological effects of 170t
biosynthesis of 167, 168f
control of 130
deficiency of 172, 176, 214
degradation of 168
dependent diabetes mellitus 172
effect of 163, 171
favors
glycolysis 137
lipogenesis 209
induces 169
inhibits
glycogenolysis 170
process 142
insensitivity 169, 211
long-acting 179
mechanism of action of 168
metabolic effects of 169
overdose of 179
physiological actions of 169
post-translational processing of 620f
primary structure of 36
production 172
rapid-acting 179
receptor 168, 169f, 211
number of 557
substrates 672
regulation of 161
replacement therapy 179
represses 169
resistance 124, 173, 174
effects of 173
equation for 174
syndrome 173, 764
secretion of 162, 168
short-acting 179
signaling pathway 672
stress 124
structure of 167
therapy 462
Insulinoma 179
Integral membrane proteins 17
Integrins 192
Interchain disulfide bonds 34, 36
Interferon 698, 699
Interleukin 211, 558, 698
Intermittent branched chain ketonuria 301
Intermittent porphyria, acute attack of 365
International System of Units 11
International Union against Cancer 708
International Union of Biochemistry 103
Interstitial cells 680
Interstitial pulmonary infiltrates 325
Intestinal bacteria deconjugate 369
Intestinal bacterial putrefaction 315
Intestinal epithelial cells 528
Intestinal juice 267
Intestinal mucosal cells 200, 227
Intestinal secretions, loss of 447
Intestinal system 298
Intestinal villi cells 494
Intestine
cell of brush border of 128
digestion in 198
surgical removal of 201
Intoxication
symptoms of 188
type 325
Intracellular adhesion molecule 192
Intracellular buffer 440, 441f
Intracellular cation, major 461
Intracellular fluid 457
Intracellular osmotic pressure 461
Intracellular protein degradation 267
Intracellular shift 535
Intracellular sodium, low 21
Intracellular storage 193
Intrachain disulfide bond 36
Intracorpuscular defect 383, 539
Intracranial hypertension 401
Intracranial tension 90
Intrahepatic cholestasis 74, 371, 402
Intralysosomal accumulation 193
Intravenous glucose tolerance test 166
Intravenous saline infusion 462
Introns, removal of 611, 611f
Inulin 94, 94b
clearance 418
Invasive trophoblast antigen 330
Invert sugar 92
Invertase 92
Involuntary muscle 724
Iodide 545
Iodination 681
Iodine 94, 527, 542
deficiency
endemic for 542
goiter 683
metabolism 681
number 104
oxidation of 681
salvaging of 682
uptake of 681
Iodoacetate 66, 67
Iododeoxyuridine 638
Ion activated enzymes 56
Ion channel 19f
salient features of 19b
Ion exchange chromatography 178, 741, 741f
Ion selective electrodes 745
Ionic bond 5, 5f, 37
Ionophores 20
types of 352
Iron 56, 372, 527, 536, 538, 545
absorption of 404, 521, 537f
atom 307
binding protein 430
carries oxygen 372
conservation of 539f
containing proteins 536t
deficiency 383, 539, 540f
anemia 539, 540f
causes for 539, 539b
treatment of 540
distribution of 536
excretion of 539
factors influencing absorption of 537
kinetics, normal 536f
metabolism 520
nutritional deficiency of 539
reduced form of 537
requirement of 536
response element binding protein 538
sources of 536
status, parameters of 538t
storage of 538
sulfur complexes 536
toxicity 540
transport 538
vessels 540
Ischemia modified albumin 240
Ischemic heart disease 245, 248
Isobars 757
Isocitrate
dehydrogenase 335, 336, 340
formation of 335
Isoelectric focusing 738
Isoelectric pH 31, 42
Isoelectric point 31
Isoenzyme 72, 239
identification of 72
true 72
Isoflavones 473
Isoform 72
types of 72
Iso-hemagglutinins 694
Isoimmune hemolysis 383, 539
Isoleucine 28, 30, 282, 300, 318, 740
Isomaltase 128
Isomaltose 93, 93f
Isomerase 55, 132, 199, 307
changes 254
Isomerization 148, 307
Isoniazid 402, 507
Isopentenyl 222
pyrophosphate 222f
Isopeptide 36
Isoretinone 491
Isosthenuria 420
Isothermic reaction 61
Isotonic expansion 459
Isotonic solution 9
Isotope 756
applications of 756
dilution studies 761
Isovaleric acid 101
Isovaleric aciduria 276, 301, 328
J
Jaffe's reaction 415
Jaundice 368, 395f, 397, 399, 763
black liver 370
cases, urine in 399t
causes of 402
class of 400
classification of 400t
different types of 371f
differential diagnosis of 371t
hemolytic 370, 371, 398, 399, 768
hepatocellular 371, 398, 399, 768
obstructive 236, 371, 398, 399, 768
physiological 370
resulting in 369
retention 399
types of 399t
Jejunal mucosa 200
Jejunum, upper part of 512
Jod-Basedow phenomenon 681
K
Kaposi's sarcoma 775
Kartagener's syndrome 724
Karyorrhexis 212
Katals 71
Kayser-Fleischer ring 430
Keratan sulfate 95, 96
Keratin 39, 40b, 724
Keratomalacia 491, 491f
Kernicterus 368, 370, 371, 398, 428, 499
results 370
Keshan disease 543
Keto acids 327
Keto group 86f
Ketoacidosis 205, 325
diabetic 175, 176, 441, 446, 463, 763
management of 215
Ketoacyl reductase 207, 506
Ketoacyl-CoA 255
thiolase 209
Ketogenesis 175, 213, 213f
high glucagon favors 176
used for 213
Ketogenic amino acids 318, 339
Ketohexose 89
Ketolysis 213
Ketone 86
Ketone body 118, 121, 176, 214, 307, 413
excretion of 213f
formation of 213f
metabolism of 213
precursors of 214
primary 213
secondary 213
test for 327
utilization of 213f
Ketonemia 175, 214
Ketonuria 175, 214
Ketosis 86, 87, 147, 175, 214, 214f, 325, 446
causes for 176, 214
consequences of 176
diagnosis of 175, 214
differential diagnosis of 175, 215
management of 176
salient features of 214
Key enzyme 68, 69, 119t, 132, 137t, 209
Kidney 493
disease 495
chronic 248, 417, 417t, 441, 538, 769
distal tubular cells 494
function tests 410
functional impairment of 416
functions of 410, 414t
glomeruli of 419
injury, acute 417
major functions of 410
mitochondria of 283
principle of artificial 10
scanning 759, 761
secretes renin 457
tubules, functions of 411t
Kill bacteria 254
Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome 165, 177
Kinase phosphorylates enzymes 669
Kinetic analysis 744
Kinetochore 595
Kjeldahl's method 417
Kjeldahl's procedure 44
Klenow enzyme 661
Klenow fragment 598
Klinefelter's syndrome 324, 675
Knock-knee 495
defect 533f
Koilonychia 540, 540f
Kornberg's enzyme 598
Koshland's induced fit theory 59, 59f
Krabbe's leukodystrophy 260
Krait 733
Krebs citric acid cycle 338f
Krebs cycle 334, 336f, 341
Kussmaul's respiration 176, 214, 448
Kwashiorkor 504, 556
hallmarks of 556
salient features of 556t
Kynureninase 313, 508
L
Laboratory safety 752
Laboratory tests 248, 729
Laboratory waste management 753
Lac operon 636
derepression of 636, 636f
repression of 636f
Lactase 128
acts 54
deficiency of 128, 465b
Lactate 93, 141
formation 134f
production, significance of 134
Lactate dehydrogenase 39, 72, 73, 139, 238, 240
isoenzyme in diseases 73
isoenzyme of 73
reaction of 56f
Lactic acid
cycle 137
formation 130
Lactic acidosis 139, 176b, 147, 176, 189, 325, 328, 446, 503
types of 446
Lactoflavin (milk) 503
Lactose 92, 93, 93f
free diet 188
intolerance 128, 194, 328, 465b
synthesis 187, 465
Lactosuria 166
Lactosyl ceramidoses 260
Lagging strand 599
Lambda bacteriophage 645f
Lambert's law 744
L-amino acid oxidase 271, 271f
Lamivudine 706
Langerhans, beta cells of 22
Lanosterol 223, 223f
Lapatinib (tykerb) 686
L-asparaginase 296
Latent jaundice, indicative of 369
Lathyrism 569, 723
Lathyrus sativus 569
Lead 66
pipes 565
poison, sources of 565
poisoning 366, 539, 565
signs and symptoms of 566
treatment of 566
salts of 42
Leafy vegetables 536
Learning disorders 325
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy 354, 621, 650
Lecithin 105, 105f, 212, 229
cholesterol acyltransferase 221, 224, 226, 229f
lysolecithin acyltransferase 258
Lectin 43
type of 192
Legumes 245
and pulses 789
Lens proteins 728
Leptin 211, 557
levels, low 174
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome 328, 584, 773
Lethal infantile mitochondrial ophthalmoplegia 354
Lethal mutations 632
Letogenesis, clinical aspects of 214
Leucine 28, 30, 282, 300, 740
aminopeptidase 267
pellagra 507
Leucine-rich proteoglycans 720
Leukemia
acute lymphoblastic 77
basophilic 405
chronic
lymphatic 427, 717
myeloid 652, 717
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency 193
Leukoderma 308
Leukopenia 513
Leukotrienes 258
synthesis of 258f
Levorotatory 87
Levy Jening's chart 752
Lewy body 732
Leydig cells 680
L-gulonolactone oxidase 152
Liddle's disease 20
