Research & Biostatistics for Nurses R Sudha
Chapter Notes

Save Clear

fm1Research and Biostatistics for Nursesfm2
fm3Research and Biostatistics for Nurses (As per INC Syllabus)
R Sudha MSc (N) PhD Professor-cum-Principal MA Chidambaram College of Nursing Voluntary Health Services Campus (Affiliated to the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University) Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Foreword S Ani Grace Kalaimathi
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
New Delhi 110 002, India
Phone: +91-11-43574357
Fax: +91-11-43574314
Overseas Offices
J.P. Medical Ltd
83 Victoria Street, London
Phone: +44 20 3170 8910
Fax: +44 (0)20 3008 6180
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
17/1-B Babar Road, Block-B, Shaymali
Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Mobile: +08801912003485
Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc
City of Knowledge, Bld. 235, 2nd Floor, Clayton
Panama City, Panama
Phone: +1 507-301-0496
Fax: +1 507-301-0499
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal
Phone +977-9741283608
© 2017, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
The views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at:
Research and Biostatistics for Nurses
First Edition: 2017
Printed at
fm5Dedicated to
My students who inspired me, my teachers who provided me wisdom, my friends and colleagues who motivated me and my parents and family members who encouraged and supported me.fm6
Most people are unaware that nurses conduct research, but now I am sure people are aware about it.
Nurses and midwives have always had a passion for delivering better care in an ever-changing world. Research-based practice is now the new reality, with nursing knowledge at the core of professionalization. Delivering modern, high-quality care to patients now relies increasingly on routine reference to scientific papers and journals, rather than traditional textbook learning. Acquiring the skills to appraise nursing and medical research papers is a daunting task.
This book is short, readable and useful, without becoming overly bogged down in the mathematical detail that frankly puts so many of us off the subject. I commend this book to all health care professionals. It covers all the ground necessary to critically evaluate the statistical elements of research papers in a friendly and approachable way.
I congratulate the author for her wonderful effort.
Prof Dr S Ani Grace Kalaimathi
Registrar (FAC)
Tamil Nadu Nurses and Midwives Councilfm8
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
In my experience, I have seen students fearing about the course in research and statistics. Many undergraduate and postgraduate students have their concerns and doubts as to whether they could easily do away with the research projects assigned to them or not. This confusion results in a nightmare for most of them. Also the students correlate statistics with mathematics and have a preconception about the subject as to whether they would be able to get through the final exam. Learning materializes only when the mind is fearless, open and relaxed. A receptive mind receives the concepts well and facilitates faster learning.
This book has been written specifically to meet the needs of the nursing students and to draw their interest towards nursing research. It has been organized into two sections—Section 1:Research and Section 2: Biostatistics. In Research section, the chapters are arranged according to the steps of research process and each chapter explains every step in a simple way to help the students learn the concepts easily. In Biostatistics section, the chapters are sequenced from simple to complex concepts, i.e. descriptive to inferential statistics, each with adequate exercises and lot of examples. This book would get the learners involved, keep them on track and help them reach the final destination with great confidence.
One of the learning outcomes of the students learning the subject on research and biostatistics is to undertake a research project and to write the research report. The task of the selection of the right problem for investigation to the completion of report-writing in the form of final project or dissertation is cumbersome for the students and they need proper guidance from their supervisors. This book would help the students in all stages of their research work.
Writing this book was completely a challenging task which required commitment, time and dedication. Utmost care has been taken to avoid errors and the readers are requested to point out the errors, if any, in the text matter and offer suggestions for improvement.fm10
R Sudha
I wish to remember and thank all my postgraduate students who have showed keen interest to learn the concepts of Research and Biostatistics and the endless queries and discussions with them motivated me to write this book.
My heartfelt thanks to Prof Dr S Ani Grace Kalaimathi, Registrar, Tamil Nadu Nurses and Midwives Council, my teacher, guide and well-wisher for writing a foreword for this book.
I would like to express my gratitude to all my teachers in the field of nursing, who provided me the due knowledge and guidance. My special thanks to Dr Beulah Shekhar, my PhD guide, for her guidance and support in my growth.
