Textbook of Biochemistry for BSc Nursing Pankaja Naik
INDEX
Page numbers followed by ‘f ’ and ‘t’ indicate figures and tables respectively.
A
Abetalipoproteinemia 39, 55
Acetoacetate 48, 50, 70
formation of 48
Acetoacetic acid 100
Acetone 48
Acetyl CoA 7, 40, 42, 73
formation of 7f
Acid-base balance 94, 95, 98, 101
clinical significance 94
maintenance of 74
Acid-base disorders 100, 101, 101t, 102
causes 99
types 99
Acid-base imbalances 101
Acid phosphatase 92
Acidemia 99, 100
Acidosis 100
compensated 100
uncompensated 100
Acids 94
Active transport 4
mechanism 62
Acyl-carnitine 40, 42
Acyl-CoA
synthetases 40, 45
transfer of 40
Adipose tissue 35, 43
Adrenaline 19
Agglutination 125
Alanine 73
Alanine aminotransferase 88, 91
Alanine transaminase 65, 65f, 113
level of 107
Albinism 73
Albumin 74, 75, 79, 94, 96, 111, 116, 119
functions of 75
specific urine dipsticks 23
transports 62
Albuminuria 77, 118
Alcohols, long-chain 32
Aldehyde 1
Aldolase 91
Aldosterone 47
Alkalemia 100
Alkali, excretion of 100
Alkali reserve 99
Alkaline phosphatase 88, 91, 111, 113
Alkalosis 100
compensated 100
uncompensated 100
Alkapton 72
Alkaptonuria 72
Allergy, anaphylactic type of 125
Allosteric enzyme 7
Alpha-amino acid, structure of 59f
Alpha-amino group, removal of 63
Amino acids 59, 62, 63, 64f, 68, 69f, 69t
absorption of 62
based on metabolic fate 60
based on nutrition 59
breakdown of 63
classification of 59, 64t
made-up of 59
metabolism of 59, 63
standard 59
Amino group 63, 65
Aminopeptidases 61
Aminotransferases 63
Ammonia 63, 65, 67
disposal of 63, 65
form of 65
formation of 99, 99f
increased level of 67
transport form of 65
Ammonia intoxication 67
Ammonium ions
excretion of 99f
in urine 99
Amphibolic 10f
process 9
Amphipathic 45
Amphipathic phospholipids, layer of 51
Antibodies 74, 76
synthesis of 123
Antibody molecules 126
Antigen
antibody reaction 127
binding receptor 125
complementary 127
destruction of 127, 129
estimation of 129
receptor 125
Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies 120
Anti-TSH receptor antibodies 120
Anuria 116
Apolipoprotein 51
Apoprotein 51
Arachidonic acid 36
synthesis of 36
Arginase 67
Arginine 60, 67, 69, 70
formation of 66
Argininosuccinase 66, 67
Argininosuccinate, formation of 66
Argininosuccinate lyase 66
Argininosuccinate synthetase 66, 67
Aromatic amino acid metabolism 70
Arterial blood gas 101, 102
normal values of 101, 101t
Arteries
hardening of 52
narrowing of 52
Aspartate aminotransferase 65, 65f, 8789, 91, 113
Aspartic acid 69
Asthma 100
Atherosclerosis 52, 54
development of 45, 53
prevention of 53
risk of 53
Autoimmune disorder 20, 78
Autoimmune thyroid diseases 119
Azotemia 116
B
B lymphocyte 123
B lymphocyte, surface of 125
Bacterial enzymes beta-glucuronidase 105
Bases 94
Basophils 125
Beeswax 32
Bence-Jones proteins 79
Benedict's qualitative test 23
Benign proteinuria 77
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid 100
Beta-oxidation
of fatty acids 41f, 42
regulation of 42
Bicarbonate 37, 97
buffer system 96
buffer, mechanism of action of 96
ion 94, 97
reabsorption of 99
Bile acid 47
formation of 47
synthesis of 48f
Bile salts 48, 70, 104, 105
Bilirubin
conjugation of 105, 105f
excretion of 105
formation of 105
metabolism of 106f, 112f
secretion of 105
serum 108, 111
Bilirubin diglucuronide 105, 111
Biliverdin 105
Biological molecules 84
