Textbook of Endodontics Amit Garg
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abfraction 520
Abrasion 198, 532
Abscess 23f, 41
acute 41, 78
apical 40, 121
periapical 110, 112, 346
radicular 41
apical 42f, 49
formation of 75
large vestibular 406f
palatal 42f
phoenix 40, 342
sample from 61
theory 51
vestibular 42f, 406f
Absorbable materials, natural 422
Abulcasis 403
Acacia nilotica 250
Accentuate tooth structure 587
Access cavity
preparation 213, 376
guidelines for 216
reflects, form of 219
shape of 210, 217, 220, 227
Acellular cementum 19
Acetaminophen 150, 344
Acid 68
etching 490
Acidic nature 489
Acoustic streaming 176
Acquired immunity 78
Actinomyces 56, 59, 67
species 68
Activated partial thromboplastin time 406
Acute alveolar abscess 43, 336, 347
differential diagnosis of 43
Adequate apical seal 446f
Adhesion 553, 555
Adrenaline 148
concentration 406
Aerodontalgia 26
Aerosols 124
A-file 160, 160f
AH-26 306
Alcohol 133, 134
tincture of 258
types of 134
Aldehyde 255, 258
compounds 133
Alginate impression 134
Alkaline phosphatase 7, 77, 333, 489
Alkaptonuria 493
Allergic reaction, reports of 258
Allergy, reports history of 258
Allium sativum 250
Alloy composition, alterations in 172
Aloe vera 250, 480
Alprazolam 148
Alveolar abscess, asymptomatic 44
Alveolar bone 20, 21f, 88f, 107, 406f, 358, 431
Alveolar crest
area 90f
group 20
Alveolar mucosa 85
Alveolar nerve, inferior 186f
Alveolar process, fracture of 463
Alveolar socket 478
communication of 463
wall, fracture of 463
Amalgam 393, 416, 489
alloy 510
carrier 331, 417f
core 458
restoration 526f
Ameloblastoma 48, 98f
Amelogenesis imperfecta 494
Amide 406
Amino acid neutralization 239
Aminoacridine 258
Aminoadamantane 309
Amnesia 482
Amorphous silicon dioxide 393
Amoxicillin 152, 478
clavulanic acid 152
Anachoresis 22, 56, 74
Anaerobes, facultative 56, 60
Anaerobic culture 60
method 61
Anaerobic environment, bacterial growth in 58
Analgesic 150, 344
Anaphylaxis 123
Anastomoses 184
Anchor teeth, posterior 146
Andreasen classification 462, 504, 504fc
Anesthesia 148, 535
block 148
intrapulpal 12, 148, 149
intraseptal 149, 149f, 150f
local infiltration 148
testing 25, 104
Anhydrous dicalcium phosphate 393
Animal anatomical waste 136
Anise oil 365
Ankylosis 480, 514, 516f
Anode chambers 247
Anolyte solution 247
Anomalies 210
Anomalous tubercle 192
Anterior teeth 14f, 34f, 141f, 182f, 232, 261f, 336f, 359f, 442f
access cavity of 218
cavity preparation of 220f
ferrule effect of 454f
mandibular 220f, 381f, 533f
maxillary 219f
Anthranilic acid derivatives 150
Antibacterial nanoparticles 69
Antibacterial properties 553
Antibiotic 63, 152, 344
demeclocycline 258
paste 577, 577t
prescribe systemic 423
prophylaxis 152, 153
regimens 153t
requiring 152
Antibody 78
Anticurvature filing 292, 389f
Antidote 151
Anti-inflammatory
drugs 338
effect 150
nature 250
Anti-invasion factors 505
Antimicrobial action 239, 343
Antimicrobial agent 305
Antimicrobial properties, broad-spectrum 236
Antipyretics 150
Anti-resorptive factors 505
Antirotational notch 457f
Antisepsis 127
Anxiety 122, 338, 341
Anxious patient, management of 349
Apex 185
anatomic 261
Apex locator
advantages of 269
combination of 272
disadvantages of 270
first-generation 270
fourth-generation 272
types of 270fc
uses of 270
works 274
Apexification, rationale of 568
Apexit plus 310
Apexogenesis 552, 563, 568, 578
Apical abscess
chronic 40, 121
formation, pathophysiology of 42
spread of 42f
symptomatic 41
Apical barriers 330
Apical constriction 182, 262, 266
acts 183
Dummer classification of 262f
Apical control zone 269
Apical dentin matrix 391
Apical diameter 262f
Apical foramen 15, 183, 183f, 197, 214, 217f, 261, 266, 318f, 425, 426f
accessibility of 120
locations of 197
minor movement of 390f
moderate movement of 390f
position of 214
severe movement of 390f
Apical gauging 280, 281
Apical granuloma 39, 49
Apical internal inflammatory resorption 509
Apical lesions, asymptomatic 342
Apical negative pressure irrigation system 252
Apical part, palatal curvature of 199
Apical perforations 374
Apical periodontal sensitivity test 269
Apical periodontitis 121, 342
acute 39, 40, 346
advanced 40
asymptomatic 44
pathogenesis of 79
persistent 45
primary symptomatic 347, 348
secondary symptomatic 41, 347, 348
suppurative 40
symptomatic 36f, 40, 111
Apical pressure, simultaneous 279
Apical root
anatomy 182
perforation 392
resorption 47,
inflammatory 399
Apical seal
disturbance of 457f
optimal 443
Apical segment
orthodontic extrusion of 473f
treatment of 472f
Apical third
filling 330
fracture 469
of root, palatal curvature of 220
Apical transportation 284f
Apicoectomy 53, 413, 545
Appetite root canal sealer 308
Aqueous quaternary ammonium compounds 134
Arch bar splint 482
Argon 546
lasers 542
Armamentarium 96
Arsenide 538
Arteriovenous anastomoses 492
Aseptic technique 127
Aspirating cannula 253f
Aspirin 150
Asthma, history of 151
Atrophic pulp 26
Atrophic pulposis 26
Attached denticles 18
Attrition 198, 532
Autoapical-reverse mechanism 274
Autoclaving 130
Autonomic effects 115
Autopoiesis 65
Autostart-stop mechanism 274
Avulsed teeth
first aid for 476
periodontium of 476f
transport media for 480
Axial motion 174
Azadirachta indica 250
Azithromycin 152
B
Bacitracin 257, 258
Bacteria 60, 374
anaerobic 344
causing inflammation 74f
facultative 341f
identification of 60
Bacterial cell 58
protoplasm 239
wall 239
Bacterial contamination 562
Bacterial interrelationships 58
Bacterial invasion 58
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide
lipid moiety of 343
lipid part of 256
Bacterial plaque 429
Bacterial sulfhydryl group, causes oxidation of 242
Bactericide 565
Bacteriocins 57
Bacteroides 56, 58
pathogenicity of 60
species, nomenclature of 58
Balanced force technique 279, 279f, 286, 287f
Barbed broach 156, 157f
uses of 157
Barium sulfate 307, 310, 555
Barodontalgia 26
Barrier technique 125
Baume's classification 26
Bayonet-shaped canal 195f, 295
B-diketone 309
Beam
collimated 539f
uncollimated 539f
Behavioral management 344
Benzalkonium chloride 134
Benzene 365
Benzodiazepines 148
Benzyl alcohol 311
Best's method 264, 265
Bevel gingivectomy 441
Beveling results 414f
Bicuspidization 404
Bicycle style handles 586
Binding agent 305
Binocular
arch 587
focal length of 586
Bioactive glasses 548
Bioaggregate 393
Bioceramic
advantages of 549
materials, types of 548
nanoparticles 559
rationale of 548
sealers 311, 314, 554f, 555
Biocompatible material 393
Biodentine 393, 553, 553f, 554, 556, 559
advantages of 554
hydration reaction of 554f
Biofilm 59, 65, 359
characteristics of 65
ultrastructure of 67
Biofilm formation 68, 399
first stage of 66
stages of 66, 66f
Biological irritation 487
Biomedical waste, categories of 136f
Biopsy 404
excisional 541
Bisecting angle technique 89
Bismuth
hydroxide 310
oxide 309, 310, 393, 549, 555, 558
phosphate 309
subcarbonate 307, 310
subnitrate filler 310, 311
trioxide 310
Bisphenol diglycidyl ether 309
Bite test 104, 523, 528
Bitewing 89
radiographs 90
Bland 139
clamps 139
Bleaching 495
agents 495
effects of 501
mechanism of 495, 495f
solutions for 497
technique 496fc
laser-assisted 497
trays 498f
Bleeding 576
disorders 122, 151
postoperative 423
problems 406
time 406
Blood
passes 10
vessels 7, 20
Blood flow
increased 492
reduction in 488
Blue wire 173
B-lymphocytes 76
Bone 482
curette 413
cyst, traumatic 48, 52
density, excessive 270
formation 393
interproximal 473f
loss 432
severe 53
morphogenic proteins 566, 567, 572
removal, tissue response to 412
sclerosis of 531
sounding 440
structures 93f, 505
tissue, age changes in 531
Bracing action 455f
Bracket splint 481
Bradykinin
formation 77
production of 341
Bramante's method 264, 265
Brännström, hydrodynamic theory of 101
Bregman's method 264, 265
Broach 156, 157
smooth 157
Broken file 594
Broken instrument, surgical removal of 384
Buccal cusp
incline of 221
tip 261f
Buccal mucosa 85, 482
Buckley's formocresol 564
Bud stage 6
Bur
access opening 215
entry for 220f
for cutting, types of 412
improper angulation of 220f
misdirection of 359f
round 215f, 233, 564
Butane gas torch 316f
Butyl benzene 310
Butyric acid 57
C
Cala Lilly preparation 233
Calamus dual obturation system 324f
Calcibiotic root canal sealer 306
Calcific degeneration 33
Calcific metamorphosis 196, 198, 198f, 229, 479
Calcific pulposis 26
Calcified canal 229
access opening of 293
access preparation of 229
management of 230f, 291, 293
Calcified tissue 473f
Calcinase slide 246
Calcitonin-gene-related peptide 76
Calcium 554
aluminum lanthanum flurosilicate glass 311
carbonate 333, 553, 559
ions 557
oxide 310
sulfate 558
tungstate 309
volframate 311
Calcium chloride 553, 559
liquid consists of 553
Calcium hydroxide 69, 256, 256f, 257, 299, 303, 310, 331, 339f, 389, 393, 468, 489, 553, 555f, 557, 559, 564, 568, 577
advantages of 304
antimicrobial effect of 343
cements 306
dressing 516
effects of 256
extrusion of 343
filling 330
healing with 557, 558f
hydroxylates 343
in canal, placement of 569f
indications of 257
intracanal medicament of 342
intracranial use of 64
mechanism of action of 556
over pulp, placement of 565f
paste 567
place 560
pulpotomy 564, 566
reaction of 557
sealers 310, 314
use of 64, 256, 257
cavity-liner-like 490
Calcium phosphate 333, 549
based sealer 312
cement 306, 393
monobasic 393, 394
Calcium silicate 393, 394, 548, 553
based cements 549, 559
based sealer 311
hydrogel 555
Camphorated monoparachlorophenol 255
Camphorated parachlorophenol 389
Camphorphenol 255f
Campylobacter 37, 59
Canal
accessory 16, 183, 188, 426
apex 376
apical
part of 318f
portion of 388f
region of 199
bacterial status of 361
bifurcation of 206f
cleaning of 276, 510f
coronal part of 283f
cross-section of 199, 204, 205, 207
C-shaped configuration of 195f
curvature and length of 381
curvature of 217, 365
determination of 193
enlargement, minimum 446f
enlarging narrow 245
flaring, excessive 391
gauging of 264
instrumentation, principles of 280
length of 214, 365
location difficult, process of 198
negotiation of 295
obstructions, removing 363
obturation 374, 510
overfilling of 325
patency 372
place master apical file in 259f
shape of 305f
sickle-shaped 196
S-shaped 194
transportation 374, 389, 390f
underfilled 398f
walls 159, 329, 529
zipping of 292
Canal anatomy 187f
visualization of 187f, 228f
Canal blockage 356, 374, 375
causes of 375
Canal orifice 15, 181, 182f, 218f, 290, 376f, 535
location of 229
opening of 15f
Canal preparation 277f, 291, 374
evaluation of 588
hybrid technique of 288
taper of 284
techniques 292
Canal shape 447, 509
and tooth, preparation of 455
enlargement of 457f
Canal system
branching of 214
curvature of 214
debridement of 236
Cancellous bone, loss of 93
Candida 56, 59
albicans 304, 549
Cap stage 6
Caproic acid 309
Caprylate 257
Capsule 57
Carbamide peroxide 495
