Clinical Update: Lifestyle Medicine S Arulrhaj, Vivek Chandra
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure and t refer to table.
A
Acidosis, metabolic 23
Adipocytes 31
Aerobic exercise 6, 7, 9
types of 7
AIDS 16
Alcohol drinking 10
Alcoholism 49
Alzheimer's disease 2, 18, 56
American College of Sports Medicine 42
American Diabetes Association 29
American Heart Association 4, 25
American Institute for Cancer Research 31
American Pain Society 54
American Stroke Association 33
Anaerobic exercise 6, 7
Angina pectoris 10
Anorexia nervosa 2
Anxiety 50, 56
Arrhythmia 6
Arthritis 18
Asana 45
Asthma 18, 19
Atherosclerosis 18
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 27
B
Balanced diet 3, 11
Behavioral therapy 9, 10
Bipolar disorder 49
Blood
cholesterol, treatment of 27
pressure 6, 10
sugar 6
Body 50
immunity of 11
mass index 9, 23, 40
weight 8
Bone 6
Breathing techniques 34, 45
Brisk walking 6, 7
Bruxism 49
C
Calcium 24
Cancer 2, 18, 31, 55, 56
breast 18
colonic 2
colorectal 18
endometrial 18
lung 18
prostate 18
types of 8
Carbohydrates 4
low-quality 5
Carcinoma 17, 19
Cardiac ischemia 6
Cardiomyopathy 10
Cardiovascular disease 13, 17, 19, 25, 39, 50, 56
prevention of 5
Cardiovascular health metrics 26, 39
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 26
Cerebral dystrophy 2
Cerebrovascular disease 53
Chitta vritti 45
Cholesterol 2, 4
Chronic diseases 13, 19, 63
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 18, 19, 34
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders 49
Cirrhosis 18
Constipation 2
Coronary artery disease 3, 56
Coronary heart disease 8, 9, 26
Couch syndrome 3
Cycling 6, 7
D
Dementia 33, 56
Depression 18, 34, 49, 50, 54, 56
Dharana 45
Dhyana 45
Diabetes mellitus 2, 5, 8, 10, 19, 2729
type 1 28
type 2 2, 8, 17, 18, 28, 54, 62
Diabetes prevention program 28, 62
Dietary approach to stop hypertension 4, 27, 43
Diets 3, 40, 56
benefits of 59
Disability-adjusted life years 15
Dyslipidemia 2, 27
Dyspepsia 2
Dyssomnias 49
E
Endocrine function 56
Endothelial nitrous oxide 6
Exercise 40, 42
cardiovascular benefits of 6t
indoor 6
level 56
prescription 6
role of 5
F
Fat
monounsaturated 4
saturated 4
Fiber 4
Fibrinogen 6
Fibrinolytic activity 5, 6
G
Gallbladder disease 8
Gastrointestinal diseases 2
Ghrelin 8
Glomerular filtration rate 22
Glomerular protein 23
Glucose 2, 5
Glycemic control 5
Gout 8
H
Health 1
behaviors 56
Healthcare 51, 53
Heart
attack 3, 19
disease 2, 8, 18
failure 6
High-density lipoprotein 5, 6, 10
cholesterol 6, 30
HIV infection 16, 55
Hyperfiltration 23
Hyperglycemia 20
Hypersomnia 49
Hypertension 2, 3, 8, 18, 27, 39, 42, 54, 56
causes of 3
improvement of 5
I
Immune function 56
Immunity 11
Infections 35
Insomnia 49, 50
Insulin sensitivity 6
Internal bowel syndrome 2
International Diabetes Federation 28
International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism 22
J
Jogging 6
Joint 39
K
Kidney 3, 24
disease, chronic 22
failure, chronic 18
L
Left ventricular mass 6
Lifestyle
diseases 1, 2, 18
medicine 2, 13, 14, 39, 67, 68
rectification, benefits of 39
Lipoprotein
high-density 5, 6, 10
low-density 5, 6, 10
Liver 3
disease 18
Low carbohydrate 9
Low fat 9
Low-density lipoprotein 5, 6, 10
cholesterol 6, 30
Low-protein diet 23, 24
M
Malmo feasibility study 5
Medical nutrition therapy 29
Medicine 42, 51
Meditation 7
Mediterranean diet 9, 27, 60
Memory 45
Mental health 55
Mesangial-cell 24
Metabolic diseases 39
Metabolic risk factors 20
Metabolic syndrome 12, 18
Mind 50
Mobility 9
Modern medicine 51, 52
Mortality 54
rate 10
Multiple sclerosis 2
Muscle
mass 6
strength 6
Myocardial infarction 5, 50
N
Narcolepsy 49
National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reductions 25
National Institute of Health and Family Welfare 52
Nervous system diseases 2
Niyama 45
Noncommunicable diseases 1820, 39
control of 20
prevention of 20
Nutrition 26, 35, 42, 59
types 59
O
Obesity 2, 5, 8, 10, 18, 20, 29, 39, 43
abdominal 6
classification of 9t
society 26
Optimism 56
Oral hypoglycemic agents 7
Osteoarthritis 2, 8, 42
Osteoporosis 18
Overweight 20, 43
classification of 9t
P
Pain 56
Paleo diet 59
Pancreas 2
Parasomnias 49
Peptic ulcer 2
Physical activity 5, 9, 26, 39, 41, 44, 60
Plasma lipids 10
Platelet aggregation 6
Polycystic ovarian syndrome 18
Polyunsaturated fatty acid 4
Potassium phosphorus 24
Pranayama 45
Pratyahara 45
Prediabetes 27, 28
Protein 4
energy wasting 22
high 9
Pulmonary disease 2, 53
Q
Quitting smoking and alcohol 61
R
Rapid eye movement 48
Raw food diet 60
Rehabilitation, pulmonary 36
Relaxation techniques 7, 34
Renal replacement therapy 24
Respiratory diseases, chronic 19
Retinopathy 6
S
Samadhi 45
Schizophrenia 56
Sexual behavior 40, 56
Skeletal diseases 39
Sleep 10, 40, 45, 48
apnea 49
Smoking 27, 35
Sodium 24
South beach diet 60
Special diets 9t
Spiritual health 50, 52
Spirituality 52
role of 53, 54
Stress 34, 50
Stroke 2, 8, 18, 19
Substance abuse 40, 56
Sugar 2
Suicide 56
Surgery 9
Swimming 6, 7
T
Therapeutic lifestyle changes diet 4b
Thromboembolism 2
Tobacco 10
products 44
use of 27
smoking, adverse effects of 11f
Traditional medicine 52
Triglycerides 5, 6
V
Vascular dementia 18
Vascular disease 2
Vegan diet 60
Vitamin
C 11
E 11
W
Waist
circumference 8
hip ratio 8
measurement 8
Weight 26, 56