Biosynthesis 43t
Blood buffers 95, 96
Blood cholesterol 35
Blood coagulation, role in 75
Blood glucose estimation 23
in fasting state 18
in fed state 18
level, regulation of 17f
test, random 27
Blood group polysaccharides 2
Blood pH 94, 101
regulation of 95
Blood pressure 35
maintenance of 74
Blood, principal buffers of 96t
Blood sugar testing 24
postprandial 23
random 23
Blood urea, elevation of 116
Blood urea nitrogen 67
nursing implications 68
Body fluid 95
normal pH of 95t
Body immune system 123
Bone
cancers 89
collagen in 62
diseases of 87, 88
diagnostic enzymes in 91
Bone marrow 104
Brain tissue 69
Buffer 94, 95, 98
extracellular 96
function of 75
mechanism 95
system 96
Burns 78
C
Campylobacter 130
Carbamoyl phosphate, formation of 66
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-I 66, 66f, 67
Carbohydrate digestion, end-products of 4
Carbohydrates 32
absorption of 4
classification of 1
digestion of 2, 3f
disorders of 4
functions of 1, 2
metabolism of 1
Carbon acids 34, 94
Carbon atoms, number of 34
Carbon skeleton, metabolic fate of 64f
Carbonic acid, concentration of 100
Carbonic anhydrase 97, 98, 99
Carboxyl group 33
Carboxylic acid head group 33
Carboxypeptidase 61
Cardiac, diseases of 87
Cardiac markers 89
Cardiac-specific troponin 89
Cardiac tissue 87
Cardiac troponin 90
Carnitine 40
Carnitine acyl transferase 40, 42
Carnitine transport system 40, 40f
Catalyze biological reactions 84
Cell membranes 45
Cellular damage, marker of 87
Cerebronic acid 34
Cerebrosides 32
Chemical buffers 94
Chemical examination 116
Chenodeoxycholic acid 47
Chloride ions 97
shift of 98
Chloride shift 97
Cholecystitis 89
Cholecystokinin 37
Cholestasis 107
Cholesterol 39, 47f, 52
bad 37, 46, 52
biosynthesis of 46
stages of 46f
breakdown of 36
classification of 54t
compounds formed from 47
ester 32, 38, 39, 45, 51
hydrolase 38
hydrolysis of 38
good 52
increased concentration of 54
metabolism 45
normal values of 54
structure of 46f
transport of 46
reverse 46, 52
Cholic acid 47
Chondroitin sulfate 2
Chylomicrons 39, 46, 51, 52
Chyme 37
Chymosin 61
Chymotrypsin 61
Chymotrypsinogen 61, 84
Cigarette smoking 53
Cirrhosis 78, 89, 114
Citrate synthase 8
Citric acid cycle 8, 5, 63
amphibolic nature of 9
per turn, energetics of 9
reactions of 8, 9f
regulation of 9
significance of 9
Citrulline 66
formation of 66
Clearance test 117
Coenzyme 85, 86, 86t
Colloidal osmotic pressure 75
maintenance of 74
Constant heavy chain 124
Constant light chain 124
Cori cycle 12
pathway of 12f
Coronary artery disease 54
risk for 55, 55t
C-reactive protein 75
Creatine 69
serum 116, 118
Creatine kinase 87, 8991
isoenzyme, composition of 87t
Creatine phosphate 117
Creatinine clearance tests 117
Cyclic fatty acids 35
Cysteine 69, 70
D
Dehydrogenase 7
Deoxycholic acid 48
Deoxyribose 2
Dermatan sulfate 2
Dermatomyositis 88
Diabetes mellitus 20, 50, 53, 77, 116
cause 20
classification of 20
complications of 21
diagnosis of 23t
investigations of 22
management of 22
treatment 21
type-1 20
type-2 21
types of 21t
uncontrolled 100
Diabetic glycosuria 20
Diabetic ketoacidosis 21
coma 22
Diabetic nephropathy 77, 116
Dietary
phospholipids, hydrolysis of 38
triacylglycerols, hydrolysis of 38
Dihydrobiopterin reductase 70
Dihydroxy acetone phosphate 6, 44
Dihydroxy-phenylalanine 68
Diminished glucose tolerance 25
Dinucleotide phosphate 105