Carbide
burs 135, 219
round 215, 215f
Carbon
dioxide lasers 541
fiber posts 451
Carbonate 310
Carbowax 565
Cardiac toothache 115
Cardiovascular implants, construction of 574
Caries 22, 483, 485
detection 542
extensive 120f
extent of 91f, 485
infected 561
prevalence of 85
progression, speed of 485
removing deep 561f
secondary 29f, 363f
sequelae of 485f
untreated 37f
Caries-related pulpits 506
Carious lesion
deep 55f
large 36f
Carious mandibular molar 48f
Carious maxillary second premolar 443f
Carious tooth 486f
structure 265f
Carmine 565
Cast core 458
Cast post-and-core system 444f
Catalyst 310
Cathepsin 75
Cathode chambers 247
Cavernous sinus thrombosis 25
Cavit 393, 416
preparation 198, 392f
retrograde 415f
walls, two to four 441f
Cell 7, 20
allogeneic 574
autologous 573
clast 505
composed of 575
culture 60
dead inflammatory 485f
defense 8
free zone 6
isogenic 574
kinds of 574
malignant 77
membrane disruption 131
non-viable 478
normal 77
osmotic equilibrium 243
plasma 20, 485f
postnatal 578
progenitor 573
rich zone 6
round 79
surface, identification of 574f
syngeneic 574
T-helper 76
T-suppressor 76
xenogeneic 574
Cell-base transplantation 572, 572f, 573
Cell-derived mediators 76, 77fc
Cell-free zone 7
Cellular atrophy 531
Cellular cementum 19
Cellular elements 7
Cellulitis 347, 348
Cementation 460
Cementoblasts, maturation of 577
Cementoclasts 505
Cementodentinal junction 16f, 183, 218f, 262, 274, 299, 420f, 499
Cementoenamel junction
contours of 426
law of 217
Cementomas 88
Cementum 19, 503, 530f
acts 426
age changes in 530
causes, loss of 427, 427f
deposition, continued 532, 533f
formation 393
intermediate 505
thickness of 530
types of 19
Central core theory 349
Central incisor, preoperative radiograph of 511f
Central nervous system 147
Cephalograms, lateral 89
Cephalosporins 152, 344
Cervical 515
canal perforation 374, 392
constriction 199
enamel projections 426
leakage 274
margin 493f
pulpotomy 564
resorption 501, 516
root resorption 47, 517, 518, 518f
C-fibers 14
Chairside infection control 135
Chamber roof, removal of 217f
Champagne
effect 240
test 378
Chelating agents 70, 244
use of 230, 499
Chelation, continuous 240
Chemical
agents, disinfection by 133
burns 508, 592
disadvantages of 133
indicators 132
irritation 355, 487
liquid waste 136
mediators 340, 341
solution contents 131
vapor 129
sterilization 131, 133
waste 136
Chemotactic cytokines 76
Chemotaxis 77
Chicago technique 325
Chloramines-T 258
Chlorhexidine 71, 134, 243, 244f, 248, 258
digluconate 68
gluconate 257, 343
irrigating solution 258
produces 245f
stain 495
Chloride compounds 134
Chlorine 257, 258
dioxide 247
Chloroform 308, 315, 365
Chloropercha 303, 306, 308
Cholesteric crystals 107
Cholesteric liquid crystals 107
Cholesterol crystals 47
Chondrosarcoma 48
Chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet 290
Chronic apical periodontitis 39, 40, 44, 112, 342
complications of 44
Citric acid 70, 246, 249, 250
Clamp forceps, use of 146
Clarithromycin 152
Clcified canal 295f
Cleaning and shaping
instruments for 280
working length during 374
Cleaning, disinfection by 132
Clindamycin 152, 344
Clinical periapical tests 38
Clotting disorder 576
Clotting time 406
Cloverleaf appearance 225
Cluster headache 115, 115f, 118
Coagulation necrosis 35
zone of 557
Coconut water 480
Codeine 151, 344
Cohen's classification 503
Coherence 538
Coke-bottle appearance 285
Cold lateral compaction technique 316, 317fc
Cold test 25, 101
Collagen intermolecular cross-linking, loss of 439
Colony stimulating factor 76
Color change, law of 218
Color coding 137, 154
Color power Doppler 107
Composite curing 542
Composite resins 416, 417, 458, 481f
Composite splint 480
Compressive strength 550, 553
Concussion 463, 474, 474f
Condensing osteitis 40, 45
Cone cutting 89
Cone shift technique 90f
Confirmatory test 342
Connective tissue 16, 39f
change 531
fibers, synthesis of 77
formation of 473f
interproximal 473
Consciousness, loss of 482
Conservative endodontic cavity 230
Conserve sound tooth structure 214
Contemporary endodontics 3
Contemporary tests 3
Conventional endodontic treatment 413
Conventional hot air oven 130
Conventional pulp tests 3
Copious irrigation 238, 375
Copiously irrigate canal 259f
Copolymer 311
Core fabrication 460
Core ferrule 455
Core material
evaluation of 459
ideal requirements for 458
Coronal access opening 344
Coronal disassembly 361
Coronal leakage 228
Coronal perforation 374, 391
Coronal pulp 564
removal of 565f, 566f, 567
Coronal restoration 36f, 313, 362f, 438, 570
Coronal seal 332
defective 355f
Coronal segment
apexification procedure of 470
endodontic treatment of 471f
mobility of 469
Coronal third
perforations, management of 394
root fracture 472
Coronal tissue, extensive loss of 145
Corrosion products 530
Cortical bone, mineral content of 93
Cortical thinning 531
Cortical trephination 404
Corticosteroid 148, 258
antibiotic combinations 258, 344
constituent reduces 258
element 258
Cortisporin 258
Cottonwood sticks 528
COVID-19 pandemic 520
Crack restoration 523
Crack tooth 520, 522, 523f
classifications of 522t
progression 521f
treatment of 524
Cracked tooth syndrome 107, 346348, 520, 521, 525
differential diagnosis of 524
etiology of 521t, 525
Craze lines 520
Crepitus 482
Cresatin 255
Cresol 256
Crestal 518
bone 233f, 410
height 409
Crown 90f, 347, 348, 442f, 443f
angulated 229
contouring, presurgical 420
coronal part of 500f
fractured 465
infraction 520
placement 278f, 320f, 450f
removal of 378f
step-down techniques 285fc
surface, stimulation of 106
tilted 229
Crown fracture 483
complicated 463
uncomplicated 463
Crown length 210, 441f
complications after 441
healing after 441
surgical 440
Crown originating 348
fracture 347, 520, 521
Crown root fracture 468, 469f
objectives of treating 468
Crown-down 285
pressureless technique 285, 286t
technique 284, 285f, 285fc, 289, 289t, 293f
advantages of 288
modifications of 285
Crown-lengthening surgery 440
Crown-originating fracture 521
Crown-root fractures 520
Crystal phase 172
C-shaped canal 193, 194f, 296f
management of 291, 295
Culture medium, types of 61
Culturing method 61
Curettage 404
Curing 313
Curved canals
classification of 193
management of 291
treatment of 291
Cusp 192
fractured 520
Cuspal fracture 522
odontalgia 520
Custom cone 304
obturation technique 316
Custom-cast metal post 448
Cutting instrument, nature of 487
Cvek pulpotomy 564
Cyclic nucleotides, changes in 340, 341
Cylindrical diamond bur 457f
Cyst 88
apical 39, 40, 49
bay 52
dentigerous 47
development stage 51
globulomaxillary 53
growth stage 51
large 53
lateral 39
periodontal 47, 53
periapical 39, 52, 73
primordial 47
residual 39
Cystic apical periodontitis 49
Cytokines 76
D
Damaged instruments, overuse of 381
Debris 356f, 374
extrusion 350
holding 244
periapical extrusion of 339f
remove 375f
transport of 158
Decay, type of 485
Deep caries 23f
pulp 30f
Dehydration 439
Demarcation, line of 557
Dens evaginatus 187, 190, 192, 192f, 201
Dens in dente 190
Dens invaginatus, types of 191, 191f
Dense fibers, sea of 34
Denser bone 534
Dental arch, position of tooth in 448
Dental assistant 587
Dental caries 24f, 27, 73, 432, 494
deep 29, 119f
Dental cements 135
Dental contra-angle handpiece 106
Dental disease 530
Dental emergency 348
Dental floss 138, 142
Dental follicle precursor cells 579
Dental fractures 520, 521t
Dental hard tissues 232
Dental history 38, 464
Dental hypersensitivity, treatment of 546
Dental lamina 5
Dental material, disinfection of 134
Dental migraine 117
Dental negligence 591
Dental operating microscope, classification of 585
Dental origin 579f
Dental pain, spontaneous 482
Dental papilla, cell of 6
Dental practice
laser safety in 543
methods in 129
Dental procedures 485, 494
Dental profession, principles of ethics for 590
Dental pulp 5, 23f, 560, 579
anatomy of 14
development of 5
histology of 6
inflammatory disease of 26
performs formative 485
regeneration 580
stem cells 577, 579
Dental radiology, history of 88
Dental restorations 560
Dental stem cells, types of 574
Dental traumatic injuries 462, 464f
Denticles 18, 33, 34
embedded 19
false 18, 34
Dentin 88f, 347, 530f
affected 560, 560t
age changes in 530
atypical 190
defective formation of 190
deposition, secondary 17f
diseases of 494
dissolving properties 245
dysplasia 187, 190
effects on 501
engagement of 445fc
folding of 190
formation of 6, 16
hypersensitivity 84, 346
infected 560, 560t
irritants to 492
loss of 503
moisture in 527
method of engagement of 445
nutrition of 17
permeability, decrease in 485
physical characteristics 439
precedes 560
regeneration 573f
removal of 293f
sclerosis 530
secondary 15f
sterilizing agents 489
tubules blocked 245f
Dentin chip 331f, 375, 376f, 393
accumulation of 356, 398f
apically, compaction of 331f
filling 330, 331
Dentin formation
physiologic secondary 530
reparative 491
Dentin thickness 486
decreases 488f
effect of remaining 488f
remaining 487
Dentinal debris, accumulation of 374, 375f
Dentinal hypersensitivity 542
Dentinal sensitivity 110
Dentinal tubules 5f, 414f, 426, 427f, 545f
during root planning, exposure of 428
occlusion of 530
traverse 426
Dentinal walls 199, 326
Dentine replacement 553
Dentinoblasts 34, 505
Dentinoenamel junction 426
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 187, 190, 494
Dentin-pulp complex regeneration 548
Dentistogenic pulpitis 487
Dentistry
agents used in 407t
lasers in 537
Dentition, natural 572
Dentoalveolar ankylosis 503, 516
Dentofacial injuries, classification of 462
Dentolegal consequences 374
Denture gold, extrahard 460
Depolymerization 9
De-roof pulp chamber moving bur 225f
Design flap 413
Dexamethasone 310
Dextropropoxyphene 152
Diabetes mellitus 10, 123
uncontrolled 404
Diagnodent 544, 544f
Dialister 59
Diamond bur 135
round 215
tapered 215
Diazepam 148
Dibenzyldiamine 309
Dicalcium
phosphate dehydrate 393
silicate 393, 549, 550, 553, 558, 559
Diclofenac 150
sodium 151, 344
Digipex 271
Digital dental radiography 94
Digital hyperkeratosis, scourge of 154
Digital radiography 93
types of 268
Digital radiometric analysis 39
Digital tactile sense 269
Diguanides 134
Dihydroxy di-chlorodiphenylmethane 309
Diode laser 541f
Direct digital radiography 264, 268
Direct warm air 102
Disalicylate 310
Discarded medicines 136
Discolored maxillary
central incisors 494f
lateral incisors 494f
right central incisor 465f
Disinfectant, levels of 133
Disinfection 127, 132, 276
methods of 132
surface 258
Dislodged restoration 527
Dissolve organic tissue, ability to 239
Distal canal sealed, coronal part of 396f
Distobuccal canal 202
Disto-occlusal caries 39f
DNA-DNA hybridization method 62, 62f
Double flare technique 286, 287, 288f
Down syndrome 189
Doxycycline, high binding affinity of 249
Dressing 258
Drug allergy 592
Dry heat 129, 133
instruments for 130
sterilization 130, 131