L-iduronidase 193
Lifestyle diseases 124, 125, 125t, 401
Life-threatening intravascular thrombosis 293
Ligand binding 729
Ligand-gated channels 20
Ligases 55
Light meromyosin 725
Lignoceric acid 253
Linear accelerator 760
Lineweaver-Burk
equation 64b
plot 64, 64f, 66f, 67f
Lingual lipase 198
Linkage analysis 647
Linoleic acid 254, 255
elongation of 255f
Linolenic acid 102, 254
Lipase 76, 77, 104, 199t
Lipid
absorption of 199, 201
chemistry of 100
classification of 100, 101b, 109
clinical application of 100b
digestion and absorption, steps of 201b
digestion of 198
functions of 100b
hydrolyzing enzymes 14
major digestion of 201
malabsorption of 498
metabolism 117, 396
changes in 124
derangements in 175
nutritional importance of 552
peroxidation 255, 475
peroxide radical 471
profile 240, 241b
rafts 17
simple 100, 101, 103, 109
storage diseases 108, 260t, 261, 261f, 328
transported, major 232
Lipid-induced gut-brain neuronal axis 684
Lipidomics 108
Lipoamide 138, 283
Lipogenesis 170
Lipoic acid, structure of 138f
Lipolysis 118, 214
Lipolytic enzymes in intestines 198
Lipo-oxygenase in platelets 472
Lipophilic bilirubin 368
Lipoprotein 44, 220, 224, 226f, 228, 232
cascade pathway 227
classes of 225t
classification of 224
electrophoretic pattern of 225f
fraction elevated 246
general characteristics of 225
glomerulopathy 226
intermediate density 225, 227
lipase 210
activates extrahepatic 226
metabolism 230f
sizes of 225f
ultracentrifugation patterns of 225f
Liposomes 105, 105f
Lipotropic factor 212, 519
Lipoxins 258
Liquid 104
Liquid chromatography 738
high pressure 741, 741f
high-performance 327
Lithium 461, 544
quantitative analysis of 745
therapy 532
Litmus, reaction to 413
Liver 221, 503
adipose tissue axis 211, 212f
and cholesterol 224
and gastric function tests 395
and muscle 94
cancer, tumor marker in 431
cells 75, 403, 516
cirrhosis of 401, 427, 428, 465
conjugation in 368
endoplasmic reticulum 129
enzyme panel 398, 407
excretory function of 398
fibrosis of 189, 212
stage of 402
flukes 402
function 396
index of 285, 499
in fat metabolism, role of 211b
leads, accumulation in 430
major functions of 396b
metabolic profile of 120
metabolism in fed state 120
mitochondria 213
regeneration 403b
role of 444
tests for synthetic function of 398
transplantation 301
transport to 368
Liver disease 74, 74b, 325, 403
alcoholic 397
chronic 74, 395
diagnosis of 400f
obstructive 76
routine markers of 397
synthetic function, markers of chronic 401
Liver dysfunction 325, 398, 432
clinical manifestations of 397
severity of 403
Liver failure 325
clinical features of 401
Liver function tests 212, 325, 395, 397, 398, 406, 407, 427
classification of 398b
in general 403
indications for 397b
Liver glycogen 143f
phosphorylase, activates 146
Liver injury
enzymes markers of 399
nature of 398
tests of 398
Liver metastases 400
suspected 397
Liver phosphorylase 148
kinase 148
Lobry De Bruyn-Van Ekenstein transformation 89f
Local hormones 257, 713
Lohmann's reaction 284, 284f
Long acting thyroid stimulator 683
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 204
deficiency 204
Long chain fatty acids 200f, 253, 254
absorption of 199
Long interspersed repeat sequences 596
Loop diuretics 448, 460
Loop of Henle 411
Loss of weight 175
Lovastatin 67, 223
Low-density lipoprotein 186, 224227, 228f, 236, 245, 246, 474
cholesterol 228b
level 241
level of 765
oxidative damage of 237
particles, oxidized 237
receptors, metabolism of 228
Lowry's method 45
L-phosphatidic acid 105f
L-selectin in lymphocytes 192
Lucentis 686
Luft's syndrome 727
Lundh test 406
Lung
capillaries 376
disease 770
chronic obstructive 449
disorders, chronic 380
maturity 467
Luteinizing hormone 675
L-xylulose, excretion of 167
Lyases 55
Lymph glands, enlarged 372
Lymphadenopathy 704
Lymphokine 698, 698t
activated killer 699
production of 692
Lymphomas 371
Lynen's spiral 206
Lyse intravascular clot 77
Lysine 30, 282, 296, 478, 740
decarboxylation of 300
forms salt bridges 296
hydroxylation of 520, 721
metabolism, errors of 327
methylation of 289
vasopressin 672
Lysis 213
of clot 77
Lysolecithin 106
Lysosomal enzymes, deficiency of 193
Lysosomal maltase 148
Lysosomal proteases 14
Lysosomal storage disorders 193
Lysosome 12, 14
clinical application of 14b
secondary 14
Lysozyme 14
active center of 58f
Lysyl oxidase 541, 722, 724
Lzheimer's disease 566
M
Macrocytic anemia 513, 513f
Macrocytosis, molecular basis of 771
Macroglobulins 694
Macrophage 23, 151f, 298, 693
bactericidal activity 151
colony stimulating factor 686
migration inhibition factor 698, 699
Mad cow disease 731
Magnesium 56, 455, 464, 527, 544
deficiency of 464, 532
functions of 464
normal serum level of 464
serum level of 464b
soaps 103
Maillard reaction 177
Malabsorption 465
studies on 406
syndromes 528
Malaria 380f
protection against 380
Malarial endemicity 152
Malate
aspartate shuttle 140, 347
dehydrogenase 139, 336
formation of 336
Malate-aspartate shuttle 140f
transfers 296
Malic enzyme 209, 506
Malnutrition 428
acute 555
chronic 555
moderate acute 555
severe acute 555
spectrum of 556
WHO classification of 556t
Malonate inhibits succinate dehydrogenase enzyme 66f
Malondialdehyde 474
Malonyl transacylase 207
Malonyl units 207
Maltase 128
Maltose 93, 93f
Mammalian cells 5t
Mammalian system 610
Mammary glands 150
Mancini's technique 45
Manganese 56, 527, 543
deficiency manifestations 543
dependent 472
functions of 543
metabolism 543
sources 543
Mannitol 90, 412
Mannosamine 91
Mannose 87, 88, 89, 190
6-phosphate-deficient enzymes 14
Maple syrup urine disease 276, 300, 301f, 324, 328, 767
clinical findings 300
laboratory findings 300
treatment 301
Marasmus 556
salient features of 556t
Marfan syndrome 723
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome 193, 195
Mass spectrometry 747, 747f
Massive blood transfusions 535
Mast cells 695
Maternal anemia 539
Maternal blood 331
Maternal hyperglycemia 165
Maternal inheritance 621
Maternal prolactin 123
Maternal screening, suggested protocol for 330
Maternal serum
alpha fetoprotein 330
biochemical markers in 330
screening 329
Maternal weight 330
Matrix metalloproteinases 398, 402, 721
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization 747
Maximum urea clearance 417
Mcardle's disease 148, 194
Meconium aspiration syndrome 106
Meconium destroys surfactant 107
Meconium staining 106
Medical termination of pregnancy 257
Medicolegal cases 659
Mediterranean sea 381
Megaloblastic anemia 517, 517f, 587
Meister cycle 267, 268f
clinical application of 267
Melanin 307, 315, 315b, 542
clinical application of 308b
synthesis of 307, 308
pathway 308f
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone 557
Melanoma 312
malignant 308, 760
Melatonin 289, 315, 315b
synthesis 314f
Melituria 166
Melting point 103
Melting temperature 596
Membrane
antigen 704
based enzymes 17
bound enzyme 712
bound heinz bodies 378
bound receptor 171
components of 254
factors affecting fluidity of 16
fluid mosaic model of 16f
inner 346
proteins 16
Memory 691
aid 31b
Menadione 498
Meningitis, bacterial 466
Menke's disease 406, 723
Menke's kinky hair syndrome 541
Menorrhagia 539
Mental retardation 193, 293, 294, 317319, 566
severe 188, 300
Mentally retarded 310
Mepacrine 75
Mercaptopurine 67, 581, 716, 717
Mercury 66, 341
inorganic 566
poisoning 42, 566
salts of 42
Meselson-Stahl experiment 597, 597f
Mesobilinogen, formation of 369
Mesobilirubin 369
Messenger ribonucleic acid 607, 608
binding of 616
Metabolic acidosis 176, 214, 325, 444446, 448, 449
clinical features of 448
treatment of 448
Metabolic adaptations
during fasting 117
during starvation 117
Metabolic alkalosis 444, 445, 448, 448t, 449, 770
clinical features of 448
subclassification of 448
Metabolic alterations 123
in cancer cells 714
Metabolic changes
after trauma 124
during lactation 123
during pregnancy 122
in trauma 123
Metabolic component 439
Metabolic defects 115, 341
Metabolic derangements in diabetes 174
Metabolic disorder 324, 325
in newborn, tests for 325
Metabolic effects 258
Metabolic fate 297
Metabolic function 396
loss of 401
Metabolic homeostasis 116
Metabolic interrelationship 125
Metabolic junction point 139f