Dipeptidases 61
Dipstick test 23
Disaccharides 1, 3
Disulfide bonds 123
Disulfide bridges 124
Docosahexaenoic acid 36
E
Edema 75, 77, 78
development of 76
Ehrlich's test 109
Eicosapentaenoic acid 36
Elastase 61
Electric field, application of 79f
Electrical insulators 32
Electrolyte 101
concentrations 101
serum 101t
Electrophoresis 74, 86
apparatus 79f
clinical uses of 80
pattern
abnormal 80
normal 80
principle of 79
Electrophoretic
patterns of
different 81
serum 81f
separation of serum proteins 80f
ELISA
analysis for COVID-19 130f
applications of 130
data interpretation 131
investigation of 127
microtiter plate 127f
principle of 127
test 127t
types of 127
competitive 129
direct 127, 128f
indirect 128, 128f
sandwich 129
Embden-Meyerhof pathway 5
Emphysema 100
Endoplasmic reticulum 46
fractions 46
Energy generating phase 7
Energy
requiring phase 5
storage form of 32
Enolase 7
Entamoeba 130
Enterohepatic urobilinogen cycle 106
Enzymatic chemical reaction 127
Enzymatic method 54
Enzyme 127t
active form of 84
arginase 67
assays, selection of 90
branching 12
classification 84
code number 85
debranching 14
defective 67
glycogen phosphorylase 14
immunoassay technique 127
in diagnosis of
liver disease 113
myocardial infarction 89t
labeled primary detector antibody 129
linked secondary antibody 128, 129
marker 89
nature of 84
of diagnostic importance 87, 88t
phosphotriose isomerase 6
secreted by pancreas 61
succinate thiokinase 8
translocase 40
tyrosinase, inherited deficiency of 73
Enzyme Commission of International Union of Biochemistry 84
Enzymology, clinical 84
Epinephrine 15, 19
stimulates 45
Essential amino acid 60, 60t, 73
semi 60, 67
Essential fatty acids 36
clinical significance of 36
Estrogen 47
Euthyroidism 118
F
Fasting blood glucose test 27
Fasting blood sugar 23
Fatty acids 32, 34, 39, 43, 43t
action of 40, 40f
beta-oxidation of 40
biosynthesis of 43
branched 34
classification of 33, 33f
degradation of 43
functions of 35
oxidation of 39, 42
saturated 34t
structure of 33f
substituted 34
synthesis of 10, 43
unsaturated 34, 34t
Fatty acyl-CoA 40, 44, 45
Fibers, dietary 2
Fibrinogen 63, 74, 75, 77
functions of 77
Fluid, loss of 78
Fouchet's test 109, 113
Free ammonia 65
Free fatty acids 45
Free T3 and T4, serum 119, 120
Free thyroxine, normal values of
Friedewald equation 55
Fructose
polysaccharide of 117
transport of 4f
Fructose-6-phosphate 5, 17
Fumarate, formation of 66
Fumarylacetoacetate hydroxylase 72
G
Galactose 2
transport of 4f
Gallbladder, inflammation of 89
Gallstones 89
Gamma-globulin 74, 76, 123
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 88, 89
Gangliosides 32
Genetic diseases, group of 15
Globulins 63, 7476, 104
alpha 76
beta 76
filtration rate 117
estimation of 115, 117
functions of 76
gamma 76
subtypes of 74
Glomerular injury, sign of 77
Glomerular proteinuria 77
Glucagon 19
Glucagon inhibits 7
Glucocorticoids 19, 47
Glucogenic amino acids 60
Glucokinase 18
Gluconeogenesis 5, 10, 18
pathway of 11f
reactions of 10
significance of 12
Glucose
formation of 68
transport of 4f
Glucose challenge test 26
Glucose in liver, metabolic pathways for 5f
Glucose meter 24
Glucose pyrophosphorylase 12
Glucose test 22
Glucose tolerance curve 25f
normal 25
types of 25
Glucose tolerance test 2426
extended 26
importance of 24
oral 25, 27
types of 24
Glucose-6-phosphate 4, 5, 7, 10, 14
