Essentials of Oral Medicine Freny Rashmiraj Karjodkar
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Aarskog syndrome 439
Abfraction 517
Abrasion 316, 516, 517f
Abrikossoff's tumor 385
Abscess 234, 372, 458f, 545
differentiation of 235t
endodontic 234
gingival 234
Acantholysis 266
Acantholytic dyskeratosis 355
Acanthosis 266
nigricans 248, 256, 360, 409, 467
Acemannan 156
Acetaminophen 110, 112, 137, 597
Acetic acid derivatives 109
Acetone 758
Achalasia cardia 326
Achondroplasia 571
Acid
phosphatase 104
reflux 635
Acid-fast bacilli, presence of 274
Acinar hyperplasia 638
Acinic cell
adenocarcinoma 654
carcinoma 248, 652
Ackerman's tumor 409
Acoustic meatus, internal 47, 48
Acoustic neuroma 678
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 237, 238f, 267, 286t, 334, 471, 714, 743
differential diagnosis for 288t
Acral keratoses 366
Acrodynia 228, 330
Acromegaly 185, 262, 570, 570f
Acro-osteolysis 228
Acrosclerosis 466
Actinic cheilitis 345, 442
Actinic cheilosis 345
Actinic keratosis 410, 445
Actinic prurigo 442
Actinomycosis 266, 275
Active alveolar bone loss, indicators of 244
Acyclovir 280, 283, 676
Adactylia syndrome 449
Adamantiades syndrome 323
Adamantinoma 532
Adaptive immune responses 487
Addendum 823, 824
Addison's anemia 705
Addison's disease 246, 253, 256, 261, 262f, 708
Adefovir dipivoxil 136
Adenitis syndrome 324f
Adenocyst 652
Adenoid 57, 397
cystic carcinoma 652, 653f, 654
Adenoma
pituitary 572
sebaceous 356, 410
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor 216, 530, 536, 537f, 538
Adhesions 621
Adhesive electrodes 162
Adipose tissue origin 531
Adrenal gland
disease of 707
disorders of 708
hypofunction 263
Adrenal insufficiency, primary 572, 708
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, administration of 261
Adult Still's disease 599
causes of 600
Adverse drug reaction 330
Aerodontalgia 487
Afchar-Bayat, classification of 778, 778t
Agenesis 638
Ageusia 426, 765
Aggregation 634
Aglossia 449
adactylia syndrome 638
Agoglossopharyngeal neuralgia 673
Agranulocytosis 226
Airborne transmission 288
Airway obstruction 401
Albers-Schonberg disease 577
Albert's stain 276
Albinism syndrome 409
Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy 574
Albright's syndrome 248, 251, 253
Alcoholism 638
Aldehyde 758
dehydrogenase 394
Alexithymia 428
Algiatry 665
Alkaline
phosphatase 104
transaminase 104
Alkylsulfonate 141
Allelic loss, microsatellite analysis of 421
Allergic contact
cheilitis 441
dermatitis 324
Allergic diseases 716
Allergic erythema multiforme 444f
Allergic gingivostomatitis 233, 234f
Allergic inflammation
acute 143
chronic 143
Allergic reaction 140, 224, 353, 435f
Allergic sialadenitis 642
Allergy 318, 716, 742
Allogeneic bone marrow transplant 347
Allylamine 135
Aloe vera 156
Alpha-chain disease 414
Alphacoronavirus 288
Alpha-lipoic acid 154, 473
Alprazolam 116
Althrocin 129
Aluminum electrodes 163
Alveolar abscess 214
Alveolar arch 51
Alveolar bone 223
saucerization of 240
Alveolar canals 50
Alveolar clefts, bone grafts of 520
Alveolar crest 379f
Alveolar foramina 50
Alveolar gingiva 259f
Alveolar mucosa 209, 210f, 258, 364
carcinoma of 407f
Alveolar nerve
anterior superior 77
branch, middle superior 77
posterior superior 77
Alveolar osteitis 668
Alveolar process 22, 38, 39, 51
Alveolar ridge 338f, 406
mucosa 262f
squamous cell carcinoma of 823, 823f
Alveolar soft part sarcoma 412
Alveolar yokes 51
Alzheimer's dementia 572
Alzheimer's disease 740, 758, 765
Amalgam 258
tattoo 259f
Amantadine 136
Amcinonide 139
Amelanotic melanoma 255
Ameloblastoma 216, 528, 532, 533f, 534f, 537, 564
desmoplastic 534
malignant 541
metastasizing 541
multicystic 534
peripheral 534
Ameloblasts 31, 478
Amelogenesis 31, 478
imperfecta 499, 507, 508f, 509t, 510t, 525, 724, 724f
Amethopterin 143
Amidopyrine 111
Amikacin 120, 128, 275
Aminoglycoside 119, 120, 128t
antibiotics 128
Aminopenicillins 124
Aminopyrine 111
Aminosalicylic acid 275
Amiodarone 260
Amitriptyline 117, 283, 676
Amlexanox 323
Amlodipine 179
Ammonia 757
monitoring 768
Amnion 4
Amniotic cavity develops 4
Amonate 125
Amoxicillin 120, 124, 125
clavulanic acid 551
Amphenicols 120
Amphetamines 179, 242
Amphotericin 133
B 133, 134
lozenges 376
Ampicillin 124
Ampitum 125
Amsterdam dwarfism 252
Amyloid
A 699
deposits 451
light chain 699
Amyloidosis 340, 362, 451, 451f, 622, 699, 705
dialysis-related 622
familial transthyretin-associated 699
Anafebrin 111
Analgesia 162
Analgesic 109, 661
antipyretics 110
combinations 113
mouth rinses 268
nonnarcotic 283
Analgin 111
Ancylostoma braziliense 296
Anemia 169, 326, 572, 703, 739
aplastic 704
erythroblastic 580, 704
hemolytic 248
Mediterranean 703, 704
megaloblastic 326
mild microcytic 825
pernicious 329, 457f, 705
primary 705
Anesthesia 116
dolorosa 672
local 751
Anesthetics 661
Aneuploidy 721f
Aneurysmal bone cyst 386, 526, 558, 559, 559f
Aneurysms, arteriovenous 587
Angina 694f
bullosa hemorrhagica 315
ludovici 277
pectoris 737
Angioedema 364f, 372, 436, 438, 738
acquired 365
hereditary 363
Angiofibroma 410
Angiogenesis inhibitors 141
Angiomatosis, epithelioid 275
Angiosarcoma 239, 412
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 692
inhibitors 689
Angle's bisecting technique 483
Angle's classification system 479
Angular cheilitis 152, 325, 438, 442
Angular stomatitis 291, 442
Ankyloglossia 449, 450, 450f
classification of 450b
complete 749
partial 749
Ankylosing spondylitis 601
juvenile 599
Ankylosis 520
bilateral 613f
extra-articular 613
fibrous 613
Sawhney's grading 613, 614f
unilateral 612f
Ann Arbor classification 568t
Anodontia 27, 493
Anorexia nervosa 703
Anosmia 765
Antegonial notch 612f
loss of 570f
Antemortem data collection 772
Anthelminthic 472
Anthracyclines 424
Anthranilic acid derivative 111
Antiandrogens 141
Antianemia 472
Antianxiety 116
drugs 118
Antibacterials
bactericidal 120, 120t
bacteriostatic 120
broad-spectrum 120t
Antibioma 271, 272f
Antibiotic 119, 120, 121t, 141
drugs 119
sore
mouth 291, 460
tongue 291
Antibody 710, 714, 715t
Anticancer drugs 140
mechanism of action of 141
potential 157
Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody 309
Anticoagulants 739
Anticonvulsant drugs 113, 116, 117, 117t, 118t, 619
Antidepressants
atypical 118
tricyclic 113, 117, 118, 283
Antiepileptic drug 116
Antifungal
agents, systemic 133t
drugs 132, 133, 133t
therapy 292
topical 135
Antigen 710
antibody reaction 301
presenting cells 713
Anti-hepatitis virus 136
Anti-herpes virus drugs 135
Antihistamine 143, 343, 472
Antihistaminics
conventional 143
second-generation 144
Antihormonal agents 141
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs 136
Anti-influenza virus drugs 136
Antileprotic drugs 131
Antimalarial drugs 313
Antimetabolites 141, 424
Antimicrobial drugs 118
Antimigraine 472
Antimycobacterial agents 275t
Antinuclear antibodies 301, 597, 600
Antioxidants 144, 154, 341
classification of 145fc
nonenzymatic 144
Antipyrine 111
Antiretrovirus drugs 136
Antirheumatic drugs, disease-modifying 143
Antispasmodic relaxants 619
Antistreptolysin O titer 104
Antithyroid 472
Antitubercular chemotherapy 827
Anti-tuberculosis drugs 131
classifications of 132t
Anti-tumor necrosis factor medications 599
Antiviral drug remdesivir 136
Antrum, carcinoma of 415f
Anxiety
reduction 746
sign of 184
Aortic arches 5, 9f
Apert's syndrome 366, 368f, 503, 583
Aphthosis, simple 324, 324t
Aphthous stomatitis 324, 324f, 443
recurrent 155, 157, 320, 321, 321f
treatment of 157
Aphthous ulcers 274, 308, 331
major 321, 322f
minor 321, 322f
recurrent 148, 156, 281t, 323t, 465
Apical inflammatory resorption 519
Apigenin 157
Aplasia 604, 638
Arche, superciliary 37
Areca catechu 390
Argyll Robertson pupil 273
Argyria 260
Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region 334
Aristogyl 123
Arndt-Schulz law 164
Aromatase inhibitor 141
Aromatic hydrocarbon benz-pyrene 393
Arrhythmia, cardiac 260
Arsenic 260
Arterial dissections, syndrome of 250
Arterial oxygen saturation 184
Arteriovenous fistula, central 564
Arteriovenous malformation 352, 370f, 445, 445f, 568, 670, 835, 836, 836f
Arteritis, temporal 600, 675, 682
Artery, superior labial 775f
Arthritic conditions affecting joint, classification of 597t
Arthritides, systemic 592
Arthritis 165, 599, 743
type of 595
Arthrocentesis 620
Arthrograms 618
Arthropathies
localized 619
systemic 619
Arthroscopy 617, 620
Arthrosis, juvenile 585
Articular components 613
Articular coverings 62
Articular disk 62
Articular disorders 591
Articular eminence 62
inclination of 610
Articular surface 39
Articulography, electromagnetic 801
Asbestos 395
Ascorbate 701
Ascorbic acid 145, 701
Ashwagandha 157
Aspartate transaminase 104
Aspergillosis 133, 267, 290
Aspirin 109, 140
Asterion 42
Asthma 716, 742
bronchial 140
Asthmatic attack 742
Atavism, phylogenetic process of 491
Atorvastatin 441
Atracurium 115
Atresia 586, 638
Atrophic candidiasis, chronic 290
Atrophic stratified squamous epithelium 821
Atrophy 266
Attack 741
Attrition 516, 516f
Augmentin 125, 550
Aura 680
Auric stomatitis 260
Auricular cellulitis 687
Auricular muscles attach 64
Auriculocondylar syndrome 604
Auriculotemporal nerve 77, 78, 211
Auriculotemporal syndrome 648
Auscultation 183
Autoantibodies 744
Autofluorescence 422
Autoimmune 300, 638
diseases 140, 147, 307, 365, 716, 719, 744
classification of 717, 717t
disorders 637, 646, 710
poly-endocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy 292, 717
polyglandular
disease 292
syndrome 717
vesiculobullous lesions 301
Autonomic dysfunction 679
Autonomic nervous system 36
Autosomal-dominant disorder 728f
Autosomal-recessive disorder 226
Average pain index 663
Avitaminosis B 353
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome 494
Axon 659
cylinder 252
reflex test 679
transmits 660
Azathioprine 143, 313, 323
Azithromycin 120, 129, 130
Azole derivatives 119
Aztreonam 126
B
Bacillary angiomatosis 239, 263, 275
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine 109
Bacitracin 131
Baclofen 116, 675
Bacteria 235b
accumulate 467
cephalosporin resistant 127
Bacteroides fragilis 130
Bactrim 121
Baelz disease 443
Baldness 703
Bana enzyme test 768, 768f
Bandler syndrome 251
Bang and Ramm method 790
Bannayan-Zonana syndrome 250, 352
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 439
Barbiturates 116, 741
Baricitinib 136
Barodontalgia 487
Barotrauma 687
Bartholin duct 72
Bartonella henselae 277
Basal cell
carcinoma 365, 402404, 409, 410, 446
destruction 300
nevus syndrome 525
Basalioma 409
Basauri classification 787, 787t
Basement membrane 31, 825
Basilar artery 82
Basophil 102, 713, 713f
Bazex's syndrome 409
B-cell 714t
Bean's syndrome 352
Beaten metal appearance 583
Bechterew's disease 601
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 351, 450, 451, 571
Beclomethasone 316
Bed sores 316
Behavior
analysis, Frankl rating scale for 753t
disorders 740
guidance 753
Behcet's syndrome 323
clinical criteria 323t
Bell's palsy 677, 677f
Bell's stage 28, 31
Bell's phenomenon 677
Beneath trigeminal ganglion 76
Benign epithelial
non-odontogenic neoplasm 363
odontogenic tumors 524
Benign neoplasms 204t, 364, 650
clinical evaluation of 204b
differential diagnosis of 624
Benzathine penicillin G 124
Benzocaine 360, 677
Benzodiazepines 115, 116
antagonist 116
Benzofuran, heterocyclic 134
Benzoisoquinoline derivatives 112
Benzoxazocine derivative 110, 112
Benzyl penicillin 123
Benzylamine 268
Benzylpenicillin 123
Berardinelli-Seip syndrome 502
Betacoronavirus 288
Beta-hemolytic streptococci 459
Beta-lactamase
antibiotics 119, 123
inhibitors 124
producing bacteria 125
Betamethasone 316, 342, 629
dipropionate 139
valerate 139
Bicarbonate solution 268
Bicuspids 478
Biermer's anemia 705
Bifid
condyle 607f
tongue 453, 453f
uvula 749
Bilirubin 154
Biochemical abnormalities 623
Biofilm-induced disease 479
Bioinformatics 637
Biomarker detection 421
Biopsy 301, 417, 537f, 824
brush 417
excisional 382
incisional 418
Biopsychosocial model 176
Biostatistics 812
Bird face appearance 613f
Bismuth 260
Bisphosphonates 302, 550, 552f
therapy 311
Bite mark 796, 799
aggressive 799
analysis 772, 796, 799
guidelines 800
characteristics of 796, 798
distinctive 799
location of 800
mechanism of 798
partial 799
possible 799
severity index 800
terminology 801
types of 798
Bite site
impressions of 800
saliva swabs 799
Bitewing projections 483
Black hairy tongue 261, 261f, 449, 467
Blackish brown melanin pigmentation 249f
Blackish nodular lesion 263f
Blandin gland 208
Blastemic stage 26
Blastocoel 4
Blastomeres 4
Blastomycosis 133, 267, 290, 362
Bleeding
disorder 103, 165, 353, 739
gums 177
pin-points of 354
Bleomycin 260
Blisters, hemorrhagic 257f
Blood
blister 750
cells, count of 599
clotting 702
disorders 579, 730
classification of 704t
dyscrasias 243, 364
lesions, extravascular 248
oxygen content 184
pressure 140, 183, 737
supply 211
peripheral 60
primary source of 449
tests 594
transfusion 739
vessels 715
reflection of 246
Bloom syndrome 305, 349
Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome 349
Blue nevi 256
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome 352
Blunt trauma 326
B-lymphoproliferative disease 283
Body
build 184
focused repetitive behavior 440
mass index 175, 395
temperature 183
Boeing's arthrosis 585
Bohn's nodules 238, 504, 748
Bone 36f, 561, 658
abscess, intracortical 563
cavity, progressive 530
cyst 524
hemorrhagic 530
latent 588
traumatic 530, 530f, 556, 560, 581, 589
unicameral 530
development 35
formation
intramembranous 35
tension related 20
injuries 165
island 563
length of 527
lesion 522
reactive 541
loss 241f
irregular 415f
severe 723f
lymphoma of 411, 556
marrow 35, 714
transplantation 330
metastatic tumor to 103
necrosis 276f
neoplasms of 411t
pain, persistent 567
parietal 10, 39, 41
scintigraphy 679
tissue origin 532
trabeculae 651f
tumor 562
malignant 565, 826
odontogenic 523t
Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome 353
Bony
ankyloses, complete 613
margins, complete loss of 532f
Bordetella pertussis 129
Borrelia recurrentis 127
Botryoid cyst 379, 527
Botulinum toxin 677, 678
A 115
Bourneville disease 230
Bowen's disease 306, 410
Bowenoid papulosis 279
Brachiocephalic vein 84
Brachycephaly 13, 583
Brachytherapy 423
Bradycardia 184
Brain
temporal lobes of 48
venous drainage of 82
Brainstem 48
medial reticular formation of 660
Branchial apparatus, elements of 8f
Branchial arches 5, 10f
develops 8f
third 381
Branchial cleft cyst 381, 440
Branchial grooves 13
Branchial pouch derivatives 11f
Brandywine isolates opalescent dentine 512
Breastfeeding 750
difficulty in 582
Breath
alkanes 765
analysis 755
techniques for 760b
encompasses 755f
gas 764
markers 758t
metabolomics 756
research, challenges in 759f
testing, limitations of 761
Breathing 184
deep 184
Breathomics 756
Brittle bone disease 512
Brivudine 676
Brodie abscess 563
Bronchitis, chronic 742
Brown's tumor 577
Brown-black macules, form of 263
Brush field spots 228
Bruxism 592, 609
Buccal alveolar plates 59
Buccal caries 484, 485f
Buccal cusps, friction of 205f
Buccal exostosis 542
Buccal fat pad 205
herniation 377
Buccal gingiva 373f
Buccal mucosa 196, 204, 205, 205f, 249f, 254f, 256, 257f, 261f, 262, 262f, 264f, 280f, 293f, 338f, 346f, 356f358f, 364, 369f, 404f, 407, 408f, 568, 707f, 835
keratoses of 358f
ulcerates 272f
Buccal nerve 78, 211
long 78
Buccal wall, breech of 535f
Buccopharyngeal fascia 69
Buccopharyngeal membrane 5f, 491
Bud
molars 507
stage 28
Buffalo hump 574
Bulb, inferior 84
Bulbous condylar head 60
Bulimia 331
nervosa 703
Bull's eye 313
appearance 499f
Bull's neck 276, 278
Bulla 299f
ethmoidalis 54
Bullous disorder 315, 331
Bullous impetigo 314
Bullous pemphigoid 302, 310, 310f, 311f, 824, 824f
Buprenorphine 113
Bupropion 432
Burkitt's lymphoma 283, 405, 569
Burn 317
chemical 359, 359f, 360
electrical 317
Burning mouth syndrome 156, 215, 269, 269f, 291, 449, 468, 472, 688, 690f, 691, 691t, 692, 829, 829f
diagnosis of 691t, 692t
differential diagnosis of 692t
treatment of 693t
Burning sensations 372
Burtonian line 260
Buschke-Lowenstein tumor 409
Busulfan 249, 260, 441
Butenafine 135
Butorphanol 113
Butterfly rash 314
C
Cachexia 248
Cacosmia 764
Cadmium 260
Café-au-lait
melanotic macules 263
spots 252
Calciferol 701
Calcineurin inhibitors 343
Calcinosis cutis 466
Calcipenic rickets 575
Calcium 104, 302
antagonist-nifedipine 242
channel blockers 179, 225, 241
contents 701t
pyrophosphate dihydrate
chondrocalcinosis 623
deposition disease 623
Calcorrugoscopy 788
Calcospherites 31
Calculus formation 634
Caliber-persistent artery 446
Calvaria, internal surface of 47f
Campomelic dysplasia 576
Canalis sinuosus 50
Cancellous bone
component, hypertrophy of 577
proliferation 625
Cancer 745
oral 156, 390392, 400f, 406f, 418, 424t
registries, location of 391f
screening 210
stages of 422
systemic 695
treatment 695
Cancrum oris 236, 441
Candida
albicans 187, 302, 335, 346
grows 468
granuloma 291
infections, types of 291t
leukoplakia 291
parotitis 646t
Candidal cheilitis 442
Candidal endocrinopathy syndrome 292
Candidal leukoplakia 290, 338, 338f, 346f, 360, 461
Candidiasis 150, 267, 268, 290, 290f, 292, 292t, 293f, 346, 353, 354, 451, 461f
atrophic 290
chronic 461
endocrinopathy syndrome 291, 292
hyperplastic 461f
neonatal 750
types of 291
Candidosis infection 359
Canine 562f
eminence 39
fossa 39, 50, 51
region, left lateral 240f
Canker sores 320
Cannon's disease 355, 356
Capillary
congenital malformations of 258
lymphaticovenous malformation 352
vascular malformation 258
Caplacizumab 257
Capsaicin 597
topical 677
Capsular ligament 63, 612
Carabelli cusp 501
Carbamazepine 117, 283
Carbapenems 123, 127, 127t
Carbelin 124
Carbenicillin 124
Carbon-impregnated silicone rubber electrodes 163
Carbonization 154
Carboplatin 424
Carcinogenesis 396
Carcinoma 390
adenomatoid 387f
ameloblastic 541
in situ 400, 402f
intraoral 420b
intraosseous mucoepidermoid 405
low-grade mucoepidermoid 640
microinvasive 400
nasopharyngeal 283, 414, 692
odontogenic 216, 524
pain due to 695
post-treatment for 468f
sources of 390
Carcinosarcoma, odontogenic 216, 524
Cardiac anomalies 452
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 439
Cardiopulmonary disease 184
Cardiovascular disease 734
Cardiovascular system 36, 181, 429
Caries 427
classification of 479t
diagnosis 482
drug-induced 485
early childhood 482, 751
incidence, salivary variables affecting 634t
lesion, moderate 482
modifying factors for 481t
radiation-induced 482
radiographic classification of 483
recurrent 482, 485, 485f
secondary 482, 485
types of 482
Carisoprodol 115
Carney's complex 250
Carney's syndrome 251
Carotenemia 248, 264, 265f
Carotenoid 145
Carotid artery 82
external 6, 57, 82
internal 82
left common 82
Carotid canal 47, 48
Carotid sinus 82
nerve 81
syndrome 90
Carotid triangle area 82
Carrea's classification 785, 786t
Carry away phenomenon 24
Cartilage
tissue origin 531
tumors 217, 524, 624
Cartilaginous joints 35
types of 35
Casal necklace 256
Casirivimab 137
Caspofungin 133, 134
Catechins 156
Cathepsin C gene 723f
Cat-scratch
disease 274, 277
fever 277
Causalgia 658, 660, 679
Caviar tongue 456, 456f
Cefaclor 126
Cefadroxil 126
Cefazolin 126, 550
Cefdinir 126
Cefepime 126
Cefoperazone 126
Cefotaxime 126
Cefpirome 126
Cefpodoxime proxetil 126
Ceftizoxime 126
Cefuroxime 126
Celecoxib 110, 112
Celiac disease 329, 703
Cells, malignant 425
Cellular alveolar sarcoma 567
Cellular organization 34
Cellulitis 146, 277, 277f
life-threatening 277
Cemental caries 482, 485
Cementicles 515
Cementoblastoma 386, 538f, 557
benign 543
Cementoblasts 32, 478
Cementoenamel junction 223, 498