Metabolic liver disease, tests for 398, 401
Metabolic pathophysiology 325
Metabolic pathways 116
integration of major 338
study of 761
types of 116
Metabolic processes, study of 5
Metabolic profile 121
Metabolic rate, resting 550
Metabolic syndrome 173, 174, 402, 557
diagnosis of 173b
Metabolic traffic circle 339
Metabolism 115, 116
autosomal recessive inborn error of 187
experimental study of 115
inborn errors of 53, 147, 311, 318, 324, 325, 326b, 328t, 363
primary 5, 117, 341
screening of inborn errors of 748
secondary 5, 117, 341
studies on 116
tertiary 5, 117, 341
Metabolites, level of 326
Metachromatic leukodystrophy 260
Metal 56
Metalloenzymes 56, 56t
Metalloproteins 44
Metallothionein 542
synthesis of 542
Metals 427
Metastasis 714
Metastatic calcification 496
Metformin 176
Methanol 190, 567
metabolism of 190
Methemoglobin 377
reductase system 377f
Methemoglobinemia 75, 152, 377
congenital 377
prevention of 151
Methenyl group 277, 277f
Methenyl tetrahydrofolic acid 512f
Methionine 30, 44, 212, 282, 288, 292f, 319, 740
activation of 288
adenosyl transferase 288
conversion of 290f
diet low in 293
synthesis 288
Methionyl transfer ribonucleic acid, formylation of 278
Methotrexate 66, 67, 402, 514f, 581, 638, 716, 717, 717f
inhibits 587
Methyl
acceptor 289
alcohol 190
cholanthrene 709, 709f
folate trap 516
group 277
malonic aciduria 204
mercury 566
transfer 288
reactions 290
Methylated product 289
Methylation 611
reactions 481
Methylcobalamin 515
Methyldopa 402
Methylene group 277
Methylmalonic acid 517
Methylmalonic aciduria 205, 276, 328, 516
Methylmalonyl-CoA isomerase 516
Methylthioadenosine 300
Methyltransferase 283
M-hemoglobins 381
Micellar formation 105, 199f
Micelle 221, 232
formation, mixed 199
Michael brown 228f
Michaelis constant 62, 63
derivation of 62b
Michaelis-Menten saturation curve 66f, 67f
Michaelis-Menten theory 58
Microalbuminuria 177, 244, 419
Microangiopathy 176
Microarray 329
technique 656
technology 656f
Microcytic hypochromic anemia 539, 540f
Microcytic normochromic anemia 541
Microdomains on membranes 17
Microminerals 527
Microorganisms 298
Micro-ribonucleic acid 608, 621
Microsomal system 255
Microsomes 12, 13, 205
Microtubular associated proteins 728
Microtubules 728
Migraine, attack of 310
Migratory birds 204
Milk
alkali syndrome 448, 449, 532
and milk products 790
casein of 44
composition of 465t
mineral content of 466t
Millon's test 34
Minamata disease 566
Mineral 537, 788
metabolism 527
oils 569
Mineralocorticoids 221, 675, 678f
biological effects of 679
effects of 679t
synthesis of 677f
Mis-sense 631
Mitochondria 12, 14, 15f, 202, 206, 214, 285f, 335, 346f, 354, 355, 621t
inner membrane of 346
outer membrane 346
role of 355f
Mitochondrial cytochrome 345
Mitochondrial diseases 325
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis stroke 354
Mitochondrial enzyme aminolevulinic acid synthase 361
Mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase 348
Mitochondrial membrane 347
inner 343
permeabilization 354
transporters 354f
Mitochondrial pathway, intrinsic 635
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore 354, 635
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, production of 721
Mitochondrial transport systems 354
Mitochondrion, structure of 346
Mitomycin 613
C 717
Mobile elements 596
Mobile ion carries 352
Mobile phase 739
Modular proteoglycans 720, 721
Mole 11
Molecular biology
central dogma of 608, 608f
techniques 652
Molecular cloning 650
Molecular cytogenetics 329
Molecular deoxyribonucleic acid 654
Molecular diagnostics 654
Molecular genetics 768
techniques 331
Molecular mimicry 730
Molecular motors 18
Molecular oxygen 349
Molecular scissors 644
Molecular techniques 331
Molecular weight 10, 42, 432
Molecule
adapter 614
larger 740
signal 686t
stabilizing forces in 5
transport of large 22
Molisch test 90
Moloney murine leukemia virus 649
Molybdenosis 544
Molybdenum 56, 527, 543, 582
deficiency 544
functions 544
toxicity 544
Monitor glucose level 130
Monoamine 729
monocarboxylic acids 28
oxidase 271, 309, 315
enzyme 569
Monoamino dicarboxylic acids 28
Monocarboxylic acids, dibasic 28
Monoclonal antibody 116, 686, 699, 699f, 716, 717t
advantages of 700
applications of 700
bevacizumab 717
production of 700f
Monoclonal band 426, 695
Monocyte colony-stimulating factor 713
Monogenic disorders 324
Monoiodotyrosine 681
Monokines 698
Monooxygenase 306, 344
microsomal cytochrome p-450 345
Monosaccharides 86, 87t, 93, 128
absorption of 130
reactions of 89
Monosaturated fatty acid 561
Monosodium glutamate 569
Monounsaturated fatty acid 553, 254
Monozygotic, blood pressure of 248
Morphine 13
Morquio syndrome 193, 194
Motif present, structural 39
Motor and sensory deficits 729
Mucolipidoses 325
Mucopolysaccharidoses 95, 193, 194, 325327, 721
features of 193t
Mucoprotein 44, 95
Mucosal block 537
theory 537
Mucosal cell, re-esterification inside 200
Mucosal regulation 537
Mucous membrane 760
lesions 491
Multienzyme cascade system 696
Multienzyme complex 72, 206, 283, 335, 585
Multifactorial disorders 324
Multifocal motor neuropathy 108
Multinodular goiter 683
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 405, 531
Multiple myeloma 426, 428, 532, 695
Multiple sclerosis 261, 467, 729
Multiple sulfatase deficiency 325
Multispecific organic anion transporter 369
Muscle 344f, 528
cells 173f
contraction 724f, 725f
relaxation events 726
diseases 76, 239
functions of 143f
lacks glucose-6-phosphatase 144
metabolism
after meal 120
during exercise 120
during starvation 120
pain and cramps 772
phosphorylase 148
kinase 148
proteins 724
weakness 535
Muscular dystrophies 239, 415
phase of 284, 415
Mustard oil 569
Mutagenesis 632
site-directed 632
Mutagens 632, 708
Mutarotation 88, 88b
Mutase 205
Mutation 36, 602, 630, 733
classification of 631
effects of 631
manifestation of 632
partially acceptable 631
silent 632
theory 732
Mutual supplementation 555
of cereals and pulses 559
of proteins 555
Myasthenia gravis 518
Myelin sheath 17, 518, 729
Myeloma cells 700f
Myeloperoxidase 472
Myocardial infarction 76, 220, 228, 237, 239241, 284, 400, 474, 508, 766
cardiac markers of 238
markers of 240t
Myocardial stress, markers of 238
Myocarditis 247
Myocardium 529
Myoclonic epilepsy 354
Myofibril, unit of 724
Myoglobin 39, 74, 238, 240, 360, 382
chain 382f
clinical significance of 382b
negative value of 240
Myoinositol 518
Myosin 724, 725
acts 725
binds 725
heavy chain of 725f
kinase 529
molecules 725
Myositis ossificans 532
N
N-acetyl
cysteine 291
galactosamine 91
glucosamine 17, 91, 96, 191
group 691
muramic acid, repeating units of 96
N-acetylglutamate 274
synthase
and breakdown 274f
deficiency 766
N-acetylneuraminic acid 190
molecule of 108
synthesis of 191f
Nails 520, 521
Nanotechnology 662
Naphthoquinone derivatives 497
Narcotics 449
Nasal bleeding 499, 499f
Nasal metabolic rate measurement 550f
Nasogastric glucose infusion 763
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma 710
National Family Health Survey 124
National Health Policy 2017 124
National Human Genome Research Institute 648
National Tuberculosis Control Program, revised 658
Natural amino acids 32
Natural antibodies 694
Natural phenols 179
Necrosis 634f
Neonatal hyaline membrane disease 107
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia 370
Neonatal hypoglycemia 187, 327
Neonatal jaundice 398
Neonatal mortality, incidence of 165
Neonatal tyrosinemia 312
Neoplasm 402
Neostigmine 67, 518
Nephelometry 45
Nephrolithiasis, symptoms recurrent 767
Nephron 410
loss proteinuria 420
Nephropathy
early diabetic 419
hypertensive 248
Nephrosclerosis, diabetic 165
Nephrosis 539
early stages of 417
Nephrotic syndrome 236, 419, 426428, 431, 461
causes of 769
diagnosis of 419
Nerve
cells 728
conduction 221, 529
growth factor 713
postsynaptic region of 518f
Nervonic acid 253
Net acid excretion, measure of 443
Net protein utilization 554
Neural tube defects 329
chances of 293
Neuroblastoma 310
Neurodegenerative diseases 355
Neurologic distress 325
Neurological sequelae 566
Neurological symptoms 508
Neuron-specific enolase 76
Neuropathy 177
Neuropeptides, hypothalamic 672
Neuropeptide-Y 557
Neuropsychiatric manifestations 365