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 15, 17, 107
Glucuronic acid in liver 105f
Glucuronyl transferase 105
Glutamate dehydrogenase 65
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 65
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 65
serum 87, 89
Glutamate transaminase, action of 65
Glutamic acid 69, 70
Glutamine 65
Glycans 2
Glycated hemoglobin estimation 24
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 17
Glycerol kinase 45
in liver 45
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 44
Glycerophospholipid, hydrolysis of 38f
Glycerophospholipids 32
Glycine 69
Glycogen breakdown 19
Glycogen metabolism 12
Glycogen phosphorylase, action of 14
Glycogen storage disease 15, 15t
Glycogen synthase 12, 15, 18
Glycogenesis 5, 12, 18
mechanism of branching 13f
pathway of 13f
reactions of 12
regulation of
significance of 14
Glycogenolysis 5, 13, 19
in liver 13f
mechanism of debranching 14f
reactions of 14
regulation of 14
significance of 14
Glycolipids 32, 35
Glycolysis 5, 8t, 10, 18
aerobic 7f, 8
energetics of 8
importance of 7
reactions of 5, 6f
regulation of 7
Glycoprotein 92
Glycosphingolipids 32
Glycosuria 19, 20
alimentary 19
Good cholesterol 37, 46, 52
Gravity, specific 116
Growth hormone 26
H
Haemoglobin
buffering action of 97f
metabolism of 104
Hair, keratin of 62
Hartnup disease 73
Hay's test 109
Healthy cell membranes, formation of 36
Heart attack 37
Heme
catabolism 104
degradation pathway 104, 105f
oxygenase 105
synthesis 10, 104
Hemoglobin 94, 104
Hemoglobin buffer 97
mechanism of action of 97
Hemoglobin molecule 104
Hemoglobin transports oxygen 62
Hemolysis 108
Hemolytic jaundice 107, 112, 113
Heparin 2
Hepatic enzyme tyrosine transaminase 72
Hepatitis 89
infective 81
Hepatocellular damage 107
Heteroglycans 2
Heteropolysaccharides 2
Hexokinase 7
Hexose monophosphate shunt 5
High blood urea, causes of
Hinge region 124
Histamine 69
Histidine 60, 69
imidazole groups of 96
residues 96
Homogentisate oxidase 70, 72
Homoglycans 2
Homopolysaccharides 2
Hormone epinephrine 68
Hormone gastrin 61
Hormone insulin 7
Hormone thyroxine 68
Hormone-sensitive lipase 18, 45
Human cells, universal energy source for 1
Human immunodeficiency virus 80
diagnosis of 128
Hyaluronic acid 2
Hydnocarpic acid 35
Hydration 41
Hydrochloric acid 61, 94
Hydrogen 97
Hydrolase 85
Hyperammonemia 67
Hyperbilirubinemia toxic encephalopathy 108
Hyperbilirubinemia, unconjugated 107
Hyperglobulinemia 77, 78
Hyperglycemia 17, 20, 22
postprandial 18
Hyperglycemic condition 18
Hyperlipemia, alimentary 39
Hyperlipidemia 53
Hyperphenylalaninemia, type 71
Hypersensitivity, anaphylactic type of 125
Hypertension 53, 77, 116
Hyperthyroidism 118, 120
Hypoalbuminemia 76
Hypoglycemia 17, 18, 27
causes 26, 27
reactive 26
treatment 27
Hypoglycemic condition 18
Hypopigmentation 73
Hypoproteinemia 77, 78
Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid 119, 119f
Hypothyroidism 118, 120
primary 119
I
Icterus 106
Illness 77
Imbalance, clinical significance 94
Immature liver enzyme system 108
Immunochemistry 123
Immunoglobulins 74, 77, 78, 126
concentration of 78
different classes of 124t
different types of 126t
functions of 123, 125, 126t
pentameric forms of 125f
structure 123, 126t
Immunosorbent 127
Insulin 17, 45, 63
action 20
lack of 20
resistance 21