Dual wavelength spectrophotometry 105, 106
advantages of 106
Dull instruments, overuse of 381
Dyes, use of 187, 523
Dystrophic calcification 17, 33
E
Eagle's talon 189
Ecchymosis 350, 423, 536
Eczema 301
Edema 350, 491
Edge enhancement 269
Egg white 480
Eicosanoids 76
Elasticity, modulus of 446
Elbow 389
Electric pulp test 25, 102, 121
interpretation of 103
Electric pulp tester 103f
stimulates 13
Electric test 29
Electrochemically activated solution 247fc
advantages of 247
Electromagnetic flowmetry 105
Electronic apex locator 3, 269
classification of 270
Electronic device 269
Electronic microcomparator 154
Electrosurgery, effect of heat from 491
Ellis and Davey's classification 463, 464f
Embryonic stem cells 578
Emergency treatment 468
Emission, spontaneous 539
Emulsification 244
Enamel 88f, 530
age changes in 530
changes in 530
diseases of 494
effects on 501
fracture 466
penetration 221
translucency of 493f
Enamel-dentin
fracture 467
loss 467
Endo Z bur 215, 216f
edges of 215
Endoactivator 71
system 69
Endoanalyzer 271
Endodontic 63f, 65
access 234
challenges 531, 531f
elective 119
equipment, sterilization of 135
ethics in 590
explorer 214
handpiece 272, 274, 274f
history of 1, 2t
imaging techniques 96
implications 79
irrigants, classification of 238fc
lasers in 537
microbiology 55
microflora 340
microsurgical cases, classification of 405, 405f
minimal invasive 230
mishaps 374
pathology, culprit of 73
periodontal lesion 23f
pharmacology in 147
practice 593
predictable 209
procedural errors 374
procedures 589
rationale of surgical 403
scope of 1
spoon excavator 215, 215f
steps for surgical 405, 405fc
surgical 403
tissue 425f
Endodontic biofilm
microbes in 68
penetrate 58
types of 67
Endodontic emergency 120, 152, 346
after treatment 352, 353
classification of 346, 346t, 347
diagnosis of 347
management of 348, 348t
treatment 348, 353
Endodontic failure 51f, 354, 355, 355f, 360, 360f, 361f
etiology of 403
local factors causing 355
Endodontic implant 404, 421, 421f, 472, 472f
failure of 421
Endodontic infections 65
types of 59
Endodontic instruments 135, 154, 155f
classification of 156
ingestion of 594
Endodontic lesion 430, 432
continues, untreated 433
diagnosis of 430
management of 432
primary 430f, 432, 433, 434f
Endodontic origin 432
detection of lesions of 99
lesion of 88f
periapical lesions of 87
Endodontic retreatment 177, 320, 320f, 354, 360f, 361, 363f, 588
contraindications of 361
Endodontic surgery 404, 535
repair after 423
Endodontic therapy 1, 12, 62, 248, 471f
actual reason for 119
basic principles of 374
complete 438f
contraindications of 120
perforation during 428
prognosis of 355
rationale of 73, 81
Endodontic treatment 26, 45, 119f, 120, 120f, 213, 230, 259, 261, 276, 354, 428f, 429, 432, 516, 527
completion of 436
evaluation of 354
indications of 119
initiation of 43f
lesions requiring 429
nonsurgical 81
prognosis of 535
pyramid of 213f
rationale of 73
surgical 82
repair 333
Endodontically treated teeth 438, 441
restoration of 438
Endodontic-periodontal lesion 425, 432, 433, 436
classification of 429
diagnosis of 430
etiology of 429
Endoextractor 384
use of 386
Endofil 306, 311
Endoflas 308
Endomethasone 305, 310
Endometric probe 264, 268
Endomicroscope 587f
Endoperio lesion 425, 428f, 431f, 433, 435, 435f
Endoscope 588, 589f
disadvantage of 588
Endosequence 394
Endosonic
produce cleaner canals 176f
tips 289f
uses of 176
EndoVac system, complete 253f
Engine-Driven instruments 163
Enterococcus 37, 56
faecalis 47, 59, 67, 249, 549
Enzyme 57
production of 75
Eosinophilic fibrous tissue 565
Eosinophils 75
Epinephrine causes decrease 488
Epiphany
advantages of 313
disadvantage of 313
Epithelial attachment 434, 436
Epithelial cell 76
layer, thickness of 531
of Malassez 51
rest proliferation 52f
rests of Malassez 20
Epithelial root sheath, remnant of 505
Epithelium, clinical changes in 531
Epoxy resins 309
Equigingival margin 440, 440f
Equilibrium 106
Equipment safety measures 290
Eradicate biofilms, methods to 68
Erbium 290
Erosion 198, 532
Erythroblastosis fetalis 493
Erythromycin 344
Escherichia coli 59
Ester agent 406
Esthetic 393
reasons 336f
rehabilitation 452f
requirements 443
Ethanol 133
Ethics, nature of 590
Ethyl
alcohol 302
chloride 101f
spray 25
use of 101
Ethylene oxide sterilization 131, 133
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 2, 68, 244, 248
preparations of 245
structural formula of 245fc
uses of 245
Etoricoxib 150
Eubacterium 37, 59
Eucapercha 306
Eugenol 254, 255f, 259, 306, 307, 310
parts of 565
uses of 254
Excitation mechanism 539
Exostoses 534
Expired solution, injection of 592
Exploratory surgery 404
Extensive restorations, management of 228
External inflammatory root resorption 513, 513f, 515f, 516f
treatment of 515
types of 515
External resorption 188, 197, 197f, 503, 509
External surface resorption 513, 514
signs of 513
Extra root 190
canal 187
Extracanal invasive resorption 517, 517f
Extracellular matrix, insoluble 575
Extraoral clinical examination 532
Extraoral discoloration 423
Extraoral ecchymosis 423
Extraoral examination 38, 464, 482
Extraradicular microbial biofilms 67
Extravasated blood cells, clump of 355
Extrusive luxation 475, 873.66 463
treatment of 475f
Eye strain 581
Eyepiece 585
power of 586
Eyewear 125f
protective 126, 543f
F
Facemask 125
removal of 126f
Facial pain, atypical 524
Facial skeletal injury 463
Facial swelling 112, 464f
Facial trauma 527
Fan's classification 195f
Fatty acids 57
Ferric sulfate 566
pulpotomy 566
Ferrule
dissipates forces 455f
effect 446, 454, 454f
preparation of 458f
functions of 455
requirements of 454
secondary 455
Fiber 5, 9
apical 20
argyrophilic 9
C-nerve 14
collagen 7
inter-radicular 20
nerve 13, 20
oblique 20
periodontal 20
post, customizing 452f
splint 481
trans-septal 20
unmyelinated 13
Fiberfill obturator 330, 331
Fiberoptic endoscope 186, 588
Fiberoptic fluorescent spectrometry 107
Fiberoptic light 106
use of 523
Fibrinolytic system 77
Fibroblast 8, 20, 75f
maturation of 577
proliferation of 77
Fibroblastic processes 34
Fibroma, management of 541f
Fibrosis degeneration 34
Fibrous 74
healing 479
tissues, growth of 548
File 158, 159f, 278
bypass technique 382
clip 269
Filler 310
agents 394
Filling materials 489
Filling root canals, instruments used for 178
Finger
pluggers 179
spreader 178, 179f
First molar, extra root in 92f
Fish's zones 79f
Fissure, tapered 225
Fistula 431, 569
absence of 443
Fistulative surgery 404
Flap
designs 408
guidelines for 408
dislodgement, potential for 409
envelope 410
functions of 408
incisions 408
reapproximation 409
reflection 411
repositioning of 417
retraction 411, 412
surgery, apical repositioned 441
trapezoidal 409, 409f
triangular 409, 409f
Flare-ups 338, 347, 352
causes of 338fc
chances of 340
contributing factors for 338
higher incidence of 338
in endodontics 342
induction of 340
interappointment 342
management of 343
mechanisms for 340
mid-treatment 338, 346, 350
postobturation 342
responsible for 340
Flex file, triple 159
Flex master 168
Flexi dam 139
Flexible carriers 329
Flexible files, use of 292, 388
Flexible splint 482
Flexo file 159, 159f
Flexogates 162
advantages of 162
Flex-R file 287f
Flip-up loupes 584, 584f
Floor-mounted endomicroscope 585f
Fluorescent antibody cell sorting 574
Flutes 158
in reamer, lesser number of 158f
Focal infection 73
mechanism of 73
Food and beverages 495
Foramen, avoid transportation of 277
Foramina, multiple 16
Foraminal rip 388
Forceful irrigation 240f
Foreign body 47, 429
presence of 482
Foreign materials, removal of 587
Formaldehyde 133, 256, 564
Formocresol 256, 256f, 258, 565, 566
pulp tissue 566f
pulpotomy 564, 566f
clinical procedure of 566fc
technique of 565
Fossa, central 426
Fourth generation reciprocating instruments 169
Fracture 520, 576
acute trauma like 22
dentinal 490, 490f
fiber post 456f
flexural 177
fragment, reattachment of 467f
green stick 520
incidence of 592
instrument
presence of 375
removal of 386f
line, visualization of 529
resistance 438
segment 467f
tooth, treatment plan for 525fc
torsional 177
trauma-related 520, 521
treatment of incomplete 545
Fragment
reattachment, fractured 470f
removal only 468
separation of 528
Frank's classification 518, 518f
Free denticles 18
Free running pulse mode 542
Free sulfhydryl groups, removal of 131
Freeze-dried bone, decalcified 393
Frenectomy 541
Frozen carbon dioxide 101
Fumed silica 310
Fungi 60
Furcation bone loss 528
Fusion 187, 188, 199
Fusobacterium 37, 56, 59
nucleatum 67
G
Gag reflex 90
Galilean loupes 583f, 584
Galilian and Keplerian optics 584f
Gallium 538
Gas lasers 538
Gated pulse mode 542
Gates-Flidden drills 331f
Gates-Glidden drills 161, 161f, 162f, 283, 283f, 285f, 368, 384, 387
safety design of 161
shoulder using 219
Gates-Glidden modified, modified 386f
Gates-Glidden reamer 397
Gaucher disease 512
Gel form 239
Gemination 187, 188, 199
Gene therapy 580
Geriatric dentistry 536
Geriatric endodontics 530
Geriatric patients 531, 531f
treatment in 534
German chamomile 250
Giant cell 505, 505f
granuloma, central 48
lesions 88
Gingiva 347, 410, 411, 436, 482
abrasion of 463
contusion of 463
laceration of 463
Gingival attachment, retracted 409
Gingival connective tissue 531
Gingival margin 428f
modification of 145
Gingival mucosa, injuries to 463
Gingival recession 532
Gingival sulcus 56, 432f
Gingival tissues causing inflammation 482
Gingivectomy 441, 468, 541
Gingivitis, presence of 410
Gingivoplasty by laser 541f
Glass bead sterilizer 131, 132f
Glass ceramics 548
Glass fiber post 451
Glass ionomer 306
cement 393, 454f, 459, 489, 500f, 553
restoration 567
sealer 311, 314
Glass slab 135
Glide path instruments 173
Gloves 125f, 126
Glutaraldehyde 134, 566
Glycerine 256, 564
Glycocalyx matrix 68
Glyde file 246
Gold wire 173
Golden medium file 161
Golgi bodies 7
Gown, protective 125
Gram's stain 60
Gram-negative
bacilli 60
black-pigmented bacteria 57
cocci 60
organisms 56
Gram-positive
anaerobes 59
bacilli 60
cocci 60
organisms 58
Granuloma 403
Granulomatous tissue, development of 30
Gravitational effect, removal of 11
Gravity convection 130
Green tea
extract 480
polyphenols 250
Grossman's basic requirements 305
Grossman's cement 305
Grossman's classification 26, 39, 156
Grossman's formula 264
Grossman's method 102, 266
Grossman's paste 258
Grossman's sealer 306, 307
Ground substance 5, 7, 9
functions of 10
Gut sutures, chromic 422
Gutman's classification 404
Gutta flow 303, 303f, 329, 329f
Gutta-percha 47, 298, 301, 302, 319, 325f, 329, 365, 431, 552f, 553
advantages of 303
aging of 302, 302f
bars 303f
based cements 306
bending of 303
calcium hydroxide containing 304, 304f
carrier-based 316
chemically
plasticized 316
pure 301
softened 315
chlorhexidine diacetate containing 303, 304
compaction of 529
warm 324
compaction technique, cold 329
cone 314f, 321f
