Roshan Lall Gupta’s Recent Advances in Surgery (Volume 18) Prof Puneet
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen 81f
acute 186
lower 106
ultrasonography of 61, 63t
upper 106
Abdominal drains 178
usage of 178
Abdominal surgery, elective 180
Abdominal wall, layers of 100
Ablative therapies 168
Abortion 59
Abscess 61, 68, 69
intra-abdominal 67
Absorption 18f
Acetaminophen 177
Achalasia 43, 44f
cardia 43, 44f
diagnosis of 43
Achlorhydria 77
Acute abdominal decision making model 11
Acute appendicitis 53, 54, 58, 63, 63t, 68t, 71
diagnosis of 53, 61
intraoperative grading of 67
Adenocarcinoma 137
staging system of 77
Adenomas
adrenal 152
non-functional 153
Adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, mixed 77
Adjuvant chemotherapy 185, 254
use of 266
Adrenal adenoma, contrast-enhanced computed tomography of 158f
Adrenal gland, hypersecreting 161
Adrenal hyperplasia, bilateral 164
Adrenal incidentaloma 151153, 155t, 159b
differential diagnosis of 152, 153f
majority of 152
management of 151, 160
Adrenal masses, malignant 158t
Adrenal tumors, nonfunctional benign 166
Adrenalectomy 162f
laparoscopic 161, 165
Adrenaline 151, 174
Adrenocortical carcinoma 153155
contrast-enhanced computed tomography of 158f
management of 166
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 155, 174
confirmation of 156
Adult appendicitis score 54, 5658, 62
Advanced vessel sealing devices 67
Adverse allergic reactions 19
Albumin 19
ischemia-modified 60
Aldosterone 153
hypersecretion 154
secreting lesions 164
serum 156
simultaneous hypersecretion of 156
Aldosteronism 156
subclinical primary 164
surgical outcome, primary 165
Aldosteronomas 164
Alkaline phosphate 115
Allergy 198
Alpha-blockers 156
Alpha-fetoprotein 261, 262, 266
Alvarado scoring method 54
Alvimopan 179
American Association for Surgery of Trauma 68
American College of Gastroenterology 136, 142
American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 7, 66
American Joint Committee on Cancer 264
Tumor 75
American Society of Anesthesiologists 176, 181, 198
classification 7
Amniotic membrane 239
allograft 239
Analgesia
multimodal 181, 187
patient-controlled 179
Analgesics 176
drugs, usage of 178
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase 216
Anastomotic biliary stricture 127
Androgen
excess 155
hypersecretion, majority of 156
Androstenedione 156
Anesthesia 7, 181
local 198
monitoring depth of 7
regional 198
thoracic epidural 198
Anesthetic gases, humidification of 178
Angiodysplasia 137, 138, 140, 142
Angioectasia 138
Angioembolization 142f
Angiography 35, 146
Angiomatous malformations 138f, 143
diagnosis of 141
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 156
Angiotensin-receptor blockers 156
Ankle-brachial pressure index 229
Anomalous biliary anatomy, suspicion of 26
Antibiotics 235
prophylaxis 187
Antiemetics, different class of 177
Antigen, carcinoembryonic 250
Anti-hypertensive medication 156, 165
Antimicrobial prophylaxis 181
Antiseptics 235
Anxiety 154, 175
Anxiousness 90
Aortoenteric fistula 138
Apfel score 177
Aphasia 218
Appendectomy 64, 69
laparoscopic 67, 70
timing of 66
Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors 95
Appendicectomy, incidental 53
Appendicitis 61, 63, 70
acuta multicenter 64
acute 53, 54, 58, 63, 63t, 68t, 71
complicated 67, 70
inflammatory response 54, 56, 57, 62
score 57
perforated 69
uncomplicated 6467, 71
urinary biomarker 60
Appendix 68
region of 61
Areola, removal of 253
Argentaffinomas 74
Armamentarium 82
Arrhythmias 154
Arterial blood gas 187
Arterial disease, peripheral 229
Arterial reconstruction, benefit of 119
Arteriovenous malformations 141
surgery 33
Artery, pulmonary 203, 204f
Artificial intelligence 19, 10f, 1113, 201
applications of 3
limitations of 11
role of 5, 7, 11,
tools, Gartner hype cycle for 4f
use of 5f
Artificial neural networks 2
Aspirin 240
Asthma 176
Atezolizumab 215
Atherosclerosis 33
Atrophie blanche 226
Atrophy-hypertrophy complex 26
Autoimmune disorders 131
Autoimmune inflammatory disease 131
Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells 218
Autologous stem cell transplantation 273
Autonomic nervous system 174
Autonomous cortisol secretion 155
mild 162
Avelumab 215
Axicabtagene ciloleucel 218
Axillary nodes, assessment of 252
B
Balloon
dilatation 130
serial inflation of 144
B-cell
acute lymphocytic leukemia 218
malignancy 218
maturation antigen 218
Benign biliary stricture 113, 113t, 118t, 126, 126f, 128, 129
management of 113
repair 26
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin 261, 262, 266
Beta-lipoprotein 19
Bile duct
anastomosis, end-to-end 124
injury 26, 114, 120, 121t
mucosa 118
sharp transection of 124
stricture 122
Biliary anatomy, delineation of 25
Biliary anomalies 127
Biliary cirrhosis, secondary 126
Biliary enteric anastomosis 126
Biliary injury, management of 116
Biliary stricture
benign 113, 113t, 118t, 126, 126f, 128, 129