Cementogenesis 32
Cementoma 550
Cemento-osseous dysplasia 557
Cementum 223, 514
formation 32
Central giant cell
granuloma 556, 558, 560, 564, 573
lesion 286, 558f
reparative granuloma 560
tumor 537
Central hemangioma 564
cause of 564
Central incisor 478
tooth 411f
Central nervous system 36, 429, 471, 657, 659, 669
Central pain disorders 592
Centrally acting muscle relaxants 115
Centrofacial lentiginosis syndrome 251
Cephalexin 273
Cephalosporin 123, 125, 125t, 738
first-generation 126
fourth-generation 126
second-generation 126
third-generation 126
Cerebellar artery, posterior inferior 674
Cerebellum 48
Cerebral
gigantism 571
ischemia 758
palsy 464
Cerebriform appearance 309
Cerebrospinal fluid 678
Cerebrum
frontal lobes of 48
occipital lobe of 48
Ceruloplasmin 104
Cervical
adenitis syndrome 324
artery
ascending 82
transverse 82
burnout 486, 486f
demineralization 482
inflammatory resorption 519
loop 32
lymph nodes 641f
lymphadenitis 324
lymphadenopathy 401
lymphoepithelial cyst 381
portion 230
radiolucency, saucer-shaped 517f
region, malformations of 674
spine 709f
vertebrae 36, 63
first 64
second 64
typical 64f
Cervicofacial actinomycosis 276
Cetirizine 144
Cetuximab, usage of 424
Chair side sample collection 291
Chalky white hypoplastic enamel 369f
Chancre, primary 273
Charcot's disease 463
Charcot's joint 628
Chediak-Higashi syndrome 226
Cheek 20
biting 358, 358f
bony prominence of 38
muscle of 67
prominence to 39
Cheilion 778f
Cheilitis 346
bacterial 441
drug-induced 441
drug-related 374
exfoliative 443
glandularis 436, 442
granulomatosa 437, 454
infective 441
simplex 441
Cheilocandidiasis 442
Cheiloschisis 436
Cheiloscopy 772, 775
scope of 783
Chelioplasty 438
Chelitis 267, 442f
Chemical
barrier 712
burn 359, 359f, 360
sensors 767
transmitter substances 660
Chemiluminescent illumination 417
Chemoradiation, concurrent 423
Chemotherapeutic drugs 140, 249
Chemotherapy 140, 424, 425, 512, 745
multi-agent 411
systemic concurrent 422
Cherubism 386, 558, 560, 561f, 581
Chewing muscles, massages of 619
Chickenpox 282, 331
Child abuse 772
Chin 22
Chipmunk cheek 377
Chlamydia 129, 266
trachomatis 129
Chlamydophila pneumoniae 129
Chloasma 248, 250
Chloramphenicol 128
palmitate 128
Chlorhexidine 133, 376
gargles 643f
Chlormezanone 115
Chloroamphenicol 120
Chloromycetin 128
palmitate 128
Chloroquine 260
Chlorpromazine 260
Chlortetracycline 127
Chlorzoxazone 115
Choana 52
Cholecalciferol 701
Cholesterol 104
Chondroblastoma 625
Chondrocalcinosis 614
Chondroitin sulfate 597
Chondroma 382, 624
Chondroprotective drugs 619
Chondrosarcoma 412, 550, 563, 566, 627, 628f
diagnosis of 628f
Chorda tympani 80
nerve 12, 78, 211
Chorea acanthocytosis 464
Chorion infiltration 400
Choristomata 452
Chromium 260
Chromosomal disorders 723t
Chromosome 721b
aberrations 334
abnormal 721b
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 742
Chrysomya bezziana 295
Chubby cheeks 703
Chymotrypsin 340
Cicatricial pemphigoid 301, 302, 306
Ciclopirox olamine 135
Ciclosporin 143, 313, 314, 343
topical 343
Cidofovir 136
Cigarette paper skin 304f
Cilia 52
Cimetidine 283, 472
Ciplin 121
Ciprofloxacin 122, 551
Circular unilocular radiolucency 557
Circulatory system 36
Circumpulpal dentin 31
Circumvallate papillae 208, 448
Cirrhosis 741
Cisatracurium 115
Cisplatin 424
Clamp electrodes 162
Claribid 130
Clarinetist's cheilitis 441
Clarithromucin 120, 129, 130, 132
Clavicle 22
Clavulanic acid 124, 125
Cleft lip 6, 10, 11, 436, 436f, 437, 437b, 440, 495, 504, 582
defect, cause of 20
Cleft palate 6, 18, 436, 436f, 437, 437b, 440, 472, 495, 495f, 504, 582, 582f, 599, 749
isolated 582
palatine rugae in 785
Cleft tongue 453, 453f
Cleidocranial dysplasia 492, 493f, 525, 586, 586f, 726f
Clindamycin 130, 550
Clobetasol 316
Clobetasol propionate 139
Clofazimine 131, 260, 323, 441
Clofozine 131
Clomipramine 441
Clonazepam 675
Clostridia 130
Clotrimazole 133, 134
Clotting disorder 103
Clouston syndrome 355
Cloverleaf skull deformity 583
Cloxacillin 124
Coagulation ecchymosis 257
Cobb syndrome 353
Cobblestone appearance 366
Cockayne syndrome 305
Codeine 112
Codman's triangle 413, 565
Codon sequences 721
Coenzyme Q 154
Coffin corner 406
Cohens syndrome 722f
Colchicine 323
Cold sores 280
Colistin 131
sulfate 131
Colitis 260, 741
Collagen 140
hyalinized smooth sheet 340
illnesses 597
Colonize 346
Commissural fistulas 435
Commissural pits 434, 435
Common carotid artery 82
Common cold 288
Complete blood count 325
Complex aphthosis 324, 324t
Complex double joint 26
Complex regional pain syndrome 628, 679
Compulsive skin biting 440
Computed tomography 594
Concave depressions 517
Condylar agenesis 586
Condylar cartilage 22
Condylar hyperplasia 543, 544f, 604, 605f, 606f, 606t
acquired 606
congenital 604
severe 588
Condylar neck 60
Condylar osteomas 625
Condylar osteomyelitis 602
Condyle 525, 607, 610
exostosis of 606
head 604
osteomas 563
right 605f
Condylectomy 621
Condyloma
acuminatum 266, 279, 374f
lata 273, 362, 443f
Condyloplasty 621
Condylotomy 616
Cone beam computed tomography 106, 214, 419, 594
Confusion 572
Congenital disorders 434, 449
Conjunctivitis, chronic 646f
Connective tissue 821
disease, chronic 598
infection 277
origin 382, 531
Consumer Protection Act 172
Contact cheilitis 441
Contact dermatitis, irritant 438
Contact stomatitis 331
Contracture 592
Contusions 798
Convulsions 740
Convulsive disorders 741
Cooley's anemia 580, 704
Copper 260, 576
beaten appearance 576
Cormoy system classification 787
Cornea, interstitial keratitis of 506
Corneal epithelial dysplasia 355
Cornified stratified squamous epithelium 306
Coronal craniosynostosis, unilateral 584
Coronal pulp cavity index 791
Coronavirus disease 288, 289f, 294, 421, 471
clinical manifestations of 288
diagnostic testing in 289
management of 290
mild-to-moderate 137
mucormycosis, treatment of 295fc
treatment for 136
vaccination certificate 176
Coronoid cartilage 22
Coronoplasty 831
Corticosteroid 137, 143
actions of 138
comparison chart 138t
dexamethasone 137
intra-articular injections of
topical 138, 139, 342
types of 138t
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 276
Cosmetic deformities 613
Cosmetic surgical procedures 678
Costello syndrome 439
Costen's syndrome 615
Cotrimoxazole 121
Cotswold modifications 568t
Cotton roll electrodes 162
Cotton wool appearance 556
Cough syrup 137
Cowden's disease 250, 366
diagnosis of 366t
Cowden's syndrome 362, 366
Coxsackievirus 282, 284, 285
infections 266
Cracked tooth 672
syndrome 488f
Cranial autonomic symptoms 681
Cranial crest derivatives 7f
Cranial fossa
anterior 48
middle 48, 48t
Cranial nerve 74, 75, 585
branches of 211
disease of 218
evaluation 193f
examination 191
functions 75t
location of 74f
modalities 75, 75t
screening 664
Cranial neuralgias 678
Cranial neuropathy, painful 680
Cranio cleidodysostosis 586
Craniocaudal fashion 13
Craniofacial abnormalities 583, 748
Craniofacial defects 724, 725t
Craniofacial deformities 723
Craniofacial dysostosis 583
Craniofacial macrosomia 584
Craniofacial microsomia 584
Craniofacial morphology 772
Craniofacial wound repair 313
Craniosynostosis 367, 583
bilateral coronal 584
different types of 584
sign of 584
syndromes 13
Craniotabes 575
Cranium, bone of 36
Craving phenomenon 429
Crazy paving 290
C-reactive protein test 597
Crenations 458
Cretinism 571, 572
Cribriform plates 48
Crista galli 48
Crohn's disease 225, 274, 329, 362, 703
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome 251
Crouzon's syndrome 583, 583f
Crowns 477
globular shape of 511f
Crucial rehabilitation option 244
Cryptococcosis 267, 290
Crystal deposits 623
Crystalline penicillin 123
Cunnilingus tongue 458
Cunninghamella bertholletiae 293
Cupid's bow 434
Cupola 26
Curaçao criteria 351
Curcumin 145, 155, 341
Cushing's disease 262
Cushing's habitus 139
Cushing's syndrome 262, 574, 709
Cyanocobalamin 441
Cyanosis 184, 248, 263
Cyclophosphamide 143, 260, 311, 314
Cycloserine 275
Cyclosporine 143, 225, 241, 374
Cylindroma, malignant 652
Cyst 202, 217, 434, 524, 545, 640
blue-domed 525
buccal bifurcation 491
developmental 522
extravasation 530
fibrous 381
gingival 238
inflammatory 522
intra-alveolar 530
lateral dentigerous 530
nasopharyngeal 378
non-odontogenic 377, 522524, 528
odontogenic 379, 522, 535, 588
developmental 523, 524
pancreatic 352
parasitic 378
periapical 380, 522, 530, 545
residual 380, 525, 525f
sialo-odontogenic 527
unilocular 532
Cystadenocarcinoma 346
Cystadenoma 346, 640
lymphomatosum, papillary 651
Cystic cavity, large 533
Cystic fibrosis 329, 346
Cystic hygroma 378
Cystic pleomorphic adenomas 640
Cysticercosis 296
Cysticercus cellulosae 296
Cystogenic ameloblastoma 535
Cytogenetic 396
Cytomegalovirus 266, 288
infection 284f
Cytotoxic drug 140
Cytotoxic effector cells 312
Cytotoxic medicines 374
D
Da Silva classification 786, 786t
Dactyloscopic traces 775
Daktarin 135
Dalitz method 790
Dantrolene 115
Dapsone 131, 313
Darier's disease 300, 362
Darier-White disease 355
Daughter cysts 533
de Lange syndrome 252
de Quervain thyroiditis 571
Deafness syndrome 355
Death, tongue of 801
Deciduous dentition 477
transition from 752
Deciduous teeth 572f, 586f, 729f, 751
absence of 494f
managing premature loss of 752
resorption of root in 517
Decongestant 472
Deeper tissues 108
Degenerative joint
changes 595
disease 592
Delta chain disease 414
Deltacoronavirus 288
Demeclocycline 127
Demethylchlortetracycline 127
Demirjian, Goldstein, and Tanner method 791
Dendrites 659
Dendritic cell 713, 713f, 714f
Dens
evaginatus 501
invaginatus 499
Densitometry 513
Dental
abnormalities 506, 574
agenesis 723
alveoli 51
amalgam fillings 261
anomalies 491
anthropology 772
autopsy 772
biofilm 479
buds 28
care
modification of 181
products 393
caries 304, 479, 482, 486f, 634, 751
causes of 481t
classification of 479
types of 482, 482t
conditions 591
cyst 380, 556
deoxyribonucleic acid 796
extraction of 796
enamel 507
eruption 504
fluorosis 507, 509, 702f
follicle 30, 526
forms 31
follicular tissue 539
gigantism, disproportional 495
history 664, 827
home 752
implants 244
infection 123, 125, 373f, 441, 579
lamina 27
cyst 748
fate of 28
management 427, 735b
modification 736
status 734, 736t
origin 694t
root resorption from 518
pain 218
papilla 28, 30
cell 31
pellicle 479
plexus 77, 78
practice 114
problems 582
management of 752
procedure 181
pulp 514
calcifications 574
inflammation of 487
records 800
maintenance of 169
utilization of 171
sac 31
structures 140
trauma, acute 751
wear 515
Dentigenosis imperfecta 511f
Dentigerous cyst 378, 379f, 525, 526f, 528, 529, 536, 539, 564, 581
infected 526f
Dentin 478, 510
dysplasia 510t, 512
formation 31
inherited defects of 510
matrix 31
primary 478
reparative 478, 510
secondary 478, 510
Dentinal dysplasia 512f
Dentinal tubules 31, 478
Dentine 481
dysplasia 512
tertiary 478, 510
transparent 510
Dentino-enamel junction separates 31
Dentinogenesis 31
imperfecta 509, 510, 510t, 511f
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, peripheral 363
Dentition, photographic documentation of 800
Dentoalveolar abscess 489f, 490, 490f, 569
Denture
complete 171
face 227
granuloma 376
partial 171
sore mouth 354, 375
stomatitis 375f
management of 155, 156
Deoxyribonucleic acid 230, 334, 393
testing 366
types of 796
Depigmentation 249
Depressed lesion 199
Depression 10, 572, 745
Depressor
anguli oris 67
labii inferioris 67
Dermal hypoplasia 362
syndrome 365
Dermatitis herpetiformis 311
Dermatomyositis 718
juvenile 718
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis 305
Dermatophagia 440
Dermatoses 243
Dermo-epidermal junction 300
Dermoid cyst 378, 381, 440, 748
Desipramine 117, 283
Desonide 139
Desoximetasone 139
Desquamative
gingivitis 232, 233f, 304, 306, 354
periodontitis 285f
Developmental anomalies 353, 491
Developmental dental anomalies, classification of 491t
Dexamethasone 323, 340, 568, 629
sodium phosphate 139
Diabetes
gestational 237
gingivitis 237f
mellitus 308f, 574, 743
type 1 743, 752
type 2 743
types of 237
stomatitis 237, 360
Diacetylmorphine 112
Diaminopyrimidines 119
Diamorphine 112
Diathermy 164, 165f
risks with 165
unwanted effects of 165
Diazepam 114, 116, 117, 741
Diclofenac 110
sodium 111
Dicloxacillin 124, 273
Diflorasone 139
diacetate 139
Digastric muscle 70, 72
posterior belly of 80
DiGeorge syndromes 5
Digestive functions 633
Digital impressions 583
Diphenylhydantoin 117
Diphtheria 276
antitoxin 276
cutaneous 276
Dipterous larva 294
Direct immunofluorescence
second specimen for 301
technique 301, 301t
Dirithromycin 129
Discal ligaments 63
Discoid lupus erythematosus 355, 434, 444
Discoloration, source of 246
Discomalleolar ligament 63
Discopexy 621
Discoplasty 621
Discoplicacy 621
Disk
condyle complex disorders 618
deformation 609
displacement 618
course of 609
dynamic properties of 610
trauma to 608
Diskectomy 621
Dispersion, measures of 813
Displacement, secondary 20
Disseminated mucormycosis infection 293, 294
Distal interphalangeal joints 600
Distodens 492
Distomolars 492
Distress, sign of 184
Disulfiram 472
Diverticula 639
Divry-van Bogaert syndrome 352
Docetaxel 424
Dopamine 429
Doripenem 127
Double floor sign 545
Double lip 436, 436f
Double teeth 497
Down's syndrome 228, 229f, 235, 450, 454, 499, 638, 729f
clinical features of 229fc
Doxacurium 115
Doxorubicin 260
Doxycycline 120, 127
Draining sinus 547f
Drosophila 396
Drug 330, 745
addiction 745
interactions 110t, 140
therapy 619
types of 472
Drumstick 158
Dry eyes 646f
Dry mouth 108, 689
Dry Nikolsky's sign 300
Dry socket 668, 668f
Duct
accessory 638
hyperplasia 638
Duloxetine 675
Dural venous sinuses 84
Dwarfism 708
Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome 351
Dynorphins 113
Dysarthria 465, 678
Dysautonomia, familial 472
Dysgeusia 268, 473b, 690, 765
causes of 470t
idiopathic 473
secondary 470
Dyskeratosis congenita 305, 348, 348f, 348t, 833, 833f
Dyslipidemia, sign of 185
Dysosmia 765
Dysphagia 388, 401
classical triad of 325
sideropenic 325
Dysplasia
cemento-osseous 557, 557f, 563
epithelial 326
E
Eagle syndrome 695, 696f
Ear 186
canal 9
infection 582, 616
muscles of 64
pain 686f
Earache, chronic 401
Eating disorders 703
Ecchymosis 201, 248, 257
central 798
peripheral 798
Echinocandins 134
Echovirus 284
Eclabium 437
Econazole 135
Ectoderm 5f
Ectodermal cells 4
Ectodermal dysplasia 499, 494f, 495f, 499
Ectodermal origin 531
Ectomesenchyme 5, 10, 13, 13f
Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone 253
Ectopic eruption 505
Ectopic sebaceous gland 249f
Eczematous cheilitis 441
Edema
angioneurotic 438f
mineralocorticoid causes 139
Edematous gingivitis 716f
Edentulous alveolar ridge 404f
Effusion 608, 608f
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 228
Eighth nerve deafness 506
Electric shock-like pain 662
Electrocautery 162, 162f
Electrogoniometer 473
Electromagnetic energy 165
Electronic
dental record 169
medical record 169
nose 760, 768, 768f
principle of 768f
Electrosurgery 161, 162
forerunner of 162
unit 161f
basic types 161
Elephantiasis, familial 224, 225f, 369
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome 502, 504
Embryo, period of 4
Embryoblast 4
Embryogenesis 3, 3f
schema of 4fc
Embryologic theory 606
Embryology, early 3
Embryonic connective tissue 13
Eminectomy 621
Eminoplasty 621
Emphysema 742
Enamel 477, 481, 482
cord 31
development defects of 506
drop 503
dysplasia, hereditary 507
epithelium 478
exostoses 503
formation 31, 478
globule 503
hypoplasia 506
knot, primary 31
navel 31
niche 31
nodule 503
organ 28, 30
epithelium 478
shape of 28
transient structures in 31t
pearl 503, 503f
pits 369f
prisms 32
rods 32
septum 31
Enameloma 503
Enchondromas 352
End-feel test 191f
Endochondral bone formation 35
Endocrinal abnormalities 263
Endocrinal disorders
classification of 707t
oral manifestations of 708t
Endocrine 730
candidiasis syndrome 290
disease 629, 690, 743
disorders 570, 641, 707
overactivity 251
system 429
Endoderm 5f
Endodermal cells 4
Endodermal pharyngeal pouches 5
Endogenous pigmentation 247, 248
Endometrium 4
Endorphins 113
Endosteum 562, 625
Endostosis 543f
Enkephalins 113
Enlarged pulp chamber 498f
Enolic acid derivatives 109, 111
Enostosis 542
Enoxacin 122
Enteric system 36
Enteromycetin 128
Enteroviruses 285
Envoplakin 716f
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 287, 301
Eosinophil 101, 320f, 713, 713f
Ephelides 256
Ephelis 248
Epidermal growth factor receptor 396
Epidermal nevus syndrome 362
Epidermal peeling sign 299
Epidermoid cyst 378, 748
Epidermolysis bullosa 302, 303f, 305, 349
acquisita 302, 310, 311
diagnosis of 303f
Epigenetic factors 392
Epiglottic vallecula 58
Epiglottis 26
Epilepsy 116, 740
Episodes, traumatic 428
Epithelial
antinuclear antibodies 306, 306f
band, primary 491
cell rests 527
cyst, congenital 381
growth factor receptor, blocking of 422
hyperplasia 279, 362, 372, 438
lesions 397
mesenchymal transition 396
organs, metastatic tumors of 390
origin 531
pathways 470
pearls 28
precursor lesions 362
tissue
necrosis of 316
origin 531
tumor, benign mixed 524
Epithelioma cuniculatum 409
Epithelium
junctional 32
surface 349, 354
Epstein pearls 238, 748
Epstein-Barr virus 266, 283, 333, 360, 394, 460
infection 283, 283t, 568
Epulis
congenital 238, 382, 383
fissuratum 376, 376f, 382
Eravacycline 127
Ergocalciferol 701
Erosion 316, 517
Erosive lichen planus 305, 305f, 829, 830f
Eruption
cyst 526, 750
delayed 503
early 504
hematoma 503
primary failure of 505
Eruptive tooth movement 503
Erythema migrans 353, 454
lingualis 454
Erythema multiforme 149, 312, 312f, 313, 324, 331, 444
etiology of 312
Erythema nodosum 324
leprosum 275
Erythematous blush 353
Erythematous candidiasis 267, 460, 461f
Erythematous patches 338f
Erythematous plaques 315f
Erythematous smooth growth 405f
Erythroblastosis fetalis 703
Erythrocyte extravasation 349
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 103, 303
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis 305
Erythroleukoplakia 336, 338f
Erythromycin 120, 129, 276
estolate 129
ethylsuccinate 129
stearate 129
Erythroplakia 336f, 336t, 396, 397, 403, 404f
Erythroplasia 404f, 445
Erythropoietic porphyria 251, 700
congenital 512
Escherichia coli 749
Esophageal dysfunction 466
Esophageal motility disorders 326
Esophageal spasm, diffuse 326
Esophagus 13
Esthesioneuroblastoma 414
Estrogens 141
Eszopiclone 116
Etanercept 599
Ethambutol 274, 275
Ethane 758
Ethanol 116
Ethionamide 132, 275
Ethmoid
bone 48, 52
sinus 19
part of 526f
Ethmoidal air cells 54
Ethmoidal labyrinth 54
Ethmoidal sinus 54
Ethosuximide 241
Ethyl alcohol 116
Ethylenimine 141
Etodolac 110, 111
Etoricoxib 110, 112
Eubacterium 764
Eudynia 658
European Federation of Periodontology 224
Eustachian tube 687
Evaginated odontoma 501
Ewing's sarcoma 405, 413, 550, 566, 566f
Excessive mandibular development 604
Excoriation 316
Exercises, isometric 619
Exfoliate 237
Exogenous pigmentation 248, 258
Exophytic lesions 415
Exopolysaccharides 479
Exostosis 541
Experimental research
limitations of 810
strengths of 810
types of 809
Extracapsular disorders 629
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 164, 640
Extramustine 141
Extraoral examination 184, 820, 824
face 823
Extra-skeletal soft tissue 562
Extrinsic muscles 71, 448
Eye 185, 687
diseases 140
increased pressure in 259f
right 677f
Eyeball muscles 37
Eyebrows 677f
Eyelet 780
double 780
Eyelids 677f
xanthomas of 185
F
Face
bones of 35, 36
development of 3, 17f
fibrous papule of 410
hemihypertrophy of 587f
lymph node of 88
muscles of 64, 66f
surface anatomy of 65f
symmetry of 185
venous drainage of 82
Faces scale 663
Facial
artery 72
deformity 604
dysplasia, lateral 584