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 85
classification of enzymes 85t
Intestinal enzymes 4
Intestinal epithelium 62f
Intestinal lumen 39f
Intestinal mucosal cells 38
Intestine, digestion in 3, 61
Intracellular buffer 97
Intracellular enzymes, number of 89
Intracellular fluid 96
buffers of 96
Inulin clearance test 117
Isobutyric acid 34
Isocitrate 8
Isocitrate dehydrogenase, presence of 8
Isoenzymes 87
clinical importance of 87
examples of 86
significance 86
Isoleucine 60
Isomaltase 2
Isomerase 85
Isovaleric acid 34
J
Jaundice
acholuric 107
blood and urine investigations 108
causes of 106, 107
diagnosis of 108, 108t
differential diagnosis of 112
hemolytic 107
hepatic 107, 112, 113
hepatocellular 107
neonatal 107, 108
obstructive 107
physiologic 108
posthepatic 107
prehepatic 107, 113
types of 106, 107, 113t
K
Keratan sulfate 2
Kernicterus 108
Ketoacidosis 20, 23, 50
Ketogenic amino acids 60
Ketone 1
Ketone bodies 21, 50
formation and fate of 49f
formation of 49, 50f
interconversion of 48f
significance of 49
types and significance 48
utilization of 49
Ketone body metabolism, disorders of 50
Ketone test 23
Ketonemia 50
Ketosis 50
Kidney disease 75
Kreb's Henseleit urea cycle 66
Krebs cycle 8
Kwashiorkor 78
L
Lactase enzyme 2
Lactate dehydrogenase 86, 8991
Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 87f
composition of 87t
Lactating mammary glands 43
Lactic acid 34
Lactic acid cycle 12, 12f, 19
Lactose 1, 2
Lanolin 32
Leucine 60
Ligaments, elastin of 62
Ligase 85
Light chain disease 79
Linoleic acid 36
Lipase in intestine 38f
Lipid digestion, abnormalities in 39
Lipid malabsorption 39
Lipid profile 53
levels 56
Lipids 31
absorption of 38
classification of 31
complex 32
compound 32
derived 32
dietary 38
digestion and absorption of 37
digestion of 37
functions of 32
metabolism of 31, 39
simple 31, 43
structural 32, 36
Lipolysis 45
Lipoproteins 32, 51, 51f
cholesterol
high-density 55
low density 55
function of 50, 52
high-density 37, 52
low-density 37, 52
structure of 51f
synthesis and function 52t
types of 50, 51
very low-density 52
Lithocholic acid 48
Liver 49, 63, 126
detoxification function of 111
diseases of 87
inflammation of 89
Liver adipose tissue 45
Liver cirrhosis 81
Liver disease 87, 88, 90
diagnostic enzymes in 87
Liver disorders 75
Liver enzyme assay 109, 114
Liver from ammonia 67
Liver function tests 111, 114
major 111t
Lungs 97
Lyase 85
Lymphoid tissues 74
Lysine 60
Lysis 126
Lysophospholipid 39
M
Malignancy 78
Malnutrition 75
Malonyl-CoA 43
Maltose 1, 2
Mannose, transport of 4f
Mast cells 125
Maternal antibody 124
Melanin 72
biosynthesis of 73f
protects 73
Mental retardation 72
Metabolic
acidosis 50, 100
alkalosis 100
resources 45
systems affected insulin 18f
Metabolism 70
Methionine 69
Methyl terminus 33
Microalbumin test 23
Microalbuminuria 77, 116
Microtiter plate 127, 128
Mineralocorticoids 47
Mitochondria 8, 40, 40f, 43
Mixed micelles 38
Molecular weight 123
Monomeric molecule 125
Monosaccharides 1, 3
Monounsaturated fatty acid 34
clinical significance of 35
Mousy odor 72
Mouth, digestion in 3
Muscle diseases 87, 88
diagnostic enzymes in 91
Muscular dystrophy 90, 91
progressive 88
Myeloma, multiple 78
Myocardial infarction 87, 88, 90
acute 89
diagnostic enzymes in 89
N
National Cholesterol Education Program 54t
Nephron 115
components of 115f
Nephrosis 82
Nephrotic syndrome 77, 116