classification of 120
Biliary tract, surgery of 25
Biliary tree 26, 116
anomalies 23
Bilioenteric anastomosis 113, 129
Biliopathy, portal 113
Biopsy 81f, 160
forms of 253
metastatic lesion 261
pleural 195
Bipolar energy devices 67
Bisacodyl 179
Bismuth classification 121t
Bispectral index 7
Bleeding
disorders 140
duration of 139
gastrointestinal 136, 143
intestinal 136
lesions 144
types of 144, 144t
occult 144
overt 144
pattern of 140
rates 146
source of 136
Bleomycin 269, 270
Blood
circulation 35
pressure 181
Blurred vision 90
Body
mass index 198
temperature 55
Botulinum injection 46
Bowel
disease, inflammatory 137
preparation 177, 181
mechanical 173, 181
severe hypoperfusion of 30
Branched-chain aminotransferase 232
Breast 153
cancer 35, 216, 251
carcinomas 214
conservation surgery 253, 254
Paget's disease of 249, 251f
reconstruction 255f
skin-saving mastectomy 255f
surgery 30
tumor 255
Buffalo hump 161
Burn wounds, grading of 35
C
Calcifications 128
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 238
Calcium
channel blockers 156
dobesilate 240
Calf muscle pump 224
screening for 228
Calf perforator vein 227
Calot's triangle 26
Calprotectin, exclusion of 60
Cameron's erosions 141
Cancer 211
cell 211
invasive 255
cervical 216
colorectal 131, 214
endometrial 216
esophageal 195, 196, 216
gallbladder 131
head and neck 216
immunotherapy 214
increasing stage of 255
prostate 219
vaccines 218
Capecitabine 81f, 85
Capsule
directed deep enteroscopy 145
endoscopy 142144, 144t, 148
Carbohydrates
complex 176
rich liquids 175
Carbon dioxide insufflator 42
Carboplatin 85, 273
single cycle of 275
Carcinoid syndrome 77, 78, 95
incidence of 77
management of 83
symptoms of 95
Carcinoid tumor 74, 137
Carcinoma 137
adrenocortical 153155
colorectal 214
embryonal 259, 268
endometrial 217
hepatocellular 6, 214
invasive 249
neuroendocrine 76, 76f, 86
rectum 32f
urothelial 216
Cardiac index 177
Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic 140
Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator 34
Cardiothoracic surgery 33
side hustle of 194
Cardiovascular disease, severe 138
Carinal resections 197
Catecholamines 153
excessive 90
hypersecretion 154
production of 174
Central nervous system 218
toxicity 272
Central venous catheter 21
Cerebral atrophy 272
Cerebrovascular surgery 32
Champagne glass sign 44f
Charge-coupled device 19
Chemoembolization, transarterial 96, 113
Chemokines 215
Chemotherapy 85, 273
adjuvant 185, 254
conventional dosage 273
cycles of 275
first cycle of 272
high-dose 273
hyperthermic intraperitoneal 8
Chest wall 194, 196
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy 217
Chlorhexidine-based solution 176
Cholangiocarcinoma 130, 131
Cholangiography 26
intraoperative 24
Cholangiopancreatography 116
Cholangiopathy
eosinophilic 113
inflammatory 113
single-operator 122
Cholecystectomy 26, 113
laparoscopic 25
Cholecystitis, acute 26
Cholecystokinin 78
Choledochojejunostomy 129
Cholelithiasis, development of 83
Choriocarcinoma 259, 268
Chromogranin 75
Chronic venous disease 225
Ciltacabtagene autoleucel 218
Cirrhosis 138, 140
Cisplatin 85, 269, 270, 273
Clinical prediction rules 54, 55t, 57t
Clinical scoring system 54, 62f
Clot evacuation 196
Coagulation disorders 198
Coagulopathy 140
Coley's therapies 215
Colon adenocarcinomas 217
Colorectal anastomosis, vascularity of 27
Colorectal surgery, emergency 185
Common bile duct 26, 114, 121
junction 27f
Complex oncological operations 195
Complex surgical procedure 11
Component separation techniques 108
Compression
materials 237
methods 237
stockings 238
therapy 236
Computed tomography 62, 80, 81f, 84f, 92f, 118, 136, 145, 147, 148, 151, 152, 158
abdomen 61
angiography 145
contrast-enhanced 78, 87f, 261f, 262f, 271f
role of 230, 263
three-dimensional 194, 202
Computer vision 2, 4f, 8
Concomitant vascular injury 120
Confocal laser endomicroscopy 118
Confusion 90, 218
Conn's adenoma 153, 161f, 165
Conn's syndrome 154
Continuous positive airway pressure 187
Cooper's ligaments 103
Corona phlebectatica 226
Coronary artery bypass surgery 33
Cortisol 78, 174
hypersecretion 153
diagnosis of 156
levels 156
secreting lesions 161
simultaneous hypersecretion of 156
COVID-19 pandemic 186
Cowden disease 140
C-reactive protein 57
Crohn's disease 137, 143
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome 140
Cross-leg flaps 239
Crural vein 227
Cryptorchidism 260
Crystalloid administration, intraoperative 177
Cushing's adenoma 153, 161f
Cushing's syndrome 77, 162
clinical features of 161
Cyanoacrylate embolization 244
Cystic duct 26
clipping of 123
Cysts 153
Cytokine
concentrations 234
inflammatory 223
release syndrome 218
Cytometry, advantage of 213
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 215
D
da Vinci robotic surgical system 20, 21f
Deep enteroscopy 144, 147
road map for 143
Deep learning 4f
Deep vein thrombosis 93, 224