master 317f, 322f
cutter 316f
disadvantages of 303
dissolve 366f
extrusions, minimizing 281
filled 400f
forms of 303f
high viscosity 329
injection, thermoplasticized 316
iodoform containing 304
lateral compaction of 315, 315f
McSpadden compaction of 315
medicated 303, 304
natural chemical form of 301
notching of 317f
obturation 176
thermoplasticized injectable 325, 326fc
over-extended 401f
pellets 302
periapical extrusion of 457f
phases of 301
plug, apical 330f
points 135, 302, 306f, 314, 315
greater taper 302, 303f
protruding 319
precoated core carrier 302, 303f
properties of 302
radiopaque 303f
removal of 162, 177, 365, 379f, 457f, 500f
carrier-based 368
coronal 499f
dissolved 366f
old 367f
sealers 303
shrinks 302
sterilization of 302f
stick
disadvantage of 102
heated 102, 102f
system, injectable 329
temperature of 315
themoplasticized 511f
thermomechanical compaction of 325
thermoplasticized 328f
thermoplasticizing technique of 326
ultrasonic plasticizing of 326
use of 305
cold 315
heat softened 315
vertical compaction of 315, 315f
warm 316, 323
Gypsum 393, 549
H
H file 156, 160, 160f, 365f
Hair-line fractures 520
Halogens 257, 258
Halothane 315, 365
Hand
disinfectant 134f
plugger 179, 179f
spreader 178, 178f
Hand hygiene 126
indications for 126
maintaining 125
Hand instruments
manufacturing of 156
use of 365
Hand washing
instructions 126
technique of 127f
Handi dam 143
Handpiece 174
high-speed 414
misdirection of 415f
role of 177
Hank's balanced solution 480
Hard dental tissues
and pulp, injuries to 462
injuries to 462
Hard laser 538
Hard palate 85
Hard setting cements 368
Hard swelling, presence of 85
Hard tissue
deposition of 578
formation of 569f
mechanism of action of 557, 558fc
management 412
Hat dam 143
Hazards
electrical 543
environmental 543
ocular 543
tissue 543
Head cap 125f, 126
Head lamp 582
Headache 114, 482
Healed sinus 46f
Healing 473
progresses 333
Healthy reparative reaction 491
Heat sensitive equipment 134
Heat test 25, 102
Heithersay and Morile classification 463
Heithersay's classification 518, 518f
Helical angle 166, 166f
Hemangioma 542
central 48
Hematological disorders 493
Hematoma 591
Hemisection 404
Hemoglobin, deoxygenated 106
Hemorrhage 390, 407, 482
easy-to-control 563
excessive 355
intrapulpal 508
Hemostasis 397, 406
mechanism of 407
receptor and mechanism of 407
submucosal infiltration for 406
Hemostatic agents 407
Herbal irrigants 69, 250
Hermetic seal 299
Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells 563, 568, 579
Hexamethylenetetramine 309
H-files
advantages of 160
disadvantages of 160
modifications in 160
safety 160, 160f
Histiocytes 79
Home bleaching technique 498
Homeostasis 65
Homogeneous mass 319f
Honey milk 480
Hot air oven 130
Hot burnisher, application of 102, 102f
Hot tooth 346, 347, 349, 352
management 349
theories of mechanism 349
Hour-glass shape 388
Hsu and Kin classification 184f
Human anatomical waste 136
Human exfoliated deciduous teeth 579
Human periapical lesion 106
Hybrid technique 281f
Hydrated calcium sulfate 393
Hydrated collophonium 310
Hydration 550
Hydrocortisone 310
Hydrodynamic forces 101
Hydrogen peroxide 242, 243, 243f, 248, 302, 495
bubbles 242
high concentration of 501
ingestion, acute effects of n 501
Hydrogenated resins 307, 310
Hydrolyses 256
Hydrolytic enzymes, leukocytes release 57
Hydron 306, 308
Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid 77
Hydrophilic plastic polymer 510
Hydrophobic amorphous silica 311
Hydrosoluble polymer 553, 559
Hydroxide ions 554
Hydroxyapatite 393, 548, 549
crystals 397f
Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 77
Hydroxyethylidene bisphosphonate 246
Hydroxyl terminated dimethyl polysiloxane 311
Hypaque 186, 187
Hyperalgesia 349
Hyperemia 27
reactive 408
Hyperexcitable muscle tissues 114
Hyperparathyroidism 48, 512
Hyperplastic pulpitis 26, 30, 32, 35
Hypochlorite 239
accident 346, 350, 352
Hypochlorous acid 239
Hypodermic needle 365, 365f
Hypoparathyroidism 10, 512
Hypoxia 42
I
Iatrogenic causes 40
Iatrogenic errors 355
Iatrogenic injuries 507
Ibuprofen 150, 151, 344
Idiopathic osteosclerosis 88
Idiopathic tooth resorption 107
Iisthmus 184f
Immune reactions, mediators of 78
Immunity 78
adaptive 78
innate 78
Implant
material for 421
surgery 404
Impression material 490
In vitro methods 185, 186
Inactivate endotoxin 236
Inadequate canal preparation 374, 390
Incisional biopsy 541
Incremental filing technique, use of 388
Index finger, carrier with 328
Indium foil 393
Indomethacin 150
Infected tissue, presence of 355f
Infection 355, 423, 592
actinomyces 47
biomaterial-centered 67
cases of spreading 344
chain of 124fc
control 125, 135, 152
rationale for 124
droplet 124
extraradicular 59
focus of 73
localization of 562
low-grade 30
oral foci of 73
periapical 147, 256f
periradicular 333
presence of 355
routes of spread of 124
secondary 350
source of 431
spread of 73
viral 10
virgin 59
virulent 112
Infective endocarditis, prevent 152
Infective tissue 360f
Inflamed granulation tissue 49
Inflammation 74
cardinal signs of 74t
chronic 74, 198, 487
degree of 24
localization of 562
signs of 74
types of 74
Inflammatory cell 75, 75f
infiltration 491
types of 75f
Inflammatory periodontal lesion, acute 542
Inflammatory root resorption, progression of 513f
Inflammatory tissue, interproximal 473
Infrared 131
Ingle Levine specifications 155f
Ingle's classification 26, 40, 463
Ingle's method 264, 266
Ingle's radiographic method 267f
Ingle's standardization, modifications from 155
Injury, type of 482
In-office bleaching 496
Inorganic crystal structures, degradation of 506
Instrument 132, 587
accessibility of 381
advance 294
aspiration 374, 401
bypassing of 371
separated 384f, 385f
classification of 126
contact of 159
damage 178
deformation and breakage 177
elastic memory of 279
fifth generation 170
fractured 374, 387f
generation of 167
hand-operated 156
improper use of 375
increases, efficiency of 237
manipulation of 245
modifying cutting edges of 292
monitoring of 132
movements of 278
precurve 375f
processing
procedure 128, 128fc
seps of 128
removal of separated 162, 371f, 387
removal system 365, 384, 386
microtubes of 386f
remove 387f
retrieval 384
separation 229, 347, 358, 381, 385f
sterilization of 546
classification of 127
stiff 163
tip angle of 154
ultrasonic 174, 216, 289, 290f
wrapping, cloth pouches for 130f
wrong angulation of 376f
Instrumentation pressure 487
Intact lamina dura 48
Intentional replantation 404, 405, 512
Intercellular matrix 21
Interleukin-1, detection of 105
Internal inflammatory resorption 507509, 514
Internal resorption 188, 196, 196f, 198, 506, 506f, 507f, 509, 514
defect 511f
Interproximal inflammatory tissue 473f
Interpupillary distance 582, 582f, 586
Interrupted loop suture 422
Interstitial fluid 5
Intracanal drugs, popularity of 258
Intracanal isthmus communication 588
Intracanal medicament 63, 236, 254, 257, 344
classification of 254
effectiveness of 237
functions of 254
limitations of 259
placement of 259, 343, 343f, 345
Intracanal microbial biofilms 67
Intracellular components, leakage of 243
Intracoronal bleaching 499
complications of 500
Intraligamentary injection 148, 349f
Intraoral
examination 38, 464, 482
periapical radiographs 89
structures 483
swelling 406
Intraosseous 148, 518
anesthesia 149
injection 149, 149f, 349f
Intrapulpal injection 350f
Intraradicular infection 29f, 59, 340
Intraradicular inflammatory resorption 509
Intraradicular post, irretrievable 404
Intraradicular splint 472
Intricate curvatures 184
Invasive resorption 517
Iodides 257
Iodine 68, 258, 343
potassium iodide 257
Iodoform 303
Iodophor 257, 258
compounds 134
Ionizing radiation 131
Iron oxide pigments 309
Irreversible pulpitis 12f, 26, 31, 28, 31, 84, 103, 110, 111, 121, 202f, 208f
asymptomatic 35
differential diagnosis of 31
early stages of 84
Irrigant 248
act 237
age of 238
exchange, effective 251f
functions of 237
greater volumes of 288
ideal requirements for 236
less space for 284
long blunt needle 251
mode of delivery of 250
remove dentin shavings 237f
surface tension of 237
temperature of 237
Irrigating needle, gauge of 237
Irrigating solutions 238
activity of 237, 237f
efficacy of 237
Irrigation 176, 236
delivery systems for 251
frequency of 238
laser-activated 240
method of 250
ultrasonically activated 69
Irritants 198
removal of 45
Irritation, zone of 79
Ischemic heart disease 151
Isobutyl salicylate 310
Isoflurane 365
Isolate microbes, methods to 68
Isopropyl alcohols 133, 319
Isthmus 183
classified 184
clinical significance of 184
J
J-shaped radiolucency 401f
K
Keplerian loupes 583f, 584
Keratinized tissue 441
Kerr root canal sealer 307
Ketorolac 344
K-file 157, 158, 175f
use of ultrasonic 371
K-flex file 159, 159f
Kinin system 78, 78fc
Klinefelter syndrome 189
Kronfeld's mountain pass
concept 81f
theory 80, 80f
K-type reamers 157
Kuttler's method 264, 266
L
Labial access 234
Labial mucosa 85
Labial perforation 199
Lactobacillus 56
Lamina dura, loss of 38, 39f, 87
Lancinating pains 116
Largal ultra 246
Laser 69, 71, 544t
advantages of 543
apicoectomy 537
applications of 544
basic components of 539
classification of 538
device 544
Doppler flowmetry 105, 105f, 544
effect of 491
emission modes of 542
irradiation, thermal effects of 543t
light 539, 539t
liquid 538
physics 539
pulpotomy 567
semiconductor 538
type of 541
use of 543f
Laser beam
principles of 538
use of 102
Latch-type design 161
Lateral canal 188, 197, 199, 426
Lateral luxation 463, 475, 475f
Lateral root resorption 47
Lateral wall perforation 389
Latex elastomer 301
Latex-free dam 139
Latrogenic complication 361
Latrogenic errors 356
Lead tetraoxide 310
Ledermix 258
Ledge formation 374, 376
identification of 377
prevention of 377
Lens 540
loupes 584
optical center of 586f
Lentulo spiral 179, 314f
Lesion 88, 432, 436
benign 47
chronic 78
combined 436
concomitant 436
dependent part of 406f
malignant 48
outline of 507
removal of 541
Leukemia 122, 404
Leukocytic chemotaxis 77
Leukotrienes 75, 77fc
Levonordefrin 406
Lidocaine 406
Lignocaine 148, 565
Lindskog classification 504fc
Linen 422
Lingual groove 187, 190, 190f
Lingual object 90f
Lingual opposite buccal rule 90
Lingual shoulder 219
removal of 162
Lip
clip 269
protect 483
Lipopolysaccharides 57
Liquefaction necrosis 35
Liquid
crystals 107
culture medium 61
dam 143
plastic crystal 327
rubber dam 143f
Liver disease, chronic 151
Local adaptation syndrome, alteration of 340
Local anesthesia 147, 148, 406, 591
nerve blocks of 407f
techniques of 148
Local anesthetic agents
classification of 147fc
composition of 148
Local tissue, anoxia of 42
Lorazepam 349
Loupe 581
oculars 582
simple 583f
types of 582
Low output power lasers 546
Low oxygen consumption 488
Ludwig's angina 25
Luting cement 453
Luxation injury 347, 348, 463, 473, 512, 515
types of 473