control 8
loss 10
enhancement of 5
maintenance 5
management 8, 9, 43
World Cancer Research Fund 31
World Health Organization 2
recommendation 4b
Y
Yama 45
Yoga 39, 45
×
Chapter Notes

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Clinical Update Lifestyle Medicine
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The editors have checked the validity of information provided in the book, and to the best of their knowledge, it is as per the standards accepted at the time of publication. The views and opinions of the authors do not represent the policies of the editors or the Indian College of Physicians (ICP) and Association of Physicians of India (API).
Clinical Update Lifestyle Medicine
Editor-in-Chief S Arulrhaj MD PhD FRCP (Glasgow, London) MBA Chief Physician and Intensivist Sundaram Arulrhaj Hospitals Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India Past National President, API Founder Chairman, Commonwealth Medical Association Trust, UK Commonwealth eVarsity Past President, Commonwealth Medical Association, UK Past National President, IMA, India Editor Vivek Chandra MBBS MD FRCP (Glasgow) FRCP (London) Consultant Physician Navin Upchar Kendra Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Clinical Update: Lifestyle Medicine / S Arulrhaj
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Contributors
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
S Arulrhaj MD PhD FRCP (Glasgow, London) MBA
Chief Physician and Intensivist
Sundaram Arulrhaj Hospitals
Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India
Past National President, API
Founder Chairman, Commonwealth Medical Association Trust, UK Commonwealth eVarsity
Past President, Commonwealth Medical Association, UK
Past National President, IMA, India
EDITOR
Vivek Chandra MBBS MD FRCP (Glasgow) FRCP (London)
Consultant Physician
Navin Upchar Kendra
Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
From the Editor-in-Chief's Desk
“The aim of medicine is to prevent disease and prolong life; the ideal of medicine
is to eliminate the need of a physician.”
—William J Mayo
“The doctor of the future will give no medicine but will instruct his patients
in care of the human frame, in diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.”
—Thomas Edison
Many consider lifestyle medicine is a relatively new subspecialty, although it has been practiced for thousands of years. Unlike conventional medicine, the focus of lifestyle medicine is at primary as well as primordial prevention. Chronic diseases are presently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for most of our healthcare expenditure. The evidence for successful interventions in four key areas—nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and stress management—to manage and control our health are mounting. Lifestyle medicine as a part of personalized treatment and prevention of chronic illnesses is a necessary cornerstone of disease management as we look to the future epidemiologic, ecologic, and interventional.
Studies have repeatedly indicated that most chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, are the result of lifestyles fueled by poor nutrition and physical inactivity.
Now we are in an epidemic of overnutrition throughout the world. More than 80% of chronic conditions could be avoided through the adoption of healthy lifestyle recommendations. Eighty percent of the population wants to live in a better state of health but do not know how to pursue it. Minimal information is given by healthcare practitioners on how to implement an effective, long-term plan to achieve health. The ongoing acceptance and adoption of a healthy lifestyle remain our greatest challenge. Implementation of lifestyle recommendations can save lives because lifestyle-related diseases are now the leading cause of mortality in the “modernized” world.
Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual's health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease.
This Association of Physicians of India (API) Clinical Updates on Lifestyle Medicine is an excellent Compendium of various facets of Lifestyle Diseases, its Causative factors, and recommendation for coming out of Lifestyle Diseases safely without lot of Morbidity and Mortality.
I put on record the unstinted efforts put forth by our Physician Colleague, Dr Vivek Chandra, from Gorakhpur in bringing out these updates effectively.
S Arulrhaj
Acknowledgments
With immense pleasure, I would like to acknowledge the contributions of the eminent Faculty who have contributed their knowledge in publishing the book “Clinical Updates on Lifestyle Medicine.”
A special gratitude to the Editor-in-Chief of this Compendium and President of the Association of Physicians of India, Dr Arulrhaj Sundaram, for his endless kind support and guidance throughout the compilation and publishing of this book.
A debt of gratitude is also owed to the ICP Dean and the Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India. I am also thankful to my parents and family for their constant encouragement and support, without which this book would be impossible.
Last but not the least, I bow my head to the Almighty who has shown the path in Life, which I feel blessed to traverse.
Vivek Chandra