Deficient mismatch repair 216, 217
Dehydration 239
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 155
testing serum levels of 156
Dense fibrous Glisson's sheath 23
Dense perihepatic fibrosis 25
Deoxyribonucleic acid 212
damage, cisplatin-induced 274
Depression 93
Dermal backflow pattern 34
Dermatitis 93
Device-assisted deep enteroscopy 144, 145
Diabetes mellitus 46, 93, 176, 181
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy 47
Diaphragm 196
Diaphragmatic hernia repair 196
Diaphragmatic plication 196
Diarrhea 83, 85, 87f, 93, 94
Dieulafoy's lesion 137, 139
Diffuse neuroendocrine cell system 74
Digestive system tumors, WHO classification of 75
Digital subtraction angiography, intraoperative 32
Disseminated bilobar metastasis 96
Diverticula, multiple 139f
Dor's fundoplication 45
Double-balloon
enteroscopy 144
technique 144
Doxazosin 156
Drainage, percutaneous 69, 70
Ductal carcinoma in situ 251f
Ductal ectasia 252
Ductotomy 125
Duodenal nets 87
Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors 88fc
Duodenum 136
Dyspepsia 87f
Dysrhythmia, cardiac 163
E
Echocardiography, transthoracic 178
Eckardt score 45
Eczema 226
Edema 68, 226
Elastic bandages 237
Electroencephalogram 177
Electromagnetic therapy 238
Electronic health records 3
Electrosurgical unit 42
Embolization, transarterial 146
Emilos 105
Empyema thoracis 195
En bloc resection 49
Endoclips 49
Endocrine
response 175
symptoms 95
system 174
Endoloops 42, 70
Endoscopes, high-definition 42
Endoscopic devices 42
Endoscopic fundoplication, role of 46
Endoscopic resection techniques 86
Endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreaticography 116
cholangiopancreatography 116, 118t
Endoscopic treatment 129, 130
Endoscopic ultrasound 79, 87f, 88, 118
major advantage of 79
Endoscopy 146
conventional 41
gastrointestinal 5
Endothelial cell injury 223
Endotracheal tube 203
Endowrist instruments 199f
Energy metabolism 211
Enhanced recovery after surgery 148, 173, 181, 182f
elements 182f, 189f
Enteral nutrition, early 181
Enterochromaffin cells 74, 85
Enterography 146
Enteroscope, distal tip of 144
Enteroscopy 136, 143, 144t
antegrade 144
comparison of 144
intraoperative 147
retrograde 144
Epidermal growth factor receptor 216
Epidermal wound bed, gene expression of 232
Epidermotropic theory 250
Epirubicin 273
Epithelial membrane antigen 250
Epithelization, essential for 232
Esophageal lumen, dilatation of 43
Esophageal obstruction, complex 43
Esophageal spasm, diffuse 43
Esophageal sphincter pressure, lower 45
Esophagectomy 29, 183, 196
Esophagogastric junction 43
Esophagus 136, 194, 196
abnormal contraction waves of 43
restoration of 48
Estradiol 156
Estrogen receptor 251f, 255
Etoposide 85, 269, 270
European Association of Endoscopic Surgery 69
European Association of Urology guidelines 263
European Network for Study of Adrenal Tumors 166
European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society 76
European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 254
European Society for Medical Oncology 263
European Society of Endocrine Surgeons 166
European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association 124
Everolimus 85
Ex vivo lung perfusion 202, 203, 204f
systems 204f
Extracellular matrix 205
Extracorporeal sutures 102
Extrahepatic disease 97
F
Fat, subcutaneous 107
Femoral vein 227, 231
common 227, 231
deep 227
Fibrinous exudate 68
Fibroblast
growth factor 234
proliferation 234
Fibrogenesis 234
Fibrosis, pancreatic 128
Fibrous stroma 76f
Fine-needle aspiration 118
Flap reconstruction 239
Flatulence 83
Flu-like symptoms 218
Fluorescence 32f
angiography 26, 28
based flow cytometry 212
cholangiography 26
detector 20f
emission wavelength spectrum of 18f
guided brain tumor surgery 33
guided surgery 17
scores 17
imaging system, basic configuration of 20f
intravenous injection of 118
microscopy 213
properties 18
visualization of 24
Fluorescent in situ hybridization 130
Fluorodeoxyglucose 81, 81f, 158, 166, 263, 269
positron emission tomography 152
Fluorouracil 85
Four-D syndrome 93
Frank ischemia 30
Free tissue transfer 239
Frey's procedure 129
Functional adrenal lesion, removal of 164
Fungal infections 153
G
Gabapentin 177
Gallbladder 26, 131
cancer 131
Gallium 80, 92f
Ganglioneuroma 153
Gangrenous appendix 68
Gardner syndrome 140
Gastrectomy, total 86
Gastric
acid secretion 86
adenocarcinoma 86
antral vascular ectasia 137
conduit formation 29
decompression 173
dysmotility 46
emptying, delayed 176
mucosa 85
nets 85, 88fc
classification of 86t
peroral endoscopic myotomy 46, 47
resection 114
Gastrin 78
Gastrinoma 91, 92
symptoms of 93
triangle 93
Gastrocnemius vein 227
Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors 85
Gastroenteropancreatic nets, WHO classification for 76t
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor 74, 75, 78
principles of management of 82
site-specific 85
Gastroenteropancreatic system, neuroendocrine tumors of 74