expressions 184
hemihypertrophy 587
nerve 78, 79f, 89, 191
course of 79
innervates 25
motor root of 80
pain 680
atypical 687
differential diagnosis of 688t, 689t
persistent idiopathic 672, 673
paralysis, atraumatic 676
swellings, differential diagnosis of 365
symmetry 185f
Facies leprosy 275
Faciogenital dysplasia 439
Fagerström nicotine dependency scoring 430
Fagerström tolerance questionnaire 431b
Fainting 741
Famciclovir 676
Fanconi's anemia 349
Fanconi's syndrome 402, 576
Farmer's lip 345, 442
Faropenem 127
Fascia
prevertebral 69
temporal 39
Fascial space
primary 601
secondary 601
Fasciitis
infiltrative 372
proliferative 372
Fast-acting first-line medicines 598
Fatigue syndrome, chronic 572
Fauces 206, 207f
roof of 56
Faucial tonsils 423
Febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, acute 313, 324
Felty's syndrome 303, 327, 638
Female sex hormones 250
Fenamate 109, 111
Fentanyl 113, 114
Ferritin 263
Fertility hormones 106
Fertilization 3
Fetal
alcohol syndrome 439, 452
mandible 22f
membranes 3f
Fetor hepaticus 765
Fetus, period of 4
Fever 183, 284f, 716
glandular 283
periodic 324, 324f
scarlet 273, 459
Fiber-optic transillumination 483
Fibers, periodontal 31
Fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma 567
Fibroblasts, cancer associated 396
Fibrocollagenous tissue 239f
Fibrodentinosarcoma, ameloblastic 541
Fibroma 238, 239, 239f, 382, 563
ameloblastic 526
cemento-ossifying 557
central
odontogenic 536
ossifying 556, 556f
desmoplastic 560
peripheral 240, 240f, 371
Fibromatosis 409
generalized 340
reactive 567
Fibromuscular tube 57
Fibromyalgia 572
Fibro-odontoma, ameloblastic 536
Fibro-odontosarcoma, ameloblastic 541
Fibro-osseous lesions 217, 364, 524, 546, 555
early 556
Fibrosarcoma 412, 566
ameloblastic 541
Fibrosis 427
subepithelial 360
Fibrous connective tissue 252
Fibrous dysplasia 386, 550, 555, 555f, 564
lesions 531
Fibrous histiocytoma 560, 566
malignant 412, 566
Fibrous lump 239f
Filiform papillae 208, 448
Fine-needle aspiration cytology 296
Fingernails, alterations in 185
Fingerprint, bacterial 800, 802
Fish dentition 496
Fissured tongue 453, 454, 454f
Fit 741
Fitzpatrick classification 299
Flagyl 123
Flat
feet 586
lesion 200
tori 541
Flavonoid 145
Flecks, pattern of 536
Flexural areas 262
Floating teeth appearance 227f, 405f
Floating-in-air 228
Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia 557
Florid oral papillomatosis 409
Florida probe system 244
Fluconazole 133, 376, 551
suspension 376
Flucytosine 133
Fludroxycortide 139
Fluid
balance management, maintaining 176
excess 84
straw-colored 530
Flumazenil 116, 736
Fluocinolone acetonide 139
Fluocinonide 139, 316, 323
Fluorescence
effects 154
in-situ hybridization 334
spectroscopy 417
Fluoride
applications 751
catalysis 702
Fluorodeoxyglucose 418
Fluoroquinolones 121, 122
Fluorosis 507, 507f
Fluphenazine 283
Flurazepam 116
Flurbiprofen 109
Flutist's cheilitis 441
Folate
antagonist 141
needs for 700
Foliate papilla 208, 448
inflammation of 458f
Foliate papillitis 371, 457, 458f
Follicular cyst 525
Folliculo-sebaceous cystic hamartoma 363
Fomite transmission 288
Foramen 47
cecum 13, 26
lacerum 47, 48
magnum 42, 48
ovale 47, 48, 76
rotundum 47, 48, 76, 89
spinosum 47, 48
Fordyce's granules 161, 194, 204, 205f, 249, 249f, 356, 356f
Forensic
dentistry 771, 801
identification 785
medicine 771
odontology 771
stomatology 771
Fortified procaine penicillin G injection 124
Fortrim 121
Fountain syndrome 434, 440
Fournier's molars 507
Fractionation
accelerated 423
types of 423
Fracture 592, 621, 622f
pathologic 577
Fragile skin 139
Framycetin 129
Franceschetti syndrome 585
Franklin's disease 414
Freckle 248, 256
Free gingival
groove 223
margin 223
Free tongue length 450b
Frey's syndrome 648
Frictional keratosis 357, 358f, 830, 830f
provisional diagnosis of 831
Friedreich's disease 587
Frontal bone 10, 41, 48
squamous portion of 36
Frontal sinus 19, 54
Frontomaxillary suture 20
Frontonasal suture 20
Fructose intolerance, hereditary 699
F-test 814
Fungal
ball 682
infection 132, 267, 286, 287, 290, 300, 333, 395, 689
secondary 442f
origin, gingival diseases of 223
Fungicide 135
Fungiform papillae 27, 208, 273, 448
Fungisome 134
Fungizone 134
Furrowed tongue 453
Fused arches 799
Fusiform bacillus 266
Fusion 496f
Fusobacterium 764
G
Gabapentin 117, 283, 675, 676
Gag reflex, stimulation of 612
Gait 184
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 473
Gamma-chain disease 414
Gammacoronavirus 288
Ganciclovir 136
Ganglia
inferior 81
superior 81
Gardner's syndrome 225, 329, 349, 366, 463, 542, 563, 587
Garre's osteomyelitis 547, 549f
Garrington sign, positive 413
Gas chromatography 760, 761f, 767
mass spectrometry 760t
Gastritis 741
chronic 260
Gastroesophageal halitosis 764
pathologic level of 764
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 326, 690, 764
Gastrointestinal diseases 741
oral manifestations of 329t
Gastrointestinal manifestations 289
Gastrointestinal mucormycosis 293, 294
Gastrointestinal system 182, 429
Gastrointestinal tract diseases 329
Gatifloxacin 122
Gaucher's cells 700
infiltrate reticuloendothelial system organs 623
Gaucher's disease 623, 700
Gemifloxacin 122
Gemination 495, 497, 497f
General pain management 665
Genes 720
Genetic diseases 721
Genetic disorders 224, 249, 302, 316, 349, 355, 355t, 363, 434, 449, 718, 720, 721
Genetic mutation 725t
role of 509t
Genetic origin, gingival lesions of 224
Genetic syndromes 409, 412
Genioglossus 448
muscle 60, 71
Geniohyoid
median 381
muscle originates 71
Genital aphthae 323
Genital mucosa 262
Genital secretions 283
Genitourinary system 182
Genitourinary tract disease 744
Genome 720
cancer atlas 397
Genomics 636
Gentamicin 120, 128
Genu valgus 586
Genuine halitosis 761, 762f, 763
Geographic tongue 152, 353, 354f, 454, 454f, 689
classification of 454t
Geotrichosis 267, 290
Geriatric dentistry 747
Germ layers, primary 3f
German measles 285
Gestant odontoma 500
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome 331
Giant cell
arteritis 329, 600, 616, 682
epulis 240, 241f, 371
granuloma 530
peripheral 239, 240, 241f, 248, 371, 371f, 382, 415
lesions 217, 524, 557, 626, 822, 822f
reparative cysts 558
reparative granulomas 557
tumor 558, 566, 579, 626
benign 581
diffuse-type 626
viral 301
Gigantism 570
proportional 495
Gingerol 145
Gingiva 209, 210f, 223, 242f, 249f, 255f, 258, 275, 311, 364, 406, 710f, 820
carcinoma of 407f
components of 223
facial attached 280f
healthy 210
labial 373f
aspect of 209
mandibular 225f
papillary 231f, 373f
subdivisions of 210
Gingival bleeding, causes of 230
Gingival crevicular fluid 245
Gingival diseases 223, 225
dental plaque-induced 223
non-biofilm induced 231
non-plaque induced 231t
Gingival enlargement 196f, 238, 242f, 244
drug-induced 241, 242f, 374f
generalized 241, 373f
inflammatory 242, 242f
localized 238
Gingival fibromatosis 225f
hereditary 224, 225f, 225t, 369
Gingival hyperplasia, plaque induced 225
Gingival inflammation 236f, 237, 259f, 710f
severe 237f
Gingival overgrowth 740
cyclosporine-induced 241
drug-induced 241, 347
phenytoin-induced 241
Gingival pain, severe 237
Gingival pigmentation 232
Gingival salivary gland choristoma 638
Gingival squamous cell carcinoma 244
Gingival sulcus 210
Gingival swelling 230t
Gingival telangiectasia 718
Gingivitis 266, 267, 291, 710f
acute necrotizing 230, 236, 237f
chronic 230, 231f
mild-to-severe 304
necrotizing ulcerative 122, 146, 236, 266, 272f, 668
plaque-induced 231b
potential outcomes of 232fc
ulcerative 237f
Gingivobuccal complex, right 408f
Gingivobuccal sulcus 404f
Gingivostomatitis
herpetic 280f
white folded 356
Glabella 37
Gland 73
accessory 638
deep aspect of 73
innervation of 72
labial 632, 775
sebaceous 775f
secretomotor function of 77
superficial aspect of 73
Glandular cheilitis 442
Glandular epithelial cyst 380f
Glandular odontogenic cyst 379, 380f, 527, 527f
Glaucoma 259f
Glenoid fossa 61f, 62, 607
Globulomaxillary cyst 379, 530, 530f, 560
Glossal central papillary atrophy 455
Glossitis 169, 267, 332, 353, 457f
areata
exfoliative 353, 454
migrans 353, 454
atrophic 325, 456, 457f
benign migratory 353, 354f, 454, 456
geometric 457
herpetic geometric 456
manifestations of 332
Glossodynia 464
Glossopharyngeal nerve 25, 80, 80f, 211, 674f
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia 672, 673, 674f
cause for 674f
Glossoptosis 452
Glossopyrosis 468
Glottis, edema of 278
Gloves and Socks syndrome 257
Glucagonoma 331
Glucocorticoids 138, 141, 143, 620
Glucosamine 597
Glucose
6-phosphate dehydrogenase 175
metabolism, abnormal 420f
Glycogen storage disease 317
Glycopeptide 119, 130t
antibiotics 130
Glycylcycline 119
Goiter, multinodular 571
Goldenhar syndrome 584, 604
Goltz syndrome 362
Gomphoses 35
Gonads, disease of 707
Gonorrhea 125, 266, 274
Gorlin's sign 228
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome 365, 527, 728f
Gottron cutis papillomatosis carcinoides 409
Gout 623
Graft versus host disease 261, 318, 330, 347, 355
Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lasseur syndrome 341
Granular cell
epulis, congenital 383
myoblastoma 279, 385
tumor 238, 248, 382, 385, 748
Granular lymphocytosis, large 303
Granulation tissue, conventional 239
Granule deficiency, specific 226
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors 314
Granulocytic sarcoma 243, 327
Granulocytopenia, degree of 303
Granuloma 201, 386, 544f, 558
eosinophilic 566, 581
gravidarum 375
Granulomatous disease
chronic 317, 318
multisystemic 372
Graphite 258
tattoo 258
Graves’ disease 262, 571
Gray baby syndrome 128
Great auricular nerve 211
Greater palatine
foramen 48, 55
nerve emerges 77
Greater petrosal nerve 77, 79
Greenstick bone fractures 575
Greither syndrome 228
Grepafloxacin 122
Grinspan syndrome 341
Griseofulvin 134
Groans, abdominal 561
Grooves, type of 778
Ground glass 561, 573
Growth 20, 361
cartilaginous 22
hormone
injections 230
resistance 571
postnatal 4
Guillain-Barré syndrome 678
Gum 533f
bleeding, severe 242
Gustafson's clinical classification 799
Gustation 765
Gutta percha 490f
Gyral impressions 576
H
H1-antagonists 143
H1-antihistamines 143t, 144t
downregulate allergic inflammation 143
H2-antagonists 144
Haemophilus influenzae 602
Hailey-Hailey disease 302, 308
Haim-Munk syndrome 228
Hair 185, 775f
Hairy leukoplakia 288, 359, 360, 362
Hairy tongue 467, 467f
Halcinonide 139
Halitophobia 761, 762t, 763
Halitosis 269, 635, 755, 763, 763t, 764, 765, 768, 769
airway 764
assessment of 766
blood-borne 764
causes of 766b
classification of 762fc, 763fc, 763t
etiology of 766
extraoral 762f
pathologic 761
intraoral 762f
management 768
strategy for 770fc
nonoral cause of 766b
oral 763
pathologic 761, 763, 765
physiological 761, 765
subjective 765
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome 504, 586, 587, 604
Halo sign, reversed 290
Halobetasol 316
Hamartoma 449, 452
Hamycin 134
Hand-Schüller-Christian disease 581
Hansen's disease 275, 275f
Hansepran 131
Hard palate 18, 51, 55, 55f, 205, 206, 206f, 280f, 306, 339f, 364, 390
anterior 206
junction of 278
mucous 345f
Hard tissue 401
evaluation 196f
examination 195
Hardikar syndrome 437
Harris and Nortje method 791
Head and neck
anatomy of 35f
arterial supply of 83f
cancer 695
dissection for 187
stages of 422fc
osteology of 36
region 258
lymph node of 84f
venous supply of 84f
Head, lymph node of 88
Headache 592, 679
alarm clock 681
chronic tension type 681, 681b
cluster 616, 661, 672, 681
diary 680
different types of 687
disorders, classification of 680b
episodic tension type 681
migraine 616
phase 680
primary 218, 679, 680
secondary 679, 680, 682
tension-type 680
Healed mucosa 444f
Health, biomedical model of 176
Hearing loss 437, 582
sensorineural 718
Heart
attack 737
failure 736
shape of 529
Heat pain 660
Heavy-chain disease 414
Heck's disease 279, 362, 372, 434, 438
Heerfordt's syndrome 638, 648
Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome 648
Heimler syndrome 718
Helfman and Bada method 790
Helicobacter pylori 764
Helper T cells 714
Hemangioendothelioma 560
epithelioid 258
Hemangioma 161, 248, 349, 350f, 350t, 367, 370f, 382, 384, 436, 451, 462, 462f, 560, 564, 564f, 587, 626, 749
capillary 239, 349, 350
cavernous 258, 258f, 349
congenital 384f
epithelioid 258
intramuscular 370f
lobular capillary 239, 350f
oral 263, 409
Hemangiopericytoma 412, 560
Hematogenous infection dissemination 601
Hematologic disorders 318, 349, 739
Hematological diseases 325
oral manifestations of 325t, 704t
Hematoma 248, 257, 258, 351
Hematomata 257
Hematopoiesis, cyclic 705
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 330
Hemicrania
continua 682
paroxysmal 672, 682
Hemifacial atrophy 604
progressive 585
Hemifacial hyperplasia 587, 587f
segmental 588
Hemifacial hypoplasia 584, 587
Hemihyperplasia 587
Hemi-mandibulectomy 427f
Hemi-maxillofacial dysplasia 588
Hemochromatosis 248, 263
hereditary 705
Hemoglobin
concentration levels 99
corpuscular 833
reduced 246
Hemolysis, excessive 257
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome 257
atypical 257
Hemophilia 739
Hemorrhage 405
tendency to 242
Hemosiderin 263
Hemosiderosis 248, 263
Hensen's node 4
Heparin 713
Hepatic disease 638
Hepatitis 741
B virus 284, 333
C virus 284
associated sialadenitis 645
viral 288
Hepatobiliary manifestations 289
Hereditary brown opalescent teeth 507
Heroin 112
Herpangina 147, 284f
variant of 285
Herpes labialis 280f, 441
recurrent 280
Herpes simplex 136, 147
infection 266
labialis 280
mucocutaneous 136
virus 266, 280, 313, 333, 346, 394, 750
infection 280, 270, 567, 750
Herpes ulceration, recurrent 281t
Herpes zoster 136, 147, 282, 282f, 287, 675, 675f
acute 672
infection 520
oticus 282, 676
residual complication of 283
Herpesvirus 263
infections 223
Herpetic gingivitis, primary 443
Herpetic gingivostomatitis, primary 243
Herpetic infections, treat 280t
Herpetic lesion 262f
pemphigoid 308
Herpetic whitlow 281
Herpetiform ulceration 322
Herpetiformis 303
Hertwig's epithelial root sheath 31
Heterozygosity, loss of 334, 398
Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia 355
High flow nasal cannula oxygen 290
High molecular weight glycoproteins 634
Highly active antiretroviral therapy 263, 287
Hindbrain neuromeres 5
Hippocratic method 612
Hirsutism 230
Histamine 143
Histiocytosis X 550, 566, 705
Histopathological methods 334
Histoplasmosis 133, 267, 290
Hodgkin's disease 283
Hodgkin's lymphoma 283, 328, 568
Holding therapy 751
Holoprosencephaly 10, 495
Homocystinuria 571, 574
Honeycomb appearance 533
Honiton lace 341
Hormonal disorders 638
Hormones, local 143
Horton's disease 329
Howel-Evans syndrome 228
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome 348
Human anatomic structures 34t
Human breath 756
Human cytomegalovirus 283
Human dentition
formation of 792f
uniqueness of 800
Human embryo 5f
Human herpesvirus 281284
Human immunodeficiency virus 267, 285, 286t, 288, 333, 362, 471, 714
antibodies 301
disease 237, 238f, 293f
infection 189, 263, 270, 285, 285f, 286, 461, 645, 684
Human papillomavirus 278, 333, 395, 438
infection 266, 372
Hunter's glossitis 457f
Hunter's syndrome 450
Huntington's disease 464, 765
Hurler's syndrome 450, 604, 699
Hutchinson's incisors 460, 506
Hutchinson's melanotic freckle 255
Hutchinson's triad 273, 506
Hyaline fibromatosis, juvenile 230
Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae 362
Hyaluronidase 340
Hydatid cyst 378
Hydrocephalus, obstructive 296
Hydrocortisone 137, 629
acetate 139
Hydrocortizone
butyrate 139
valerate 139
Hydrogen sulfide 757
Hydrops fetalis 452
Hydroxyapatite, zones of 31
Hydroxychloroquine 260, 313
Hydroxyurea 424
Hygiene phase 245
Hyoglossus muscle originates 72
Hyoid
arch 6
bone 35, 36, 63, 64f
Hyper fractionation 423
Hyperacusis 676
Hypercementosis 515, 515f, 543, 550, 570f
result of 570
Hyperdontia 491, 586, 743
Hypereosinophilic syndrome 328
Hypergammaglobulinemia 226
Hyperglycemia 699
Hyperkeratosis 266
Hyperlipoproteinemia 623
Hypermobility disorders 592
Hyperostosis 367, 541
Hyperparathyroidism 560, 569, 573, 573f, 708, 709f, 822, 822f
brown tumor of 558, 560, 573
giant cell lesion of 823
primary 362
Hyperpigmentation 248, 304
adrenocorticotrophic hormone-induced 261
Hyperpituitarism 570f, 707
Hyperplasia 638
bony 541
coronoid 607
denture-induced 376, 376f
fibroepithelial 240f
hemifacial 587, 587f
hemimandibular 604
idiopathic 451
inflammatory 239f
papillary 376, 377f
sebaceous 410
Hyperplastic candidiasis, chronic 290, 290f, 291, 346, 346f, 360
Hyperplastic gingival inflammation 239
Hyperplastic labial frenum 749
Hypersensitivity 365
Hypersplenism bone marrow deficiency 103
Hypertaurodontism 498f
Hypertelorism 583
Hypertension 183
Hyperthyroidism 262, 571, 708
familial nonautoimmune 571
Hypertrophy 592
gingival 374
Hypoadrenocorticism 292
Hypobranchial eminence 26
Hypocalcemia 573
Hypocalcification 506
Hypodontia 493, 574
Hypogeusia 765
Hypoglossal canal 47, 48
Hypoglossal nerve 26, 81, 81f, 211, 449
Hypoglossal nucleus 81
Hypoglossia 449, 450
Hypoglycemia 743
Hypomelanotic macules 367
Hypomineralization 506
Hypomobility disorders 592
Hypoparathyroidism 573, 708
acquired 573
primary 573
Hypopharyngeal diverticulum 764
Hypopharynx 390
Hypophosphatasia 228, 576
Hypophosphatemia 576
familial 576
Hypophosphatemic rickets 576
Hypopigmentation 249
Hypopituitarism 571, 708
Hypoplasia 586, 638
hemifacial 584, 587
left condylar 606f
mandibular 24, 24b
Hypoplasminogenemia 226, 329
Hyposalivation 426
Hyposmia 765
Hypotaurodontism 498f
Hypotension, postural 741
Hypothermia 183, 572
Hypothesis
generating research 808
testing 806, 813
Hypothyroidism 571, 572f, 708
congenital 587
Hypotonia 722f
Hypoxemia 184
I
Ibuprofen 109, 137
Ichthyosis 355
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 707f
Ignition theory 670
Image-guided radiation therapy 422
Imdevimab 137
Imidazoles 134
Imipenem 127
Imipramine 117
Immune
bullous skin diseases 301
cells 396
conditions 231
mediated diseases 298
modulation 143
response 710
system 710
barrier defenses of 711t
cells of 712fc
common disorders of 716
organs of 714, 715f
underactive 716
Immunity 710
acquired 714
active 714
adaptive 488, 714
barrier 711
cellular 714
humoral 714
innate 488, 712
oral 393
passive 716
specific 714
Immunization 717
Immunocompromised condition 318
Immunodeficiency 346, 716
acquired 270
diseases 716
oral manifestations of secondary 270t
primary 270, 270t
secondary 270
Immunofluorescence 301
technique 302t
Immunoglobulin 104
G 302
therapy 716
Immunohistochemistry analysis 830
Immunological disorder 300
Immunomodulator drugs 142
classification of 142t
Immunostimulator 142
Immunosuppressants 142, 179
Immunosuppression 395
Impacted teeth 505, 505f, 520
Imperfecta 587
Impetigo 441
Implanted metal devices 165
Incisive canal 51, 55
cyst 528
Incisive foramen 14, 47
Incisive fossa 39, 50, 51, 59, 529
Incisive nerve 78
Incisive papilla 51
Incisors 478
lateral 478
Inclusion criteria 811
Incontinence, pigmentary 262f
Incontinentia pigmenti achromians 502
Incus 6
Indirect immunofluorescence 301, 306
Indomethacin 109, 111
Induction therapy 424
Industrial solvents 472
Infant oral health care 748
Infection 129, 318, 346, 355, 360, 365, 434, 459, 601, 642
apical 581
asymptomatic 289
bacterial 271, 282, 286, 287, 300, 333, 568, 682
causes of 602
intra-abdominal 127
non-odontogenic 266
odontogenic 121t, 266
oral 426
secondary 280
signs of 189
superficial 132
systemic 132
types of 441
viral 266, 278, 282, 286, 300, 394
Infectious disease 479
Infectious disorders 300
Infective diseases 140
Infective endocarditis prophylaxis regimen 738t
Inferior alveolar nerve 78
Infiltrative disease 450