I would like to express my gratitude to all my friends and colleagues, who had helped me by having read-through, offered comments and talked things over to groom this book.
Special thanks to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director–Content Strategy) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing). I would also like to thank for the wonderful work done by Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Publishing), Ms Payal Bharti (Project Manager), Ms Ruby Sharma (Project Manager) and the team of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. The team is very prompt in its work, untiring in its following up and reverting back, which served as a driving force towards the completion of this task.
My sincere thanks to all my family members, especially my parents Mr P Radhakrishnan and Mrs R Rajalakshmi; my husband Mr C Arumugam; my daughters AS Neya and AS Dhaya, who have supported me, spared me for my long work and patiently accepted me for my commitment to complete this book.
fm12INC Syllabus
Placement: 4th Year
Hours of Instruction
Theory: 45 Hours
Practical: 45 Hours
Total: 90 Hours
Course Description: The Course is designed to enable students to develop an understanding of basic concepts of research, research process and statistics. It is further, structured to conduct/participate in need-based research studies in various settings and utilize the research findings to provide quality nursing care. The hours for practical will be utilized for conducting individual/group research project.
Time (Hrs)
Learning Objectives
Training Learning Activities
Assessment Methods
  • Describe the concept of research, terms, need and areas of research in nursing.
  • Explain the steps of research process.
Research and Research Process
  • Introduction and need for nursing research
  • Definition of research and nursing research
  • Steps of scientific method
  • Characteristics of good research
  • Steps of research process—overview
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Narrate steps of research process followed from examples of published studies
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 1
  • Identify and state the research problem and objectives
Research Problem/Question
  • Identification of problem area
  • Problem statement
  • Criteria of a good research problem
  • Writing objectives
  • Lecture discussion
  • Exercise on writing statement of problem and objectives
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 2
  • Review the related literature
Review of Literature
  • Location
  • Sources
  • Online search; CINAHL, COCHRANE, etc.
  • Purposes
  • Method of review
  • Lecture discussion
  • Exercise on reviewing one research report/article for a selected research problem
  • Prepare annotated bibliography
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 3
  • Describe the research approaches and designs
Research Approaches and Designs
  • Historical, survey and experimental
  • Qualitative and quantitative designs
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Explain types of research approaches used from examples of published and unpublished research studies with rationale
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 5
  • Explain the process
  • Describe the methods of data collection
Sampling and Data Collection
  • Definition of population, sample, sampling criteria, factors influencing sampling process, types of sampling techniques
  • Data—why, what, from whom, when and where to collect
  • Data collection methods and instruments:
    • Methods of data collection
    • Questioning, interviewing
    • Observations, record analysis and measurement
    • Types of instruments
    • Validity and reliability of the instrument
    • Pilot study
    • Data collection procedure
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Reading assignment on examples of data collection tools
  • Preparation of sample data collection tool
  • Conduct group research project
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 6, 7 and 8
  • Analyze, interpret and summarize the research data
Analysis of Data
  • Compilation, tabulation, classification, summarization, presentation, interpretation of data
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Preparation of sample tables
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 10,
Sec 2: Ch 11 and 12
  • Explain the use of statistics, scales of measure-ment and graphical presentation of data
  • Describe the measures of central tendency and variability and methods of correlation
Introduction to Statistics
  • Definition, use of statistics, scales of measurement
  • Frequency distribution and graphical presentation of data
  • Mean, median, mode, standard deviation
  • Normal probability and tests of significance
  • Coefficient of correlation
  • Statistical packages and its application
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Practice on graphical presentations
  • Practice on computation of measures of central tendency, variability and correlation
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 2: Ch 11 and 13 to 26
  • Communicate and utilize the research findings
Communication and Utilization of Research
  • Communication of research findings
    • Verbal report
    • Writing research report
    • Writing scientific article/paper
      • - Critical review of published research
      • - Utilization of research findings
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Read/presentations of a sample published/ unpublished research report
  • Writing group research project
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
  • Oral presentation
  • Assessment of group research project
Sec 1: Ch 10