Research & Biostatistics for Nurses R Sudha
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fm1Research and Biostatistics for Nursesfm2
fm3Research and Biostatistics for Nurses (As per INC Syllabus)
R Sudha MSc (N) PhD Professor-cum-Principal MA Chidambaram College of Nursing Voluntary Health Services Campus (Affiliated to the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University) Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Foreword S Ani Grace Kalaimathi
fm4
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Research and Biostatistics for Nurses
First Edition: 2017
9789386150974
Printed at
fm5Dedicated to
My students who inspired me, my teachers who provided me wisdom, my friends and colleagues who motivated me and my parents and family members who encouraged and supported me.fm6
fm7Foreword
Most people are unaware that nurses conduct research, but now I am sure people are aware about it.
Nurses and midwives have always had a passion for delivering better care in an ever-changing world. Research-based practice is now the new reality, with nursing knowledge at the core of professionalization. Delivering modern, high-quality care to patients now relies increasingly on routine reference to scientific papers and journals, rather than traditional textbook learning. Acquiring the skills to appraise nursing and medical research papers is a daunting task.
This book is short, readable and useful, without becoming overly bogged down in the mathematical detail that frankly puts so many of us off the subject. I commend this book to all health care professionals. It covers all the ground necessary to critically evaluate the statistical elements of research papers in a friendly and approachable way.
I congratulate the author for her wonderful effort.
Prof Dr S Ani Grace Kalaimathi
RN RM MSc (N) PhD
Registrar (FAC)
Tamil Nadu Nurses and Midwives Councilfm8
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
fm9Preface
In my experience, I have seen students fearing about the course in research and statistics. Many undergraduate and postgraduate students have their concerns and doubts as to whether they could easily do away with the research projects assigned to them or not. This confusion results in a nightmare for most of them. Also the students correlate statistics with mathematics and have a preconception about the subject as to whether they would be able to get through the final exam. Learning materializes only when the mind is fearless, open and relaxed. A receptive mind receives the concepts well and facilitates faster learning.
This book has been written specifically to meet the needs of the nursing students and to draw their interest towards nursing research. It has been organized into two sections—Section 1:Research and Section 2: Biostatistics. In Research section, the chapters are arranged according to the steps of research process and each chapter explains every step in a simple way to help the students learn the concepts easily. In Biostatistics section, the chapters are sequenced from simple to complex concepts, i.e. descriptive to inferential statistics, each with adequate exercises and lot of examples. This book would get the learners involved, keep them on track and help them reach the final destination with great confidence.
One of the learning outcomes of the students learning the subject on research and biostatistics is to undertake a research project and to write the research report. The task of the selection of the right problem for investigation to the completion of report-writing in the form of final project or dissertation is cumbersome for the students and they need proper guidance from their supervisors. This book would help the students in all stages of their research work.
Writing this book was completely a challenging task which required commitment, time and dedication. Utmost care has been taken to avoid errors and the readers are requested to point out the errors, if any, in the text matter and offer suggestions for improvement.fm10
R Sudha
fm11Acknowledgments
I wish to remember and thank all my postgraduate students who have showed keen interest to learn the concepts of Research and Biostatistics and the endless queries and discussions with them motivated me to write this book.
My heartfelt thanks to Prof Dr S Ani Grace Kalaimathi, Registrar, Tamil Nadu Nurses and Midwives Council, my teacher, guide and well-wisher for writing a foreword for this book.
I would like to express my gratitude to all my teachers in the field of nursing, who provided me the due knowledge and guidance. My special thanks to Dr Beulah Shekhar, my PhD guide, for her guidance and support in my growth.
I would like to express my gratitude to all my friends and colleagues, who had helped me by having read-through, offered comments and talked things over to groom this book.
Special thanks to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director–Content Strategy) and Mr Tarun Duneja (Director–Publishing). I would also like to thank for the wonderful work done by Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Publishing), Ms Payal Bharti (Project Manager), Ms Ruby Sharma (Project Manager) and the team of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. The team is very prompt in its work, untiring in its following up and reverting back, which served as a driving force towards the completion of this task.