Neurotoxic snake venoms 734
Neurotoxins 567, 569
Neurotransmission 729
Neurotransmitters 729
Neutral amino acids, carrier for 267
Neutral fat 103, 552
Neutral sulfur 536
Neutron 756
Neutrophils, hypersegmented 517f
Newborn screening 331
Programs 332
Nexavar 686
Next generation sequencing 661
N-glycosylation, inhibits 191
Niacin 502, 505
chemistry of 505
coenzyme forms of 506
deficiency 313, 315, 507, 507f
causes for 507
dietary sources of 507
leads, deficiency of 507
production of 508
structure of 505f
synthesis of 314f
therapeutic use of 507
toxicity of 507
Niacinamide 505
Nickel 544
ions inhibit 75
Nicotinamide 56
deficiency 313
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 55, 188, 335, 505, 506, 575
phosphate 189, 362, 479, 480, 506
dependent enzymes 506
generating reactions 506
oxidase 472
utilizing reactions 506
Nicotinic acid
inhibits lipolysis 244
pathway 313
Niemann-Pick's disease 259, 260
Nifedipine 535
Night blindness 491
Ninhydrin 34, 739
test 327
Nitrates 297
Nitric acid 369
Nitric oxide 282, 297, 361, 378, 471
activity, enhancers of 299
antagonists of 299
in diseases and treatment 298
inhibits adhesion 298
mechanism of action of 298
physiological actions of 298, 298f
precursor of 297
production of 294
synthase 345
isoenzyme of 297
reaction 297f
synthesis of 297
Nitro compounds 480
Nitrocellulose membrane 654, 655
Nitrofurantoin 402
Nitrogen 45
atoms 363f
balance 269, 554, 554f
factors affecting 554
maintenance of 554
positive 554
heavy isotope of 597
Nitroprusside test 34
Nitroso compounds 709
N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene 709
N-methyltransferase 308
N-monomethyl arginine 299
Nocturia 420
Nodes of Ranvier 17, 18f
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 173, 212, 397, 402
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 74, 173, 212, 397, 400, 402
Noncarbohydrate reducing compounds 167
Noncommunicable diseases 124
Noncompetitive inhibition 66, 67, 67f
saturation curve of 67f
Non-covalent interactions 38
Nonessential amino acids 270
synthesis of 33, 269, 270
Nonessential glucogenic amino acid 287
Nonesterified fatty acid 231, 427, 557
Nonfasting lipid profiles 241
Nonfunctional enzymes 73
Nonheme iron-containing proteins 536
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 717
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia 276, 285, 318, 327
Non-nucleoside analogue 706
Nonphosphorylated lipids 108
Nonprotein nitrogen 414
Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs 257, 461, 584, 766
Nonsymptomatic hemoglobin variants 379
Nontemplate strand 608
Nonthyroidal illness 684
Norepinephrine 307, 308
excess 310
Normal anion gap 449
metabolic acidosis 447, 447t
Normal reference values 416t
Normoglycemia 163
Normotonic hyponatremia 461
Nuchal translucency 330
Nuclear medicine 761
Nucleic acid 575, 576f, 578
digestion of 578
hydrolyzing enzymes 14
sugars of 92f
synthesis studies 761
testing 706
Nucleocapsid protein 704
Nucleolus 13
Nucleoproteins 44
Nucleoside 575, 576, 577t
analogs 706
diphosphates 587
triphosphates 577, 577t
Nucleosomes 594, 595
Nucleotide 575, 576, 577t
composition of 575
excision repair 601, 602f
phosphatase 74, 75
polymorphisms, single 4
Nucleus 5, 12, 13, 13f
immature looking 513
Nutrients
composition of 789
dietary 551
recommended dietary allowances of 557
Nutrition 123, 549
Nutritional function 428
Nutritional indices 554
Nutritional requirements 30
Nutritional values 44, 554
assessment of 554
Nutritionally rich proteins 44
Nyctalopia 491
Nystagmus 312
O
Oasthouse syndrome 293
Obermeyer test 316
Obesity 174, 211, 212, 242, 556, 557
abdominal 173
biochemical abnormalities in 174
diet for 557b
index 556
management of 174
treatment of 557
Obstruction 399
extrahepatic 74, 371, 400
Obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic 125
Occludin 17
Ochronosis 312
Oculocutaneous
albinism 767, 776
tyrosinemia 312
Odd carbon fatty acids 205
Odd chain fatty acids 101
oxidation of 205
Oils 104
and fats, composition of 103t
Okazaki fragments 599
Okazaki pieces 599
Oligomycin 351, 352
Oligopeptide 34, 44
Oligosaccharide 86
tests 326
Oligosaccharidoses 325
Oligosacchariduria 327
Omega
3 fatty acids 213, 243
6 to omega 3, ratio for 243
oxidation 205
Oncofetal antigen 714, 714f
Oncofetal proteins 715
Oncogenes 711, 711b, 712
Oncogenic virus 403, 709
Oncology 708
Oncosuppressor genes 712, 712t
One-carbon
compounds 277t
generation and utilization 278f
groups
carrier of 512
generation of 277
interconversion of 277
utilization of 278
metabolism 277, 277f
Onycholysis 495f
Optic neuritis 567
Optical activity 32, 87
Optimum pH 65, 198
Optimum temperature 65
Oral cavity 520, 521
Oral contraceptive pills 509
Oral glucose tolerance test 164, 165f
classical 164
contraindications for 164
indications for 164
Oral hypoglycemic agents 179
Oral rehydration fluid 129
Organ
metabolic profile of 121t
transplantation 326
Organelle 5, 326
membranes of 18
Organic acids 413
disorders 276
metabolism, disorders of 328b
short-chain 332
Organic acidosis 446t
Organic acidurias 204, 204t, 325, 331
Organic mercury 566
Organic solvents, precipitation by 42
Organic sulfate 535
Organic sulfur 291
Organism 651
genetic inheritance 732
Organophosphorus
compounds 567
insecticides 75
Oriental flushing syndrome 189
Origin
multifactorial in 708
of replication 597, 598f
recognition complex 597
replication element 597
tissue of 239, 680
Ornithine 34, 297, 299, 319, 478, 740
aminotransferase, congenital deficiency of 297
biochemical role of 274
carbamoyltransferase deficiency 331
cycle 272
decarboxylase 68, 299
inhibitors 320
metabolism of 297
transcarbamoylase 273
deficiency 275
transporter deficiency 275
Orortidine-5’-monophosphate 587
Orotate phophoribosyltransferase 587
Orotic acid 585
Orotic aciduria 587
Orotidine monophosphate 585
decarboxylase 587
formation of 585
Orotidylic acid 585
Osazone
formation 90
under microscope, shape of 90f
Oseltamiver (tamiflu) 67, 638
Osmolal gap 447
Osmolality, measurement of 420
Osmolar gap 458
Osmosis 8, 9f
clinical application of 9
reverse 10, 10f
Osmotic diuresis 176, 214, 420
Osmotic diuretics 412, 460, 462
Osmotic gradient 9
Osmotic pressure 8, 9, 42, 427
Osteitis deformans 74
Osteoblastoma 74
Osteoblasts
activity of 530
failure of 520
Osteocalcin 498, 533
Osteoclasts 530
Osteogenesis imperfecta 723
Osteoid 520
Osteomalacia 74
clinical features of 495
in adults 495
Osteonectin 533
Osteopetrosis 528, 533, 534
Osteoporotic bone tissue 534f
Ouabain bind 21
Ovarian agenesis 675
Ovarian cancers, tumor maker for 716
Ovarian hormones 680
regulation of 680
Ovary 150
and intestine 221
effects on 257
Overflow proteinuria 419
Ovoflavin (eggs) 503
Oxalate 528
inhibits blood coagulation 750
Oxalic acid 285f, 537
Oxaloacetate 139, 140, 176, 214, 337, 338
condenses 335
reactions of 337f
regeneration of 336
Oxalosuccinate 335
Oxaluria 285f
Oxidase 344
mixed function 306
Oxidation 373b, 585
of foodstuffs, stages of 341
reduction, reversible 519
Oxidative deamination 33, 271, 294
Oxidative decarboxylation 335, 503
Oxidative metabolism, metabolic defects of 341t
Oxidative phase 148
Oxidative phosphorylation 132, 343, 350, 353f, 353t
diseases 621t
energetics of 343
inhibitors of 352
uncouplers of 352
Oxidative rancidity 104
Oxidative reactions 479
Oxidatively decarboxylated 138, 335
Oxidizing agent 369
act 66
Oxidoreductases 54, 55
Oxoprolinuria 267
Oxygen 355
affinity, abnormal 379
atom, normal 471f
by hemoglobin, transport of 373
calorific value of 550
debt 137
deficiency 135t
deficient condition 134
dissociation
clinical application of 376b
curve 373, 373f, 376
heme residues for 374
with oxygen, affinity of 374t
Oxygenases 344
Oxygenation 373b
Oxyhemoglobin 379
persist, bands for 377
Oxyntic cells 403
Oxytocin 44, 123, 461, 673
P
P450 enzymes 479
Pacemaker theory 732
Paget's disease 74, 532, 534, 534f
Pain, acute abdominal 365
Palindrome arrangement 644
Palmitic acid 101, 203, 206, 207
beta-oxidation of 204f
Pancreas, carcinoma head of 402
Pancreatic acinar cells 267
Pancreatic beta cells 168
Pancreatic carcinoma 406
Pancreatic deficiency 201
Pancreatic disease 76, 172, 406
Pancreatic duct, obstruction to 406
Pancreatic enzymes, measurement of 405