Inflammation 349, 434
chronic 357
neurogenic 679
Inflammatory bowel disease 140, 329
oral manifestation of 329
Inflammatory cells, chronic 305f
Inflammatory diseases 541
Inflammatory implant periapical lesions 244
Inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder 342f
Inflammatory myopathy, differential diagnosis for 630b
Inflammatory origin 378
odontogenic cysts of 523, 524
Inflammatory products 245
Inflammatory resorption 519
trauma 520
Inflammatory salivary gland disease 640
Infliximab 314
Influenza infection 288
Infraorbital foramen 38, 50
Infraorbital nerve 77
Infrared thermography 679
Infratemporal crest 68
Infratemporal fossa 39, 68
Inhalation 109
Inherited disorders 300, 347, 472
Injury
esophageal 326
traumatic 458, 608
Innate immune responses 487
Innate system, cells of 712
Inner cell mass 3f
Inner enamel epithelium 30, 31
Inorganic arsenic 409
Insomnia 228
Insulin resistance 256
Integrase inhibitor 137
Intellectual disability, classification of 752t
Intensity 662
Interalveolar septa 51
Intercellular adhesion 300
Interdental gingiva 223
Interdental papillae 231f, 237
Interdental septa 59
Interdental septum 39
Interferon alpha inhibits 136
Interferon gamma 341
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonists 599
Intermaxillary fixation 620
Internal resorption 520
Interneurons 659
Interpol antemortem odontogram, modified 773
Interproximal papilla 223
Inter-radicular septa 51
Interstitial keratosis 273
Inter-weaning tooth 436f
Intestinal polyposis syndrome, hereditary 250, 434, 438
Intra-articular adhesion 621
Intra-articular inflammation 608
Intra-articular injection 109
Intra-articular true ankylosis 613
Intracapsular condylar fracture 608
Intracapsular fibrous adhesions 612
Intraepithelial blister formation 300
Intraepithelial dyskeratosis, hereditary benign 355
Intraepithelial lesion 300
Intralesional injection 109
Intramucosal nevus 254f
Intraocular pressure 352
Intraoral examination 191, 489f
Intraoral periapical
radiograph 105, 824
technique 483
Intrauterine life 4
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia 258
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy 716
Intrinsic discoloration 512
Iodine 106, 702
Ion-molecule reaction 760
Iron 144
deficiency 325f, 332, 353, 703
anemia 325, 326, 442f
chronic 456
deposition of 263
Irradiation mucositis 353
Irritation
chronic 690
fibroma 239, 377, 459f
Ischemia 165
Isoniazid 274, 275
Isoprene 758
Isotonic saline 268
Itraconazole 133135
J
Jacobson's neuralgia 675
Jadassohn-Lewandowsky syndrome 355
Jaffe-Lichtenstein syndrome 263
Jaundice 248, 262f, 264, 741
Jaws
benign tumors of 531t
bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of 552
bone 51, 588
pains 218
related lesions of 522
bony lesions of 216
claudication 451
cysts of 521524
epithelial-lined cysts of 378
inflammatory lesions of 217
joint, painful 686f
lesions, differential diagnosis of 522t
medication-related osteonecrosis of 553
osteomyelitis of 546
osteonecrosis of 579
pain 621, 686f
Jewels sign, cluster of 311
Job's syndrome 226, 317
Johanson method 790
Joint 35
crepitus 596
diseases 592
disorders 592
examination of 189
excessive loading of 619
fibrous 35
hypermobility 610
movement, high degree of 35
noises 596
pain 592, 658
reconstruction of 621
soft tissue components of 61f
space, foreign body in 614
stiffness 596
Jones syndrome 225
José Maria Dominguez, classification of 777
Juga alveolaria 51
Jugular foramen 47, 48
Jugular lymphatic trunk, right 85
Jugular veins 82
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 598
differential diagnosis of 599t
Juxta-articular myxoma 627
K
Kanamycin 128
Kaposi's sarcoma 127, 239, 248, 263, 263f, 284, 286, 352, 403, 412
classification for 264t
dermatological manifestations of 256
treatment for 264b
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome 350
Kawasaki disease 330, 457, 467
Kawasaki syndrome 434, 467
Kefloxin 126
Keratin 358f
layer, increased thickness of 266
Keratinocytes, apoptosis of 312
Keratitis 355
Keratoacanthoma 383, 410
Keratocyst, odontogenic 378, 528f, 530
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor 378, 379f, 527, 536
Keratolytic agents 228
Keratosis
follicularis 300, 355, 362
palmaris et plantaris 355
punctata 228
tobacco pouch 344f
traumatic 357, 358f
Ketoconazole 135, 260
Ketoprofen 109
Ketorol 111
Kidney
disease 756f
failure 744
Kindler syndrome 304, 304f
Kissing lesion 290f, 455
Klebsiella pneumonia 749
Kleeblattschadel type craniosynostosis 583
Klein-Waardenburg syndromes 5
Klestadt's cyst 529
Klinefelter's syndrome 499, 571
Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome 350352
Knee, myxomas of 627
Knock knee 586
clinical features of 228
Knuckles 262
Koebner phenomenon 305
Koplik's spots 285, 360
Kruskal-Wallis test 814
Kurtosis 813, 814f
Kuttner's tumor 643
Kwashiorkor 699
disease 699
L
Labial artery, inferior 445, 775
Labial melanotic macule 444
Labial mucosa 196, 204f, 257f
blanching of 835
ulcerates 272f
vermilion border of 724f
Labium
inferius oris 434
superius oris 434
Labrale
inferius 778f
superius 778f
Lactobacilli predominate 426
Lactobacillus 479
Lambdoid
craniosynostosis 584
suture 39, 42
Lamina
dura, loss of 709f
lucida 300
Lamivudine 136
Lamotrigine 117, 241, 675
Langerhans cell 713
disease 568
histiocytosis 327, 581, 705
low-risk disease, treatment of 581t
Larsen's categorization 598
Larva migrans 296
Laryngeal carcinomas 423
Laryngeal diphtheria 276
Laryngeal nerve, internal 211
Laryngeal pharynx 58
Laryngotracheal groove 13
Larynx 13, 58, 58f
L-ascorbic acid 701
Laser 154, 158f
biostimulation treatment 619
capture microdissection 161
classification of 159t
Doppler flowmetry 549, 679
in dentistry, use of 159
leads, application of 161
spectroscopy technique 760
therapy, low-level 159
tissue interaction of 159f
type 160
Laskin's diagnostic criteria 616
Lateral pterygoid 24
muscle 39, 60, 68f, 69, 627
role of 610
nerve 78
plate 39
Lateral radicular cyst 380
Lateral spinothalamic pathway 660
Lateral supraclavicular group 86
Laugier-Hunziker syndrome 250, 251, 256
Lauryl sulfate 129
Lead 472
Left buccal mucosa 274f, 369f, 403f, 426f
patch on 409f
Left maxillary
branches 193f
sinus 388f, 682f
sinusitis 682f
Legionnaire's disease 127
Leiomyoma 382, 384
Leiomyosarcoma 412
Leishmaniasis 294
Lentiginose 250
syndromes with 250t
Lentiginosis, inherited patterned 249
Lentiginous melanoma 255
Lentigo maligna 255
melanoma 255
Leong's premolar 273, 501
Leprosy 266, 275
Leptomeningeal angioma 259f
Leptomeninges 10
Lesions 184, 403
acquired 456
acute 300
bone related 386
classes of 524
classification of 216
clinical descriptions of 197t
endodontic 224
fine-needle aspiration of 640
generalized 246
infectious 266, 354
inflammatory 213, 266, 354, 371, 543
intraoral 256
malignant 361t, 531
management of acute 235
metastatic 568
mixed 333
multiple 410
carious 196f
neoplastic 213
odontogenic 528t, 588
periphery of 314f
reactive 361t
supra-basal 300
surface 203b
traumatic 224, 232, 374
vegetating 308
Lesser palatine
foramen 48, 55
nerve 77
Lesser petrosal nerve 81
Lethal midline granuloma 328
Letterer-Siwe disease 581
Leukedema 357f
Leukemia 103, 225, 243, 327, 402, 405, 550, 569, 581, 705, 706f, 739
acute lymphoblastic 243
chronic lymphocytic 243
chronic myeloid 243
Leukemic gingival enlargement 243f
Leukocyte 713f
adhesion deficiency 226, 227
Leukocytosis 100
Leukoedema 194, 356
Leukokeratosis 304
Leukoplakia 150, 155, 156, 273, 306, 335, 338f, 396, 403f, 461, 462f, 831f
buccalis 336, 337f
candida-infected 346
homogeneous 336, 337f, 831
lesions 406
lingualis 336
nonhomogeneous 336, 337f
size of lesions of 155
true 831
Levator anguli oris muscle lies 67
Levator labii superioris
alaeque nasi 67
originates 67
Levator veli palatini 56
Levoday 122
Levoflox 122
Levofloxacin 122
Lewar's disease 374
Lhermitte-Duclos disease 366
Lichen planus 155, 186f, 305, 341, 341t343t, 353, 445, 465
mild 343
moderate 343
pemphigoides 305
severe 343
ulcerative 406, 466f
Lichen sclerosus overlap syndrome 305
Lichenoid
contact reactions 330, 330f
eruptions 359
lesion 341
reaction 261, 467, 832, 832f
Lichtheimia 293
Lick wrist 767f
Lidocaine 114
cream 677
patches 283
Lies motor root 76
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 412
Ligaments 63
accessory 63
collateral 63
lateral 63
trauma to 610
true 63
Light fluorescence 483
Light-based-detection systems 416
Light-emitting diode 409
Lignocaine 114
dose of 114
gel 360
Lima classification 787
Limb abnormalities 449
Lincosamide 130, 130t
antibiotics 119, 130
Linea alba 205f, 358, 358f
buccalis 333
Linear abrasions 798
Linear gingival erythema 237, 238f, 291
Linear nevus syndrome 355
Linezolid 120, 130
Lingua
geographica 353, 454
plicata 453
villosa 467
nigra 467, 467f
Lingual alveolar plates 59
Lingual artery vascularizes, sublingual branch of 72
Lingual caries 484
Lingual cusps 488f
Lingual cyst, anterior median 378
Lingual erythema migrans 353
Lingual fossa 23
Lingual frenulum remaining 26
Lingual mandibular bone depression 588
Lingual nerve 78, 211
Lingual papillae 448
loss of 455f
Lingual salivary gland 589f
depression 588
Lingual sulcus 380f
Lingual swellings, lateral 26
Lingual tardive dyskinesia, differential diagnosis for 465t
Lingual thyroid 371, 453
management of 453
Lingual tonsil 57, 89, 371, 453
Lingual tuberosity 23
Lingual varix 455f
Lingula 60
Lining mucosa 193
Lip 186, 275, 406
actinic keratosis of 345
anatomy of 775
atrophic 775
atrophy 775
border 780
carcinoma of 399, 406f, 445f
chancres 441
chapping of 441, 441f
corner of 187f
depressors of 67
dermatitis 441
development of 19
diseases of 434
drug-induced ulcer of 441
elevators of 67
everted 406
furrow band 28
infections, viral 441
leperomas 275
lesions 446
classification of 434t
lower 364, 435, 777f
malignant tumors of 446
mucocutaneous candidiasis of 134
myxoid cyst of 377, 440
pits 435
congenital 749
prints 777t, 783
collection of 783
persistent 783
quadrants of 777f
recording of 782
serve 434
squamous cell carcinoma of 408
traumatic ulcer on 440f
ulcer 446
vermilion border of 262, 724f
Lipid-laden macrophages 700
Lipofuscin 246
Lipogenic tumors 626
Lipoid proteinosis 362, 699
Lipoma 248, 382, 383, 383f
intraoral 626
Liposarcoma 412
Liposomal amphotericin B 134
Liver disease 264, 741, 756f
Lobstein disease 512
Lobular tori 541
Local anesthetic, cerebral level of 741
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 437
Lomaday 122
Lomedon 122
Lomef 122
Lomefloxacin 122
Longitudinal grooves 801
Longitudinal muscle, inferior 71, 448
Long-wave diathermy 165
Lower labial mucosa 280f, 308f, 315f, 403f, 426f, 460f
Lower lip 364, 435, 777f
pits 440
tattooing of 259
third of 444
Low-molecular-weight heparin 344
Ludwig's angina 78f, 266, 277, 451
Lues maligna 273
Lump 361
abnormal 404f
Lumpy jaw 276
Lung mucormycosis 293, 294
Lupus erythematosus 149, 298, 314, 315f
cell 301
chronic cutaneous 347
Lusterless opaque white patches 507f
Luteinizing hormone 709
Lycopene 341
Lyell's disease 313
Lymecycline 127
Lymph node 85, 90, 187, 407, 715
bilateral submandibular 684f
classification of 85t
deep 84f
digital palpation 188f
groups 188
intra-parotid 644f
occipital 188f
positive 422fc
regional 398, 399
submental 188f
superficial 84f
supraclavicular 188f
Lymph organs 85
Lymphadenitis, subacute regional 277
Lymphangioma 382, 384, 436, 451, 452, 452f
oral 440
small 452
Lymphatic 85
drainage 60, 84f, 211
ducts 85
tissue
migrates 27
mucosa-associated 266
trunk 85
vascular system 36
vessels 85, 715
Lymphatico venous malformation 352
Lymphedema 412
congenital 587
Lymphocytes 101, 320f
Lymphocytic aggregates 207
Lymphoepithelial cyst 378, 640
Lymphoid
organs
primary 714
secondary 715
tissue 85
Lymphoma 103, 244, 248, 327, 402, 404, 405, 410, 413, 414, 568, 705, 739
bony 568
low-grade 411
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis 328
Lympho-nodular pharyngitis, acute 362
Lymphoproliferative disorders 568
Lymphoreticulosis, inoculation 277
Lymphosarcoma 566
Lysell's classification 787
M
MacDonald's classification 799
Mach band effect 486, 487f
Macrocheilia 275, 434, 435f, 450
causes of 435t
Macrodontia 570
Macroglossia 275, 449, 451f, 570
true 451
Macrolide 129, 129t
antibiotics 119, 129
first-line indications for 129t
Macrophages 713, 713f
Macrotrauma 609
Macule 201
Mafenide 121
Maffucci's syndrome 350, 352
diagnosis of 352
Magenta tongue 456
Magnesium 144, 702
Magnetic resonance
angiography 675
imaging scans 821
Malabsorption
cause of 329
syndrome 703
Malaise 284f
Malassez epithelial rests 32
Maldynia 658
Malformation
congenital 604
developmental 531
Malignancy 140, 308, 568, 599
antrum 683
clinical signs of 210f
maxillofacial 400
metastatic 405
Malignant bone tumors, early-stage 550
Malignant disorders 103, 305, 399
Malignant epithelial
non-odontogenic neoplasm 363
tumors 362
Malignant transformation
greater risk of 342
occurrence of 564
Malleolomandibular ligament 63
Malleus 6
Malocclusion 27, 317, 478
Malodor, etiopathogenesis of 766fc
Malpuech facial clefting syndrome 437
Mandible 35, 59, 59f, 72, 90, 209, 388f, 573f
alveolar part of body of 59
alveolus 527
angle of 60
anterior border of 39
aplasia of 24
ascending ramus of 560
body of 23, 59, 60
bone structure, section of 35f
carcinoma of 388f
development of 22
nerve supply to 60
osteomyelitis of 826
osteoradionecrosis of 268f
osteosarcoma of 389f
postnatal growth of 22, 23f
prenatal growth of 22f
surfaces 59f
tuberculous osteomyelitis of 826, 826f
vascular supply to 60
Mandibular anterior region 240f
Mandibular arch 6
Mandibular carcinoma, surgical removal of 551f
Mandibular condyle 61f, 62
Mandibular cyst, median 379
Mandibular deficiency 606
Mandibular division, posterior 78
Mandibular first molar 235f, 573f
Mandibular foramen 60, 252
Mandibular fracture 579
Mandibular incisors 338f
Mandibular left canine and premolar 530f
Mandibular molar 511f
Mandibular nerve 77
Mandibular notch 60
Mandibular process 6, 13, 22
Mandibular right molar 499f, 515f
Mandibular sarcomas 579
Mandibular spines, inferior 60
Mandibular teeth 330f, 451f
calcification of 793f
Mandibular third molar 235f
Mandibular torus 209, 371, 541
Mandibular trunk 78
Mandibulofacial dysostosis 585
Mann-Whitney U test 814
Mantle dentin 31
Mantoux test 274
Marasmic kwashiorkor 699
Marasmus 699
Marble bone disease 577
Marfan's syndrome 366
Marginal gingiva 231f, 254f
inflammation of 281f
Marie-Sainton disease 586
Marie-Strumpell disease 601
Martin Santos, classification of 776, 776t
Masses, hyperplastic 309f
Masseter muscle 60, 68, 615f
contraction 193f
Masseteric nerve 78
Masson's hemangioma 258
Mast cells 713, 713f
Mastication 449
muscles of 68, 68f, 90
Masticatory apparatus, development of 24
Masticatory mucosa 193, 223
Masticatory muscle 191, 192f, 661
disorders 592
pain attributed 592
Mastocytosis, systemic 706
Mastoid canaliculus 47
Mastoid process 39
Maturation 32
stage of 26, 557
Maxilla 38, 49, 371, 573f
articulates, zygomatic process of 38
body of 49, 49f
buccal surface of 542f
development of 20
floor of 668f
neonatal osteomyelitis of 749
nerve supply to 51
postnatal growth of 21f
processes of 13, 50, 51f
right 276f
surfaces of 50f
vascular supply to 51
Maxillary alveolar
arches 206
processes 38
Maxillary anterior alveolar process 19
Maxillary antrum
carcinoma of 388f
left lateral 587f
malignancy of 414
tumors of 405
Maxillary artery 39, 82
Maxillary bone
anatomical relation of 51b
middle part of 14
Maxillary branches, right 193f
Maxillary buccal vestibule 285f
Maxillary canine 517f
Maxillary casts 786f
Maxillary central incisor 495f, 500f
Maxillary cyst, median anterior 528, 529
Maxillary first molar 205f, 573f
Maxillary gingiva 225f
Maxillary lateral incisor 495f, 502, 502f
Maxillary left canine 797f
Maxillary nerve 76
Maxillary process 6
starts 14
Maxillary right central incisor 492f
Maxillary sinus 19, 49, 50, 53, 54f, 146, 524, 526f, 586f
anterior wall of 535f
bilaterally 561f
floor of 545f, 628f
prenatal growth of 19f
right 628f
Maxillary sinusitis
acute 682
mimicking toothache 668
recurrent 683
Maxillary suture, median 51
Maxillary teeth
calcification of 793f
indentations 797f
Maxillary tuberosity 50
right 628f
Maxillofacial bone
malignant 217, 524
tumor 523t
benign 217
Maxillofacial region 263
chronic pain of 163
McCune-Albright syndrome 263, 555
McGill's pain questionnaire 663f
Mean arterial pressure 290
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels 99
Measles 282, 360
prodromic viral enanthem of 285
virus 285
Measles mumps-rubella 283
vaccination 285
MecKel's cartilage 6, 22f
Medial nasal
process 14
septum 52
Medial pterygoid
muscle 24, 39, 60, 68f, 69
nerve 78
Medical complexity
matrix 734, 736t
status 181, 734, 736
Medical consultation 752
Medical research 810
types of 807fc
Medicine, communication in 105
Mediterranean disease 580
Medulla oblongata 81
Medullary thyroid cancer 366
Mefenamic acid 109, 111
Melanin 246
pigment 253
Melanoacanthoma, oral 255
Melanocytes, malignant neoplasm of 255
Melanocytic lesion 248, 256fc
Melanocytic nevi, congenital 253
Melanoma 248, 259, 404, 444, 445
malignant 248, 255, 255f, 256, 405, 410, 411f
metastatic 255
Melanoplakia 249
Melanotic macule 254, 254f
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor 383, 386, 749
Melasma 248, 250
Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome 274, 454, 463, 638
Meloxicam 110, 111
Membrana
diphtheritic 276
preformativa 31
Mendelian diseases 723
Meningeal nerve, recurrent 78
Meninges, venous drainage of 82
Meningitis 296
Mental disorders 296
Mental foramen 39, 59, 252
Mental nerve 78
Mental protuberance 39, 59
Mental retardation 440
Mental slowness 572
Mental spines 60
Mental symphysis 39
Mental tubercles 59
Mentalis 67
Meperidine 112
Mephenesin 115
congeners 115
Mercury 260
fluorescent lamp industry 248
poisoning 260
Meropenem 127
Mesenchymal non-odontogenic neoplasm
benign 363
malignant 363
Mesenchymal odontogenic tumor 524
benign 216, 524
Mesenchymal origin 531
Mesial root 515f
Mesiodens 492, 492f
Mesodermal layer 4
Mesotaurodontism 498f
Metabolic disorders 331, 451, 574, 622, 638, 698
Metabolic syndrome X 574
Metabolic system 429
Metabolism 698
Metabolite oxyphenbutazone, active 111
Metabolomics 636
Metacarpophalangeal joints 600
Metallic deposits 261
Metallic salts 249
Metallic sensation 404f
Metallic sulphides, deposits of 261
Metallic taste 260
Metamizole 111
Metaplastic pulp resorption 519
Metastasis 553, 568, 695
Metastatic carcinoma 248, 416f, 566
Metastatic disease 550
Methacycline 127
Methane 758
Methanol 758
Methicillin 124
Methocarbamol 115
Methotrexate 143, 424
Methyl
hydrazine 141
mercaptan 763
morphine 112
sulfide 763
Methylation testing 230
Methyldopa 441
Methylprednisolone 137, 139, 340
Metoclopramide 472
Metopic craniosynostosis 584
Metopic frontal suture 37
Metrogyl 123
Metron 123
Metronidazole 122, 123, 550
Miconazole 133
gel 376
lacquer 376
Micro total analysis system 420
Microbiome 756
Microdontia 495, 495f, 499
Microform cleft 436
Microglossia 449, 450
Micrognathia
bilateral 26
unilateral 26
Micronuclei index 420
Microorganisms, isolated 646
Microsatellite markers 421
Microsomia, hemifacial 584, 584f, 585f, 604
Microstomia 275, 466, 466f, 609, 729f
Microtubule damaging agents 141
Microvascular decompression 675, 828
Microwave diathermy 165
Midazolam 741
Middle east respiratory syndrome 288
Midface deficiency 583, 583f
Midpalatal suture 18
Miescher's cheilitis 437
Miescher's syndrome 437, 454
Migraine 661, 680
headache 616
hemiplegic 680
Migratory stomatitis 331
Mikulicz's disease 647
Mikulicz's ulcers 321
Mineralocorticoid 138
Minerals 144, 702
essential 702
Minocycline 120, 127, 132, 260
