Inderbir Singh's Human Embryology V Subhadra Devi
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Inderbir Singh's HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY

Late Professor Inderbir Singh (1930–2014)
Tribute to a Legend
Professor Inderbir Singh, a legendary anatomist, is renowned for being a pillar in the education of generations of medical graduates across the globe. He was one of the greatest teachers of his time. He was a passionate writer who poured his soul into his work. His eagle's eye for details and meticulous way of writing made his books immensely popular amongst students. He managed his lifetime to become enmeshed in millions of hearts. He was conferred the title of Professor Emeritus by Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak.
On 12th May, 2014, he was awarded posthumously with Emeritus Teacher Award by National Board of Examination for making invaluable contribution in teaching of Anatomy. This award is given to honour legends who have made tremendous contribution in the field of medical education. He was a visionary for his time, and the legacies he left behind are his various textbooks on Gross Anatomy, Histology, Neuroanatomy and Embryology. Although his mortal frame is not present amongst us, his genius will live on forever.
Inderbir Singh's HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY
As per the Competency Based Medical Education Curriculum (NMC)
THIRTEENTH EDITION
Edited by V Subhadra Devi MS (Anatomy) Professor of Anatomy Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (AIMSR) Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Human Embryology
First to Ninth Editions published by Macmillan Publishers India Ltd (1976-2013)
Tenth Edition published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd (2014)
Eleventh Edition: 2018
Reprint: 2019
Twelfth Edition: 2021
Thirteenth Edition: 2023
Revised Reprint: 2023
9789356963283
Printed at
My husband Dr VH Rao
who has been my inspiration and the driving force
for all my accomplishments
in both personal and professional life.
PREFACE TO THE THIRTEENTH EDITION
The success of the 11th and 12th editions with the suggestions and encouragement from several of my faculties and students, encouraged me to bring about the 13th edition of this book as per the National Medical Commission (NMC) prescribed competencies in embryology. This new edition includes reorganization of content between the textbook and the online additional resource, chapterwise MCQs for easy accessibility and replacing number of figures with easy to draw student friendly diagrams, taking meticulous care in covering the competencies of NMC. Further several interesting and simple learning resources shall be available online/offline along with the book.
When the publishers invited me for the new edition, it was a hat-trick of the opportunity for me having revised the earlier two editions. Notwithstanding 40 years of experience in teaching embryology and, several publications in human developmental anatomy, I was skeptical because it is simply difficult for anyone to match the simplicity of expression and sheer elegance of images so diligently originated by Prof Singh. With the encouragement provided by the publishers and colleagues, I have taken the proverbial plunge.
Like all its previous editions, this is also a one-person effort which clearly offers scope for improvement. Suggestions from academics, students and professionals are welcome for incorporation in the coming editions. I thank all my students who are my inspiration for revising this book. I am thankful to all staff and students in the Department of Anatomy, SV Medical College, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, and Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (AIMSR), Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India, for their continuous support and constructive feedback at different stages while this book is evolving. I make a special mention of Mr K Thyagaraju, Assistant Professor, SVIMS, for drawing and Photoshop editing of several figures. Some of the figures in the present edition originated from the research work conducted by the postgraduate students in my laboratory and I am thankful to them. Several colleagues from different institutions contributed images that appear in this book. They are individually acknowledged where the images appear.
I am also thankful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director), Mr MS Mani (Group President) of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, for kindly agreeing to publish this book, and the production team especially Dr Madhu Choudhary (Director–Education Publishing), Ms Pooja Bhandari (Production Head), Ms Sunita Katla (Executive Assistant to Group Chairman and Publishing Manager), Dr Aditya Tayal (Team Leader-UG Publishing), Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Education Publishing), Mr Rajesh Sharma (Production Coordinator), Ms Seema Dogra (Cover Visualizer), Ms Geeta Srivastava (Proofreader), Ms Uma Adhikari (Typesetter), and Mr Ankush Sharma (Graphic Designer), for their dedicated work.
V Subhadra Devi
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
This book on human embryology has been written keeping in mind the requirements of undergraduate medical students. the subject of embryology has traditionally been studied from imported textbooks of anatomy or of embryology. Experience has shown that the treatment of the subject in most of these books is way above the head of the average medical students in India. The difficulty has increased from year to year as there has been, and continues to be, progressive deterioration in the standards of the teaching of English in our schools and colleges. The combination of unfamiliar sophistications of language and of an involved technical subject, has very often left the student bewildered.
In this book, care has been taken to ensure that the text provides all the information necessary for an intelligent understanding of the essential features of the development of various organs and tissues of the human body. At the same time, several innovations have been used to make the subject easy to understand.