Pancreatic fibrocystic disease 406
Pancreatic function
assessment of 405
tests 405, 406t
Pancreatic insufficiency 77, 516
Pancreatic juice 128, 267
trypsin of 516
Pancreatic lipase 199, 253
with colipase 198
Pancreatic lipolytic enzymes 201
Pancreatin 77
Pancreatitis 542
acute 76, 267, 405
chronic 172, 402, 406
Pancreozymin 267
Panitumumab 717
Panlobular emphysema 401
Pantothenic acid 502, 509
coenzyme activity of 509
deficiency of 510
requirement of 510
sources of 510
structure of 509f
Papain 77, 693
cuts immunoglobulin molecule 694f
Paper chromatography 739, 739f
Papova virus group 710
Para-aminobenzoic acid 502, 514f
Para-aminohippurate 418
Paracetamol 257
Paracrine signaling 667
Para-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde 369
Para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase 307
Paralysis, hyperkalemic periodic 463
Paralytic ileus 459
Para-nitrophenol 480
Paraproteinemias 426, 428, 695
Parasites 402
Parathion 75
Parathyroid
deficiency of 532
function tests 532
hormone 122, 414, 528, 530, 531
and bones 530
and intestines 530
and kidney 530
level in serum 532
mechanism of action of 530
Parenchymal liver diseases 76
Parenteral nutrition 124, 560, 763
Paresthesia 177
Parietal cells 403
transport protons 403
Parkinson's disease 268, 355, 566, 729, 732
Parkinsonism 308, 325, 732
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria 23
Partition chromatography 739
Pasteur effect 137
Pauci-albuminuria 419
Pauly's test 34
Pazopanib 686
Peak acid output 404
Pedigree analysis 329
Pellagra 507, 507f, 508
like symptoms 316, 507
Penicillamine 566
Penicillin 67
bactericidal action of 17, 96
Pentagastrin stimulation test 404
Pentose 86, 92
phosphate pathway 147, 209
Pentosuria 167
essential 152, 194, 763
Penultimate carbon atom 87, 87f
Pepsin 60, 65, 76, 266, 404
cleaves 693
Pepsinogen 266
Peptic cells 403
Peptic ulcer 539
Peptidase 14
signal 618
Peptide 729
chemical synthesis of 41
hormones regulating food intake 684
part, formation of 430
signal 618
Peptide bond 34, 35f
characteristics of 35
formation 34, 35f, 617
Peptidyl site 617
carries 617
Peptidyl transferase 612
Pericarditis 247
Perimyocarditis, acute 238
Peripheral blood 517
picture 514
smear 540f
Peripheral neuritis 508
Peripheral neuropathy 108, 177, 519
Peripheral proteins 16
Peripheral smear 517
Peripheral tissue 211, 228, 230, 287
Peripheral vascular disease 248
Peristalsis 198
Pernicious anemia 405, 516f
Peroxidase 14, 77, 344
enzymes 77
Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders 14b, 254, 319
Peroxisomal diseases 325
Peroxisomal oxidation 254
Peroxisome 14, 254
proliferator activated receptors 237
Peroxynitrite 297, 471
Personalized medicine 4
Pertussis toxin ribosylates 670
Pesticides 567
Petechia 520
pH 31, 438
bicarbonate 446f
effect of 65, 374
meter 745, 746f
renal regulation of 441
resist changes in 439
value 438
within red cells 8
Phagocytosis 23, 520
defect of 697
Phagosomes 23
Pharmacogenomics 648
Phenobarbital causes 479
Phenobarbitone 13
Phenol 30
ring 310
Phenolic acids 473
Phenolic compounds 709
Phenotype 628
level of clinical 326
Phenylacetate, administration of 276
Phenylalanine 30, 36, 74, 306, 318, 319, 328, 740
catabolism of 306f, 307, 307f
hydroxylase 306, 345, 506
absence of 311f
deficiency of 310
load test 311
low 311
to tyrosine 306, 506
Phenylketonuria 310, 310f, 311f, 324, 776
carrier state 311
frequency of 310
tests for 311b
Phenylpyruvate 310
Phenylpyruvic acid 311
Phenytoin 402, 427, 428
Pheochromocytoma 310
Phlorhizin 22
Phosphate 418, 528
absorption of 535
buffer system 440
compounds 345
deficient renal absorption of 495
esters, formation of 534
infusion 532
ions, functions of 534b
level 535b
test, tubular reabsorption of 532
urinary excretion of 535
Phosphatides 104
Phosphatidic acid 104, 107
Phosphatidyl choline, synthesis of 258
Phosphatidyl inositol
diphosphate 258
synthesis of 258
Phosphatidyl serine 259f
Phosphatidylcholine 105
molecules 106
synthesis of 259f
Phosphatidylethanolamine 107, 107f, 259f
Phosphatidylglycerol 107
Phosphatidylinositol 107, 107f, 519
bisphosphate 107
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate 261, 292f, 535
Phosphodiester bonds 593
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 119, 139141, 141f, 143, 170, 187
enzyme 140
Phosphofructokinase 135, 137, 186
Phosphoglucomutase 60, 132, 144
reaction 144f
Phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase 148
oxidative pathway 147
Phosphoglycerate 286
kinase 141
Phospholipase 14, 106, 198, 257, 670, 733
action of 106, 199
site of action of 105f
Phospholipid 104, 105f, 106, 198, 257, 286, 396
interconversion of 259f
synthesis 518
Phosphoprotein 44, 286, 712
formation of 534
Phosphoribosyl amidotransferase, abnormal 583
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate 314, 580, 580f, 585
synthesis 580
synthetase, abnormal 583
Phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase 67
Phosphoric acid 105, 413, 506f
group 107
Phosphorus 527, 531, 534, 544, 567
deficiency of 533f
excretion of 535
level 532
requirement and source 534
serum, level of 534
Phosphorylase 147
A 146
B kinase 70
enzyme 508
kinase 529
activation 146
reaction 670
Phosphorylate 712
enzyme 70
proteins 171
sugars 91f
Phosphorylation 91, 136f, 146
inactive on 145
substrate level 132, 335, 342
Phosphosphingosides 107
Photoelectric colorimeter 744f
components of 744
Photoexcitation leads 489f
Photophobia 312
Photosensitive protein 490
Physiological tolerance test 164
Phytanic acid 205, 205f
Phytic acid 528, 537
Phytin 519
Phytosterols 245
Picric acid 480
Pigeon chest 495
Pigment metabolism 360
Piles 539
Pineal gland produces melatonin 315
Ping pong
reactions 72
states 18
Pinocytosis 23
absorptive 23
Pitocin 673
pK, value of 31, 439
Placental lactogen 123
Plant derived
fiber 245
products 245
Plant
cellulose of 86
kingdom 93
stevia 96
Plasma 545
adrenocorticotropic hormone 678
albumin, low 765
alkaline tide of 404
and urinary amino acids 326
and urine
electrolytes 458
urea 458
bilirubin 369
level ranges, normal 369
carrier protein of 429t
cells 692
chloride 458
colloid osmotic pressure of 427
cortisol 679
creatine phosphate levels 430
electrolytes 325
free fatty acid level 171
glucose levels 164t
half-life 168
insulin levels, high 173
lactate 326
and pyruvate 326b
lipid 224
profile 224t, 240
membrane 13, 15, 17
receptor 168, 672
normal bicarbonate level of 439
osmolality of 420, 456, 457t, 458, 679
pH of 441, 444
potassium level 462
protein 398, 425, 426
A, pregnancy-associated 329, 330
albumin 396
solutes in 8
thyroid-stimulating hormone 683
transport protein of 429t
volume expander 94
Plasmacytoma 695
malignant 428
Plasmalogens 107, 259
Plasmid carries antibiotic resistance genes 646
Plasmid liposome
complex 650
gene transfer by 650f
Plasminogen 229
activation 229f
activator inhibitor 721
Plasmodium falciparum 193
infection 380
Platelet 298
aggregation 257
derived growth factor 686, 713
Plummer-Wilson syndrome 540
Pneumocystis carinii 299, 703
infection 775
Poikilocytosis 382f
Poison 212, 565
variety of 66
Poisoning, acute 447
Pollutant
common household 570t
common industrial 568t
environmental 565
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 72, 737
Polyadenylation signal defects 381
Polyamine 299
functions of 299
synthesis 299f
Polychlorobiphenyls 567
Polyclonal antibodies 699f
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 709
Polycystic ovary
disease 173, 675
syndrome 174
Polycythemia vera 759
Polydipsia 175
Polyhydroxy aldehydes 86
Polymerase chain reaction 77, 400, 652, 658, 658f
applications of 659
real time quantitative 659, 659f
Polymorphism 72, 430
balanced 380
Polyneuritis 503
alcoholic 503
Polynucleotide 593f
Polypeptide 34, 698
chain 36, 191
end groups of 35f
single 36, 382
run on 631
Polyphagia 175
Polyphenol 473
rich fruits, consumption of 473
Polyposis, familial adenomatous 712
Polyribosomes 618, 618f
Polysaccharide 86, 93, 96, 96t
dietary 552
hydrolyzing enzymes 14
Polysomes 618
Polyunsaturated fatty acid 14, 102, 102f, 224, 246, 253, 254, 473, 475, 561
clinical significance of 102b, 255
molecule 105
peroxidation of 473, 475f
significance of 254b
sources of 553t
Polyuria 175