Minor salivary gland
adenocarcinoma of 415
tumor 388f
Missing teeth 196f, 241f, 388f, 493, 723f, 772
multiple 494f
replace 244
Mitotic inhibitors 141
Mivacurium 115
Mobility test 668
Moclobemide 117
Modulation 660
Mohr syndrome 499, 502
Mohs micrographic surgery 446
Molar 478
incisor hypo-mineralization 506
Molecular methods 334, 421
Molecular research 425
Molecular techniques 300
Molecule's therapeutic efficacy 811
Molluscum contagiosum 362, 410
Molybdenum activates enzymes 702
Monobactams 123, 126
Monoclonal antibody 141
Monoclonal plasmacytic ulcerative stomatitis 330
Monocytes 101, 713, 713f
Monomorphic adenoma 651
Mononuclear phagocyte system, members of 713f
Mononucleosis, infectious 283
Monosomy X 439
Monostotic fibrous dysplasia 263
Montelukast sodium 323
Moon molars 507
Morbillivirus 285
Moringa 158
Morning breath 765
Morphea 466
Morphine 112
respiratory depressive 737
Morquio syndrome 604
Morsicatio
buccarum 194, 358, 358f
linguarum 358f, 458
Morula 4
Mosaic trisomy 22 439
Moschcowitz syndrome 257
Motor innervation 67
Motor neuron 659
Motor root, large 79
Mouth
anterior floor of 404f
blanched floor of 339f
carcinoma floor of 407f
development of 13
dryness of 347, 690, 690f
floor of 71f, 209, 209f, 259f, 364, 390, 407, 568
odor 767f
opening, normal 191f
viral infections of 409
Mouthwash 394
containing 313
Movement
disorders 592
pattern of 465
type of 465
Moxifloxacin 122, 132, 275
Mucha-Habermann disease 331
Mucin spilling 440
Mucinosis 234
Mucoceles 161, 248, 377, 378f, 440, 440f, 640, 641f, 749
multiple 346
superficial 331, 441
Mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic 267, 290292
Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome 330, 467
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma 248, 405, 652, 653f, 654
Mucoepithelial dysplasia, hereditary 253
Mucogingival deformities 224
Mucogingival hyperplasia 376f
Mucogingival junction 716f
Mucopain 359f
application of 359f
Mucopolysaccharidoses 450, 525, 723, 724f
Mucormycosis 133, 147, 267, 290, 293, 293f, 294
cutaneous 293, 294
diagnosis of 294
therapy 294
Mucosa 205f, 775f
normal 194b, 252f
specialized 193
Mucosal atrophy 353
Mucosal barrier injury 330
Mucosal candidiasis 445
Mucosal erosion 316
Mucosal infection 376
Mucosal lesions 309, 313, 404f
Mucosal melanosis 444
Mucosal neuroma syndrome 366
Mucosal ulceration 332, 635
Mucosal ulcers, painless 273
Mucositis 267, 267f, 330, 331, 426b
antineoplastic therapy-induced 268
radiation-induced 426
severity of 157
Mucous cyst 377, 440
Mucous extravasation 377
cyst 377, 440
Mucous membrane 184, 205, 308, 715
integrity, maintenance of 634
pemphigoid 310, 311
Mucous patches 273
Mucous retention 377
cyst 377, 440, 555, 640
Mulberry molars 273f, 507
Multifocal vascular malignancy 263
Multilocular radiolucency 564
Multiple arteriovenous malformations 445
Multiple cervical
idiopathic resorption 520
lymph nodes 826
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 366, 383
syndrome 362
Multiple giant-cell lesion syndrome 560
Multiple hamartoma syndrome 362, 366
Multiple myeloma 404, 405, 413, 414, 564, 567, 567f, 581, 695, 705
diagnosis of 414f
maxillofacial manifestations 567
Multispectral digital microscope 420
Mummery, pink tooth of 519
Mumps 644
Murray-Puretic-Drescher syndrome 225, 226
Muscle 63, 64
cardiac 35
chondroglossus 72
development of 24f
extraocular 193f
hyperfunction 592
intrinsic 448
pain 228, 592
relaxant 115, 115t, 619
peripherally acting 115
splinting, protective 687
superior longitudinal 71, 448
surrounding mouth 66, 66f
surrounding orbit 66
tissue origin 382, 532
trauma to 615
weakness 678
Muscular enlargement 451
Muscular system 34
Musculoskeletal disease 743
Musculoskeletal system 182
Musculus uvulae 56
Mutation analysis 439
Myalgia 629f, 658
Myasthenia gravis 307, 678, 718
Mycobacterial infection 568
Mycobacterium 363, 459
avium 274
leprae 131, 275
marinum 127
tuberculosis 131
hominis 274
Mycophenolate mofetil 143, 313
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 127129, 313
Mycoses, deep 274
Mycostatin 134
Mycotic infection 645
Myelodysplastic syndromes 244, 327
Myeloid leukemia, acute 225, 243
Myeloma 413
Myiasis
primary 294
secondary 295
Mylohyoid
groove 60
line 60
muscle originates 71
nerve 78
Myoblastoma 238
Myoepithelioma 650f
Myofascial orofacial pain 218
secondary 218
Myofascial pain 165
treatment of 116
Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome 615, 615f, 684, 685f, 828, 828f
symptoms of 686f
Myositis 629, 630b
Myositis ossificans 630
idiopathic 630
progressiva 630
traumatica 630
Myospasm 165, 615
Myotomy 617
Myringitis bullosa 687
Myxedema 571, 572, 708
Myxofibroma 386
Myxoma 384, 560
complex of 251
odontogenic 386, 387f, 537, 540, 540f, 564
N
Nabuflam 111
Nabumetone 109
N-acetylcysteine 314
Nager syndrome 586
Nagpur classification 437, 437b
Nail 185
abnormalities 718
lesions 308
Nalidixic acid 121, 122
Nalorphine 113
Naloxone 113
Naproxen 109
Narcotan 113
Narcotics 283
Narrow esophageal junction 57
Narrow-spectrum antibacterials 120t, 121
Nasal bone 10
Nasal branches
posteroinferior 77
posterosuperior 77
Nasal cavity 18, 37, 51, 52f
Nasal concha
inferior 52
middle 52, 526f
Nasal diphtheria 276
Nasal fin 11
Nasal floor, anterior 51
Nasal foreign bodies 764
Nasal fossa 525
left 52
Nasal hair entraps larger pathogens 711
Nasal lymphoma 328
Nasal notch 50
Nasal pharynx 57
Nasal pits 14
Nasal placodes 14
Nasal process, lateral 14
Nasal septum 14, 18
Nasal spine, anterior 50
Nasal ulcers 309
Nasal wall, lateral 14
Nasoalveolar cyst 379, 529
Nasolabia fold, left 373f
Nasolabial cyst 379, 529
Nasolacrimal canal 50
Nasolacrimal duct 14
Nasomaxillary complex, passive displacement of 20
Naso-optic groove 14
Nasopalatine
canal cyst 528
cyst 528, 529f
duct cyst 379, 380f, 528
nerve 77
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma 283, 414, 692
signs of 693t
symptoms of 693t
Natal teeth 504, 750
Natural killer cells 713
Nausea, severe 425
Nebasulf bacitracin 131
Neck 69, 187, 187f
arteries of 82
embryological development 3
lump 188fc
lymph node of 88
malignancies 425
tongue syndrome 697
triangles of 69, 70f, 70t
venous drainage of 82
Nefopam 110, 112
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 223, 274, 602
Nelson's syndrome 253
Neomycin 128, 129
sulfate 129
Neoplasia 521, 623
malignant 581
metastatic 630
paraneoplastic 630
Neoplasm 231, 286, 331, 361, 577, 592, 637
benign 204t, 364, 650
concomitant 309b
histological classification system for 216
malignant 204t, 325, 361, 364, 388, 627, 650
odontogenic 363
secondary 362
Neosporin 129, 131
powder 131
Nephrotic syndrome 269
Nerve 37
injury 690
peripheral 252
supply 57, 63
tissue origin 382
Nervous intermedius 79
Nervous system 36
peripheral 36, 659
Netilmicin 128, 129
Neumann's pemphigus vegetans 309
Neumann's tumor 748
Neural crest cells 6f, 13
tissue derivatives of 6t
Neural crest tissue 5
Neural pathways, peripheral 470
Neural tissue origin 532
Neuralgia 165, 658
postherpetic 163, 283, 616, 660
pretrigeminal 672
Neuritis 662
Neuroadaptation 429
Neuroblastoma 550, 566
metastatic to bone 569
Neurofibroma 252, 383, 385
Neurofibromatosis 248, 251, 252f, 362, 367b, 367f, 383, 439, 820, 821f, 821t
diagnosis of 821
type 1 560
Neurologic disorders 648, 740
Neurological system 182
Neuroma, traumatic 385
Neuromuscular blockers 115
Neurons 659
secondary afferent 659
Neuropathy 690
disorders 628
forms of 628
recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic 687
trigeminal 672
Neurosyphilis 273
Neutropenia
cyclic 226, 317
familial 317
febrile 127
Neutrophil 266, 712, 713f
abnormalities 226t
defects 226
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome 527, 728f
Nevus 248, 253, 259
different types of 253
flammeus 258, 351
simplex 258
Newton's types 376
Nicotina palatinus 345
Nicotine 429
dependence, stage of 430
gum 432
patch 431
replacement therapy 431
Nicotinic acid derivatives 119
Nidus 563
Niemann-Pick disease 248, 700
Nifedipine 241
Nikolsky's phenomenon 300
Nikolsky's sign 299, 307, 313
direct 299
false 299, 302
marginal 299
modified 299
Nikolsky's test 299, 300
Nimesulide 110, 111
Ninhydrin method 768
Nipples, areolas of 262
Nitrazepam 116
Nitric oxide 756, 757
Nitrobenzene derivative 119, 128
Nitrofuran derivatives 119
Nitrogen
dioxide radicals 145
mustards 141
Nitroimidazoles 119, 122
Nitrosamines, tobacco-specific 393
Nitrosoureas 141
Nitrous oxide 114
Nodular candidiasis 291
Nodular fasciitis 372
Nodular fibrositis 372
Nodular tenosynovitis 626
Nodular tori 541
Nolla's method 791, 793f, 793t
Nonarticular disorders 591
Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics 116
Non-carious tooth surface loss 515
Noncommunicable diseases 391
Non-dental origins, root resorption from 520
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 239, 550, 568, 654f
majority of 568
Non-Hodgkin's sarcoma 286
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation 290
Nonlobular capillary hemangioma 374
Non-melanocytics lesions 256fc
Non-metric dental traits 794t
Non-neoplastic epithelial lesions 649
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor 137
Non-organ specific autoimmune diseases 717
Non-ossifying fibroma 550
Nonparametric tests 814
Nonprotein antioxidants 154
Non-resorbable polymethylmethacrylate 550
Nonselective antiviral drugs 136
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
analgesics 268
drugs 109, 110t, 137, 365, 563, 596, 626, 665
Non-syndromic coronal craniosynostosis 583
Nonvital teeth 405
Noonan's syndrome 439, 439t, 452
Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors 118
Norbactin 122
Norflox 122
Norfloxacin 122
Nortriptyline 117, 676
Noscapine 112
Nose 186, 186f
bridge of 14
development of 14, 17f
external 51
muscles of 64
Notochordal process 4
Nuchal lines 41
Nuclear medicine 106
Nuclear scans 549
Nuhn gland 208
Null hypothesis 813
Numb chin syndrome 695
Numb sensation 690
Numbness 623
Numerical chromosomal abnormality 721f
Numerical rating scales 663
Numerous small lingual glands 632
Nursing bottle caries 482
Nutcracker esophagus 326
Nutrient absorption, lack of 703
Nutritional deficiency 427, 442f, 689
glossitis 457f
primary 698
secondary 698
Nutritional disorder 698
Nutritional metabolism 698t
Nutritional status 425
Nystatin 133, 134
pastilles 376
O
Oblique line 39, 59
Observational epidemiological studies 812
Obstructive disorders 639
Obstructive sleep apnea 743
Occasional multinucleate giant cells 547f
Occipital bone 39, 41
superior nuchal line of 42
Occipital myotomes 25
Occipital nodes 88
Occipital somites 26
Occipitomastoid suture 39
Occlusal caries 483, 484f
Occlusal enamel pearl 501
Occlusal forces 520
Occlusal overload 244
Occlusal splints 620
Occlusal trauma 224, 668
Occlusion 478, 610
congenital 638
Occupational therapy 230
Ocular ischemia syndrome 687
Oculoauricular vertebral dysplasia 584
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome 503
Odontalgia, atypical 688
Odontiasis 750
Odontoblasts 31, 478
Odontodysplasia, regional 512, 513, 588
Odontogenesis 27
imperfecta 513
Odontogenic cyst 379, 522, 535, 588
developmental 525
inflammatory 522
secondarily infected 415
Odontogenic fibroma 386, 536, 539f
peripheral 239, 536
Odontogenic lesion, neoplastic 526
Odontogenic tumors 385, 386f, 531, 532
bone related 626
classification of 385t
malignant 216, 405
Odontogeny 497
Odontohypophosphatasia 576
Odontology 771
Odontoma 386f, 538, 557
complex 538, 540f
compound 364f, 538, 539f
dilated 500, 501
extensive compound 500
types of 538
Odontomaxillary dysplasia 588
segmental 588
Odontometrics 795
Odontometry 789
Odor 765t
Odynophagia 388
Ofloxacin 122, 132
Olfactory confusion 470
Olfactory disorders 765
Olfactory reference syndrome 765
Oligodontia 493
Olmsted's syndrome 355
Omadacycline 127
Omeprazole 551
Oncocytoma 652
Ontogenic’ fissural cysts 530
Opalescent dentin, hereditary 510
Ophthalmic nerve 76
Ophthalmoplegic migraine
classifications 548t
diagnosis 548t
Opioid antagonists 113
Opium 112
Opposing teeth 403f
Opsonization 714
Optic canal 48
Optic nerve 193f
Optic neuritis 687
Optical coherence tomography 483
Oral alimentary tract cyst 378
Oral allergy syndrome 372
Oral aphthae, classification of 321t
Oral aphthous ulcers, management of 155
Oral autopsy, time of 774b
Oral burning sensation 635
Oral cancer 156, 390392, 400f, 406f, 418, 424t
classification 397
distribution of 398f
management of 157
signs of 400
stages of 397, 422t
symptoms of 400
treatment modalities, effects of 425t
viral-caused 723
Oral candidiasis 460
chronic
multifocal 291
myeloid 290
Oral carcinogenesis 396
progression phase of 157
Oral carcinoma, clinical features of 400t
Oral care regimens 428
Oral cavity 13, 18, 154, 169, 192b, 194b, 203b, 212f, 256fc, 350, 382, 397, 405, 766b
accurate diagnosis of 216
anterior opening of 187f
benign tumor of 382
carcinoma of 399, 399t
classification of 399t
cysts of 524t
examination of 415
lesions of 246fc
lymphatic drainage of 212f
metastatic neoplasm of 363
nerve supply to 211, 211f
part of 284f, 411f
red lesions in 353t
tumors of 362t, 398
Oral contraceptives 260, 707, 710
Oral diseases, treatment of 108
Oral dryness 635
Oral dysplasia 161
Oral epithelium 27f
bud of 27
Oral erythroplakia 404f
classification of 335b
Oral exfoliative cytology 418
Oral exophytic lesions 361
Oral facial pathologies 820
Oral fibromas 409
Oral fluid biomarkers 636t
Oral focal mucinosis 234
Oral Geno
dermatoses 355
keratoses 355
Oral granular cell tumors 409
Oral hair 230
leukoplakia 283, 291, 338, 460
Oral halitosis, type 1 763
Oral health 698
care worker 399
related quality of life 175
Oral hyperkeratosis syndrome 355
Oral lesions 146, 304, 460, 717f
classification of 213b, 346t
diagnosis of 169
erythematous 350t
secondary 460
treatment of 155t
Oral leukoplakia 161, 445
clinical staging of 338b
Oral lichen planus 148, 155, 156, 342f, 343b, 830
treatment regime for 343t
Oral lichenoid lesions 343b
Oral lymphoepithelial cyst 382
Oral malignancy 294, 392, 401t
diagnosis of 415
treatment of 425
Oral malignant change, development of 325
Oral malodour, exact source of 765
Oral manifestation 286t, 289, 292, 367, 513, 704t, 707t
classification of 698t
Oral maxillofacial disturbances 475
Oral medicine 161
application in 163
consultations, types of 215b
Oral melanotic macule 248
Oral microbiota 479
Oral motor functions 426
Oral mucosa 248t, 315f, 334fc, 339f, 350t, 376f, 411t, 448
cause erythematous lesions of 349
conditions 749
functions of 193
lesions 216, 316f, 397
melanoma 397
mucous cyst of 377, 440
nevi of 253
organization of 193
pathologies affecting 221
pigmentation 260b
Oral mucosal lesion 170t, 217fc
classification of 216
treatment of 138b
Oral mucositis 157, 267, 347, 426, 426f
chemotherapy-induced 155, 156
Oral mucous membrane 193b, 309f, 747
Oral myasis 295f
Oral neoplasms, metastatic 415
Oral nevi 256
Oral papilloma 279
Oral paraneoplastic pemphigus 716f
Oral pathology
halitosis 761
minor 194b
Oral pharynx 58
Oral photography 788
Oral physicians play 292
Oral physiological changes 747
Oral pigmentation 247
classification of 247
iatrogenic 247
Oral potentially malignant disorders 155, 335fc
management of 157
Oral prophylaxis 682f
treatment of 821
Oral pyogenic granuloma venous lakes 440
Oral retinoid 366
Oral soft tissue lesions 364t
Oral squamous cell carcinoma 210, 325, 392fc, 396, 396f, 408f, 424
clinical course of 405
Oral stomatitis 155
Oral submucous fibrosis 150, 155, 156, 161, 169, 334, 339, 339f, 442f, 462, 462f, 833, 834f, 835t
diagnosis of 835
Oral ulcer, triad of recurrent 323
Oral ulcerative lesions
classification of 316, 318t
diagnosis of 319fc
Oral vitamin C supplementation 243
Oral volatile sulfuric compounds, mixture of 756f
Oral-facial-digital syndrome 494
Orbicularis oris muscle 66, 775f
Orbit 585
inferior border of 38
rim of 37
Orbital fissure, superior 48, 76
Orbital floor, part of 54
Orbital hypertelorism 583f
Orbital nerve innervates 77
Organ specific autoimmune diseases 717
Organ system 34
Organ transplant 716
Organoleptic measurement 767
Origin
cells of 411
tissue of 411
Oriprim 121
Ornidazole 122, 123
Orofacial complaints, main 696t
Orofacial digital syndrome 499
Orofacial fistulas 427
Orofacial fungal infections 290t
Orofacial granulomatosis 225, 329, 346, 434, 437
manifestations of 329
Orofacial pain 178, 218, 657, 661, 670
chronic myeloid 661fc
classification of 216, 218, 666f
evaluation of 662
idiopathic 218
Orofacial region, management of pain in 109
Orofaciodigital syndrome 436, 587
Orolabial herpes 280
Oronasal cavity 18
Oronasal membrane 11
Oropharyngeal carcinomas 423
Oropharyngeal disorders 390
Oropharyngeal isthmus 58
Oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue 371
Oropharyngeal membrane 13
Oropharynx 206, 397, 399t
carcinoma of 399, 399t
tumors of 362t
Orprozil 126
Oseltamivir 136
Osler's disease 703
Osler-Weber-Rendu
disease 351
syndrome 351, 353
Osseous dysplasia 386, 555
Ossifying fibroma 386, 531, 550, 555, 624
peripheral 239, 240, 240f, 248, 371, 372f, 382, 415
Osteitis
chronic myeloid 556
deformans 578
fibrosa cystica 560, 561, 573
fibrosis 576
Osteoarthritis 595, 596f
classification of 596t
Osteoblast 35
Osteoblastic metastatic carcinoma 556
Osteoblastoma 557, 563, 606, 624, 626
early diagnosis of 563
forms of 626
Osteochondroma 624, 625f
Osteochondromatous lesion 217, 524
Osteoclastoma 560
Osteoclasts 35
Osteodental changes 275
Osteogenesis imperfecta 511, 512, 574, 576
Osteoid osteoma 563, 626
Osteolytic jaw lesions 527
Osteoma 562f, 624, 625
central 562, 625
peripheral 562, 625
Osteomalacia 575, 577
tumor-induced 576
Osteomyelitis 146, 266, 547, 556, 566, 569, 577, 589, 602f
chronic
myeloid 547f, 568
sclerosing 557
primary chronic 548f
sclerosing types of 563
secondary chronic 546
sequestrum 563
tuberculous 603f
Osteonecrosis, postradiation 550
Osteopetrosis 577, 578f, 727f
congenita 577
tarda 577
X-linked form of 577
Osteoporosis 140
primary 574
secondary 574
Osteoporotic bone marrow 588
Osteopsathyrosis 513
Osteoradionecrosis 268, 427, 427f, 550, 551f, 553
Osteosarcoma 405, 412, 413f, 550, 556, 564, 565, 565f
early diagnosis of 563
secondary 565
Osteosclerosis, idiopathic 542
Otalgia, primary 687
Otic ganglion 77
Otitis externa
acute 687
necrotizing 687
Otitis media 687
acute 616, 678, 687
chronic myeloid 678
Otomycosis 134
Outer enamel epithelium 30, 31
Overlap syndromes 305
Oviedo and Meira classification 778, 778f, 778t
Ovum, period of 4
Oxazolidinone 119, 130, 131t
class 120
Oxcarbazepine 117
Oxizon 135
Oxycodone 676
Oxygen 746
delivery 184
saturation 184
species, reactive 394
Oxygenation, level of 246
Oxyhemoglobin 246
Oxyphenbutazone 110
Oxytetracycline 127
P
Pachyonychia congenital 355, 504
Packed cell volume levels 99
Paget's disease 550, 556, 578, 579f, 623
Pain 109, 657, 685f
acute 658
alleviate 158f
ambiguous 411
anatomic 658
apical 667
assessment 663f
cardiac 694
chronic 658, 665
clinical characteristics of 658
convolutional 659
deep 658
dentinal 666f
disorders, classification of 657
facial 680
gate control theory of 659
iatrogenic apical 667
inflammatory 658
management 665
mediators, affected tissue of 165f
medicine 665
modulating pathway projects 661
neurologic 669
neuropathic 628f, 658, 660
nociceptive 658
odontogenic 669t
organ 658
orofacial 178, 218, 657, 661, 670
pathological 658
pathways 659
perception, stages of 660f
periodontal 667
persistent 401
physiology of 658, 659
psychogenic 687
pulpal 667f
radiating 694
referred 401, 660, 694
relievers 137
somatic 682
syndromes 287
transmission, inhibition of 659
types of 661
Paired cyst 529
Paired T-test 814
Palatal abscess 373f
Palatal cyst, median 379
Palatal mucosa 264f, 274f, 411f