Firstly, the language has been kept simple. Care has been taken not to compress too many facts into an involved sentence. New words are clearly explained.
Secondly, simultaneous references to the development of more than one structure have been avoided as far as possible. While this has necessitated some repetition, it is hoped that this has removed one of the greatest factors leading to confusion in the study of this subject.
Thirdly, almost every step in development has been shown in a simple, easy to understand, illustration. To avoid confusion, only structures relevant to the discussion are shown. As far as possible, the drawings have been oriented as in adult anatomy to facilitate comprehension.
Fourthly, the chapters have been arranged so that all structures referred to at a particular stage have already been adequately introduced.
In an effort of this kind it is inevitable that some errors of omission, and of commission, are liable to creep in. To obviate as many of these as possible a number of eminent anatomists were requested to read through the text. Their suggestions have greatly added to the accuracy and usefulness of this book. Nevertheless, scope for further improvement remains, and the author would welcome suggestions to this end both from teachers and from students.
Inderbir Singh
Rohtak
January 1976
NATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD
ANDHRA PRADESH
CHANDIGARH
CHHATTISGARH
DELHI
GUJARAT
HARYANA
HIMACHAL PRADESH
JAMMU & KASHMIR
KARNATAKA
KERALA
MADHYA PRADESH
MAHARASHTRA
PUDUCHERRY
PUNJAB
RAJASTHAN
TAMIL NADU
UTTARAKHAND
UTTAR PRADESH
AUSTRALIA
COMPETENCY TABLE
Number
Competency: the student should be able to
Core (Y/N)
Chapter Number
Page Number
AN9.3
Describe development of breast
N
11
133-141
AN13.8
Describe development of upper limb
N
13
153-163
AN20.10
Describe basic concept of development of lower limb
N
13
153-163
AN25.2
Describe development of pleura, lung & heart
Y
18
19
217-239
240-280
AN25.3
Describe fetal circulation and changes occurring at birth
Y
19
240-280
AN25.4
Describe embryological basis of:1) atrial septal defect, 2) ventricular septal defect, 3) Fallot's tetralogy & 4) tracheo-oesophageal fistula
Y
18
19
217-239
240-280
AN25.5
Describe developmental basis of congenital anomalies, transposition of great vessels, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus and coarctation of aorta
Y
19
240-280
AN25.6
Mention development of aortic arch arteries, SVC, IVC and coronary sinus
N
19
240-280
AN26.6
Explain the concept of bones that ossify in membrane
N
10
117-132
AN39.1
Describe & demonstrate the morphology, nerve supply, embryological basis of nerve supply, blood supply, lymphatic drainage and actions of extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue
Y
15
175-184
AN43.4
Describe the development and developmental basis of congenital anomalies of face, palate, tongue, branchial apparatus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland & eye
Y
12
14
15
22
23
24
142-152
164-174
175-184
328-332
333-341
342-349
AN47.5
Describe & demonstrate major viscera of abdomen under following headings (anatomical position, external and internal features, important peritoneal and other relations, blood supply, nerve supply, lymphatic drainage and applied aspects)
Y
22
328-332
AN52.1
Describe & identify the microanatomical features of Gastro-intestinal system: Oesophagus, Fundus of stomach, Pylorus of stomach, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Large intestine, Appendix, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas & Suprarenal gland
Y
22
328-332
AN52.5
Describe the development and congenital anomalies of Diaphragm
Y
18
217-239
AN52.6
Describe the development and congenital anomalies of: Foregut, Midgut & Hindgut
Y
15
16
17
175-184
185-203
204-216
AN52.7
Describe the development of Urinary system
Y
20
281-308
AN52.8
Describe the development of male & female reproductive system
Y
20
281-308
AN64.2
Describe the development of neural tube, spinal cord, medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, cerebral hemisphere & cerebellum
Y
21
309-327
AN64.3
Describe various types of open neural tube defects with its embryological basis
N
21
309-327
AN65.1
Identify epithelium under the microscope & describe the various types that correlate to its function
Y
10
117-132
AN65.2
Describe the ultrastructure of epithelium
N
10
117-132
AN66.1
Describe & identify various types of connective tissue with functional correlation
Y
10
117-132
AN66.2
Describe the ultrastructure of connective tissue
N
10
117-132
AN67.1