Nervous system 36
Neurological symptoms 74
Neurotransmitter 69
Neutral fat 31, 40, 43
Neutralization 126
Nicotinamide adenine 105
Nitric oxide 70
Nitrogen base 32
Nitrogen, sources of 59
Nitroprusside reaction 23
Nonessential amino acids 60, 60t
Norepinephrine 68
Nutrition fate 59
Nutritive function 76
Nystagmus 73
O
Obstructive jaundice 107, 112
Oligosaccharides 1
Oliguria 116
Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids 35f
Omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids 35f
Oncotic pressure 74,77
Organ function tests 111
and interpretation 111
Ornithine transcarbamoylase 66, 67
Ornithine, formation of 66
Osmotic diuresis 22
Osmotic pressure 78
Oxaloacetate 8, 10
Oxaloacetate
to PEP 10
formation of 65
Oxidation by
FAD 41
NAD 41
Oxidoreductase 85
Oxynervonic acids 34
P
Palmitic acid 42, 42f
Pancreas 84t
Pancreatic alpha-amylase 3
Pancreatic beta cells, destruction of 20
Pancreatic enzymes 3
Pancreatic proenzymes, action of 61f
Pancreozymin 37
Pentose phosphate pathway 15, 16f
reactions of 15
regulation of 17
significance of y 17
Pepsin 61
action of 61f
Pepsinogen 61, 84
action of 61f
Peptide bonds 62
pH 94, 95, 101, 116
neutral 95
normal value 95
of arterial blood 95
of extracellular fluid 94
Phenyl-acetate 72
Phenylalanine 60, 69, 70
accumulation of 71
inborn errors of 70
metabolism of 71f
Phenylalanine hydroxylase 70
Phenylketonuria 70, 71
atypical 71
characteristics of 71
classification of 71
Phenylpyruvate 71
Phosphatidylinositol 35
Phosphoglucomutase 12, 14
Phosphoglycerate mutase 7
Phosphohexose isomerase 5
Phospholipase alpha-2 38
in intestine 38f
Phospholipids 32, 35
Phosphopentose epimerase 16, 17
Phosphopentose isomerase 16
Phosphorylase, action of 14
Phosphorylation, level 7
Photophobia 73
Pituitary gland, growth hormone of 63
Pituitary hormones, anterior 19
Plaque, formation of 52, 53f
Plasma 74
bicarbonate levels of 100
separation of 79
Plasma cells 76
Plasma lipids of normal 39t
Plasma lipoproteins 45
Plasma pH, measurement of 99
Plasma proteins
albumin 63
buffer 96
functions of 74
major classes of 75t
major forms of 74
normal value of 75
synthesis of 114
types of 74, 75
function and normal values 74
Plasma urea concentration, reduced 68
Pneumonia 100
Polymyositis 91
Polysaccharides 13
Polyunsaturated fats 36
Polyunsaturated fatty acid 34, 35
clinical significance of 35
Polyuria 116
Postrenal proteinuria 78
Pregnancy, normal 77
Procarboxypeptidase 61, 84
Proelastase 61
Proenzyme 84
Propionyl-CoA 42
Prostaglandins 35, 36
Prostate cancer 87, 88
diagnostic enzymes in 92
Prostate-specific antigen 92
measurement of 92
Prostatic acid phosphatase 92
Protease, mild 92
Proteins 51, 59f, 89
buffer 96
dietary 61
digestion and absorption of 60
enzymatic function of 75
formation of 68
functions of 62
in nature 84
in urine 116
metabolism of 62, 63, 67
role of 74
serum 114
concentration of 114
separation of 74, 79
Proteinuria 77, 116
causes of 77
overload 78
types of 77
Proteinuria hematuria 115
Pyrimidine bases 69
Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme 7
Pyruvate kinase 7
R
Red blood cell 97
Renal calculus 116
Renal control mechanism 19
Renal function, assessment of 118
Renal function tests 115, 115t
serum markers of 115, 116
urine markers of 115
Renal glycosuria 20
Renal mechanism 95, 98
Renal system 94
Renal tubular fluid 96