Palatal papillae, inflammation of 706f
Palatal raphe 784
Palatal rugae 784, 787b, 787f, 788f
anatomy of 784
classification 785f
functions of 784
patterns 788f
Palatal shelves 18
Palatal torus 541
Palatal vault 785
Palate 55, 275
development of 14, 18f
mucosa 376f
part of 364f
perforation of 276f
primary 14, 19
secondary 14
squamous papilloma on 279f
Palatine aponeurosis 55
Palatine cyst, median 529
Palatine process 51
Palatine rugae, clinical lmplications of 784
Palatine tonsil 5658, 89, 207
Palatoglossal arches 56
Palatoglossus muscle 26, 56, 72, 449
Palatopharyngeal arches fix 56
Palatoschisis 18, 436
Palatoscopy 772, 784, 789
advantages of 789
Palmar creases 262
Palmoplantar keratoderma, hereditary 228
Palpation 183, 668
Pancreas, disorders of 709
Pancreatitis, chronic 329
Pancuronium 115
Pancytopenia 577
Panoramic radiograph 105, 483, 824, 826, 836
Papain 340
Papaverine 112
Paper medical records, usage of 169
Papillae 208, 281f
inflammation of 458f
Papilloma 383, 383f, 397
hard 278
mistaken for 279
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome 226, 227, 227f, 317, 723f
Papules, papillomatous 366
Para nasal sinuses 186
Para-aminophenol derivative 110, 112
Para-axial mesoderm 13f
Paracetamol 110, 112
Paracoccidioidomycosis 267
Parageusia 470
Paralleling technique 483
Paramedian lip pits 749
Parametric tests 814
Paramolar 492
root 492
Paranasal sinuses 52, 53f, 54
drainage of 53f
nerve supply to 54
vascular supply to 55
Paraneoplastic pemphigus 301, 307, 309f
Paraneoplastic syndrome 695
Paraprotenemia 413
Parasitic infection 267, 294
Parasympathetic system innervation 36
Parathyroid gland
disease of 707
disorders 708
oral manifestations of 708t
Paratrichosis tongue 449, 468
Paraxin 128
Parecoxib 110, 112
Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome 277
Parkes-Weber syndrome 353
Parkinson's disease 464, 740, 765
drugs for 472
Paromomycin 128
Parotid
bed 73f
cyst 640f
duct 205f, 210f
gland 73, 78, 90, 189f, 632f
group 87
lobe 638
pleomorphic adenoma of 651f
plexus 80
Parotitis 146, 270, 271f
acute postoperative 643
bacterial 643f
chronic recurrent 643
juvenile 550
recurrent 643
viral 644, 645f
Parry-Romberg syndrome 585
Particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 365
Parulis 235
Parvovirus B19 600
Patau syndrome 437
Paterson-Brown Kelly syndrome 325
Paving stone appearance 275
Peau d'orange appearance 556
Pellicle, acquired 634
Pelox 122
Pelvic infection 127
Pemphigoid 261
reactions 331
Pemphigus 169, 261, 307, 465
familial benign 302
herpetiformis 301
vegetans 309, 309f
vulgaris 301, 307f, 308f, 717f
neonatal 750
Penciclovir 280
Penguin 575
Penicillin 123, 123t
combinations 123
G 123
semisynthetic 124
topical application of 273
V 124
Penicilliosis 133
Penicillium fungi 123
Pentane 758
Pentazocine 113
Pentoxifylline 314, 341
Peptic ulceration 140
Peptostreptococcus 130
Percussion test 668
Percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy 828
Periadenitis mucosa necrotica recurrens 321
Periapical abscess 146, 235, 545
formation 277f
Periapical cemental dysplasia 556
Periapical cementoma 546
Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia 557
Periapical disease 688
Periapical granuloma 543, 545
creation of 545
Periapical inflammatory lesions 543, 544f
Periapical osseous dysplasia 543
Periapical osteopetrosis 542
Periapical pathosis 666
Periapical replacement resorption 518, 520
Periapical sclerosing osteitis 543
Periarteritis nodosa 329
Pericoronal abscess 234, 235f, 491
Pericoronitis, acute 667
Peri-implant diseases 225
Peri-implantitis 244, 405
Perilesional skin, punch biopsies of 825
Perineural invasion 695
Periodic migrainous neuralgia 681
Periodontal abscess 146, 234, 235f, 237f
diagnosis of 235
Periodontal care, supportive 245
Periodontal cyst
developmental lateral 378
lateral 530
Periodontal disease 223225, 235b, 244, 261, 284, 372, 747
classification of 225t
incidence of 748
necrotizing 224
Periodontal health 225, 634
Periodontal ligament 31, 35, 223, 518
formation 32
thickening of 272f
Periodontal pockets 237f
Periodontal therapy, stages of 245t
Periodontitis 196f, 224, 225, 266, 821f
aggressive 224
apical 543, 544f, 545
chronic 157, 230, 235, 236f
early-onset 235
juvenile 236
necrotizing 236
ulcerative 236
prepubertal 236
rapidly progressive 236
treatment of 156
Periodontium
abscesses of 224
acquired disorders of 230
Perioral dermatitis 434, 443
Periorificial dermatitis 443
Periorificial keratoderma 355
Periosteum 35, 562, 625
Periostitis
ossificans 547
proliferative 547
Peripheral vascular disease 165
Periplakin 716f
Peritonsillar abscess 271f
Permanent dentition 752
incidence in 491
Permanent teeth 32, 38, 493f, 508f, 723f
Persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder 688
Personal protective equipment 177
Pes planus 586
Pesticides 395, 472
Petechiae 248, 257, 257f, 354, 354f
Pethidine 112
Petrosal nerve, deep 80
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 169, 247, 250, 251, 256, 329, 434, 438
pH, maintenance of 634
Phaeohyphomycosis 133
Phagolysosome 712
Phagosome 712
Phantom
pain 659
tastes 764
Phantosmia 765
Pharmacodynamics 811
Pharmacokinetics 811
Pharyngeal arch 5, 7f, 8f, 9f, 13
arteries 9f
development of 8f
first 14f
Pharyngeal arch, nerves of 12, 12f
Pharyngeal branch 81
emerges 77
Pharyngeal constrictor muscle, middle 72
Pharyngeal diphtheria 276
Pharyngeal grooves 9
Pharyngeal isthmus 58
Pharyngeal plexus 81
Pharyngeal pouch 6, 13
derivatives 11t
Pharyngeal tonsil 57, 89, 194
Pharyngeal wall area, posterior 207
Pharyngitis 266, 270, 324, 324f
Pharyngotonsillitis 270
Pharynx 57
subdivisions of 58f
Phenacetin 112
Phenazone 111
Phenobarbitone 116, 117, 242f
Phenothiazines 283, 374
Phenoxymethyl penicillin 124
Phenylbutazone 110, 111
Phenytoin 117, 225, 283, 241, 374, 675
sodium 242f
Philtrum 14, 19, 434
Phleboliths 350, 835, 836f
Phlegmon 545
Pholcodine 112
Phosphopenic rickets 576
Phosphorous poisoning 260
Phosphorus-Matchstick industry 248
Phossy jaw 553
symptom of 260
Photobiomodulation 159
Photobiostimulation 159
Photodynamic therapy 346
Photothermal effects 154
Phylloquinone 702
Physical addiction, intensity of 431b
Physical therapy 665
Physiotherapy 619
Phytotherapy 167
Pierre Robin
anomaly 452
malformation 452
sequence 495
syndrome 452, 586
Pigmentation
loss of 355
source of 246
Pigmented lesions 246, 247fc
broad types of 247
classification of 247, 248t
diffuse 247fc
Pills 376, 745
Pimecrolimus 143, 343
Pin down 177
Pink disease 330
Pinna, superior to 42
Pipecuronium 115
Piperacillin 124
Piriform recess 58
Piroxicam 109, 111
Pituitary gland 48, 262
anterior 13f
lobe of 13
disease of 707
disorders of 707
Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta, type of 331
Pivotal study 811
Placental extracts 340
Plant alkaloids 424
Plaque
control 268
formation 634
like candidiasis 291
mineralization 634
Plasma cell
cheilitis 443
gingivitis 225, 233, 234, 443, 716f
gingivostomatitis 233, 443
orofacial-mucositis 443
Plasmacytosis, idiopathic 234
Plasmapheresis 314
Plastic lip prints 783
Platelet
disorders 706
function deficiency 739
Platelet-rich plasma 620
Platinum compounds 424
Platinum coordinate complex 141
Platysma 67, 69, 72
Pleomorphic adenoma 650, 651f
Plica fimbriata 194
Plicated tongue 453
Plummer's disease 571
Plummer-Vinson syndrome 325, 326f, 456, 703, 705f
Plunging ranula 641f
Plural nevi 253
Pneumonia, community acquired 129
Poikiloderma 304, 304f
Poisoning 330
Polyarteritis 329
Polycythemia 703
rubra vera 103, 703
Polyene antibiotics 119, 134
Polymerase chain reaction 334
Polymorphic reticulosis 328
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma 652, 654
Polymyxin B 131
Polyneuropathy 678
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia 263
triad of 263
Polyp, fibroepithelial 238, 239f
Polypeptide 131t
antibiotics 119, 131
like substance P 660
Polyphenols 145
Polyposis, familial colonic 329
Polyps 196
Pomegranate 158
Popliteal pterygium syndrome 437, 440
Popliteal webs 440
Population-based cancer registries 391
Porphyria 248, 251, 700
types of 700t
Porphyromonas 764
gingivalis 768
Port wine stain 258, 259f, 351
Posaconazole 134, 135
Positron emission tomography scans 549
Post-endodontic surgery pain 667
Posterior articular
nerve 80
ridge 62
vein 83
Posterior choanae 11
Posterior cranial fossa 48
Posterior disc displacement 618
Posterior dislocation 612
Posterior fossa, malformations of 674
Posterior pituitary gland, development of 13f
Post-eruptive tooth movement 503
Post-extraction bleeding 178
Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers 76
Post-healing pigmentation 262f
Postinfectious myositis ossificans 630
Post-isometeric relaxation exercises 619
Postreduction care 612
Post-somite stage embryo 3f
Post-splenectomy syndrome 103
Postsynaptic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers 211
Posttest-only control group design 809
Post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy 672
Potassium hydroxide staining 294
Potency class 139
Potential functional problems 621
Potentially malignant
diseases 318
disorders 210, 333, 355, 402t, 444
lesions 331
Povidone-iodine 238
Prader-Willi syndrome 230
Prechordal plate, fate of 4
Predentin 31
Prednisone 137, 323, 629
Pre-eruptive caries 482
Pre-eruptive tooth movement 503
Preferential COX-2 inhibitors 110, 111
Pregabalin 117, 283, 675, 676
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers 78
Preglenoid plane 62
Pregnancy 745
epulis 375
gingivitis 710f
and epulis 241, 241f
tumor 375, 382
Premature eruption 504
Premaxillary maxillary cyst 530
Premolars 478, 517f
Prenatal growth 4
Pre-radiotherapy extractions 428b
Pressure resorption 520
Presumptive diagnosis 214
Pre-symptomatic infection 289
Presynaptic secretomotor fibers 211
Pretest-posttest control group design 809
Pretracheal fascia 69
Pretrematic nerve 12
disappear 12
Prevotella 764
Primary hyperparathyroidism 362
Primidone 241
Primitive palate 14
Primitive pharynx 13
Primordial cyst 529, 530, 581
Procaine penicillin G injection 124
Procheilon 434
Prodrome 680
Progeria, neonatal 504
Progestins 141
Prognathism
bilateral 26
unilateral 26
Proliferative vascular lesions 258
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 336
Propionic acid derivatives 109, 110, 110t
Propofol 114
Proptosis 186
Propyphenazone 110, 111
Prosthetic joints 743
Prostosylid 492
Protease inhibitors 137, 374
Proteasome inhibitor 141
Protein deficiency 699
Proteomics 637
Proteus syndrome 352, 604
Proton transfer reaction 760
Protoporphyria 251, 700
Prototypical human bite mark 798
Protozoal infections 267
Proximal caries 484
Proximal cavity, large 489f
Prulifloxacin 122
Psammomatoid ossifying fibroma, juvenile 557
Pseudoangiosarcoma 258
Pseudoankylosis 466f
Pseudo-cleft 367
Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome 574
Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 409
Pseudogingival enlargement 244
Pseudogout 623
Pseudo-halitosis 761, 763
Pseudohyperparathyroidism 472
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 573, 574
Pseudolipoma, traumatic 377
Pseudolymphoma 328
Pseudomembranous candidiasis 267, 460, 461f
acute 291, 359
Pseudo-Nikolsky sign 299
Pseudopockets 367
Pseudosarcomatous fasciitis 372, 567
Pseudo-soft tissue enlargement 363
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium 18
Pseudotumors 624
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum 251, 357
Psoralens 374, 441
Psoriasis 228, 233, 360, 410
Psoriatic arthritis 233, 600
juvenile 599
Psychogenic disorder 662, 762f
Psychosomatic disorder 762f
Pterygium 185
colli, familial 452
Pterygoid
canal, nerve of 77, 80
fovea 60
hamulus 364
Pterygoideus externus 62
Pterygomandibular raphe 67, 206f
Pterygomasseteric sling, formation of 69
Pterygomaxillary fissure 39
Pterygopalatine
fossa 39, 83f
ganglion 39
nerve 77
suture 20
Puberty, precocious 571
Puffed check technique 419f
Pulmonary mucormycosis 293, 294
Pulp 478
canals 478
chamber 478
thistle-tube deformity of 512
primordium of 31
sensitivity test 668
stones 514, 514f
indicative of 514f
types of 514t
Pulpal infection, stages of 489
Pulpal obliteration 514
Pulpal origin 666f
periodontal pain of 667f
Pulpal sclerosis 514
Pulpitis 487, 667f
acute 545
asymptomatic irreversible 196, 489
irreversible 488, 489f, 489t
reversible 488, 489t
Pulp-to-tooth ratio method 791
Pulse
granuloma 374
oximeter 184, 736
pressure 183
rate 184
short-wave diathermy 165
steroid therapy 139
Purine antagonist 141
Purpura 257, 257f, 354
Pus, discharge of 490f
Pycnodysostosis 587
Pyoderma gangrenosum 127
Pyogenic granuloma 239, 240f, 248, 263, 350, 374, 375f, 382, 415, 449, 467
types of 374
Pyostomatitis vegetans 362
Pyrazinamide 274, 275
Pyrazolone 111
derivatives 110
Pyriform aperture 51
Pyrimidine antagonist 141
Q
Quantitative sensory tests 665, 679
Quasi-experiments 809
Queyrat erythroplasia 279
Quinacrine 260
Quinidine 260
Quinine 115, 260, 472
derivatives 260
Quiniodochlor 135
Quinolones 119, 121, 122t
R
Rabbit syndrome 464
Radial pulp enlargement resorption 519
Radiation
caries 268
dose 105
external beam 423
induces caries 486f
therapy 331, 585
oral manifestations of 426
thyroiditis 571
Radiculalgia 658
Radicular cyst 380, 381f, 497f, 522, 524f, 528, 529, 543
Radiculomegaly 503
Radioactive medium 106
Radiolucent pulp canals, thin 511f
Radionuclides 244
Radiotherapy 267
intensity-modulated 423
treatment 428
Ramon syndrome 225, 560
Rampant caries 482, 485, 486f
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome 282, 676, 678, 687
Ramus 23, 60, 72
anterior border of 60
aspect of 60
lower border of 60
medial surface of 60
superior border of 60
Randomized controlled trials 809
Ranula 377, 382f, 440, 640, 749
Rapamycin pathway, mammalian target of 366
Rapid bone loss 237f
Raspberry tongue 273, 457
Rathke's pouch 13
Raynaud's phenomenon 466
Reactional osteogenesis 545, 545f
Reactive soft tissue enlargements 203, 203b
fluctuate 361
Real port-wine stain 353
Rebound pain 487
Recalcitrant lesions 139
Recrudescent intraoral herpes simplex virus infection 281
Rectus muscle 775f
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, clinical features of 322t
Recurrent herpes labialis, treatment of 281fc
Red blood cell
count 98
disorders 703
Red man syndrome 130
Red spots 351
Red strawberry tongue 273, 457
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy 628
Refractive error 687
Refractory rickets 576
Regurgitation
cause of 329
involuntary 517
Reichert's cartilage 6
Reinfection 280
intraoral 281
Relapsing polychondritis 687
Relenza 136
Renal cell carcinoma 352
Renal dialysis 269
Renal disease
end-stage 823
oral manifestations of 269, 269t
Renal failure
chronic 269
dental management of 270
Renal osteodystrophy 569, 576
Renal profile 822
Renal rickets 269, 576
Renal transplant 744
Renaud classification 777, 777f, 777t, 778f
Rendu-Osler-Weber
disease 435, 445
syndrome 350, 352
Repository penicillin G injections 124
Reptile 496
Respiration rate 184
Respiratory diphtheria 276
Respiratory droplets 288
Respiratory system 182, 712
Respiratory tract disease 742
Restorative care 753
Resuscitation, cardiopulmonary 736b
Reticular patches 465
Reticulocyte count 102
Reticulohistiocytosis, multicentric 327
Retinal angioblastoma 352
Retinoids 343
Retinol 394, 701
Retinopathy, exudative 348
Retroauricular node 88
Retrobulbar hemorrhage, sign of 186
Retrodiscal tissue 62
Retrograde peri-implantitis 244
Retromandibular vein 73, 83
Retromolar fossa 59
Retromolar pad 390
Retromolar triangle 59
Retrostyloid nodes 87
Rexed laminae 659
Rhabdomyoma 382, 385
Rhabdomyosarcoma 412, 566
Rheumatic disease, early 599
Rheumatoid arthritis 103, 597
chronic 646f
juvenile 598
Rheumatoid factor 600
Rheumatologic disorders 600
Rhinitis, atrophic 764
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis 293, 294
Rhinorrhea 681
Rhinoscleroma 442
Rhodotorula 292
Rhomboid glossitis, median 291, 354, 455, 455f, 456
Rhombomeres 5
Ribavirin 136
Ribonucleic acid 285
viruses 284
Rickets 575, 575f
resistant 576
tumor-induced 576
Rickettsial infections 127, 282
Rieger syndrome 494
Rifamate 275
Rifampicin 274
Rifampin 132
Rifamycins 275
Rifater 275
Rifle vs. shotgun approach 93
Riga-Fede disease 319, 504, 750
Rima oris 340
Rimantadine 136
Ringer's solution 620
Risorius 67
Rituximab 309
Rivinus, duct 72
Rochalimaea henselae 275, 277
Rocky mountain spotted fever 282
Rocuronium 115
Rodent ulcer 409
Rolitetracycline 127
Root canal 171
Root caries 266, 485, 485f, 486f
Root development, final stages of 32
Root entry zone, level of 672
Root formation 32
Root resorption, classification 519fc
Ropy-viscid saliva 260
Rostral ventromedial medulla 659
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome 305
Roxithromycin 129, 550
Rubber jaw 573
Rubella 282, 285
syndrome, congenital 285
virus 285
Rubeola 360
Rubinstein syndrome 502
Rubinstein-Taybi 504
Rugae
description of 785
pattern variation 785
Rugoscopy 784
Russell sign 703
Rutherford syndrome 225
Ruvalcaba-Myhre-Smith syndrome 250
S
Saccharomyces 292
Sagittal craniosynostosis 584
Sailor's lip 345, 442
Salicylates 109, 110, 268
Salicylic acid compound, topical 279
Saline rinses 268
Saliva 632634, 635t, 803
components of 633, 633t
deficiency leads 638
flow range 633t
formation of 633
functions of 633
odor test 766
primary 633
quality 426
role of 803f
transfer of 283
Salivary diagnostic methods 334
Salivary fistula 655
Salivary flow 210
rates 635
testing for 210f
Salivary gland 189, 218, 350, 390, 568, 632f, 683, 747
adenocarcinoma 654
aplasia 638
cancers 405
defect, developmental 588
development of 27
disease 287
disorders 632, 642f
classification 637b
dysfunction 635
diagnosis of 636
enlargement 451
histology of 633
hypofunction
causes of 635
clinical manifestations of 635
hypoplasia 638
major 72, 72f, 632, 632f
malignancies 404
minor 204f, 354f, 632
neoplasms 404
benign 363
malignant 363
palpation of 189f
stones, minor 639
swellings 287
etiology of 642fc
tumor 362, 387, 397, 402, 532, 648, 649t, 650f, 650t
viral infections of 644
viruses detected in 645t
Salivary hormone levels 635
Salivary hypofunction 470
Salivary incubation method 768
Salivary microbiome 803fc
Salivary secretion 747
regulation of 163
Salivary trace evidence 799
Salmon patch 258
Salt and pepper 536, 573
appearance 580
Salt split technique 300, 301, 302t
Sample T-test 814
Sanguinaria 336
Sarcoidosis 225, 243, 372, 373f, 444, 678
Sarcomas 404, 405, 412
incidence of 412
odontogenic 216, 524, 541
osteogenic 550, 560, 563
Sarecycline 127
Saridon 111
Satranidazole 122, 123
Scalp
muscles of 64
venous drainage of 82
Scaphocephaly 583
Scar 184
extraoral 490f
periapical 543
postoperative 187f
tissue treated 164
Scardovia 479
Scatter plot 815f
Schirmer's sign 285
Schizodontism 497
Schour and Massler method 791, 792f
Schwann cells 252
Schwannomas, malignant 412
Sclera, color of 185
Scleroderma 326, 385, 466, 466b, 466f
generalized 466
localized 306
progressive 466
Sclerosing osteomyelitis 546
Sclerosis
amyotrophic lateral 463
idiopathic 546
multiple 283, 678, 744
Sclerotic dentine 510
Scooped-out depressions 517
Scrotal tongue 366, 453
Sctinomycosis 276f
Sculpting apoptosis 26
Scurvy 242, 574, 622
Seborrheic keratosis 279
Secnidazole 122, 123
Second-order pain-transmission cells 660
Sedation, conscious 114, 612
Seizures 740
Selected ion flow tube 760
Selective COX-2 inhibitors 110
Selenium 145
Selenomonas 764
Self-halitosis 765
Seligmann's disease 414
Sella turcica 48
Semisynthetic opioid 112
Senile keratosis 442
Sensitive teeth 686f
Sensory
innervation 67
supplies 78
neurons 659
neuropathy 628
organs 3
root 76
small 79
Septic arthritis 599, 619
Septran 121
Serotonin 118