Gastroepiploic vessels 29
Gastroesophageal junction 43
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, post-treatment 43
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor 43, 137, 138f
Gastrointestinal surgery 173
elective upper 180
emergency 184
upper 46
Gastrointestinal system 74
Gastrointestinal tract 42f
lower 136
lumen of 41
Gastroparesis 43, 47
Gemcitabine 273
Gene
expression 232
profile 212
minimal expression of 212
Genetic markers, nephrotoxicity-related 276
Germ cell
neoplasia in situ 258, 267, 259
tumors 259, 262
management of 267
nonseminomatous 259, 262, 266, 270fc
Glands, adrenal 151
Glucagon 78, 174
Glucagonoma 91, 93
Glucocorticoids 174
Glucose transporter, expression of 81
Glutathione S-transferase transporter protein 19
Goal-directed fluid therapy 177, 181, 187
Gome's grading 68
Gonadoblastoma 259
Gon-germ cell tumors 258
Graft
dysfunction, primary 203
failure, long-term 33
Granulocyte
macrophage colony-stimulating factor, protein of 218
monocyte colony-stimulating factor 238
Granulomatous diseases 153
Granulosa cell tumor 259
Great saphenous vein 227, 240
high ligation of 240
stripping 241
Gut
enterochromaffin cells of 74
gangrene 185
neuroendocrine cells of 74
H
Handgrip dynamometry 176
Hannover classification 120
Harboring metastases 263
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 13
Heart
failure, congestive 154
rate 181
Heartburn 93
Helicobacter pylori infection 93
Heller myotomy 45
Hemangioma 259
Hematemesis 140
Hematochezia 140
Hemicolectomy 95
Hemobilia 137
Hemorrhage 161f, 173
Hemostatic forceps 42
Hemosuccus pancreaticus 137
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor 232
Hepatectomy 114, 125
partial 113
Hepatic acute phase response mediators 174
Hepatic artery
injuries 125
thrombosis 113, 127
Hepatic duct 117f
common 117f, 121
Hepatic extraction capacity 22
Hepatic metastatic lesions 24
Hepatic parenchyma, normal 25
Hepatic resection 10
segmental 125
Hepatic surgery, major 22
Hepatic tumors, fluorescence imaging for 24
Hepaticojejunostomy 124126
Hepaticotomy 125
Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan 116
Hepatoduodenal ligament 114
Hepatology intensive care unit 22
Hepp-Couinaud technique 26
Hernia
defect 102f
epigastric 107f
infraumbilical incisional 109f
minimally invasive repair of 108
repair 104, 110
sac 101
ventral 101, 102f
Heyde syndrome 140
Hilum 23
Hirschsprung's disease 43, 48
Hodgkin's lymphoma 216
Holmium laser, use of 123
Hormonal hypersecretion, control of 168
Hormonal therapy 254
Hormone hypersecretion 151, 153
Horse chestnut extract 240
Hounsfield units 152, 157, 158, 159
Human amniotic membrane allografts 239
Hybrid
intraperitoneal onlay mesh 102
technique 107
theory 250
Hybridization signal 212
Hydralazine 156
Hydroxyethylrutoside 240
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 164
Hyperbilirubinemia 115
Hypercatecholaminism, diagnosis of 157
Hyperchromatic nuclei 76f
Hypercortisolism 156
causes of 156
Hyperemia 68
Hypergastrinemia, secondary 93
Hyperglycemia 85
Hyperplasia, intimal 33
Hypersecretion 153
resolution of 165
Hypersecretory syndromes 168
Hypertension 161, 181
gestational 163
severe 154
uncontrolled 176
venous 223
Hypoglycemia 90
intraoperative 176
Hypokalemia 77
correction of 165
Hypoparathyroidism, long-term 31
Hypotension 113, 115, 203, 218
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis 174
Hypoxemia 203
Hypoxia 218
I
Ifosfamide 269, 270
Ileocecal valve 142
Ileus
earlier resolution of 185
postoperative 179
Iliac fossa 56
Iliac vein
common 227
external 227
internal 227
Immune
cell profiling 211, 212b
clinical applications of 214
techniques 211
checkpoint inhibitors 211, 216t
effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome 218
Immunoglobulin G4
cholangiopathy 131
sclerosing cholangitis 131
Immunohistochemistry 212
conventional 213
multiplexed 213
In situ carcinoma 249
In vivo lung perfusion 202, 205
Incidentally detected adrenal masses, management of 152fc
Incidentaloma 151, 160
adrenal 151153, 155t, 159b
Indocyanine green 17, 21, 27f, 29, 32f, 194
drug kit 20f, 21f
dye 18f
elimination 23
fluorescence
angiography 27, 28f
cholangiography 25
imaging 233
kinetics variables 23t
molecule 17
retention rate 24
role of 22, 25
use of 31
Indwelling urinary catheter 173
Inelastic bandages 237
Infections 85, 137
genitourinary 59
viral 219
Injection site subcutaneous nodules 83
Injury
immunologically induced 127
site of 114
Inotropes therapy 178
Insulin
like growth factor-1 78
regulated peripheral transport proteins, responsiveness of 174
serum measurements of 78
Insulinoma 90, 92f
diagnosis of 92f
Intelligent machines, concept of 1
Intensive care unit 184, 187, 195, 218
Intercostal nerve blocks 198
Intermittent pneumatic compression 179, 237
Internal-external biliary catheter placement 127
International Cancer Control, union for 75