Lymph nodes, examination of 86
Lymphatic vessels 11
Lymphocytes 8, 20, 76, 79
Lysosomal enzymes 75, 77
Lysozyme 77
M
Macrodontia 188, 197
Macrophages 20, 74, 75, 79, 341, 505
activating 77
Magnesium oxide 307
Magnification changers 585, 586
Maleic acid 71, 246, 311
Malpractice cases 594
Mandible and maxilla, fracture of 463
Mandibular anteriors 409
Mandibular area, swelling of 42f
Mandibular canine 204, 205f, 220
Mandibular central
access cavity of 220
incisor 203, 204f
Mandibular first molar 33f, 55f, 56f, 87f, 92f, 120f, 207, 207f, 227, 227f, 396f, 418f, 528f
distal root of 33f, 512f
left 28f, 29f, 46f
management of 191f, 370f, 419f, 420f
mesiobuccal canal of 359f, 370f, 371f
obturation of 92f
Mandibular first premolar 205, 205f, 206f, 221
management of 206f
Mandibular incisor 189, 190, 220
access cavity of 220f
Mandibular lateral incisor 204, 204f
management of 511f
Mandibular molar 36f, 51f, 182f, 186f, 190, 196, 262f, 356f, 358f, 383f
access cavity preparation for 225
calcified canals of 534, 534f
cavity preparation for 226f
distal root of 190f, 196f
endodontic
failure of 50f
retreatment of 360f
treatment of 37f, 382, 382f
management of 208f, 256f, 294f, 369f
mesiobuccal canal of 293f
right 431f
root canal of 357f
treatment of 336f
under obturated 362f, 378f, 399f, 400f
Mandibular premolar 113f, 186f, 190, 223f, 456f
cavity preparation of 223f
dilacerated root of 189f
endodontic treatment of 381f
Mandibular second molar 37f, 207, 208f, 227, 295f, 296f, 359f, 392f
apical
curvature of 214f
delta in 183f
endodontic retreatment of 363f
management of 396f
Mandibular second premolar 39f, 206, 207f, 221
canal of 300f
left 40f
management of 206f
root canal treatment of 224f
Mandibular third molar 209
Marginal leakage 489, 492, 533
Martensite-austenite phase 164f
Masserann kit 384
Massermann extractor, use of 371f
Mast cell 8, 20
degranulation 341f
Master apical file 289, 291f, 315f, 375f
Master cone radiograph 92, 92f, 231f, 378f, 399f
Mattress suture, vertical 422
Mature biofilm 67f
Maxillary antrum 39
Maxillary arch 587
walking bleach of 500f
Maxillary canine 196, 199, 200f, 220, 409
Maxillary central incisor 47f, 53f, 198, 198f, 219, 299f, 320f, 355f, 500f, 511f, 516f
endodontic treatment of 295f
fractured right 452f
management of right 413f
restoration of 450f
right 198f, 453f, 507f
root fracture of 465f
Maxillary first molar 201, 201f, 202f, 224
alveolar socket of 203
cavity of 181f, 225f
management of 232f, 370f
Maxillary first premolar 36f, 187f, 200, 200f, 221, 380f
canals of 301
lateral canals of 197f
root canal treatment of 222f
Maxillary incisor 329, 358f
lateral 53f, 196, 199, 199f, 220, 427f, 456, 524f
region 409
root fracture of 466f
Maxillary left lateral incisor 44f
Maxillary molar 97f, 113f, 225, 299f
access cavity preparation for 223
calcified canals of 534f
cavity preparation for 225f
palatal roots of 411
pulp cavity of 15f
root canal treatment of 226f, 336f
rots of 117f
Maxillary premolar 113f, 196, 299f, 367f, 384f
cavity preparation of 222f
endodontic treatment of 192f, 294f
lateral canals of 17f
underobturated 366f
Maxillary right central incisor
fractured 467f
management of 467f
resorption of 120f
Maxillary second molar 203, 203f, 225
cavity preparation of 226f
Maxillary second premolar 195f, 201, 201f, 221, 222f, 223f, 293f, 382f
Maxillary sinus 42f, 117f, 203
Maxillary sinusitis 423
Maxillary third molar 203
Maxillary tuberosity 203
Max-wire alloy 173
McSpadden compaction 325, 325f
thermomechanical technique 316
Mechanica-instrument washer 128
Mechanical nerve trauma 116
Mechanically engages canal walls 446f
Mefenamic acid 150
Meloxicam 150
Melting point 302
Melton's classification 194f
Memory files, controlled 164
Mental disorders, category of 117
Meperidine 344
Mesenchymal cells 577
undifferentiated 8, 196
Mesenchymal origin, soft tissue of 5
Mesenchymal stem cells 574
Mesial canals, obturation of 396f
Mesial drift 16
Mesial root
halo appearance of 528f
perforation of 392f
Mesial wall 227
Mesiobuccal canal 385f
second 190, 225
Mesiobuccal orifice 227
Mesio-occlusal caries, deep 29f
Messing gun 417f
canal with 332
Metabolic products 67
Metal posts, prefabricated 449
Metalloenzyme-regulated pathway 78
Metaplastic hard tissue, origin of 508
Metaplastic resorption 507, 514
Methoxyflurane 365
Methyl
chloroform 365
paraben 148
Methylene blue 187
Metronidazole 152, 344
Microabrasion 497
Microbial biofilms 3
Microbial factors 340
Microbial flora, assessment of 299
Microbial injury 338
Microbial irritation 24
Microbial reduction, level of 290
Microbial virulence 57
Microbiological examination 431
Microdebriders 368
Microdontia 188, 198
Micro-endobrush 71
Microhardness 553
Microleakage 562
Microorganisms 298, 344
classification of 56
types of 56f
Microsurgery 415
Microsurgical forceps 364f
Mid-root
fracture 469
level 394
perforations 374, 392
Migraine 115
Milk 480
Miller's tooth mobility index 87
Mineral loss 93f
Mineral trioxide aggregate 2, 3, 331, 332f, 389, 393, 416, 417, 489, 548, 549, 552, 552f, 556, 558
advantages of 551
apexification technique 570
carrier gun 551f
composition of 549
disadvantages of 551
granular nature of 332f
gray 551, 551t
manipulation of 550
pH of 331
placement 176
technique 417
powder 559fc
pulpotomy 567
setting reaction of 550, 550f
types of 549
white 551, 551t
Minimal canal preparation maintaining 447
Minocycline 494
Mishap, management of 351f
Missed canal 248, 350, 374, 377, 378, 382f
prevention of 378
Mobility 482
Moist calcium hydroxide 331
Moist heat 133
sterilization, autoclave for 129f
Molar
cavity preparation of 227f
fracture in 526f
larger ones for 141f
obturation of 87f
perforation of 359f
Molecular methods, advantages of 61
Monoblock concept 313, 313f
Monoblock phenomenon strengthens 313
Monoclonal antibodies 78
Monocytes 505
Monojet endodontic needle 251, 252f
Monomer present 490
Monostotic fibrous dysplasia, early stages of 47
Morning glory 183
Morning stiffness 535
Morphine 151, 344
Morphogens
molecules 573
types of 575
Mouth
and tongue, floor of 85
breathers 138
floor of 482
guard, functions of 483
mask 125f
mirror
blunt handle of 85f
placement 587
opening, reduced 533
Mucoperiosteal flaps 408, 409, 524
Mucoperiosteum, lifting of 411f
Mucosa and periosteum 411
Mucosal irritation 501
Mullaney 282
Multiple teeth 409
isolation 138
Murmurs 122
Muscular pain, management of 114
Muscular toothache 114
M-wire 164, 172
Myelin appears 13
Myelinated nerve fibers 14
Myeloma, multiple 48
Myocardial infarction 122
Myofascial headache 114f
Myristica fragrans 250
Myxoma 48
N
Nano particle enriched 303, 304
Nanodiamonds 304
Naproxen 150
Nasal cavity 39
Nausea 482
Nd:yag laser in endodontics 537
Necrotic debris, removal of 157
Necrotic pulp 80, 110, 111, 121, 338, 342
draining 433
symptom of 111
tissue 60, 298, 356
Necrotic tissue 344
dissolve 236
removal of infected 398
Needle
designs, different 251
in situ, fracture of 592
selection 422
tip 326
with bevel 251, 252f
Negative pressure irrigation 252, 253f
Neoangiogenesis 548
Neodymium:yttrium aluminum-garnet lasers 541
Neoendo retreatment file 368
Nerve 7
anesthetized 149
inflammation of 116
Nervous patient 349
Neural structure 117
Neuralgia 116
Neuritis 116
cases, acute 116
treatment of 117
Neuropathy 117
clinical characteristics of 117
Neuropeptides 76
Neurovascular headache 115
Neurovascular toothache 114
Neutropenia 404
Neutrophils 20, 75
engulf 75
Newer irrigating solutions 247
Nickel, atomic ratio of 163
Nickel-titanium rotary instruments 178
Night-guard bleaching 498
Nimesulide 150
NiTi alloy
advantages of 164
conventional austenitic 172
derived 172
metallurgical development of 172
NiTi files
disadvantages of 164
evolution 171
motion of 173
structural design of 171
NiTi fracture, risk of 178
NiTi greater taper hand files 287
NiTi instruments 172
NiTi rotary
file 164f
generation 167
instruments 163
NiTi systems 171
wide range of engine-driven 174
Nitrogen bubble 148
Nociceptors, activation of 109
Nogenol 306, 308
Non-absorbable materials, natural 422
Nonendodontic origin 47
Noneugenol 306
Nonionizing radiation 131
Nonodontogenic origin, lesions of 48
Nonodontogenic pain, sources of 112
Nonradiographic methods 264, 269
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 147, 150, 151, 344
Nonsurgical repair, indications of 510
Nonsurgical treatment, failed 404
Nonthermocatalytic bleaching 497
Nonvital bleaching, prerequisites for 499
Nonvital mandibular first premolar 337f
Nonvital maxillary
central incisors 500f
right central incisor 36f
Nonvital teeth 40, 49f, 103, 106, 576
bleaching of 498, 499
Notched tip
gauge needle with 251
needle with 252f
Noticeable repair 424
Nucleic acid, enzyme digestion of 62
Nutrients 67
Nutritional deficient theory 51
Nutritional factors 57
Nystatin 257, 258
O
Obligate aerobes 56
Obligate anaerobes 56, 60
Obturate 298
canal 571f
Obturation 81, 92, 276, 295, 313, 535
armamentarium for 315, 316f
evaluation of 300
materials for 300
system, resin-based 304
techniques 315
timing of 298
Occlusal 89
reduction 343
surface 234f, 363
trauma 27, 111
Occlusion, abnormalities in 465f
Ochsenbein-Luebke flap 410, 410f
flap design for 411f
Octenidine dihydrochloride 240
Odontalgia 117, 118
Odontoblast 5, 7, 8f, 491, 505
aspiration of 487f
coagulation necrosis of 491
heralds 6
maturation of 577
Odontogenic pain, sources of 110
Odontogenic referred pain 113
Odontogenic tumors 53
Oleo resins 307
Oleum
lavandulae 310
rosae 310
Oligonuclear odontoclasts 505
One-appointment technique 561
Open apex 197, 477, 478
Open cavity, entry through 55
Open dentinal tubules 56
Operating microscope
focusing of 586
parts of 585
positioning of 586
Operator positioning 586
Operculectomy 112
Opioid analgesic drugs 151
Optical cavity 540
Optical coherence tomography, indications of 100
Optical mirror 540
Optical resonator 539
Optra dam 143
Oral cavity 39, 427f, 531
Oral environment 428f
dentinal tubules to 414f
Oral hygiene status 85
Oral mucosa 463, 531
age changes in 531
injuries to 463
Oral pain 347
common features of 347
Orascope 588
Ordinary visible light 539f
Organic debris, presence of 242
Organic iodine containing compounds 257
Organic matrix, degradation of 506
Organic tissue, presence of 237
Orifice 227, 230
indicates pulp 219f
location 176
law of 218
Ornidazole 344
Orofacial disorders 109
Orofacial pain 109, 110
differential diagnosis of 109
Orthodontic
movement 24
techniques 441
tooth movement 503, 514, 515f
treatment 517
wire 481
Osseointegrated implants 404
Ossifying fibroma 47
Osteoblasts 20, 505f
produce enzyme 333
Osteoclast 20, 76, 79, 505
regulated pathway 78
Osteocytes 20
Osteogenic sarcoma 48
Osteoprotegerin, presence of 505
Osteotomy 415
Overextended obturation 299, 346
Overinstrumentation 342, 350, 358, 374, 390
Overlying dentin, removal of 278f
Ovoid-shaped canals, large 329
Oxicam derivatives 150