reuptake inhibitors, selective 118
Serpiginous lesions 296
Serpiginous white lines 194
Serres glands 534
Serum iron 102
Sex chromosomes 723t
Sex hormones, variation in 250
Sexual bite mark 799
Sexual dimorphism 795, 802
Sexual offenses, protection of children from 772
Sexually transmitted diseases 744
Shapiro-Shulman syndrome 352
Sharp maxillary canine 440f
Sharpey's fibers 32
Sheklakov sign 299
Short stature
accompanying systemic disease 571
familial 571
idiopathic 571
psychosocial 571
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache 681
attacks 672
Short-wave diathermy 165, 165f
Shrunken uvula 339f
Sialadenitis 270, 271f, 642
acute suppurative 642
chronic 550, 643, 644f
sclerosing 643
Sialadenoma papilliferum 404
Sialendoscopy 640
Sialodochitis fibrinosa 642
Sialography 639
Sialolith 639f
Sialolithiasis
symptoms 639
treatment of 164
Sialometaplasia, necrotizing 331, 648f
Sialorrhea 635
primary 635
secondary 635
Sicca syndrome 646
Sickle cell anemia 703
Siderius X-linked mental retardation 437
Siderosis 351
Sigmoid sinus 83
Silver
photography 248
sulfadiazine 121
Simmonds’ disease 248
Simonart's bands 436
Simple bone cyst 217, 386, 530, 530f
Single-needle technique 620
Single-photon emission computed tomography 352, 594
Sino-nasal melanoma 415
Sinus
development of 19
formation 668
Sinusitis 553, 554f, 682, 682f
chronic 683
Sipple's syndrome 383
Sirolimus 241
Sisomicin 128
Sjögren's syndrome 283, 284, 324, 449, 600, 627, 638, 646, 646f, 647b, 689
Skeletal density 587
Skeletal muscles 12, 34
Skeletal system 35
Skewed distribution 814f
Skin 185, 775f
diffuse cutaneous atrophy of 304f
diseases 140
epidermoid cyst of 382
epithelial cells 425
examination of 186f
horns 406
lesions, secondary infection of 308
Skull 35, 36, 41f
bone origins 12f
development of 11
examination of 36
external aspect of 36
foramina of 47f, 47t
group, posterior 88
internal
aspect of 43
base of 47f
posterior view of 42f
view 38f, 47f
Sleep 664
Small intestinal polyps 329
Smell
loss of sense of 765
testing 472
Smoker's keratosis, reverse 345
Smoker's melanosis 261f
Smoker's palate 345
Smooth muscles 35
Smooth tongue 802
Snail track 329
ulcers 273
Snoring 743
Snuff dipper's cancer 393, 408
Soap bubble appearance 533
Sodium
hyaluronate 109, 620
hypochlorite 134
penicillin G injection 123
phosphate mouthwash 342
valproate 117
Sofosbuvir 136
Soframycin 129
Soft palate 18, 55, 55f, 56f, 205, 206f, 207f, 339f, 364
blanching of 835
junction of 278
muscles of 56, 56f
tongue 262
Soft papillomas 278
Soft tissue 161, 397, 598
cysts of 378, 524
density, right maxilla of 535f
enlargements 203b, 361, 438
examination 196
lesions 248t
benign 649
laser treatment of 159
treatment of 159
necrosis 268, 427
repair 634
sarcomas 412
swelling 651f
tumors 203, 203b, 382
Solar cheilosis 345, 442
Solid colon tumors 103
Solid organ transplantation 346
Solitary bone cyst 530
Solitary enostosis 563
Solitary plasmacytoma 413
Solomon four-group design 809
Soma 659
Somatic motor, general 75
Somatic pain 682
deep 682
superficial 682
Somatosensory nervous system, disease of 669
Somesthetic aura 678
Somite stage embryo 3f
Sore throat 284f
Sotos syndrome 571
Sotrovimab 137
Sparfloxacin 122
Spasmolytics 115
Spatial taste testing 472
Special health care 748
classification 752t
Spectinomycin 120
Speech 230, 449
difficulties 582
Sphenoid bone 39
wings of 48
Sphenoid sinus 19
Sphenoidal septum 54
Sphenoidal sinus 54
Sphenomandibular ligament 63
Sphenomandibularis 68, 69
Sphenopalatine neuralgia 681
Sphenoparietal suture 39
Sphenosquamosal suture 39
Sphingomyelin lipidosis 700
Spider
caricature of 532
veins 351
Spinal accessory chain 85
Spinal cord 659
dorsal horn of 659
Spinal hemangioma 352
Spindle tori 541
Spinoreticular tract 659
Spinoreticulothalamic pathway, medial 660
Spinothalamic tract 659
Spiramycin 129
Spirochete Treponema pallidum 273
Splanchnocranium 12
Spleen 715
Splenectomy 257
Split papules 273
Split-pea 444
Spongy bone 35
Spoon test 766, 767f
Sporadic genetic disease 250
Sporadic hypodontia 493
Spotty pigmentation 251
Sprue 703
Squamosal suture 39, 41
Squamous cell carcinoma 338f, 390, 397, 401, 403f, 404, 404f, 409, 435, 463f, 551f, 556, 823, 823f
in situ 306
maxilla 403f
Squamous odontogenic tumor 216
Squamous papilloma 383, 383f
Stafne bone cyst 588
Stapedial artery seals 6
Stapedius, nerve to 80
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome 314
Staphylococcus
aureus 127, 130, 278, 291, 302, 602, 749
epidermidis 278
Starvation 638
Static bone cavity 588
Static group comparison 809
Steatorrhea, idiopathic 703
Stellate reticulum 31
Stenosis 640
Stensen's duct 73, 271f
opening of 204
Stensen's foramina 51
Stereophotogrammetry 789
Sternocleidomastoid muscle 72
Steroid 137, 138b, 316, 360, 629, 629t, 745
application of 138
injections 597
therapy, side effects of 139
Steven-Johnson syndrome 261, 313
Stickler's syndrome 437
Stiffness 686f
Still's disease 598
Stomach
acid, reflux of 690
adenocarcinoma of 256
Stomatitis 260, 332
antibiotic induced 291
areata migrans 353, 454
denture-related 291, 354, 375
gangrenous 359
geographic 331, 454t
herpetic 282
medicamentosa 331, 825, 825f
necrotizing 236, 238
nicotina 345, 345f, 655
venenata 331
viral 313
Stomatococcus mucilaginosus 766
Stomion 778f
Stomodeum 5
forms 13
lower border of 14f
Stones 561
Strabismus 687
Stratified squamous
keratinizing epithelium 527
non-keratinizing epithelium 18
Stratum intermedium 31
Strawberry
like lump 382
surface of 241
tongue 273, 457, 467
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins 459
Streptococci viridans 278
Streptococcus 281, 682
agalactiae 749
mutans 426, 634, 748
pneumoniae 130
pyogenes 277
viridans 646
Streptomycin 128, 441
Stress 746
reduction techniques 737
Stretched lower labial mucosa 204f
Stroke 257, 678, 740
Stromal eosinophilia 318
Structural chromosomal abnormalities 722f
Structures derived from branchial arches 11t
Struma ovarii iodine-induced hyperthyroidism 571
Strychnine 472
Stuffy deaf 629
Sturge-Weber syndrome 225, 259f, 502, 727f
Sturge-Weber-Dimitri syndrome 350, 351, 351f
Styloglossus muscle originates 72
Stylohyoid
ligament 74
muscle
nerve to 80
originates 71
Styloid process 39, 41
Stylomandibular ligament 63
Stylomastoid foramen 47
Stylopharyngeus muscle 80f
nerve to 81
Subauricular node 88
Subclavian arteries, right 82
Subclavian vein 83
Subcutaneous fibromatosis 372
pseudosarcomatous 372
Subepithelial blister formation 300
Subepithelial immune-bullous diseases 310
Subepithelial lesions 300
Sublamina densa 300
Sublingual duct 72
Sublingual fossae 60
Sublingual gland 72, 632f
Sublingual keratosis 338
Sublingual varices 456
Sublingual varicosities 456
Submandibular duct 72
bidigital palpation for 189f
Submandibular fossae 60
Submandibular ganglion 80
Submandibular gland 72, 90, 189f, 632f, 644f, 685f
region 644f
Submandibular lymph nodes 535f, 644f
palpation of 188f
Submandibular mass 189
Submental spaces 277
Submucous cleft 582
palate 437
Substance abuse 745
Substantial dentin demineralization, sign of 482
Substantial functional handicap 613
Succedaneous teeth 32
Succinctly 806
Succinylcholine 115
Suckling 799
Sucralfate 268
Suction denture lesion 376f
Suicide
disease 670
headache 681
Sulbacin 125
Sulbactam 124, 125
Sulcus
median 26
terminalis 26
Sulfacetamide 121
Sulfadiazine 121
Sulfadimethoxine 121
Sulfamethizole 121
Sulfamethoxazole 121
Sulfanilamide 121
Sulfasalazine 121, 441
Sulfide monitoring 767
Sulfisoxazole 121
Sulfonamides 119, 121, 121t
Sulfonamidochrysoidine 121
Sulfone syndrome 131
Sulfur dioxide 395
Sulphonamides 120
Sumatriptan nasal spray 472
Sun burst appearance 413
Sun-damaged skin 255
Sunray pattern 565
Superior nasal
concha 52
foramina 51
Supernumerary roots 502, 502f
Supernumerary teeth 492f, 539
Supine hypotension syndrome 179
Suprabasal layer 300
Supraclavicular chain 85
Supragingival plaque deposition 634
Suprahyoid muscles 70, 71f
Suprascapular artery 82
Surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy 423
Sutton's ulcers 321
Sutures 35
Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification 776, 776t
Sweat gland 775f
Sweet's syndrome 323, 324
Swelling 201, 203, 361
acute 361
chronic 361
congenital 361
drug-related 374
epiglottal 26
generalized 230
horseshoe shaped 14
inflammatory 361
localized 230
medial 26
terminology for 640
types of 361
Swollen strawberry tongue 460
Symblepharon 185
Sympathetic system plays 36
Symphyseal cartilage 22
Symphysis 35
menti 59
Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis 196, 488
Symptomatic temporomandibular disorders 158f
Synapses 659
Syncephalastrum 293
Synchondroses 35
Syncope 741
Syndesmosis joint 35
Syndromic hypodontia 494
Syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth 492f
Synkinesis 677f
Synodontism 497
Synovial chondromatosis 614
Synovial joints 35
Synovial sarcoma 412
Synovitis 601
Synthetic opioid 112
Syphilis 266, 273, 273f, 395, 443, 443f, 451
congenital 273, 273f, 506
late congenital 460
primary 460
secondary 282, 288
tertiary 274, 346
stage of 460
Syphilitic canine 507
Syphilitic glossitis 273
Syphilitic leukoplakia 338
Syphilitic tongue 337f, 460f
Syphilitic ulcers 274
Systemic disease 97t, 108, 185, 261, 355, 635t, 747
manifestation of 224
Systemic disorders 360, 521, 698
Systemic lupus erythematosus 302, 316f, 568, 600
Systemic sclerosis 466, 600, 601f
progressive 466, 466b
Systemic therapy 311
T
Tachycardia 184
Tacrolimus 241, 343
ointment 142
Taenia solium 296
Talon's cusp 501, 502, 502f
types of 502
Tamiflu 136
Tarda type 513
Tardive dyskinesia 464
management of 464
Tarivid 122
Taste
loss 426
nerves 472
pathways 469f
sensation 635
sense of 765
terminology 469
testing, regional 472
Taste abnormality
evaluation of 472
idiopathic 472
Taste bud 448
blocking of 470
functions 472
loss of 472
Taste disorders 469, 472fc
classification 470
Taurodontism 497, 498f, 498t, 509, 511f
Taut band 616
Taxanes 141, 424
Taxonomic classification 592b
Taybi syndrome 502
Tazobactam 124
T-cell 714t
activation of 714f
Technetium 99 m-tindiphosphonate 244
Technetium-99 m-pertechnetate 106
Teeny's disease 277
Teeth 478f, 518
adjacent 495f
agenesis 493
amputed 486f
anomalies in 794
cervical region of 486f
class characteristics 796
clenching of 686f
color of 249
components of 477f
development 27
chart 33f
stages of 28, 30f
diseases of 477, 479
displacement of 225f, 242f
embryology of 27fc
eruption of 32, 503, 750
formation of 28fc
functions of 478
germ 30
grinding of 686f
hypoplastic 228
puffed enamel of 284
integrity, maintenance of 634
loss, early 512
mal-aligned 257f
malocclusion of 597
mandibular posterior 205f
maxillary posterior 205f
multiple unerupted 575f
multi-rooted 30f
neonatal 504, 504f
number of 491
anomalies of 491
pain 405
posterior 486f
pressure marks 799
primary 32, 723f
recurrent pain in 490f
removal of 171
rotation, anterior 800
scrape 798
markings 799
shape of 496
single rooted 30f
size of 495
structure of 506
bruxism causing loss of 510
submerged 505, 506
types of 478
vitality 195
volume assessment of 791
wear index 516t
Teething, normal 750
Teicoplanin 130
Telangiectasia 202, 351, 466, 466f
hereditary hemorrhagic 351, 445
Telangiectatic erythema, congenital 305
Telithromycin 129
Tell-show-do technique 751
Temafloxacin 122
Temazepam 116
Temporal artery, superficial 82
Temporal bone 39, 60, 61f, 62
mastoid portion of 39
squama of 39
Temporal cell arteritis 616
Temporal fossa 39, 68
Temporal nerves
deep 78
superficial 78
Temporalis muscle 39, 60, 68, 68f, 193f
transverse 39
Temporomandibular disorders 62, 163, 591, 592, 593fc, 594t, 745
diagnosis of 595fc
signs 594
symptoms 594
Temporomandibular joint 35, 60, 60f, 90, 189, 190f, 627
ankylosis of 612
types of 614f
development of 25, 25f
dislocation 611
bilateral 610f
unilateral 611f
disorders 233, 329, 591, 592, 592b, 628f, 629, 629t
dysfunction 579, 675
syndrome 615
effusion 608
osteomyelitis of 602
pain 218
secondary 218
reconstruction 621
tumors, benign 624t
Temporomandibular ligament 63
Tendon sheath 626
Tenofovir 136
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor 626
Tenoxicam 109
Tension-type headache 680
classification 681b
clinical features of 681t
Tensor tympani muscle, nerve to 78
Tensor veli palatini muscle 56
nerve to 78
Teratoma 532
Terbinafine 135
Tetracycline 119, 120, 127, 127b, 127t, 128, 260, 441
chelate calcium ions 512
newer 127
semisynthetic 127
Thalamus, medial 660
Thalassemia 580, 704
Thalidomide 313, 323
Thebaine 112
Theobromine 472
Theophylline 472
Thermal burn 320f, 359, 359f
Thermotherapy 619
Thiopentone 116
Thomas and Kotze classification 787, 787b, 788f
Thoracic cage, deformities of 513
Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy 423
Thrombocytopenia 706
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 257, 354
Thymic cyst 378
Thymoma 307
Thymus 714
Thyrocervical trunk 82
Thyroglossal duct cyst 378, 381
Thyroid
artery, inferior 82
carcinomas 571
development of 14f
disease 744
gland 13, 189, 190f
disease of 707
disorders 708
disorders, oral manifestations of 708t
hormone 106
secretion of 262
stimulating hormone 453
swelling 187f
Thyroiditis 571
acute suppurative 571
autoimmune 571
drug-induced 571
Thyrotropin releasing hormone 572
Tic doloureux 671
Tigecycline 120, 127, 128
Tiniba 123
Tinidazole 122, 123
Tinospora 157
inhibits oral cancer cell progression 157
Tissue 34
biopsy 346, 594
blanching of 350
conditioners 376
mesenchymal 8f
modification 609
origin, mixed 531
primary palate, triangular plate of 18f
specimens 800
T-lymphocytes 714
Tobacco cessation 429, 430
clinics 429
interventional strategies for 429
method 431
Tobramycin 120, 128, 129
Tocilizumab 290
Tocopherol 701
Tolnaftate 135
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome 687
Toluidine blue stain 417f
Tomes’ process 31, 32
Tongue 207, 208f, 275, 278, 364, 406, 448, 462f, 801
anterior
glands of 632
two-thirds of 208
cancer, causes of 395
candida infection of 285f
carcinoma of 406f, 423
central dorsum of 455f
characteristics 802
coating 449, 468, 468f
Kojima score for 468t
development of 26, 26f
diseases of 261, 448, 449, 699
dorsal surface of 261f, 454f, 459f, 462f, 801t
dorsum of 460f
epithelium of 354f
extrinsic muscles of 26
fissure 802
flexible muscles 449
foliate papillae of 279
functions of 449
intrinsic muscles of 26
lateral border of 209, 460f
lesions of 461f
classification 449b
lie, intrinsic muscles of 71
motor nerve of 81
muscles of 71, 71f
neoplasms of 450
non-keratinized mucosa of 322f
papillae of 26, 208f
paralysis 465
plaques of 353, 454
posterior displacement of 278
posterolateral border of 371
pressure 798
marks 799
preventing tip of 450f
print 801
severe enlargement of 451
shape of 802f
sides and tip 208
small bumps 457f
squamous cell carcinoma of 418f, 463
textural variations in 801
texture of 802f
tie 450, 450f, 749
trauma to 458f
vascular malformation of 455f
wandering rash of 353, 454
Tonsillar branches 81
Tonsillar diphtheria 276
Tonsillitis 266, 270
Tonsillolith 764
Tonsils 57, 57f, 207f, 397, 715
Toothaches 694t
Toothpaste, brand of 234f
Topical steroid
applications, stoppage of 301
preparations, potency of 139t
Topiramate 241, 675
Topoisomerase inhibitors 141
Tori mandibularis 541
Torolac 111
Torospar 122
Tortuous pica 674f
Torus
mandibularis 371f
palate 542f
palatinus 371, 541
tubarius 58
Touraine's centrofacial lentiginosis 251
Tourette syndrome 464
Toxic
epidermal necrolysis 312, 313, 331
multinodular goiter 571
shock syndrome 457
Toxicity 425
Toxoplasmosis 568
Trabecular ossifying fibroma, juvenile 557
Trachea 13
Tracheostomy 276
Traditional Chinese medicine 801
Tramadol 113, 676
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation 162, 162f, 616
classification 162
types 163
Transformed osteogenesis, dysplastic process of 555
Transport disorders 470
Transverse muscle 71, 448
Trapezius muscle 165f
Traster marker 789
Trauma 318, 450, 520, 607, 610
Traumatic oral soft tissue lesion 750
Traumatic temporomandibular joint disk displacement, acute 608
Traumatic ulcer 274, 319f, 320f
Traumatic ulcerative
granuloma 318
granulomatous disease 319
Treacher Collins syndrome 437, 585, 604, 718, 728f
Trench mouth 236
Treponema
denticola 768
forsythia 768
pallidum 223, 333, 506
Triamcinolone
acetonide 139
oral paste 360
diacetate 340
Triazine 141
Triazolam 116
Triazoles 134
fluconazole 134
Trichilemmomas, multiple 366
Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome 499, 509
Trichoepithelioma 410
Trigeminal autonomic cephalagias 681
types of 681t
Trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex 669
Trigeminal ganglia 669
Trigeminal nerve 72, 75, 76f, 90, 193f
innervates 25
mandibular division of 22, 67, 76
maxillary division of 39, 67
ophthalmic division of 67
Trigeminal neuralgia 151, 163, 616, 660, 669, 669f, 670t, 673fc, 675, 827, 827f
diagnosis of 671t
differential diagnosis in 672b
grading system for 671fc
therapeutic options in 672t
Trigger points 615
Triglycerides 105
Trigonocephaly 583
Trimethoprim 120
sulfamethoxazole 121
Trimethylaminuria 765
Trimipramine 117
Trismus 401
Trisomy 228, 452
Trobo classification 785, 785t
Trochlear headache 687
Troleandomycin 129
Trophoblast 4
Trotter's syndrome 692
Trousseau sign 574
Trovafloxacin 122
T-test
independent 814
unpaired 814
Tubal tonsil 57, 89
Tubercles 60
accessory 501
articular 62
labial 434
paramolar 492
Tuberculosis 266, 274, 274f, 743, 764
drugs 131
treatment of 275t
Tuberculum
impar 26
labii superioris 434
Tuberous sclerosis 225, 362
complex 230, 230t, 367, 369f
Tumor 361, 624, 678, 745
behavior coding for 649
benign 361, 385, 434
epithelial 362
odontogenic 216, 532f
developmental cysts 545
epithelial 397
Ewing sarcoma family of 566
fibrohistiocytic 626
hematolymphoid 217, 397, 524, 649
intracranial 695
location of 422fc
lymph node metastasis 397
malignant 385, 434, 435, 445, 463, 649
markers 106, 635
metastatic 239, 402, 404, 405, 556, 569
microenvironment 396
mineralized 536
neural 397
nonmetastatic 695
non-odontogenic 531
odontogenic 385, 386f, 531, 532
oropharyngeal 390
osteogenic 625
salivary type 397
type of 422fc
Turner's hypomineralization 506
Turner's hypoplasia 506
Turner's syndrome 439, 452, 472, 571, 574
Turner's tooth 506
Two-needle technique 620
Tylosis 329, 355
Tympanic canaliculus 47
Tympanic nerve 81
Tympanic plexus 81
Tympanomastoid fissure 47
Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors 141
Tzanck cell 301
Tzanck test 300, 301
procedure for 301fc
Tzatscheva and Jordanov classification 787
U
Ulcer 298, 316
eosinophilic 319, 320f
episodes 321f
examination of 202b
infective 316
intestinal 741
margins of 280f
multiple 444f
nonhealing 401, 402f
parts of 316f
preceded by vesicles 298
solitary 318
tuberculous 459f
Ulcerating midline lymphoma 328
Ulcerative lesion 173, 273f, 285f, 298, 298t, 299f, 316, 407f, 682
Ulcerative phase 268
Ulcerative stomatitis, chronic 306, 306f
Ulceroproliferative growth 404, 404f
Ulceroproliferative lesion 409f, 417f
Ulinastatin 314
Ullrich-Turner syndrome 439
Ultrasonic periodontal probes 245
Ultrasound, biophysical effects of 163
Ultraviolet microscope 301
Undecylenic acid 135
Unerupted teeth, intraosseous ectopic migration of 505
Unicystic ameloblastoma 526, 533f, 535, 536
Unifocal disease 581
Unique bite mark 799
Unna-Thost
disease 228
syndrome 228
Upper canine, right 505f
Upper incisors 14
Upper left maxillary region 435f
Upper lip 364, 777f
center of 19
development of 19f
midline 435
Upper molar 533f
Upper respiratory tract infection 682
Upper teeth, indentations of 440f
Upper third molars 512f
Upshaw-Schulman syndrome 257
Urbach-Wiethe syndrome 362
Ureidopenicillins 124
Uremic stomatitis 269, 360