Renal uremia 68
Rennet 61
Respiration, role of 97f
Respiratory
acidosis 100
alkalosis 100
mechanism 95, 98
Respiratory system 94
Ribonucleic acid 84
Ribose 2
Ribozymes 84
Richner-Hanhart syndrome 72
Rotavirus, destruction of 130
Rothera's qualitative test 23
S
Salmonella 130
Secretin 37
Semenogelase 92
Serotonin 74
Sickle hemoglobin 107
Skeletal muscle 88
diseases of 87
Skin cancer 73
Skin-pigment melanin 68
Small intestine, digestion in 37
Sodium hydroxide 94, 96
Sodium-dependent glucose transporter 4
Spermaceti oil 32
Sphingol 32
Sphingophospholipids 32
Staple, dietary 2
Starvation 100
Stearic acid 39
Steatorrhea 39
Stercobilin 106, 112
form of 106
Stercobilinogen 106
Steroid hormones 33, 47
formation of 47f
Steroids 32
Stomach 84t
digestion in 3, 61
Stones 89
Stroke 37
Succinyl acetone 72
Succinyl-CoA 42, 104
Sucrose 1, 2
Sulfanilic acid, diazotized 108
T
T lymphocytes 123
Taurochenodeoxycholic acids 48
Testosterone 47
Tetrasaccharides 1
Thermal insulator 32
Thiamine pyrophosphate 16f
Thymine 69
Thyroid autoantibodies 120
Thyroid binding globulin 119
Thyroid function tests 118
major 119, 119t
Thyroid gland failure 119
Thyroid hormones, synthesis of 118
Thyroid-stimulating hormone 119
normal values of 120
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone 119
Thyroxine 19, 118
binding pre albumin 119
Tissue protein, synthesis of 68
Tomato juice 94
Trans fatty acids 36, 37
Transaldolase 17
Transaldolase catalyzes 17
Transaminases, serum 113
Transamination 10
reactions, significance of 65
Transferase 85
Transketolase catalyzes 17
Translocases 40, 85
Triacylglycerol metabolism 43
regulation of 45
Triacylglycerols 31, 35, 37, 39, 43, 51, 52
degradation of 45
functions of 43
hydrolysis of 38f
sructure of 44f
synthesis of 44, 44f
Tricarboxylic acid 8
Triglycerides 31, 35, 40
decreased concentration of 55
increased concentration of 54
serum 54, 54t
Triiodothyronine 118120
normal values of 120
Trisaccharides 1
Trypsin 61
Trypsinogen 61, 84
Tryptophan 60, 69, 70
inborn errors of 73
metabolism of 73f
renal transport of 73
Tubular fluid 98f, 99
Tubular proteinuria 78
Tubular reabsorption, reduced 78
Tumors 89
Tyrosine 60, 70, 71f
inborn errors of 70
Tyrosine transaminase 70
Tyrosinemia 72
neonatal 72
types of 72
Tyrosinosis 72
U
Ultracentrifugation 51
Uracil 69
Urea 116
clearance test 117
cycle 63, 66
enzymes, genetic defects of 67t
metabolic disorders of 67
reactions of 66f
significance of 67
symptoms of disorders of 67
formation of 66
level, measure of 67
Uremia 68t
postrenal 68
prerenal 68
Uridine
diphosphate glucose 13
triphosphate 13
Urine
analysis 115, 118
bilirubin 112
osmolality, measurement of 118
testing 22, 109
Urobilin 106
form of 112
Urobilinogen 105, 106, 112
V
Van den Bergh reaction 112
Van den Bergh test 108
Variable heavy chain 124
Variable light chain 124
Viral infections, destruction of 130
Vitamins 85, 86, 86t, 131
Vitamins 86t
A ester 32
biotin 86
cyanocobalamin (B12) 86
D 33, 47
D3, formation of 47f
E 36
folic acid 86
niacin 69, 73, 86
biosynthesis of 73f
synthesis of 74
pantothenic acid 86
pyridoxine (B6) 86
riboflavin (B2) 86
thiamine (B1) 86
Volume 116
Vomiting, severe 100
W
Waxes 32
Wells, number of 127
X
Xylulose-5-phosphate 17
Z
Zymogens 84, 84t
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Chapter Notes

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