International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group 263, 266, 266t
Interstitial fluid 19
Interval appendectomy, role of 70
Intestinal obstruction
acute 185
lower incidence of adhesive 125
Intestine, small 137
Intracorporeal rectus aponeuroplasty, laparoscopic 103
Intraductal ultrasound 118
Intraepidermal clear cells 250
Intraepidermal theory 250
Intrahepatic biliary radicles 115
Intralesional injection 238
Intraperitoneal onlay mesh 100102, 102f
Intratesticular mass 261
Intrinsic hepatic clearance 22
Invasive excision, laparoscopic 163
Invasive technique 146
Iodometomidate 167
Ionizing radiation 78
Ipilimumab 215, 216
Iron, deposition of 223
Ischemia
gradual 122
mesenteric 137
warm 203
J
Jackhammer esophagus 43
Japan Esophageal Society 43
Jaundice 115
Jejunal diverticula 137, 138, 139f
Jejunum 139f, 142
K
Keratinocytes 239
Kidney failure 93
Krenning scale scoring system, modified 81
Kulchitsky cell tumors 74
L
Lactate dehydrogenase 262, 266
Lactiferous duct 253
Lanthanide metals 213
Laparoscopy 27f
Laparotomy, emergency 177, 186, 187b
Laser
ablation, endovenous 240, 243
speckle imaging 232
Leg
surgery 224
ulcer
healing, venous 231
nonhealing venous 232
venous 223, 239
Leiomyoma 43
esophageal 196
Lesions
adrenal 153
adrenocortical 167
benign
functional 161
nonfunctional 168
duodenal 87f
multifocal 24
submucosal 143
ulcerative 143
Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 60
Leukemia
acute
lymphoblastic 218
myeloid 218
Leukocyte adhesion 240
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal 272
Levofloxacin 66
Leydig cell tumor 259
Ligation 123
Lipid-rich adrenal adenoma, diagnostic of 159
Lipodermatosclerosis 226
Liver
blood flow 22
disease
chronic 23
metastatic 96
extraction capacity 22
failure 126
function, dynamic assessment of 22
functional reserve 23
lesion 6, 9
metastasis 79f, 80f, 95
resection 22
segment 9
surgery 22
transplantation 22, 23, 82, 113, 126
Achilles heel of 127
Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 155, 156
Low-molecular-weight heparin 179, 240
Lumbar hernias 103
Lung 153, 195
bioengineering 205
biopsy 195
cancer 195
staging thoracoscopy for 195
disease
emphysematous 195
end-stage 205, 206
injury, ventilator-associated 198
nodule biopsy 195
perfusion, isolated 202
resections, sublobar 201
transplantation 202, 203
tumors 202
Lymph node
biopsy 195
conglomerated mass of 261f
enlarged 255
interaortocaval 262f, 271f
mesenteric 95
para-aortic 95, 261
retroperitoneal 270
Lymphadenectomy 86, 114
locoregional 167
Lymphedema, treatment of 34
Lymphoma 137
Lymphovascular invasion 267
Lytic replication 219
M
Machine learning 2, 4f, 12
Macroscopic fat, large areas of 157
Magic bullet 11
Magnetic compression anastomosis 122
Magnetic resonance
cholangiopancreatography 23, 118
enterography 145
imaging 5, 78, 79, 80f, 152, 253f, 261
role of 262
scans 151
venography, role of 230
Makuuchi decisional algorithm 24fc
Malignancy 140, 157
clinical signs of 253
colorectal 30
extra-adrenal 153
features of 159b
primary operable 160
Maltodextrin 176
Mammogram 251f
Mammography 252
Mannheim peritonitis index 176
Mass, adrenal 157, 160
Mastectomy 253
Matrix
metallopeptidase 2 234
metalloproteinases 223
Maximum intensity projection 81f, 84f
May-Thurner syndrome 224
Mean arterial pressure 177
Mechanical obstruction, absence of 46
Meckel's diverticulum 137139, 146
Mediastinum 195
Medico-legal litigation 9
Melanoma 153, 216
cutaneous 30
Melena 140
Mesenteric lymph node 95
metastasis 95
Mesh materials, types of 100
Mesh placement 101f, 106, 109f
rectrorectus space 107f
Mesoappendix dissection 67
Metal stents, self-expanding 122
Metastasectomy, pulmonary 205
Metastasis 153, 154, 160
colorectal 6
Metastatic disease 261
evaluation of 78
management of 89
staging of 78
Methylxanthine 240
Metoclopramide 46
Metronidazole 66
Microarrays technology 212
Microcalcifications 252
Micronized purified flavonoid fraction 240
Microwave 96
ablation, endovenous 240
Minimally invasive
adrenalectomy procedure 163
approach 90, 178
endoscopic procedure 42
excision 163
surgery 4f, 9, 25, 181, 195
techniques 175, 178, 194
thoracic surgery 194, 199
Mini-phlebectomy 241
Mirizzi syndrome 113
Mitotic rate 75
Mitral regurgitation, severe 140
Mobilization 235
Molecular mass 18
Molecular targeted therapy 85
Monoclonal antibody 218
Monopolar energy devices 67
Moon facies 161
Mucosa 47
duodenal 47
Mucosal defect 42
Multicentric microcalcification 251f
Multilayer inelastic bandages 237
Multiorgan damage 218
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 75, 77, 86, 88, 154
Multiple intrahepatic strictures 130
Muscle wasting 175
Muscular vein 227
Myelolipoma 153, 161f
adrenal 158f
benign 157
Myotomy 42
anterior 46
endoscopic 44
site of 46
N
Nasogastric tube 173
National Comprehensive Cancer Network 263
Natural killer 174
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery 4f, 41
Nausea 83, 177, 182f
Near-infrared spectroscopy 230