Polyvalent antivenoms 734
Polyvalent serum 734
Pompe's disease 148, 194, 326, 327
Poor proteins 44
Population genetics 628
Porphobilinogen 366, 367
formation of 362
synthase deficiency 365
test for 327
Porphyrias 363, 366, 768
acute 324
intermittent 328, 364, 366
cutanea tarda 364, 366, 366f
mixed type 364
diagnosis of 366, 366t
erythropoietic 365
management of 367
types of 364t, 366
variegata 365
Porphyrin 361, 366
in acid medium 367t
name of 361, 367
ring 361f
urinary excretion of 367t
Porphyrinogenic drugs, administration of 365
Porta hepatis 372
Portal hypertension 397
causes of 397
effects of 397
Portal lymphadenopathy 402
Portal vein thrombosis 397
Portocaval anastomosis 401
Portosystemic shunting 397
Positron emission tomography scan 759
Post-glucose load values 164
Post-heparin lipolytic activity 227
Posthepatic jaundice 398
Postmortem autolysis 14
Postprandial plasma glucose 163, 177
Postprandial regulation 161
Postprandial values 164
Postpubertal deficiency 675
Postrenal causes 418
Post-transcriptional processing 611
Post-translational modifications 620t
Post-translational processing 619
Potassium 96, 412, 455, 458, 461, 527, 544
abnormalities, laboratory evaluations for 463b
balance, maintenance of 410
channel 20
mutations 463
openers 21
chromate 567
excretion 462, 463
high 176
hydroxide 567
ions 21, 21f
levels, estimation of 679
loss 449
quantitative analysis of 745
redistribution of 462
renal excretion of 463
sources rich in 462
sparing diuretics 463
to extracellular, redistribution of 463
Potent bronchodilator 258
Potent chemotactic agent 258
Potocytosis 23
Pre-albumin 429
Preanalytical variables 748
posture 749
types of 749b
Prediabetic state 166
Pregnancy 165, 512, 516
cholestasis of 769
diabetes complicating 177
index of 674
neuritis of 503
related conditions 123
with preeclampsia 464
Pregnenolone, synthesis of 676f
Prehepatic jaundice 398, 399
Preinitiation complex 609
Premature infants 498
Prenatal diagnosis 328
Prenatal onset of disease 325
Prenatal screening 329
Prenatal testing, noninvasive 329
Preproinsulin 167
Prepubertal deficiency 675
Prerenal conditions 418
Pressor amines 569
Primaquine 75, 152
Prion diseases
in animals 731
pathogenesis of 731
Prion proteins 730
Pro hormone, amino terminal of 240
Procalcitonin 531
Procollagen
collagen glycosylation of 722
maturation of 722f
type 398, 402
Proelastase 267
Proenzyme 65
Progesterone 676, 680
levels of 122
receptor 716
Progressive renal disease 419
Prohormone 493
Proinsulin 36, 167, 168
Proinsulinemia, familial 168
Prokaryotes 621t
Tata box in 609
Prokaryotic cell 5, 17, 600t
Prokaryotic ribosomes 615t
Prokaryotic transcription 611t
Prokaryotic translation 620t
Prolactin
control of 465
secretion, inhibitor of 308
somatomammotropin 675
Prolamines 43
Proline 30, 30f, 268, 306, 317
aminopeptidase 267
degradation of 317f
dehydrogenase deficiency 317
disorders of 327
hydroxylation of 520, 520f, 619, 721
Prometheus 403
Promoter mutants 381
Pro-opio-melanocortin, cleavage of 674f
Propagation phase 475
Propionate 205
metabolism, inborn errors of 205
Propionic acidemia 204, 205
Propionic aciduria 276
Propionyl-CoA 142, 205
carboxylase 511
deficiency 205
fate of 205
metabolism of 205f
Propyl gallate 476
Prostacyclin 257, 257t
Prostaglandin 253, 254, 256
biosynthesis of 256
classification of 256
H synthase 257
inhibitors 457
mechanism of action of 257
salient features of 256t
synthesis and action of 257f
Prostanoic acid 256f
Prostate
cancer 75, 76, 680
indicative of 75
enlarged 418
specific antigen 75, 76, 716
Prosthetic group 44
Protamines 43
Protamin-zinc-insulinate 542
Protease 60t, 704
action of 266f
break peptide bonds 733
inhibitor 430, 568, 706
Proteasomes 268
Protein 16, 28, 34, 39, 45, 106, 224, 413, 456, 549, 739, 788
abnormal 730
acute phase 429431
acyl-carrier 207
adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of 506
allowances, recommended 553t
bands, visualization of 737
beta-arrestin, inhibitory 490
biological value of 554
biosynthesis 613
branched 36
buffer system 440
calorie malnutrition 212, 465
carrier 129, 396
catabolism 682
caveolin 17
circular 36
color reactions of 34
complete 44
component of 286
conjugated 44, 44t, 360
content of normal plasma 425
contractile 724
deficiency 554
denaturation of 43b, 43f
derived 44
digestion of 265, 266t
docking 618
efficiency ratio 554
energy malnutrition 212, 555, 556, 773
fibrous 44
first class 44
folding and chaperones 620
gastric digestion of 266
hydrolyzing enzymes 14
importance of 553
incomplete 44
intake 509
interactions 5f
intestinal digestion of 267
kinase A 148
kinase activation 146
lifespan of 268
losing enteropathy 267, 428
metabolism
changes in 124
derangements in 175
product of 272
misfolding diseases 620, 732
nutritive value of 555t
organization of 35, 38f
p55 705
pancreatic digestion of 267
phosphatase 1 146
phosphorylation 70
physical properties of 42
precipitation reactions of 42
quantitative estimation of 44
requirement 558
for growth 554
selected list of 647
selectivity index 419
simple 43
source of 555
specialized 686
stability, crucial for 188
structural 39
structure of 35, 291
supplemented to rectify deficiency 555
synthesis 619f
inhibitors of 620
of functional 265
of structural 265
synthesizing machinery 614
targeting, defects in 285, 619
trafficking, sorting and targeting 618
translocase 202
western blot analysis for 655
Protein-bound calcium 428
Proteinuria 418, 769
glomerular 419
indications for quantitation of 419b
Proteoglycan 95, 192, 721
Proteolytic enzymes 37f
Proteome 622
Proteomics 46, 116, 622
Prothrombin 395, 431, 498
time 397, 401, 406, 431, 432
prolongation of 499
Proton 349
carries 756
pump 350, 351
Proto-oncogenes 711
Protoporphyria 402
erythropoietic 364366
hereditary 364
Protoporphyrin 362, 366, 367
generation of 362
Protoporphyrinogen, synthesis of 362
Protospacer adjacent motif 648f
Provitamin 493
Proximal convoluted tubule 411, 442
Proximal histidine 372
Proximal tubules 442f
Proximate principles 551, 558
Proximity effect 58
Pseudocholinesterase 75
Pseudohyperkalemia 463
Pseudopeptide 36
Pseudouridine 588
arm 614
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum 724
Psoralens 474
Pteroic acid 512
Pteroid synthetase 67
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 107
Pulmonary edema 566
Pulmonary embolism 123, 238
Pulmonary hypertension 298
Pulmonary surfactant 106, 258
Pure antigens, quantitative preparation of 700
Purine
bases 575
minor 576
metabolism, disorders of 583, 585t
regulation of 587
structure of 576f
synthesis of 284, 296
Purine nucleoside
diphosphates 582
triphosphates 582
Purine nucleotide
biosynthesis of 578
cycle 726
functions of 727
degradation of 582, 582f
disorders of 585
Purine synthesis
inhibitors 581, 581f
regulation of 580
steps of 580f, 581t
Puromycin 620
Putrescine 299, 478
Pyelonephritis, chronic 417
Pyranose ring 89f
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid 505
Pyridoxal deficiency 313
Pyridoxal phosphate 56, 143, 270, 270f, 283, 287, 294, 313, 507, 508
dependent 307
decarboxylase 286
functions of 508
presence of 361
Pyridoxamine 179, 507
Pyridoxine 502, 507
deficiency manifestations of 508
functions of 508
quantity of 293
responsive sideroblastic anemia 365
Pyrimethamine 67, 514, 514f
Pyrimidine 295, 576f
analogues 587
bases 576
modified 576f
C and N atoms of 585f
catabolism of 588f
de novo synthesis of 585
metabolism, disorders of 587, 587t
nucleotide
degradation of 588
synthesis of 69, 586f
ring 296, 502
formation of 585
salvage pathway of 587
synthesis 587
regulation of 585
Pyroglutamic aciduria 267
Pyrophosphate 222
Pyrrole rings 361f
Pyrrolidine 30
Pyrrolysine 31
Pyruvate 61, 130, 139, 190, 206, 270, 299
derived 335
formation from cysteine 290f
metabolic fate of 138
transporter 138, 354f
Pyruvate carboxylase 117, 134, 139, 141143, 170, 511
activator of 142
deficiency 143, 194, 326, 327
reaction 140
Pyruvate dehydrogenase 70, 138, 139, 169, 300, 335, 502
complex 138
deficiency 194
reaction 139f
significance of 138
Pyruvate kinase 70, 130, 132, 137, 139, 169, 342
catalyzes 137
deficiency 139, 194
reaction, covalent modification of 137f
Q
QT syndrome, long 20, 463
Quadruple test 330
Quality control 736, 751