Oxidation-reduction potential 341f
Oxygen, influence of 57
Oxygenating canal 63
Ozonated water 69
advantages of 248
irrigation 248
Ozone 248
P
Packaging material 129
type of 129t
Packing instruments, peel-pouches for 129f
Paget disease 512
Pain 27, 31, 35, 109, 147
and swelling 348, 527
cardiac 115f
central 112
control 147
dentinal 84
history of 109, 527
intensity of 110
localization 31
mild-to-moderate 342
myofascial 114
nature of 118
neuropathic 116
occurrence of 338
perception, preventing 147
persistent 112
postobturation 347, 353
reason for 84
reduced intra-appointment 335
referred 31, 112, 113
sensation, increased 117
severe 342
excruciating 350
sharp 522
short-lasting 151
slight-to-moderate 591
source of 347
throbbing 114, 114f
type of 31, 84
Painful jerking 116
Painful pulpoperiapical pathosis 40
Palaquium 301
Palatal surgery
flap design in 411
flap for 411f
Palatogingival groove 199, 426, 427f
Palpation 38, 83, 84, 86
Paper point measurement method 269
Paracetamol 147, 150, 151
Parachloroaniline 245f
Parachlorophenol 255
Paradental cyst, inflammatory 39
Paraformaldehyde 256, 310, 565
cements 306
Parecoxib 150
Paresthesia 107, 350
Paroxysmal neuralgias 116
Past dental history 532
Paste
removal of 368
ultrasonic vibration for 369f
system 330
type 246
Pathologic stimuli 560
Peeso reamer 162, 163, 163f, 397, 457f
Penetrate biofilm 250
Penicillin 257, 344, 489
Pepsin 75
Peptic ulcer 151
Peptostreptococcus 37, 59
micros 68
Percussion 29, 38, 83
test 27, 84, 85
Perforating internal resorption, management of 510
Perforation 229, 358, 391, 553, 594
repair, materials for 393, 393f
types of 397
Periadicular radiolucency, absence of 41
Periapical abscess 41, 42f, 43, 43f, 73
management of 43f
recurrent 342
symptomatic 348
with sinus 39
without sinus 39
Periapical anatomy, normal 93, 93f
Periapical area 333
Periapical biofilms 47
Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia 52
Periapical curettage 24
Periapical disease 341
Periapical granuloma 40, 49, 49f, 51f, 52, 73
etiology of 49
Periapical index 93
Periapical inflammation 38, 340f
Periapical lesion 48f, 399f
absence of 499
inflammatory 106
Periapical microbial biofilms 67
Periapical pathology 336
Periapical pocket 52
Periapical problem 532
Periapical radiographs 193
Periapical radiolucency 53f, 93f, 355f, 378f
Periapical scar tissue 47
Periapical status 338
Periapical tissue 339f, 355f, 360f
forcing debris into 342
irritation of 401f
persistent 37
pressure 340
removal of diseased 403
Pericervical dentin 232, 233, 233f
Pericingulum dentin 232, 233
Pericoronitis 110, 112
Periodontal
bone resorption, crestal-marginal 479
condition 392, 436
connective tissue, age changes in 531
curettage 24
curette 32
destruction 435, 436
disease 85, 198, 428f, 429, 433, 434, 436, 443, 512
examination 38, 84, 86, 435
management 405
pain 84, 110, 111
pocket 22, 23f
probing 523, 528
problem 432
prognosis 404
status 85, 523
therapy 436
treatment 346, 429
Periodontal abscess 22, 43, 88, 110, 112, 431f
acute 112
differential diagnosis of 43
Periodontal lesion 427f, 429, 430
chronic 430
diagnosis of 430
management of 432
primary 430f, 433, 434, 434f
spread of 435f
Periodontal ligament 19, 20, 56, 59, 110, 111, 121, 358, 432, 465f, 478, 579
cells 477
fibers 474, 572
inflammation of 111
injection 148
principal fibers of 20f
space 476
stem cells 579
Periodontal origin
dental pain of 110
pain of 110
Periodontal tissue 418f, 425f, 430
inflammation of 112, 515
injuries to 463
noncaustic to 236
Periodontitis 93f, 410
retrograde 428, 428f
severe 93f
Periodontium 38f, 276f, 425, 426f, 427, 427f, 428
effect on 360
health of 425
injury to 474f
Periodontology 546
Peripheral nerves 147
Peripheral neuritis 116
Periradicular abscess, large 406f
Periradicular cemental dysplasia, early stages of 47
Periradicular changes 434
Periradicular curettage 412
Periradicular diseases 37, 58
asymptomatic 39
classification of 49
clinical classification of 39
sequel of 39fc
symptomatic 39
Periradicular inflammation 38f, 47, 63
Periradicular lesions, nonspecific mediators of 76
Periradicular pathologies, classification of 39
Periradicular pathosis, acute exacerbation of 338
Periradicular radiolucency, presence of 41
Periradicular status, tests for 347
Periradicular surgery 404, 406
Periradicular tissue 19, 19f, 36, 183, 347, 399, 478, 478t, 479
diseases of 47
pathologies of 36
Peritubular dentin 491
Permanent teeth 568, 504f
avulsed 477
eruption of 504f
infected 570
Peroxidases 77
Persistent infection, etiology of 3
Persistent intraradicular infections 59
Personal protective
barrier techniques 125
equipment 125, 125f
Petroleum jelly 138
Petroleum-based lubricant 142
Phagocyte-regulated pathway 78
Phagocytosis 75
Phantom tooth pain 117
Phenol 259, 255, 489
Phenolic compounds 133, 255
Phenylmercuric borate 310
Phosphate
buffered saline 394
reaction of 555
Phosphor imaging system 96, 268
Photoactivated disinfection 69, 248, 545
system 249f
Photochemical effects 543
Photoelectrical interaction 543
Photomechanical interaction 543
Photothermal interaction 543
Physiologic foramen, minor movement of 389
Piezoelectricity principle 175
Pigments 311
Pilli 57
Pin
insertion, effects of 490
placement 490f
Pink tooth 32
appearance 507f
mummery 32, 509
Pinocytosis 75
Piroxicam 150
Pitch 166
Placing post, contraindications of 443
Plaque 495
and calculus 436
Plasma dental probe 69
Plasma-derived mediators 77, 78fc
Plasma-rich protein 575
Plasminogen-regulated pathway 78
Plaster of Paris 393
Plastic carrier, remove 368
Plastic rubber dam clamp 140f
Plasticity 303
Plate culture 60
Platelet 77
activating factor 77
Platelet-derived growth factor 574
Plethysmography 26, 105, 106
Plexus of Raschkow 13
Pluggers 321
Pluripotent 578
Pocket probing 431
Polyacrylic acid 246, 246f
Polyamines 57
Polycarbonate plastic 140
Polycarboxylate 306
cement 416, 454f
Polyclonal antibodies 78
Polydimethylsiloxane 311
Polyethylene
glycol base 258
polycarbonic acid 311
Polyglactic acid (vicryl) 422
Polyglycolic acid (dexon) 422
Polymerase chain reaction method 62
Polymerizable hydrogels 580
Polymerization shrinkage 490
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 8
infiltrate 43
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils 74, 75
Polymorphonucleocytes 57
Polypoid tissue, removal of 32
Polysulfone polymer 327
Polyvalent metal 71
Pomegranate juice 480
Porphyria, congenital 493
Porphyromonas 37, 58, 59
asaccharolytica 58
endodontalis 58
gingivalis 58, 67
species 340
Portland cement 393, 549, 549f
Positive Doppler shift 107
Positive pressure irrigation 250, 251, 251f
drawbacks of 251
Post and core
clinical longevity of 455
components of 444f
design of 446f
prefabricated 451f
Post designs, types of 445f, 448f
Post-endodontic
coronal restoration 361
restoration 438f
sequelae 60
Posterior teeth 34f, 182f, 232, 233, 261f
ferrule effect of 454f
mandibular 409
maxillary 409
Posteruptive causes 494
Postnatal stem cell therapy 578, 579, 579f
Postobturation emergencies, management of 352
Postobturation instructions 333
Postobturation radiograph 385f
Postobturation techniques, management of 352fc
Postpreparing drills, misdirection of 398f
Postspace perforation 374, 397, 398f
Postsurgical care 421
Postsurgical complications 423
Post-trauma maxillomandibular fixation 234
Potassium
iodide 343
oxalate 71
penicillin G 258
Potential tissue damage 109
Powder 309
density 540
Power-driven system 174
Precipitated silver 307
Precurve file 291
use of 388, 389
Predentin 518, 561
Pre-eruptive causes 493
Pregnancy, first trimester of 404
Premolars 221
access cavity preparation for 221
cavity preparation for 221f, 224f
medium for 141f
underobturated 380f
Prevotella 37, 59, 340
bivia 58
buccae 58
corporis 58
denticola 58
intermedia 58
melaninogenica 58
nigrescens 58
oralis 58
tannerae 58
Primary dentin, tubules of 491
Primary teeth 504, 562, 566
loss of 504f
obturation of 551
root resorption of 504f
Primer 312
placement of 312
Probe, movement of 99
Probiotics 480
Procaine 406
Processed instruments, storage of 132
Proinflammatory cytokines 76
Propionibacterium
acnes 67
propionicum 67
Propionic acid derivatives 150
Propolis 250
Propoxicaine 406
Propoxyphene 344
Propylene glycol 565
Prorinse probe 252
Proroot endo sealer 312
Prostaglandins 75, 77
Prosthetic
implants 122
valve 122
Protaper gold 171
system 173
Protaper ultimate 171
Protein
coagulation of 131
denaturation of 243
Proteinate globules 557
Proteolytic enzymes 75
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 59, 67, 549
Psoriasis 301
Psychogenic toothache 117
Psychological factor 340, 341
Pulp 1f, 5, 22, 88f, 218, 347, 425, 426f, 478, 488f, 530, 556
abnormal response of 431
age changes in 17, 531
already stressed 490
amalgam on 489
anatomy 14f, 184
methods of determining 185
blood supply, assessment of 100
calcifications 196
chronic
inflammation of 506
irritation of 508f
circulation of 11f
collagen in 18
complete removal of 112
condition of 101
contents of 7
core 6
debris, remove 220f
defense
cells of 9f
mechanism of 491
degeneration 26, 33
dentin complex 5, 5f, 485, 572
effect of 491, 501
effects of radiations on 490
evaluation, tests for 347
exposure of 29f, 346
extirpation of 355
fibroblasts, histology of 8f
four basic functions of 16
functions of 16
gets 485
healthy 103
horns 181, 182f, 220
impact of 270, 428f, 503
implantation 22, 24, 579, 579f
infection of 74f
inflammation of 56f
injuries to 462
innervation of 12
irritation 490
microscopic zones in 7
necrosis of 44
nerve fibers of 13f
nonvital 535, 552
normal 121
oximetry 105
pathologies 25
peripheral nerve endings of 5f
permanent damage to 488
protection of 486f, 490f
radiation injury to 24
recover 492
removal and canal preparation 510
responds normal to testing 474
responses of 478, 478t
restorative procedure to 487
sensitivity 100, 101
sensory response, assessment of 100
status 336, 522
systemic factors affecting 10
temperature 487
tester, battery operated 103f
to dental caries, response of 485
to local anesthetics, response of 488
to restorative materials, response of 489
to tooth preparation, response of 487
underlying reparative dentin 486
volume 17f
zones of 6, 7f
Pulp canal
main 197
obliteration 479
Pulp capping 468, 544, 548, 468, 552, 560
agent, ideal requirements of 556
direct 545, 560, 562, 562fc, 563f
indirect 545, 560, 561f
materials for 556, 557f
Pulp cavity 14f, 15f, 34f, 181, 196
calcification of 534
portion of 15
radiographic appearance of 15f
reduced size of 18f
shape of 187, 192, 198
size of 531, 532, 533f
Pulp chamber 14, 15, 15f, 33f, 181, 181f, 182f, 196f, 199208, 210, 221f, 499, 525f, 567
complete deroofing of 214
depth of 216f
fleshy reddish pulpal mass filling 31f
floor of 218f
large 188f, 202
level of 587
occlusally 15
remove roof of 221
shape of 217
size of 217
with round bur 217f
Pulp exposure 350, 352, 468, 533f