Necrolytic migratory erythema 93
Necrosis, transmural 30
Needle aspiration cytology 118
Negative predictive value 263
Negative pressure wound therapy 238
Nerve-sparing retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection 270
Neuroblastoma 153
Neuroendocrine liver metastases 96
evaluation of 79
Neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasm 76, 77
Neuroendocrine tumors 7476, 81f, 84f, 86, 87f, 91, 92f, 152
colorectal 95
Neurofibromatosis 75, 77, 154
Neuroglycopenia 90
Neurohormonal response 174
Neuromuscular blocking agents 198
Neuron-specific enolase 75
Neuropathy, autonomic 46
Neurosurgery 32
Neutropenia 85
Neutrophils, proportion of 59, 60
Nipple
areola complex 249, 250, 252, 254
reconstruction 254
region 253
complete destruction of 251
Paget's disease of 249f
reconstruction 255f
removal of 253
Nociception level 11
Non-anastomotic biliary stricture 127
Noncardiac chest organs, surgical treatment of 194
Noninvasive ventilation 187
Nonlinear fluorescence quantum 36
Nonmetastatic disease 96
Nonoperative therapy 65
Nonsaphenous vein 227
Nonseminoma 268
Nonsmall cell lung cancer 215, 216
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 137, 139, 179
Nonthermal options involve sclerotherapy 240
Nontumescent options involve sclerotherapy 240
Normothermia 181
intraoperative 178
North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society guidelines 89
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide 78
Nuclear medicine-based functional imaging 79
Nutritional supplements 245
O
Obesity, central 161
Obstruction, venous 224
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting 34
Oncolytic viruses 219
Open appendectomy 67
Open surgery 100
fluorescence imaging in 19
Opioid-free analgesics 184
Orchiectomy 266
Organ
care system lung 203
failure 30
triangular-shaped 151
Outflow obstruction 43
Ovarian cyst 59
Ovarian epithelial-type tumors 259
Overnight dexamethasone suppression test 156
Oxaliplatin 273
Oxygen
partial pressure, transcutaneous measurement of 233
to-see method 233
P
Paclitaxel 269, 273
Paget's cells 249, 250
Pain 81f
abdominal 1, 83, 115
acute 261
control 235
flank 154
Palpitation 90
Pancreas, small neuroendocrine tumor of 9
Pancreatectomy 9
Pancreatic
fistula, postoperative 11
head lesion 92f
islet tumors 74
nets, functional 91t
neuroendocrine tumor 74, 79f, 89
functional 90
nonfunctional 89
resection 114
Pancreaticoduodenectomy 92f, 183
Pancreatitis
acute 113
autoimmune 131
chronic 113, 128, 129, 129f
Paracrine mechanisms 239
Paraganglioma syndrome, familial 154
Parasitic infestation 113
Parathyroid
glands 31
surgery 31
Paravertebral blocks 198
Parkinson's disease 224
Partial hepatectomy 113
indications for 125
Pediatric appendicitis score 54, 56, 57
Pelvic
inflammatory disease 53, 59
procedures 53
vein 227
Pembrolizumab 216
single agent 215
Pentoxifylline 240
Peptic ulcer disease 91
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy 81f, 83, 84f
Percutaneous transhepatic
approach 122
balloon stricture dilatation 125
biliary drainage 116
cholangiography 116
cholangioscopy 118
Periappendiceal adhesions increase 69
Periappendiceal phlegmon 68
Periareolar region 30
Peripheral opioid receptor blockers 181
Peripheral wide-bore cannula 21
Peritoneal tears, risk of 106
Peritoneum
flaps 106
incision 106
Peritonitis 30
diffuse 68
Peroneal vein 227
Peroral cholangioscopy 118
Peroral endoscopic myotomy 4143, 44f, 45
steps of 44b
Per-rectal endoscopic myotomy 43, 48
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 138, 140
Pharmacokinetics 19
Pheochromocytoma 153155, 161f, 162, 163, 164fc
contrast-enhanced computed tomography of 158f
diagnosis of 157
incidence of 163
malignant 153
recurrent 163
small noninvasive 163
subclinical 163
Phlegmon 61, 69
Photoplethysmography probes 229
Physical therapy 235
Placental site trophoblastic tumor 259
Plasma 165
aldosterone concentration 164
disappearance rate 23
free metanephrines 157
normetanephrine levels 157
renin activity 156, 164
Plastic surgery 34
Platelet derived growth factor 238
Platinum
based perioperative chemotherapy 90
resistant disease 274
Plethora 161
Plethysmography 231
Pleural diseases 195
Pneumonia 7, 198
Pneumoperitoneum, creation of 101
Pneumothorax, recurrent 195
Polydioxanone 122
Polyglactic acid 122
Polymeric clips 70
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, proportion of 57
Polyposis
familial adenomatous 138
syndromes 137, 140
hereditary 138
Popliteal vein 227, 231
Portal venous system 97
Ports, placement of 101
Portsmouth physiological and operative severity score 176
Positive end-expiratory pressure 187
Positron emission tomography 80, 81f, 84f, 92f, 158, 166, 263, 269
machine 79
role of 263
Postchemotherapy
residual mass 276
surgery 273
Postcholecystectomy
bile duct injury 113
bismuth 117f
Post-coronary artery bypass grafting 33
Posterior rectus sheath 100, 107f
Posterior sheath closure 109f