accuracy 751
charts 752
management of 752
precision 751
sensitivity 751
specificity 751
Quantitative-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction 331
Quantum dots 662
Quaternary structure 39
Quetelet's formula 174
Quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase 507, 313
R
Racemic mixture 87
Radial immunodiffusion 45, 45f
Radiation
biological effects of 760
sickness 761
syndrome, acute 761
type of 757
Radiation protection 761
monitoring 761
precautions 761
Radioactive strontium 759
Radioactive technetium 759
Radioactivity 757
for diagnosis, applications of 759
half-life of 758
in research, applications of 758
in treatment, applications of 759
Radioimmunoassay 517, 682, 742t
principle of 742f
Radioisotope 758t, 761
tracers, use of 116
Radionuclides 757
Radiosensitivity 760
Radium needles 759
Ramachandran angles 35
Random plasma glucose 163
Ranibizumab 686
Rapoport-Leubering cycle 137
Rate-limiting step 222, 585
Rationale for treatment 768
Rattle snake 733
Raw egg 42
RB gene 713
Reacting molecules, concentration of 62
Reaction 300
catalyzed 341
equilibrium constant of 62
phase one 479
phase three 481f, 482
phase two 480
rate of 62
reduction 480
site of 131
types of 7
Reactive oxygen
metabolites 475
species 471, 472t, 473, 473f, 474f
generation of 151f
Real time polymerase chain reaction 706
Receptor tumor markers 715
Recombinant technology, applications of 643
Recommended daily allowance 497, 507, 514, 788
Red blood cells 150, 161, 364
life span of 115
normal 379f
Red muscle fibers, biochemical basis of 726
Redox couple 342
Redox potentials 342, 342t
Reflectance spectrophotometry 747
Refsum disease 205
Regan isoenzyme 74
Relation to glycine, metabolic errors in 285
Renal acid excretion, factors affecting 444
Renal artery stenosis 462
Renal blood flow 411
Renal calcium excretion 530f
Renal circulatory insufficiency 459
Renal clearance 94
Renal compensation 447
Renal disease 417, 418, 421
earliest manifestation of 420
modification of diet in 416
Renal excretion 462
Renal failure 446, 535
acute 417, 769
chronic 366, 461, 769
Renal function 123
indicator of 276, 284
tests 410, 421t
classification of 410b
Renal glycosuria 165, 325, 764
Renal impairment 463
Renal medulla 161
Renal plasma flow, measure of 418
Renal rickets 495
Renal symptoms 325
Renal threshold 166, 411, 531
Renal tubular
acidosis 421, 447, 461, 462, 464, 532
disease 535
Renal tubules 494
Renin angiotensin
aldosterone 457f
system 457
Rennin 266
and renin different 266
Reperfusion injury 474, 474f
Replenish blood glucose 141
Replication bubble 598, 598f, 599
Replication fork 598f, 599
Replisome 598
Repression mechanism 363
Repressor acts 69
Reproductive organs 761
Reproductive system 490
Residual dextrin 94
Residual renal function, parameters for 418b
Resistant hypokalemia 464
Respiration, internal 117, 341
Respiratory acidosis 444, 445, 448, 449, 770
acute 449
laboratory findings in 449t
Respiratory alkalosis 275, 444, 445, 448, 449, 770
Respiratory burst 23, 472, 474
Respiratory chain 135, 341, 349f, 504
cytochrome oxidase of 349f
enzymes of 346
Respiratory component 439
Respiratory diseases 474
Respiratory distress syndrome
acute 106
infant 107
Respiratory muscles, paralysis of 449
Respiratory quotient 121, 549
Respiratory regulation 441
Respiratory tract, effects on 258
Restrict protein intake 276
Restriction endonuclease 77, 604, 644, 654
Restriction fragment patterns, types of 657
Restriction map 644
Restriction sites 644
Reticulocytosis 513
Retina 20, 253
structure of 489f
Retinal degeneration 193, 317
Retinal pigment epithelium 489f
Retinitis pigmentosa 253, 325
Retinoblastoma 634f, 712
oncosuppressor protein 633
Retinoic acid receptors 490
Retinoic X receptors 490
Retinol binding protein 429, 431, 488
Retinol palmitate 488
Retinopathy, hypertensive 248
Retrolental fibroplasia 474
Retroposons 596
Retroviral vector, gene transfer by 649f
Retrovirus 612, 649
efficiency of 650
group 704
type B 710
type C 710
Rett syndrome 331
Reverse transcriptase, action of 613f
Reye syndrome 403
Rh incompatibility 370, 383, 539
Rh isoimmunization 694
Rh –ve mother 370
Rhabdomyolysis 463
Rheumatic carditis 247
Rheumatic fever 247
laboratory diagnosis 247
pathology 247
prevention 247
treatment 247
Rheumatic heart disease 247
Rheumatic valvulitis 247
Rheumatoid arthritis 193, 474
Rho factor 610
Rhodanase 292
Rhodopsin 489
movement of 253
Ribavirin 503, 638
Riboflavin 502, 503
coenzyme activity of 503
deficiency 504, 505, 505f
causes 504
manifestations 504
dietary sources of 505
structure of 503, 504f
Ribonuclease 14, 57
active site of 59
Ribonucleic acid 4, 478, 575, 607, 607t, 655
induced silencing complex 621
interference 706
polymerase 608, 637, 672
bacterial 609
mammalian 609
primase 599
primer 599
splicing defects 381
synthesis, inhibitors of 613, 613t
uracil in 576
viruses 649
Ribonucleoside 577
phosphates 577
Ribonucleotide 577
reductase complex 587
Ribose 87, 92, 151
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid 607, 614
components of 614
Ribosome, bacterial 614
Ribozyme 71, 612
example of 617
Ribulose 87, 92
Rickets 74, 495f, 771
hypophosphatemic 331, 495
in children 495
types of 495
Rickety rosary 495, 495f
Rifampicin 402, 613
Ritonavir 639
Rituximab 717
Rnithine transcarbamoylase deficiency 587
Romberg's sign 517
Rothera's test 175, 214, 215, 327
Rotor syndrome 370
Roxicity, acute 566
Russell's viper 733
S
Saccharic acids 90
Saccharin 96
Saccharopine 296
S-adenosyl methionine 283, 481
Sakaguchi's test 34
Salbutamide 462
Salicylate 166, 167, 402, 403, 427
intoxication 535
poisoning, early stages of 449
Salivary alpha amylase 128
Salivary diseases 405
Salivary glands 76
Salt and acid, concentration of 439
Salt depletion 457
Salt formation 103
Salt to acid concentrations, ratio of 439
Salt upon dissociation, effect of 438
Salvage pathway 277, 582
deficiency of enzyme of 583
Sample collection 163
Sandhoff's disease 260
Sanfilippo syndrome 193, 194
Sanger's method 661f
Sanger's reagent 40
Saponification 104f
Saquinavir 639
Sarcolemma 724
Sarcomere 724
Saturated fatty acid 101, 256, 553
Scheie syndrome 193
Schilling test 406, 517
Schlesinger's reaction 369
Schlesinger's test 370
Schwann cell 18f
membrane of 17
Scleroproteins 43
Sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral 268, 355
Sclerotic lesions 534f
Scoline apnea 75
Scrapie disease in sheep 731
Screening newborn infants 331
Screening technology 332
Screening test, positive 331
Scurvy 520
Secosterol 493
Secrete acid 403
Secretin 405
Secretin-cholecystokinin test 406
Secretory acini 265
Secretory antibodies 695
Secretory proteins, synthesis of 619f
Secretory vesicles 22
Sedentary lifestyle 242
Sedoheptulose 87
Seeding model 730
Selectins 192
Selenium 527, 543, 545
functions of 543
Selenocysteine 287, 616
addition of 31
Selenoprotein P 287
Selenosis 543
Semi-automated photometric analyzers 746
Semiconservative replication 596f
Seminal plasma 186
Semiquinone 348
Sensory neuropathy 108, 509
Separate allosteric site 68
Sephadex chromatography 740f
Sepsis 238
severity of 531
Serine 33, 268, 282, 286, 669
analogues 286f
beta carbon of 282
catabolism of 286
decarboxylation of 286f
formation of 286f
metabolic functions of 286
metabolism 287f
proteases 59
to glycine 277
to pyruvate, deamination of 283f
Serofibrinous pericardial exudate 247
Serotonin 313, 729
catabolism of 315
functions of 314
level 314
reuptake inhibitors, selective 313
synthesis 314f
uptake inhibitors 319
Sertoli cells 675, 680
Serum
albumin 406
B12 517
bilirubin 397, 403
calcium 531t, 535b
mild decrease in 533
cholesterol 246
level 236b, 241
creatinine 177
factors affecting 416t
electrolyte
normal 450b
values, normal 450
electrophoretic patterns 426f
enzymes 395
gastrin level 405
globulins 406
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 74
glutamate pyruvate transaminase 74
terminology of 399
hyaluronic acid 398, 402
in jaundice cases 398t
iron level 540
level, normal 74
lipase 405
potassium
estimation 463
redistribution of 463t
proteins 531, 715
synthesis of 395
thyroid stimulating hormone levels 675
triglyceride 242, 246
value, reference 7476
vitamin D3 494
Sex hormones 680
synthesis of 677f