multiple 533f
treatment plan to 557fc
Pulp extirpation 26
untreatable without 26
Pulp inflammation
chronic 479
deep restoration causing 27f
Pulp necrosis 26, 35, 36f, 37f, 44, 58, 479, 487
infection 479
total 26
types of 35
Pulp polyp 30
by laser, management of 542f
Pulp revascularization 479, 576
procedure 577f
Pulp sensibility test 100, 101, 508
limitations of 104
Pulp space 507f
assumed 294f
calcific metamorphosis of 404
improper debridement of 229
in internal resorption, ballooning of 196f
internal anatomy of 219
microbial infection of 58
radiopacity of 198f
Pulp stone 18, 18f, 33, 33f, 34, 188, 196, 196f, 198
classification of 18, 34
clinical significance of 19
embedded 19f
types of 34f
Pulp test 33, 35, 111, 112, 473, 528
uses of 100
Pulp tissue 374, 479, 557
3-D 579
inadequate debridement of 339f
incomplete removal of 342
inflamed 566f
localized destruction of 42
replacement 579
Pulp vitality 38, 556
assessment of 105
tests 84, 100, 105, 107, 112, 431, 533
Pulpal blood
flow, regulation of 11
supply 10
vessels, strangulation of 25
Pulpal calcifications 18
Pulpal cavity, ballooning of 32f
Pulpal changes 494
Pulpal damage, prevention of 492
Pulpal disease 428, 432, 436
etiology of 22
Pulpal exposure 29f, 490f
Pulpal floor, color of 228
Pulpal flow, effect of 11
Pulpal hyperplasia 30
Pulpal in origin 347
Pulpal infection 44
progresses 428f
Pulpal inflammation 23f, 24, 429
degree of 486, 487
sequel of 25fc
vicious cycle of 12f
Pulpal injury 556
method to prevent 492
Pulpal morphology, abnormal 190
Pulpal necrosis 36f, 514
etiology of 87
Pulpal origin
dental pain of 110
periradicular lesions of 38
Pulpal pain 29f, 84, 110
Pulpal pathology 432
classification of 26
diagnosis of 25
extension of 111
pain in 432
progression of 24
Pulpal pressure 42
Pulpal response 485, 488
Pulpal space, ballooning of 47
Pulpal tissue 429
complete removal of 111
remove 564
Pulpal-core 7
Pulpalgia 26
hyperactive 27
hyper-reactive 26
Pulpectomy 29, 556
Pulpitis 35, 58, 113f
acute 26
irreversible 84, 346
reversible 346
chronic 30, 30f, 341
partial 26
total 26
first stage of 27
hyperplastic form of 31f
infectious sequelae of 25
irreversible 84
management of irreversible 191f
retrograde 429
symptomatic
irreversible 35, 347, 348
reversible 347, 348
Pulpodentinal junction 426
Pulpoperiapical pathosis 40
Pulpotomy 544, 560, 563, 564
classification of 564fc
complete 564, 565f
electrosurgical 566, 567
materials used for 566
partial 468, 564, 565f
procedures 508
Pulp-periapical status 523
Pulsatile change 106
Pulse oximetry 105
Purulent exudates 299
Pyrrolo-pyrrole derivative 150
Q
Q-mix 249f
Quality of life 346
Quaternary ammonium compounds 258
Quorum sensing 65
R
Radiation therapy 512
Radicular cyst 39, 49, 53f
types of 51, 52f
Radicular dentin, removal of 439f
Radiographic apex 261
Radiolabeled microspheres 105
Radiopaque 300, 393, 451
Radix entomolaris 190
Rasp 156, 157
broach 157f
Rat tail files 157
Reaction
chloramination 239
defense 486f
destructive 491
immunological 486
inflammatory 486
pulpal 24
saponification 239
Reamers 158, 278
Reaming and filing, combination of 279, 279f
Reciproc blue 171
system 173
Reciprocating motion 171, 173
Rectangular flap 409, 409f
modification of 410
Reflection, degree of 107
Refractive errors 582
Refrigerant sprays 101
Regenerative endodontic 572, 575t, 577t, 578
procedures 575, 578
Regenerative procedures, goals of 575
Regional nerve block 148
Reimplantation, causes of failure of 419
Remission, periods of 114
Renal disease 123
R-endo instruments 368
Repair material, overfilling of 396
Reparative reaction, unhealthy 491
Replacement resorption 512, 516f
Replacement surgery 404
Replantation procedure 418
Resident flora 126
Residual cyst, management of 53
Resilon 312f
core material 312
removal of 368
sealer 312
system, components of 312
Resin
cement 454, 454f
sealers 309, 314
Resinous material 143f
Resorption 503
classification of 503
diagnosis of 506
nonperforating 510
type of 514
Restoration 436
faulty 56
fractured 30f
types of margins of 440f
Restorative and periodontal procedures 530
Restorative components 444
Restorative failure, high degree of 119
Restorative material 492, 494
intermediate 393, 417
placement of 416f
temporary 255f
Restorative procedures 432, 521
Restorative resins 489
Restorative work, quality of 85
Restored tooth, components of 444
Retainer number 140
Retaining restoration, disadvantages of 361
Retention form 446
Retentive clamps 139
Retraction 158f
time of 412
Retrieving instruments, steps for 384
Retrograde filling 416
Retromolar region 85
Revascularization procedure 576fc
advantages of 577
disadvantages of 578
Reverse balanced force preparation 286, 287
Reversible pulpitis 26, 27, 31, 35, 84, 110, 111, 121
differential diagnosis of 31
Rickert's formula 307
Rigid splint 482
Rigidity, lack of 303
Roof development 197
Roof orifices, level of 565f
Root
amputation 419
anatomy of 526
and exostoses, incidence of dehiscence of 536
apical portion of 472f
caries 404, 532, 533f
decay 534
dentin, removal of 391f
form 431
formation, incomplete 565f
fractures of 360
length 210
maturation 564
maturity of 477
missing 187, 190
orthodontic extrusion of 471f
perforation 374, 427, 507f
portion 471f
resorptive defects 404
size of 197
structure 412
weakening of 439f
Root apex 182f
anatomy of 262f
Root canal 14, 15, 16f, 80, 181f, 182, 182f, 184f, 185f, 199209, 278f, 283f, 319, 341f, 400f, 588
3-D obturation of 391f
acts 356
after coronal disassembly, entry to 362f
apical
gauging of 281f
portion of 398
third of 397
bacterial infection in 401f
biofilms, characterization of 65
classification 184, 258
completed, apical filling of 323f
culturing of 60
curved 16f
draining 61
ethics 590
exploration 173
failure 380f
final rinse for 238
gradual curve in 193f
incompletely filled 398
infection, persistent 58
irrigant 244f
irritants 79f
microbial ecosystem of 58
microbiology of infected 60
microorganisms 58f
morphology 184
negotiate 3
noncircular sections of 174
number of 16f
obliteration 431
obturation of 278f
orifices, enlargement of 162, 162f
outline of 507
overfilling of 359, 399
palatal 202
patency ensures 173
perforation 392
prepared 277f
procedures 38
revascularization 576
shaped 367f
shaping and obturation 545
space 506f
sterilization of 537, 545
underobturated 358f
visualize calcified 3
Root canal anatomy 186f, 198f, 248
assessment of 227
Root canal filling 355, 359
extent of 299
material, irretrievable 404
Root canal obturation 332
materials for 300fc
Root canal preparation 277
serial 282
techniques of 281, 282fc
Root canal sealers 4f, 155, 305
bioceramic-based 554
functions of 305, 554
without eugenol 308
Root canal system 213f, 236f, 276, 276f, 278, 280f, 340f, 356f, 361, 378f, 416, 427, 427f, 579
3-D obturation of 499
anatomy of 214
biomechanical preparation of 277
cleaning of 63, 276
incomplete debridement of 356
obturation of 43f, 298, 335, 372
shaped 276, 374
Root canal therapy 476
course of 338
laser-assisted 290
root fracture during 428
Root canal treatment 46f, 121, 223f, 295f, 296f, 403, 431, 472f, 532, 545, 568
changing concepts of 277
continuation of 338
failure of 354
multivisit 343, 345
Root canal walls 578
modification of 545
Root development
cessation of 479
stage of 476
Root fracture 347, 348, 355, 360, 431, 431, 463, 469, 473f, 483
depends upon, prognosis of 469
healing of 473, 473f
prevention of 401
principles to prevent 401
treatment of 399, 469, 472f, 529
Root resection 404, 405, 419, 512
contraindications for 419
Root resorption 431, 480, 503, 504, 504fc
cell in 505
etiology of 503, 503t
external 47, 47f, 197, 479, 512, 512f, 514, 552
inflammatory 512
internal 479, 552
management of internal 510
mechanism of 506
types of 514
Root surface 426f
by laser, decontamination of 546f
inspection 415
Root-end filling 404, 415, 553
materials 416
Root-end preparation 404, 414, 415f
ultrasonic 415, 415f
Root-end resection 404, 413, 414
angle of 414
Rotary instrument 368, 499f
properties of 164
use of 366
Rotary motion, continuous 173
Rotary paste filler 460
Rotary retreatment file system 368
R-phase 164, 172
Rubber dam 138, 145, 342, 402
accessories 138, 141
advantages of using 138
application of 145t, 231f
contraindications of 138
designs of 142
disadvantages of 138
equipments 135, 138
forceps 138, 140, 140f
frame 138, 140
types of 141f
isolation 138
napkin 138, 142, 142f
placement of 143, 144f
removal of 145
template 138, 141, 141f
Rubber dam clamp 138, 139, 139f, 142f, 402
classification of 139
placed before 143
placement of 143
Rubber dam placement 587
methods of 143
Rubber dam punch 138, 140
holes 141f
working end of 141f
Rubber dam sheet 138, 139, 139f
punch hole in 144f
thickness of 139
Rubber instruments absorb alcohol 133
Rubber wheels 528
Ruby lasers 538
Ruddle's solution 186, 248
composition of 186
S
Safe tipped diamond 219
Salicylates 150
Saline 480
normal 238, 238f, 248
Saliva 480
Salivary components 60
Salivary glands 85
age changes in 531
Salvizol 70, 246
Scaffold
implantation 580
matrix 575, 575f
types of 575fc
Scanning electron microscopic analysis 187
Schilder's technique 319
Schneider's angle 193
Schneider's classification 193
Schneider's method 193, 193f
Schroeder and Triadan developed ledermix 258
Schwann cells 13
single layer of 13
Sclerosed canals 230
Sclerotic canals 230
Scrubbing, manual 128
Sealapex 310
Sealer 307, 309, 313, 314, 549
advantages 314
classification of 306
disadvantages of 314
eugenol-based 454
fills 306f
manipulation of 313
medicated 310
placement of 176, 312
methods of 314
Sectional compaction technique 315
Seltzer and Bender's classification 26
Semilunar flap 410, 410f
Sensors available, sizes of 94f
Sensory nerves 13
Sequence rotary system 173
S-file 160
Shamrock preparation 225
Sharpey's fibers 19
Shrunken solid particles 34
Sickle cell anemia 493
Signaling molecules 573
Silica 309
Silicic acid 311
Silicone 314
based catalyst 311
fluid 258
monomer 311
oil 309
Silk sutures 422
Silver
containing cements 306
free cements 306
nitrate 489
powder 309
Silver cone 135, 301, 301f
obturation with 329
stiffness of 301
use of 329
Silver point
obturation 315
removal of 177, 364, 364f, 365f
Simplifill obturator 330
Simplifill stainless steel carrier 330f
Simulates multiple curves 196
Single lens loupes 582
Single tooth
isolation 138
starting 119
Single-visit endodontic 298, 335, 335, 337f
advantages of 335
contraindications of 336
disadvantages of 335
indications of 336
therapy 336f
Sinus 569
headache 117f
nasal floor and maxillary 404
pressure 117f
toothache 117
tract, location of 45
Sinusitis 118
Skin 39
Slob rule
advantages of 91
disadvantages of 91
Smear layer 69, 491
modification of 71
prevent formation of 236
removal of 70, 244, 246f, 312
structure of 69
Socket wall fracture 478
Sodium
bicarbonate 134
borate 307
caprylate 257, 258
chloride 148
hydroxide 148