Post-liver transplantation benign biliary stricture 127
Postoperative peak expiratory flow rate 183
Post-thrombotic syndrome 223
Prazosin 156
Prednisone 131
Pregabalin 177
Pregnancy 163
Preterm labor 59
Primary tumor
complete resection of 97
locoregional spread of 78
origin, regardless of 85
Progesterone 156
receptor 251f, 255
Programmed cell death protein 1 215
Progression free survival 82, 219, 266
Progressive chronic venous disease 223
Prostate cancer, metastatic castrate-resistant 219
Prostatic acid phosphatase 218
Proteolysis 234
Proteomic-based technologies 213
Proton-pump inhibitor 46, 91, 152
Proximal strictures 121
Pseudoaneurysm 142f
Pulse
dye densitometry 22
pressure variation 177
Pyloric muscle ring 47
Pyloromyotomy
laparoscopic 46
peroral 46, 47
Pylorospasm 46
endoscopic dilatation for 46
R
Radiation
enteritis 137
therapy 113
Radical mastectomy, modified 35
Radioembolization, transarterial 96
Radiofrequency 96
ablation 240, 242
Radiology 5
Radionuclide
scan 146
therapy 83
Radiotherapy 269
Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis 54, 5658
Randomized controlled trial 188
Rapamycin, mammalian target of 85
Rapid-sequence induction 187
Reactive oxygen 223
Recklinghausen disease 75
Rectal neuroendocrine tumor 80f
Red blood cell scan 142
Relook endoscopy 141
Renal cell
cancers, metastatic 215
carcinoma 216
Renal disease, chronic 138
Rendezvous techniques, use of 121
Residual mass after chemotherapy 269fc
Respiratory complications 177
Reticular veins 226, 227
Retrograde biliary interventions 119
Retroperitoneal lymph node 270
dissection 274f
Retroperitoneum 32
nonadrenal pathology of 153
Retrorectus space creation 109f
Retrorectus telescopic dissection 104f
Retzius space 103
Reverse totally extraperitoneal procedure 105
Rheumatologic disorders 138
Rib tumors, excision of 196
Ribonucleic acid 212
Rives-Stoppa technique 108
Robotic adrenalectomy 163
Robotic biliary-enteric reconstruction 125
Robotic surgery 4, 9, 10f, 106, 199f
autonomous 13
Robotic-assisted thoracic surgery 194, 199
Rocuronium 181
Rouviere's sulcus 9
Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 118, 124
S
Salt supplementation 163
Salvage
therapy 206
treatment 273, 274
Samuel's pediatric appendicitis score 59
Saphenous vein
anterior accessory 227
small 227
Sarcoidosis 153
Sarcomas 153
Scintigraphy 147
Sclerosing cholangitis 130f
primary 113, 129
secondary 113
Sclerosis, tuberous 75, 77
Sclerotherapy 243
Scrotal swelling, differential diagnosis of 260
Scrotum 261
Segmentectomy 201
Seizures 90
prophylaxis 218
Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors 139
Selective relaxant binding agent 181
Seminiferous tubules, germinal epithelium of 259
Seminoma 258, 259, 266, 268fc, 269, 269fc, 272
Seminomatous components 259
Sentinel lymph node
biopsy 254
mapping, use for 30
Sepsis 7, 30, 115
intra-abdominal 186
screen for 187
Septum, sides of 47
Seroma, high incidence of 107
Sertoli cell tumor 259
Serum tumor marker
characteristics of 262t
levels 261
Sex cord-stromal tumors 258, 259
Shock lung 203
Short bowel syndrome 30, 95
Single photon emission computed tomography 80
Single-balloon enteroscopy 144
Single-cell
assay 212
droplets 213
level 213
RNA sequencing, advantage of 213
Single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy 67
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms 212
Skin
decontamination of 176
perfusion pressure 233
saving mastectomy 254
Sleep apnea 198
Small benign adrenal masses 161
Small bowel
gastrointestinal stromal tumors 143
injury, drug-induced 137
neoplasms 139
varices 138
Small intestine
erosions 139
evaluation of 142
neuroendocrine tumors 95
tumor of 137
Small saphenous vein 227
procedures, operative technique for 241
Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons Guidelines 69
Soft-tissue tumors 153
Soleal vein 227
Somatostatin
analog 82, 88, 91
receptor 80, 83
overexpression of 79
Somatostatinoma syndrome 94
Somnolence 218
Spermatocytic tumor 259
Spermatogenesis 259
Sphincterotomy 113
Spinal anatomy 198
Spironolactone 164
Static stiffness index 237
Steam ablation, endovenous 240, 243
Steep learning curve 104
Stenosis 127
papillary 113
Stents
migration 46
number of 121
types of 121
Stereotactic radiosurgery 272
Steroid precursors 153
Stewart-Way classification 120
Stomach 136
adenocarcinomas 217
Strasberg classification 121t
Strasberg injuries 121
Streptococcus pyogenes 214
Streptozocin 85
Stroke volume
measurements of 177
variation 177
Subcutaneous onlay laparoscopic approach 106
Subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery 242
Submucosal tumors 43
resection of 49
Submucosal tunneling endoscopic
dissection 43
resection 49
septum division 47
Sugammadex 181
Sulodexide 240
Sunitinib 85
Superficial venous reflux 245
Suprafascial repairs 106
Suprainguinal venous obstruction evaluation 231
Surgery 1, 4, 123
colorectal 177
emergency 184
endocrine 31
gastrointestinal 173