Describe & identify various types of muscle under the microscope
Y
10
117-132
AN67.2
Classify muscle and describe the structure-function correlation of the same
Y
10
117-132
AN67.3
Describe the ultrastructure of muscular tissue
N
10
117-132
AN68.1
Describe & Identify multipolar & unipolar neuron, ganglia, peripheral nerve
Y
10
117-132
AN68.2
Describe the structure-function correlation of neuron
Y
10
117-132
AN68.3
Describe the ultrastructure of nervous tissue
N
10
117-132
AN70.1
Identify exocrine gland under the microscope & distinguish between serous, mucous and mixed acini
Y
10
117-132
AN71.1
Identify bone under the microscope; classify various types and describe the structure-function correlation of the same
Y
10
117-132
AN71.2
Identify cartilage under the microscope & describe various types and structure- function correlation of the same
Y
10
117-132
AN72.1
Identify the skin and its appendages under the microscope and correlate the structure with function
Y
11
133-141
AN73.1
Describe the structure of chromosomes with classification
Y
2
08-21
AN73.2
Describe technique of karyotyping with its applications
Y
2
08-21
AN73.3
Describe the Lyon's hypothesis
Y
2
08-21
AN74.1
Describe the various modes of inheritance with examples
Y
2
08-21
AN74.2
Draw pedigree charts for the various types of inheritance & give examples of diseases of each mode of inheritance
Y
2
08-21
AN74.3
Describe multifactorial inheritance with examples
Y
2
08-21
AN74.4
Describe the genetic basis & clinical features of Achondroplasia, Cystic Fibrosis, Vitamin D resistant rickets, Haemophilia, Duchene's muscular dystrophy & Sickle cell anaemia
N
2
08-21
AN75.1
Describe the structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations
Y
2
08-21
AN75.2
Explain the terms mosaics and chimeras with example
N
2
08-21
AN75.3
Describe the genetic basis & clinical features of Prader Willi syndrome, Edward syndrome & Patau syndrome
N
2
08-21
AN75.4
Describe genetic basis of variation: polymorphism and mutation
Y
2
08-21
AN75.5
Describe the principles of genetic counselling
Y
2
08-21
AN76.1
Describe the stages of human life
Y
1
02-07
AN76.2
Explain the terms- phylogeny, ontogeny, trimester, viability
Y
1
02-07
AN77.1
Describe the uterine changes occurring during the menstrual cycle
Y
3
22-44
AN77.2
Describe the synchrony between the ovarian and menstrual cycles
Y
3
22-44
AN77.3
Describe spermatogenesis and oogenesis along with diagrams
Y
3
22-44
AN77.4
Describe the stages and consequences of fertilisation
Y
4
45-61
AN77.5
Enumerate and describe the anatomical principles underlying contraception
Y
4
45-61
AN77.6
Describe teratogenic influences; fertility and sterility, surrogate motherhood, social significance of “sex-ratio”.
N
4
45-61
AN78.1
Describe cleavage and formation of blastocyst
Y
4
45-61
AN78.2
Describe the development of trophoblast
Y
5
62-72
AN78.3
Describe the process of implantation & common abnormal sites of implantation
Y
4
45-61
AN78.4
Describe the formation of extra-embryonic mesoderm and coelom, bilaminar disc and prochordal plate
Y
5
62-72
AN78.5
Describe in brief abortion; decidual reaction, pregnancy test
Y
4
45-61
AN79.1
Describe the formation & fate of the primitive streak
Y
6
73-83
AN79.2
Describe formation & fate of notochord
Y
6
73-83
AN79.3
Describe the process of neurulation
Y
6
21
73-83
309-327
AN79.4
Describe the development of somites and intra-embryonic coelom
Y
7
13
84-93
153-163
AN79.5
Explain embryological basis of congenital malformations, nucleus pulposus, sacrococcygeal teratomas, neural tube defects
N
13
21
153-163
309-327
AN79.6
Describe the diagnosis of pregnancy in first trimester and role of teratogens, alpha-fetoprotein
N
7
8
84-93
94-100
AN80.1
Describe formation, functions & fate of-chorion: amnion; yolk sac; allantois & decidua
Y
7
9
84-93
101-116
AN80.2
Describe formation & structure of umbilical cord
Y
7
9
84-93
101-116
AN80.3
Describe formation of placenta, its physiological functions, foetomaternal circulation & placental barrier
Y
9
101-116
AN80.4
Describe embryological basis of twinning in monozygotic & dizygotic twins
Y
9
101-116
AN80.5
Describe role of placental hormones in uterine growth & parturition
Y
9
101-116
AN80.6
Explain embryological basis of estimation of fetal age.
N
8
94-100
AN80.7
Describe various types of umbilical cord attachments
N
9
101-116
AN81.1
Describe various methods of prenatal diagnosis
Y
8
9
94-100
101-116
AN81.2
Describe indications, process and disadvantages of amniocentesis
Y
9
101-116
AN81.3
Describe indications, process and disadvantages of chorion villus biopsy
Y
9
101-116