My sincere thanks to all my family members, especially my parents Mr P Radhakrishnan and Mrs R Rajalakshmi; my husband Mr C Arumugam; my daughters AS Neya and AS Dhaya, who have supported me, spared me for my long work and patiently accepted me for my commitment to complete this book.
fm12INC Syllabus
NURSING RESEARCH AND STATISTICS
Placement: 4th Year
Internship
Hours of Instruction
Theory: 45 Hours
Practical: 45 Hours
Total: 90 Hours
Course Description: The Course is designed to enable students to develop an understanding of basic concepts of research, research process and statistics. It is further, structured to conduct/participate in need-based research studies in various settings and utilize the research findings to provide quality nursing care. The hours for practical will be utilized for conducting individual/group research project.
Unit
Time (Hrs)
Learning Objectives
Content
Training Learning Activities
Assessment Methods
Chap
I
4
  • Describe the concept of research, terms, need and areas of research in nursing.
  • Explain the steps of research process.
Research and Research Process
  • Introduction and need for nursing research
  • Definition of research and nursing research
  • Steps of scientific method
  • Characteristics of good research
  • Steps of research process—overview
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Narrate steps of research process followed from examples of published studies
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 1
II
3
  • Identify and state the research problem and objectives
Research Problem/Question
  • Identification of problem area
  • Problem statement
  • Criteria of a good research problem
  • Writing objectives
  • Lecture discussion
  • Exercise on writing statement of problem and objectives
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 2
III
3
  • Review the related literature
Review of Literature
  • Location
  • Sources
  • Online search; CINAHL, COCHRANE, etc.
  • Purposes
  • Method of review
  • Lecture discussion
  • Exercise on reviewing one research report/article for a selected research problem
  • Prepare annotated bibliography
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 3
fm13
IV
4
  • Describe the research approaches and designs
Research Approaches and Designs
  • Historical, survey and experimental
  • Qualitative and quantitative designs
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Explain types of research approaches used from examples of published and unpublished research studies with rationale
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 5
V
8
  • Explain the process
  • Describe the methods of data collection
Sampling and Data Collection
  • Definition of population, sample, sampling criteria, factors influencing sampling process, types of sampling techniques
  • Data—why, what, from whom, when and where to collect
  • Data collection methods and instruments:
    • Methods of data collection
    • Questioning, interviewing
    • Observations, record analysis and measurement
    • Types of instruments
    • Validity and reliability of the instrument
    • Pilot study
    • Data collection procedure
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Reading assignment on examples of data collection tools
  • Preparation of sample data collection tool
  • Conduct group research project
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 6, 7 and 8
fm14
VI
4
  • Analyze, interpret and summarize the research data
Analysis of Data
  • Compilation, tabulation, classification, summarization, presentation, interpretation of data
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Preparation of sample tables
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 1: Ch 10,
Sec 2: Ch 11 and 12
fm15
VII
15
  • Explain the use of statistics, scales of measure-ment and graphical presentation of data
  • Describe the measures of central tendency and variability and methods of correlation
Introduction to Statistics
  • Definition, use of statistics, scales of measurement
  • Frequency distribution and graphical presentation of data
  • Mean, median, mode, standard deviation
  • Normal probability and tests of significance
  • Coefficient of correlation
  • Statistical packages and its application
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Practice on graphical presentations
  • Practice on computation of measures of central tendency, variability and correlation
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
Sec 2: Ch 11 and 13 to 26
VIII
4
  • Communicate and utilize the research findings
Communication and Utilization of Research
  • Communication of research findings
    • Verbal report
    • Writing research report
    • Writing scientific article/paper
      • - Critical review of published research
      • - Utilization of research findings
  • Lecture Discussion
  • Read/presentations of a sample published/ unpublished research report
  • Writing group research project
  • Short answer
  • Objective type
  • Oral presentation
  • Assessment of group research project
Sec 1: Ch 10