hepatopancreaticobiliary 183
laparoscopic 20, 160, 167
reconstructive 34
reoperative 25
role of 240
Surgical site infection 66, 100, 187
rates of 183
risk of 7
Surgical stress response 174, 174fc
Suture ligation 70
Sweating 90
excessive 154
Swelling 260
painless 261
scrotal 260
Synaptophysin 75
T
Tachycardia 154
T-cell immune checkpoints 215
Telangiectasia 138, 226, 227
Temozolomide 81f, 85
Tenderness 115, 260
Teratoma 259, 268
syndrome 272
Testes, primary lymphatic drainage pathway of 261
Testicle 261
Testicular cancer
diagnosis of 261
management of 261
Testicular germ cell tumors 265t
Testicular tumors 258, 262t
classification of 259b
clinical features 260
diagnostic imaging 262
epidemiology 258
management of 258
prognosis 264
risk factors 260
signs of 261t
staging 264
symptoms of 261t
Testosterone 156
Therapeutic blockade 215
Thermal ablation 96
Thick wall atherosclerotic vessels 33
Thigh perforator vein 227
Third-space endoscopy 41, 42, 49
principle of 42f
procedures 43t
Thoracic
oncology 205
surgery 194, 201
surgical armamentarium 195
Thrombocytopenia 140
Thromboembolic events, risk of 175
Thromboembolism, venous 187
Thromboprophylaxis 179, 181
mechanical 187
Thulium laser vaporization 123
Thyroid
gland, dissection of 31
surgery 31
Tidal volume 187
Tisagenlecleucel 218
Tissue 249
perfusion, real-time assessment of 27
scaffold, form of 205
Tocilizumab 218
Toe pressure 229
Toker cells 250
Total endoscopic-assisted linea alba reconstruction 107
Totally extraperitoneal technique 103
Tracheobronchial tree 194
Tracheo-broncho-esophageal fistula 196
Transabdominal preperitoneal repair 105
Transabdominal retromuscular repair 106, 107f
Transabdominal retrorectus space dissection 107f
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 232
Transillumination guided rendezvous technique 48
Trans-scrotal ultrasonography 260
Transverse colon, enhancement of 28f
Transversus abdominis
plane 181
blocks 179
release 108, 109f
Trauma 113
surgery 11
Treitz ligament 136
Tremelimumab 215
Tremor 90
Tricarbocyanine molecule 18
Tuberculosis 137, 143, 153
Tumor
adrenal 151
benign functional 152
cells 76f
excision 42
functional 160
grade 75
hematolymphoid 259
hypervascular 78
infiltrating lymphocytes 275
malignant 152
mediastinal 195
microenvironment 211
mutational burden 217
necrosis factor 174
neuroendocrine 7476, 81f, 84f, 86, 87f, 91, 92f, 152
nonseminomatous 269, 272
proportion score 216
stromal 137
subepithelial 49
submucosal 43
tissue 24
transcriptome of 212
types 259
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor 85
U
Ulcer 139
chronic venous 237f
clinical examination of 228
duodenal 184
healed 226
healing 239
lower leg 228
prevent recurrence of 245
recurrent venous 226
venous 223, 232, 234, 240
Ulnar nerve stimulation 177
Ultrasound
endoscopic 79, 87f, 88, 118
examinations 151
high-frequency 79
high-intensity focused 240, 245
intravascular 231
Unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas 164
Unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas 161
Uniportal surgery, advantages of 197
Ureter identification, use for 31
Ureteral stents, placement of 32
Urinary catheter, early removal of 181
Urinary fractionated metanephrines 157
Urinary tract infection, rates of 178
Urine aldosterone levels 165
V
Vagotomy 46
Valve incompetence 223
Valvular reflux 224
Varicose veins 223, 226
endovenous technique for 242
Varicosities, local 241
Vascular ectasia 137
Vascular endothelial growth factor 234
Vascular injury 126
Vasculitis 137
Vasoactive intestinal
peptide 78
polypeptide 91, 238
Vater ampulla 89
Vein, anterior 227
Vena cava, inferior 34, 167, 227
VenaSeal sapheno closure system 244
Venoactive drug 240
Venography 231
Venous disease 223
Venous shear stress 223
Venous ulcer 223, 232, 234, 240
treatment of 234
typical location of 228f
Venous valve deterioration 240
Ventral hernia 102f
left-sided 101
repair 35, 100, 109t
right-sided 101
Verapamil 156
Verner–Morrison syndrome 94
Vessels, mesenteric 95
Video capsule endoscopy 142, 147
Video-assisted thoracic surgery 194, 195, 196f
indications of 195
nonintubated 197
types of 196
Video-capsule endoscopy, widespread use of 136
Video-laparoscopic cart 10
Vinblastine 269, 273
Vipoma 91, 94
Virtual-assisted lung mapping 201
Vomiting 177, 182f
von Hippel–Lindau
disease 154
syndrome 75
von Willebrand syndrome 140
W
Water jet 42
Weight
loss 84f, 93, 94
management 245
Werner syndrome 75
Whipple's operation 142f
Whipple's procedure 92f
Whipple's triad 92f
White blood cell 56, 57
count 60
World Society of Emergency Surgery 68
grading 68
Wound
care 236
healing 176, 232, 234
venous 232
infection 67, 238
therapies 242
X
Xenobiotics 260
Xiphoid 105
Y
Yolk sac tumor 259, 268
Z
Zenker's diverticulum 43, 47
Zenker's peroral endoscopic myotomy 47
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome 77
×
Chapter Notes

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