Sex steroids 678f
Sex-linked
inherited disease 697
recessive inheritance 628, 629f
Sexually transmitted disease 703
Shark liver oil 492
Shock 299
related injury 474
Shunt bilirubin 363, 364f
Shunt pathway 147, 148, 150, 150f
clinical significance of 151
Sialic acid 108, 713
Sialylation 713
Sick building syndrome 570
Sick care to wellness 124
Sickle cell 379f
anemia 36, 379f, 656
disease 656f
disease 378, 379
management of 380
hemoglobin 379
trait 378, 380
protects 380f
Sickle syndromes 378
Sickling test 380
Sigmoid curve 373f
Sigmoid substrate-saturation kinetics 64f
Sildenafil citrate 320
Silicosis 14
Single base
additions 631
deletion of 631
Singlet oxygen 471
Sitosterol 243
Skatoxyl 315
Skeletal dysplasia 193
Skeletal muscle 118, 119, 130, 227, 287, 724, 727
and liver 287
metabolic profile of 120
Skin 491, 521, 760
cells, immature 491
color of 308
defects syndrome 331
diseases 474
lesions 507f
Sleep apnea 449
Sleeping sickness 68
Sliding filament model 725
Slow disease 731
Sly syndrome 193, 195
Small intestinal
fistulae 459
obstruction 459
Small intestine 267
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid 608, 611
Small ribonucleic acid 608
Smaller molecules 740
Smith's disease 319
Smoking, passive 709
Smooth muscle 724
Snake poison, treatment of 734
Snake venom 733
constituents of 733
hemotoxins of 733
S-nitroglutathione 299
Soaps 103
Sodium 411, 455, 456, 458, 460, 463, 527, 544
and water
balance, assessment of 459
control of 458t
balance, maintenance of 410
butyrate 380
channels 20, 460
chloride cotransporter 460
cyclohexyl sulfamate 96
dependent glucose transporter 129, 129f, 130f
dodecyl sulfate 737
excretion 460
fluoride 750
glycocholate 198
hydrogen exchanger 460
hydroxide 567
levels, estimation of 679
loss 176, 214
potassium pump 21f
pump 22, 129, 460
clinical application of 21b
quantitative analysis of 745
regulation of 457
restriction 460
sulphate, concentration of 425
taurocholate 198
valproate 295
Soft tissues, calcification of 496
Solid phase peptide synthesis 41
Solid tumor 709f
Solubilizing 226
Soluble factors 698
Soluble isomers 371
Soluble matrix 346
Soluble ribonucleic acid 613
Somatic cloning 650
Somatic mutation 603
Somatomedin 674
Somatostatin 168, 674
Somatotropin 673
Somogyi effect 179
Sorafenib 686, 717
Sorbitol, osmotic effect of 90
Sorensen's formal titration 32
Sorghum 507
Southern blot 77, 331, 657
analysis 657f
technique 654, 655f
Special tests 398, 463
Species difference 582
Specific gravity 413
Specimen
collection 749, 750
transport of 750
Spectrin 727
Spectrophotometer 744, 744f
Spectrophotometric estimation 45
Spermatogenesis 675
Spermidine 299
Spermine 299
Spherocytosis 382f
congenital 371
hereditary 23
Sphingolipidoses 260t, 261, 328
Sphingolipids 107, 261
synthesis of 259
Sphingomyelin 107, 108, 108f, 259
synthesis of 259
Sphingosine 107f
Sphygmomanometers 566
Spiral structure 37
Spiranolactone 412, 463
Spironolactone 463
Spliceosome 612
excise intron 612f
Splinter hemorrhage 520f
Split gene 698
Splitting phase 132
Spontaneous decarboxylation 213
Spontaneous hypoglycemia 764
Spontaneous mutations 629
Spontaneous reaction 284
Spoon nail 540f
Spot urine, osmolality of 463
Spur cell anemia 16
Squalene 222
Standard deviation index 752
Standard free energy change 7
Starch 96, 128, 552
hydrolysis of 94
tolerance test 406
Starling's hypothesis 427, 427f
Starvation 119, 120, 176, 213, 214
ketosis 763
Stationary phase 739
Stavudine 706
Steady-state system 71
Stearic acid 101
Steatorrhea 765
ideopathic 406
Steatosis 189
Stem cells 651, 652f
defect in 383, 539
Stercobilin 369
Stercobilinogen 369
formation of 369
Stereoisomers 86, 87f
Stereospecificity 70
Steroid
anabolic 460
conjugation of 152
name of 221
receptor complex 672
salient features of 221t
synthesis 520
urinary excretion of 677
Steroid hormone 221, 427, 637f, 672, 680t
enters nucleus 671f
mechanism of action of 672f
response element 672
synthesis of 676
defects in 325
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 223
Sticky ends 646
Stimulation by adrenaline 147
Stomach
digestion in 198
epithelial cells of 193
Stone formation 583
Storage contamination 569
Storage disease, signs of 325
Storage disorders 325
Stores regulation 537
Strand-directed mismatch repair 602, 602f
Streptavidin 511
Streptococcal infection 247
Streptococcus 76
thermophilus 72
Streptodornase 77
Streptokinase 76, 77, 433
Streptomyces avidinii 511
Streptomycin 620
Stroke 238
attacks of 325
Strong acid 43, 438
Strong alkalis 567
Subcellular movements 727
Subcellular organelle 12
metabolic functions of 15t
separation of 12t
Substrate 209
concentration, effect of 63, 63f
moleculars 63
saturation
curve 63f, 66f
level 63
strain 58
Succinate
dehydrogenase 336, 341, 348
generation of 335
thiokinase 335, 342
Succinate-Q-reductase 348
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase 295
Succinyl choline 75, 518
Succinylcholine 727
Succus entericus 267
Sucralose 96
Sucrase 92, 128
Sucrose 92, 552
structure of 92f
test, specific 92, 92f
Sudden hypokalemia 448
Sugar
anomerism of 88
groups 576f
oxidation of 90
reducing 413
salient features of 93b
substitutes, common 96
to alcohol, reduction of 91f
Suicidal genes 714
Suicide enzyme 257
Suicide inhibition 67, 299, 584
Sulfa 75
drugs 152
Sulfate 261
conjugation 481
glucosamine-alpha-1,4-iduronic acid 95f
inorganic 535
Sulfatide 107, 108
synthesis of 261, 292
Sulfhemoglobinemia 378
Sulfhydryl group 509
reactions of 34
Sulfite 292
oxidase 292
deficiency 318
Sulfolipids 108
Sulfonamide 66, 67, 514
Sulfotransferase 261
Sulfur 527, 535
compounds 345
containing amino acids 29f, 328, 508
metabolism of 288
dioxide 568
excretion 535
functions of 535
inorganic 291
metabolism of 291
test 34
transferase 292
Sulfuric acid 413, 567
Sumoylation 595
Sunitinib (sutent) 686
Sunlight produces cholecalciferol 496
Superoxide anion 471f
radical 471
Superoxide dismutase 15, 151, 472
mutation of 355
Suppressor function 692
Surface antigen 402
Surface immunofluorescence 656f
Surrogate markers 402
Svedberg units 738
Sweat electrolytes, estimation of 406
Swelling (tophi) 583
Symport 22, 22f
Syndrome 585
of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 461
secretion 461
X 173, 557
Synthesize alanine 270
Systemic lupus erythematosus 612
Systemic mastocytosis 405
T
T helper cells 704
T lymphocytes 692
Tachycardia 238
Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein 418
Tamoxifen 680
Tandem mass
spectrometry 331, 748
principle of 748f
spectroscopy 310
Tandem repeats 657
Tangier disease 245
Tannic acid 42
Tanning 42
Taq polymerase 65, 77, 658
Tartaric acid 75
Tarui's disease 148, 194
Tata binding protein 610
Taurine 231
formation of 291, 291f
Tay-Sachs disease 260, 261
T-cells 701
Teletherapy 760
Telomerase 603, 733
Telomere 603
length of 714
Temperature coefficient 65
Temperature, effect of 65, 374
Template and coding strands 608
Tendinous xanthomata 246
Tension, lower surface 198
Terminate pregnancy 330
Terminator codon 616
Terminator codon
mutation 631
sequence 618
Test conducted 749
Testes 150, 221
Testicular agenesis 675
Testicular hormones 680
Testosterone 680
Tetany 532
Tetracycline 402, 460, 620
resistance gene 646
Tetrahydrobiopterin 297f
Tetrahydrofolate 56
Tetrahydrofolic acid 277, 277f, 282, 283, 512f, 521, 578
Tetraiodothyronine 310
Tetrapeptide 34
Tetrose 86
Thalassemia 378, 379, 381, 382f, 383, 539
inheritance of 381
major 381
minor 381
syndromes 381
T-helper count 706
Theophylline 532
Thermodynamics
first law of 7
principles of 7
second law of 7
Thermogenesis 211, 682
diet-induced 551
Thermogenic effect of food 551
Thermogenin 353
Thermus aquaticus 658
Thiamine 138, 502, 502b, 576
deficiency 149, 152, 503, 503f, 771
manifestations of 503
functions of 508
physiological role of 502
pyrophosphate 56, 61, 138, 139, 148, 285, 335, 337, 502
structure of 503f
recommended daily allowance of 503
structure of 502
Thiazide 462
diuretics 465, 532
Thiocyanate 681
Thioesterase 206, 207
Thioguanine 717
Thiokinase 202
Thiophorase enzyme 213
Thioredoxin 587
reductase 287
Thiourea 681
Thoesterase 207
Threonine 30, 33, 268, 282, 282f, 288, 669, 740
dehydratase 288
Threshold substances 411
Thrombin 60, 431
Thrombolytic factors, loss of