metabisulfite 148
perborate 495
salt 257
Sodium hypochlorite 68, 70, 186, 238, 238f, 239, 248, 257, 258, 378, 570
concentration of 350
mechanism of action of 239
solution 240, 240f
solvent action of 186, 248
Soft caries, excavation of 561f
Soft lasers 538
Soft palate 85
Soft setting paste 368
removal of 369f
Soft tissue 406f
injury 463
overlying 409
palpation of 86f
reapproximation of 417
surgery 541
Softened cone 319
Soiled waste 136
Solid core carrier technique 327, 327fc
Solid state lasers 538
Solvents, use of 365
Sonic handpiece 175
Sonic instruments 175, 290
advantages of 175
Sonic length 175
Sonic system 290
Sonoexplorer 271
Sotokawa's classification 178, 178f
Sound casting technique 460
Sound reference point, use of 375f
Spaulding classification 126
Spilathes calva 250
Spirochetes 60
Splint, types of 480, 481f, 482
Split dam technique 145
indications of 145
Split tooth 520, 521f, 522
incomplete 524
Squamous cell carcinoma 48
Stainless steel hand instrument 173
Standard antibiotic prophylaxis regimen 153
Stanley's mummified zone 557
Staphylococcus 58, 59, 67
aureus 67, 549
Staybelite resin 307
Steam heat sterilization 129
Stem cell 572574, 579
categories of 573, 574t
from apical papilla 579
grown 579f
isolation of 574
markers 574
of dental origin 578
technology 572
types of 574, 579
unique characteristics of 573
Step-back technique 282, 283, 283fc, 289, 289t
advantages of 284
disadvantages of 284
modified 284, 286
passive 284, 286
Step-down technique 284, 289
Sterile instruments, storage of 129f
Sterilization 127, 128
method 127, 129, 133
monitoring of 132
Steroids 10
Stimulus 31, 35
removal of 111, 524
Streptococcus 37, 56, 59
intermedius 68
mutans 250
sobrinus 250
Streptomycin 257
sulfate 258
Stress 122
Stressful lifestyle 521
Stropko irrigator 251, 252f
Subgingival margin 440, 440f, 460
Submarginal scalloped rectangular flap 410
Substance P 76
Sudden crunching sound 527
Sulcular bleeding 474
Sulcular debridement 542
Sulfonamides 258
Super ethoxybenzoic acid 416, 417
Supplementary techniques 148
Supportive elements 10
Supragingival margin 440, 440f
Supraosseous 518
Surface resorption 512, 513f
Surgeon's skill and ability 404
Surgical exposure 524, 528
Surgical flap 512
Surgical operating microscope 584
Surgical repair 512
Surgical technique 413
Suture
classification of 423
materials 422
principles of 423
single interrupted 422
techniques 422
Swelling 482, 527
postoperative 423
Swimmer's calculus 495
Swiss cheese configuration 568
Symbiotic relationship 58
Sympathetic nervous system 11
Syncope 591, 592
Synergy 65
Synthetic non-absorbable materials 422
Syringe systems 302
Systemic antibiotics 344
Systemic disease, presence of 360
T
Tactile examination 523
Talon's cusp 187, 189, 199
Tantalumpent oxide 393
Tapering funnel shape, continuous 326
Tartaric acid 311
Taurodontism 187, 188, 188f, 201
Tear drop shape 388
Teeth 34f, 187f, 210, 483, 488fc
adjacent 481f
affected 374
age changes in 530
anatomic position of 442
anatomy, individual 198
apex 436f
apexification of 552f
arterial supply of 10fc
attrition of 533f
avulsion of 347, 348, 476f, 480
axis of 89f
bell stage, development of 6f
bleaching of discolored 442f
blood supply to 531
body of 493f
cap stage, development of 6f
clearing of 187
color of 530
complete fusion of 188f
core-treated 446
damage, stress-related 520
defense of 17
desensitization of 119
determines, probing of 39f
development of 6f
discoloration of 495f
discolored 85
appearance of 494f
eccentric displacement of 475
endodontic lesions of 1f
extracted 99f
extreme heat to 508
fluorosis of 494, 494f
fracture 23f, 84, 346, 463
incomplete 520
fusion of 188f
gingival aspect of 143
hypersensitivity 491, 501
immature 570, 580
incompletely filled 359
infractions 520
injury 464f
innervation of 17
internal anatomy of 187, 232
internal resorption of 24f, 32f
isolate 465f, 499
length, average 209
lingual surface of 189
long axis of 220f
loss, minimal 538f
lymphatic drainage of 11fc
malpositioned 145
mandibular 228f, 338
maxillary 228f
missing 85, 532
and titled 533
model of 1f
morphology of 214, 214f
multirooted 16, 182f
nerve supply of 13f, 13fc
nonrestorable 404
normal anatomical landmarks of 493f
obturated 299f
optimal treatment of 227
partial fusion of 188f
percussion of 85f
periodontal health of 404
permanent restoration of 561f
preparation 420f, 450f, 492
prevents fracture of 455f
primary function of 531
probing of 432f
prognosis of 359f
pulp
anatomy of 185
chamber of 33f
reflects, internal anatomy of 198
repair of 333
replantation, delayed 478
replanted 478
resected piece of 420f
resection 405
restoration of 471f, 569f
selected 144f
selective grinding of 474f
size of 188, 210
slooth 105f, 528
splinting of 471f
surface temperature of 106
surgical removal of 112
techniques for exposing 89
transparent 187f
trauma to 479
treatment of 43
type 338
undetected fracture of 419
venous drainage of 11fc
vitality of 102f, 436
wear 85f
and facets 85
whitening 493, 546
laser for 546f
with anatomic anomalies 336
with complete root formation 476
with endodontic failure 443f
with incomplete root formation 476
with long roots 409
with necrotic pulp 339f
with vital pulps 338
Teeth structure 236, 439f, 441, 560, 575
amount of 441
remaining 526
gouging of 229
loss of 439, 441, 442f, 518
minimal removal of 230
nonstaining 300
preparation of 457f
preservation of 446
remaining 457
removal of unsupported 457f
residual 444
unsupported 376f
weakening of 439f
Teeth surface
fractured 265f
sterilizing 542
temperature of 105
Telescopic canal preparation 282
Telescopic technique 289
Temperature control 323
Temporary cement 567
Temporary filling, positive support for 214
Temporomandibular joint disorders 533
Tertiary dentin 15f
formation 479, 486
Tertracycline hydrochloride 70
Tetanus immunization, condition of 464
Tetracalcium
aluminate 550
aluminoferrate 393, 549, 550, 558
phosphate 393
Tetrachloroethylene 365
Tetraclean 68, 247
Tetra-cortril 258
Tetracycline 70, 249, 494
isomer 68, 249
stains 494f
Tetraethyl orthosilicate 311
Tetragonal zirconium polycrystals 451
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channels 349
Therma cut bur 328f
Thermafil 303f
cones 327f
endodontic obturators 327
obturator 328f
system 315
Thermal burns 592
Thermal changes 22
Thermal injury 27
Thermal test 25, 29, 101, 544
Thermal treatment 172, 174
Thermocatalytic technique 496f, 499
Thermocatalytic vital tooth bleaching 496
Third generation files 168
Thymol 148
iodide 307, 310
Thyroid deficiency 10
Tic douloureux 116
Tinidazole 344
Tip design 164, 167
Tissue
better dissolution of 288
emphysema 346, 351, 352
enzymes, activates 489
fluid pH 75
growth, principles of 572
hypoxia 412
mature 580
pressure 492
regeneration of 578
removal of 403
repair 333
retraction of 412
techniques of 575
tolerance 303
Tissue culture 61
types of 60
Tissue debris 375
accumulation of 398f
removal of 288
Tissue engineering 572
role of 572
strategies of 572f
triad of 573, 573f
Titanium 71, 163
dioxide 310
fluoride 71
oxide 309
trauma 481f
splints 481
T-lymphocytes 76
Tobacco use 495
Tongue 482
pressure 16
Toothache 114
Torn rubber dam 145
Torsional fatigue 173
Torsional fracture
incidence of 174
risk of 174
Toxicity 501
Toxins 79
Trabeculae, loss of 531
Traditional theory 24
Tramadol 152, 344
Transient apical breakdown 479
Transient crown discoloration 469
Transient flora 126
Transillumination 106, 523
test 528
Transmetal bur 215, 215f
use of 364f
Transplant mesenchymal cells 577
Trauma 27, 37, 548
extent of 462
from occlusion 515
Traumatic injury 346348, 432, 507
assessment of 482
etiology of 462
examination of 464
management of 462
prevention of 483
Traumatic occlusion 355, 360
Tray fabrication, steps of 498
Trephination 344
Treponema 56, 59
Triamcinolone acetonide 258
Triangular flap, extension of 409
Triazolam 148
Tricalcium
aluminate 393, 549, 558
phosphate 549
silicate 393, 549, 550, 553, 558, 559
Trichloroacetic acid, solution of 519
Tricresol 564
Triethanolamine 309
Trigeminal neuralgia 116, 118
zones of 116f
Triphala's fruit 250
Trisalicylate 310
Trismus 592
True denticle 18, 18f, 34
Tube shift, vertical 91
Tubular diameter, reduction of 17
Tubular sclerosis 491
Tubules, obliteration of 530
Tumors 88
Tuning verifies 281
Turner's syndrome 512
Twisted file 172
Two-appointment technique 560
Two-visit pulpotomy 565
U
Ultrafil system 315, 326
Ultrasonic
cleaner 128, 128f
handpiece 175
instrument, use of 386f
irrigation 247, 247f
plasticizing 315
tips, shapes of 176f
Ultrasound, role of 107
Underinstrumentation, consequences of 263
Urea 243
denatures 243
peroxide 243
V
Valvular disease 122
Vaporizing carious tissue 542
Vasoactive amines 77
Vasoconstrictors 488
Venous circulation, collapse of 42
Vertical compaction technique 315
Vertical root fracture 346, 347, 353, 374, 399, 401, 401f, 427, 427f, 520522, 526, 526f, 527f
classification of 527, 527fc
detection of 97
prevention of 529
Vertucci's classification 184, 185, 185f
Vestibular swelling 112
Viaspan 480
Vinyl acetate 309
Vinyl chloride, copolymers of 309
Vinyl isobutyl ether 309
Viral infection, systemic 10
Visible light 539
Vision 587
Visual analogue scale 110
Visual and tactile inspection 84, 85
Visual auras 115
Visual examination 27, 28, 36, 523
Visualization endogram 186
Vital bleaching techniques 496
Vital pulp 219f, 471f, 535, 552
case of 218, 298
therapy 556, 560, 571
tissue 298
Vital teeth 40, 438
bleaching of 496, 496f
postoperative 497f
preoperative 497f
Vitality test 27, 29, 31, 35, 506
Vitamin C deficiency 10
Vomiting 482
von Korff's fibers 9
Voxel size 97
V-shaped bone loss, isolated 528
W
Wach's paste 306
Wach's sealer 307
Walking bleach 499
Walls of foramen, cementum on 16
Warm vertical compaction technique 319, 322fc
Waste
category 137
disposal 136
types of 136
Watch-winding 279, 280f
motion 279, 280f, 282f
Water 256, 480
channels 68
Wave compaction technique, continuous 316
WaveOne single-file system 172
Wax records 134
Wedjet rubber dam cord 142f
Weeping canal cases 257
Weine's classification 184, 184f
Weine's method 193, 194f, 264
Weine's modification 266, 268f
Wingless clamp 139, 140f
Wire ligature splint 482
Wire loop
instrument removal system 387f
technique 384, 387
Wire splint 481
Wound
closure 409
healing, enhanced rapid 409
X
Xenon-133 105
radioisotopes 26
Xeroradiography 39, 264, 268
Xylene 365
Y
Young permanent
central incisors 197f
first molar 567f
tooth 563f
Z
Zephiran 134
Zinc
polycarboxylate cement 489
stearate 310
Zinc oxide 307, 309, 310, 565
cement 569f
eugenol 305, 393, 416, 489, 510
cement 416
dressing 566f
sealer 4f, 70, 307, 314
resin cement 306
Zinc phosphate 489
cement 454f, 489
components of 489
Zipped canal, portion of 389
Zirconia post 451
Zirconium oxide 309, 394, 553
Zygomatic arch 270
×
Chapter Notes

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