forms of 269
Uric acid 154
Urinary tract infections 121
Uroporphyria 251, 700
Urticaria 372, 738
Uterus 4, 440
Uveoparotid fever 648
Uvula 55, 207f, 275
major part of 56
V
Vaccination triggers 290
Vaginosis, bacterial 274
Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia 673
Vagus nerve 26
branch of 449
innervates 25
Valacyclovir 676
Valcivir 136
Valganciclovir 136
Vallate papillae 448
Valproate 241
Valproic acid 117, 675
Van der Woude syndrome 435, 437, 439, 494
van Heerden system 791
Vancogen 130
Vancomycin 130
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus 127
Vaquez's disease 703
Varenicline 432
Varicella 282
Varicella zoster virus 266, 279, 282, 675
Varicosities 354, 455
Varix 248
Vascular anomalies 349, 369
classification of 350t
malignant 349
Vascular disorders 648
Vascular disruption, heat-induced 449
Vascular leiomyoma 248
Vascular lesions 258, 445
Vascular malformation 349, 351
Vascular pain 658
Vascular processes 349
Vascular tissue origin 532
Vascular tumors 626
Vasculitides 329
Vasodilators 341
Vasodilatory effect 164
Vecuronium 115
Veillonella 479
Vein
anterior jugular 82, 83
external jugular 83
internal jugular 83
Venereal warts condyloma acuminatum 279
Venous drainage 60
Venous oxygen saturation 184
Verapamil 241
Verbal descriptor scale 663
Vermilion
border 434
loss 775
zone 434
Verruca simplex 279
Verruca vulgaris 266, 279, 287, 409
Verruciform
appearance 279
leukoplakia 336
xanthoma 266, 279, 372
Verrucous carcinoma 279, 403f, 404, 409f
Verrucous hyperplasia 409
Verrucous leukoplakia 336, 338f
Vertebral artery 82
Vertical muscle 71, 448
Vesicle 299f
formation 280f
precedes ulcer 281
Vesicular-ulcerated-erythematous surface lesions 248
Vesiculobullous disorders, management of 317
Vesiculobullous lesions 298, 298t, 299, 299fc, 300t, 682
classification of 300t
clinical diagnosis of 298
management of 316
Vesiculo-ulcerative lesions, immune mediated 298
Vessel 37
deep 85
vasculitis, large 600
Vestibular lamina 27, 28
proliferates 491
Vestibular mucosa 196
Vibrio vulnificus 127
Victim's dental impressions 800
Vidian nerve 80
Vigabatrin 241
Villonodular synovitis 599, 626
pigmented 626
Vinca alkaloids 141
Vincent's infection 236
Vincent's stomatitis 236
Virus
infection 333
picornaviridae family of 284
Viscerocranium 12
Visco-supplementation strategy enhances 597
Vision changes 276
Visual analog scale 178
score 594, 663, 828
Visual assessment 185
Visual examination 183
Vital importance, document of 169
Vital signs 183, 664, 733, 829
Vitamin 145, 700, 701t
A 145, 394, 701
deficiency 472
B complex 700
deficiency 326, 456
C 145, 701
administration 243
deficiency 574
insufficiency 739
D 576, 701
dependent rickets 512
resistant rickets 512
supplements 302, 311, 576
deficiencies 451
E 145, 701
K 702
Vitiligo 264, 306
labial 265
Vizilite chemiluminescent light stick 417
Voice box 58
Volatile liquids 109
Volatile organic compounds 755f
Volumetric arc therapy 423
Vomer bone 52
Vomeronasal organ of Jacobson 528
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome 350, 352
von Recklinghausen's
disease 251
neurofibromatosis 5, 366
Voriconazole 133135
Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia 279, 306
Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome 305, 341
W
Wagenmann-Froboese syndrome 366
Walamycin 131
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia 413, 638
Waldeyer's inner ring 371, 453
Waldeyer's ring 89, 89, 208, 568
Warthin's duct 644f
Warthin's tumor 640, 651, 652f
Warts 372, 374f
Warty dyskeratoma 355
Weak muscle tone 722f
Webster's classification 799
Wegener's granulomatosis 143, 225, 318, 328, 363
Western blot technique 287, 301
Wet Nikolsky's sign 300
Wharton's duct 72, 210, 639f, 685f
bilateral 641f
Whipple disease 127
White and red patch, mixed 403
White blood
cell disorder 705
count count 100
White keratotic lesion 462f
White lesions 305, 333, 354
affecting oral mucosa, causes of 354t
classification of 355
White mucosal lesions 357
White oral lesions 355t
White patch 402
White sponge nevus 355, 356, 750
White spot lesions 482
White strawberry tongue 273, 457
White tongue 468f
Whitish-gray edematous lesion 357f
Whole mouth odor 766
Wiedemann syndrome 576
Wilcoxon signed-rank test 814
Wilkes’ staging 593b
Wired pain 658
Wisdom tooth 478
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome 253
Witkop classification 509t
Woody tongue 278
Wormian bones 572
Wound dressings 165
Wrist
enlarged 228
lick test 766, 767f
pivot method 612
Wyburn-Mason syndrome 352, 353
X
Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes 393
Xeroderma 425
pigmentosum 305, 347, 409
Xerophthalmia 647
Xerosis 703
Xerostomia 156, 163, 268, 284, 287, 426, 451, 466, 466f, 470, 635, 641f, 647, 684, 689, 690
treatment of 269
Xithrone 129
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 283
X-linked recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex 305
Y
Yellow dentin 284
Yim-Ebbin syndrome 437
Yttrium scandium gallium garnet 160
Yunis-Varon syndrome 587
Z
Zaleplon 116
Zanamivir 136
Zanocin 122
Zemetril 126
Zenflox 122
Zenker's diverticulum 764
Zidovudine 260
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 225
Zinc 260
aids 702
candida 281
gluconate 473
sulfate 341
supplementation 473
Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome 355
Zithromax 129
Zoderm 135
Zolpidem 116
Zona pellucida 582
Zopiclone 116
Zorovon 111
Zoster
dissemination of 283
lesions of 282
sine herpete 676
Z-test 814
Zygoma 38, 39, 315f
maxillary process of 38
Zygomatic arch 39, 42
Zygomatic bone 51, 62, 586
Zygomatic cartilage 20
Zygomatic nerve 77
Zygomatic process 50, 51
anterior part of 276f
Zygomaticoalveolar crest 51
Zygomaticofacial exits 77
Zygomaticomaxillary suture 20
Zygomaticotemporal exits 77
Zygomaticotemporal suture 20
Zygomaticus major 67
Zygote 3, 3f
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Essentials of ORAL MEDICINE
Essentials of ORAL MEDICINE
Freny Rashmiraj Karjodkar BDS MDS Ex-Professor and Head Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology Nair Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai President, Maharashtra Branch of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology (2023-2025) Practising Oral Physician and Maxillofacial Radiologist at Karjodkar's Speciality Dental Clinic Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Foreword Sanjay M Mallya
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
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© 2024, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
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Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s) assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to use of material in this book.
This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.
Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission to reproduce copyright material. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
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Essentials of Oral Medicine
First Edition: 2024
9789356961739
Printed at
My husband, Dr Rashmiraj Karjodkar
Though today you are not beside me, I can see you smile and say, “With every book, you write, you make me more famous…..”
Foreword
It is my pleasure and privilege to write the Foreword to the first edition of Essentials of Oral Medicine, authored by Dr Freny Karjodkar. I have known Dr Karjodkar for over three decades—she was my teacher and over the years, we have collaborated on many scholarly and educational projects. I recall the abundance of clinical oral medicine cases during my postgraduate days at the Nair Hospital Dental College, Maharashtra, India, both in volume and variety. Undoubtedly, she has harnessed the learning from her vast clinical experience to present the reader with foundational and practical clinical knowledge of oral medicine. Her passion for the subject is evident—she has published several manuscripts and has previously edited Textbook on Oral Radiology. Thus, I am not surprised that she has embarked on this new project to promote contemporary knowledge in oral medicine.
The clinical specialty of Essentials of Oral Medicine addresses oral health of medically-complex patients. Clinical oral medicine is an emerging need in the Indian population—the Global Burden of Disease project identifies hypertension, diabetes and smoking among the top five risk factors that contribute to overall disease burden, emphasizing the need to manage this growing cohort of individuals with medical conditions. Oral medicine specialists diagnose and manage oral manifestations of medically-related diseases and other conditions that involve the oral and maxillofacial region, and their involvement can substantively improve patient care and treatment outcomes. In parallel, scientific and technological advances have markedly changed approaches to diagnosis and therapy of diseases in general. This requires the treating dentist to be familiar with current disease classifications, molecular diagnostics and newer targeted therapies. I believe that this edition of book is timely and will address the educational needs of the dental students and the practicing dentists.
As an Editor, I appreciate the intensity of effort that goes into writing a comprehensive textbook, but I also recognize the gratification that comes with this mammoth task, and I hope that this joy is manifested in your reading of this book.
Sanjay M Mallya
BDS MDS (Oral Medicine and Radiology) PhD (Biomedical Sciences)
Professor and Chair
Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
School of Dentistry
University of California Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, United States
Preface
This book was motivated by the desire to further the evolution of Oral Medicine with emphasis on incorporation of the latest/updated classifications and treatment modalities. Oral Medicine is a rapidly growing clinical specialty incorporating the diagnosis and treatment of patients with a wide spectrum of disorders involving the oral cavity.
Medical education continues to be in a constant state of flux. The aim of any author is to experiment with available information, striving to refine, define, update, and narrow the gap between the what, how, and why of what is being informed and the state of our current knowledge. Academic traditions are rigidly cemented into place by a “yardstick of established norms,” so any effort to change becomes challenging and medical, clinical, and scientific relevance receive secondary considerations.
What the art of medicine always requires, is a strong foundation in the basic sciences. To fully appreciate and understand the complexities and nuances of variation in all of us. Anatomy is the keystone in that foundation, hence chapters on “embryology and anatomy of the head and face region” have been introduced in the beginning.
As rightly understood Oral Mucosa is the mirror of general health of an individual, one cannot imagine the plethora of disorders that affect the oral cavity, including genetic diseases, infections, cancers, blood diseases, skin diseases, endocrine and metabolic disorders, autoimmune, rheumatologic diseases, local lesions, diffuse lesions, generalized lesions, etc., not only is the list boundless but the overlay of clinical signs and symptoms of various diseases many a times may be quite a trying experience for the Oral Physician. To achieve the optimum goals, the clinician has to broaden his/her knowledge base and clinical skills.
This book is the distillation of my clinical experience and is intended to help, solve the diagnostic problems posed by oral diseases and to serve three associated audiences—students, educators, and practising dentists. The prime concern of this book is how to help students become competent learners by applying the acquired knowledge to the practical scenario. Furthermore, current research on the learning process and the prevalence of technology in our society emphasize the need for teachers to instruct students in ways that will ensure that learning occurs for all.
The manifestation of oral mucosal lesions is quite variable, ranging from a discoloration to broad, diffuse tumefactions. The specific duration, location, number, distribution, size, and shape of the lesion(s) may also be of diagnostic importance. Moreover, to obtain an accurate diagnosis, thorough dental, medical, family, and social histories are required, and various diagnostic and laboratory tests, including biopsy, may be necessary. Thus, an understanding of the various disorders and substances that can contribute to oral mucosal lesions is essential for the appropriate evaluation, diagnosis, and management.
Many a times, the lesion may present as a vesiculobullous lesion and then progress to form an ulcer or lesions that are associated with mucosal discoloration may be of vascular origin. I and my contributors have tried to iron out the overlay and classify them in the most appropriate division to avoid replication of text, a referral page is given where the lesion has been discussed elsewhere in more detail and/or in cases where the entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis. If reading is coordinated with our book on Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, the information becomes complete.
Similar is the growth of diagnostic and treatment modalities for the various armamentarium of the oral cavity, be it the oral breath, saliva, jaw bones and the temporomandibular joint. We have tried to showcase these disorders along with their newer and modern diagnostic applications.
The oral physician needs to keep updated in orofacial pain, management of medically compromised patients (including geriatric and pediatric patients) and forensic stomatology, which are the right and left arms of today's oral medicine.
When we started to work in this field thirty years ago, one could not imagine the exponential growth in the understanding of basic principles of clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment of lesions of the head-face region. Advantageously, the oral cavity is accessible to visual examination, and we have managed to record most of the lesions in color photographs, pre- and post-treatment, which encompass a broad-spectrum of common and rare oral disorders. The most descriptive and educationally useful illustrations have been used in this book and we hope that they will serve as a comprehensive pictorial guide for diagnostic problems of the oral diseases and will be referred to in places where the war against oral disorders is waged daily, that are dental schools, hospitals, and private clinics.
Freny Rashmiraj Karjodkar
Acknowledgment
This book has evolved like a phoenix, arising from the ashes of a forgotten manuscript which was conceptualized nearly 20 years ago. The fact is that, it has finally seen the light of the day is the consequence and motivation from my “Maecenas's”.
With folded hands and bowed head, I thank the Almighty for helping me to nurture and pen my thoughts.
I am beholden to my alma mater, Nair Hospital Dental College, Maharashtra, India and my teachers who encouraged and helped groom my abilities. The encouragement of my classmates and colleagues. My students, whose questions have inspired me to keep innovating and updating my knowledge.
My family: My mother—Naju, aunt—Moti, brother—Karl and family for their support, husband—Mr Rashmiraj Karjodkar for his inspiration and confidence in me, my children—Mohnish, Raveena and Dimpy for understanding and tolerating my mood swings as I got engrossed with writing this book.
I am thankful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman) for having faith in me and giving an open platform to experiment and write and Dr Madhu Choudhary (Director–Educational Publishing) for her support. Special thanks to Dr Upma Tomar (Development Editor) who tolerated all my emails/phone calls and WhatsApp messages even late in the night.
Also I gratefully thank Mr Ankit Vij (Managing Director), Mr MS Mani (Group President), Ms Pooja Bhandari [Director–Production (Books and Journals)], Ms Sunita Katla (Executive Assistant to Group Chairman and Publishing Manager) and Mr Ajay Sharma [DGM-Production (Books and Journals)] for their all-round support as and when needed. Last but not the least, I also acknowledge the support of Ms Samina Khan (Executive Assistant to Director–Educational Publishing), Mr Rajesh Sharma (Production Coordinator), Ms Seema Dogra (Cover Visualizer), Mr Deepak Saxena (Typesetter), Mr Binay (Proofreader), Ms Neelam Kakriya (Proofreader), Mr Sharvan Kumar (Graphic Designer), and wish to thank all others of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India, who worked for this project.
My contributors—to them I quote; “Knowledge shared is knowledge squared” ……… Unknown
Sharing what you know helps you learn as in this exercise, the contributors, researches, synthesizes multiple viewpoints, and crystallizes ideas, thus increasing self-knowledge. This is a list of my colleagues and friends who have unstintingly whole-heartedly shared their knowledge and experience thereby making the understanding of this book a more wholesome and knowledgable experience. Their contributions will help our readers to test, apply, build, validate, refine, and expand on the information shared. When you share, it gets others to also share, setting up an abyssal process which increases the total body of knowledge.
I whole-heartedly recognize the contribution of Dr Archana Mehra, Dr Isha Mishra and Dr Ruchika Kapoor who have been with me from the conception of this book, the topics to be covered and introduction of new chapters on recent advances. They have scrutinized every chapter giving inputs, additions, and subtractions to the text, looking into the academic inputs, grammar, spelling mistakes, etc. This book would not have emerged without their assistance.
The thorough review with corrections and further inputs of recent classifications/investigations/treatment modalities for the various pathologies were with the involvement of Dr Madavi Waghmare, Dr Vasavi Santosh, Dr Prashant Nahar, Dr Neha Patil, Dr Sneha Sharma, Dr Satyapal Johaley, Dr Vikram Khanna, Dr Samiksha Chavan and Dr Ayushi Mangulkar.
Dr Shivani Singh, Dr Tanushree Jadhav and Dr Aswathi Unnikrishnan, my postgraduate students, gave their student point of view as regards the requirements for the two chapters that we have endeavored to introduce in the book; namely Chapter 1 Embryology and Development of Head and Face and Chapter 2 Anatomy of Head and Face. What was the information in already existing textbooks in the market and the student requirement from Oral Medicine perspective, was described by the threesome.
I am truly grateful for the expert advice and inputs by Dr Hemlata Pandey (Chapter 23 Forensic Stomatology) and Dr Vineet Vinay (Chapter 24 Clinical Research) both these personalities are renowned in their field of expertize namely Forensic Odontology and Biostatistics respectively. Their acceptance to contribute and review the chapters have greatly enhanced the academic value of this book.
I take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of:
Moreover, this book would not have become so depictive and illustrative, if all the above clinicians had not contributed their clinical expertize in the form of photographs from their database.
Finally, a salutation to our readers because as Samuel Johnson said, “A writer only begins a book. The reader finishes it.”