Textbook of Kidney Transplantation Vinant Bhargava, Manisha Sahay, Vinay Sakhuja, Priti Meena, Amit Gupta
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table
A
ABO antigens 164
ABO-compatible 381, 383
ABO-incompatible 102, 103
desensitization protocol 381f
graft 164
kidney transplantation 370, 376, 378, 380f, 382, 384
renal transplantation, outcome of 382t
Abscess
perinephric 361
renal 362f
Absorption 115, 121
Acanthamoeba 230
Acarbose 296
Acellular pertussis 436
Achilles heel 34
Acid-fast bacillus 250, 289
Acidosis 117t
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 207, 227, 238
Actinomyces 256
Activated partial thromboplastin time 56
Active antibody-mediated rejection 163, 164
Acute allograft dysfunction 96
causes of 96
Acute allograft rejection 142
Acute antibody mediated rejection 145, 389
Acute coronary syndrome 86, 87
Acute graft dysfunction 95, 96, 97fc, 98fc
clinical presentation of 96
evaluation of 97, 98
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 223, 397f, 398
Acyclovir 207
Adefovir dipivoxil 205
Adenosine
deaminase 277
monophosphate 41f
triphosphate 41f, 115, 292
Adenoviral nephritis 171
Adenovirus infection 170, 189
Adiponectin 292
Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells 42f44f
Advisory committee 433, 459
Aggressive fluid therapy 337
Ahmedabad tolerance induction protocol 42f
Air crescent sign 219
Alanine
aminotransferase 269
glyoxylate aminotransferase 334
Albumin excretion rate 45, 51
Albuminuria 51
Alemtuzumab 102, 103
Alloantibody direct against polymorphic antigens 35
Allograft biopsy interpretation 160
Allograft compartment syndrome 73
Allograft dysfunction 87
causes of 413f
Allograft endothelium 150f
Allograft function 427
Allograft injury 150f
Allograft loss, risk factors of 347t
Allograft nephrectomy
advantages of 352t
disadvantages of 352t
indications of 352t
Allograft parenchymal complications 363
Allograft rejection 142, 143
Alloimmune injury 148
Allopurinol 131, 133, 316
Allorecognition, direct pathway of 26
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 296
Alport syndrome 52
Alveolar spaces 239f
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring 49, 281, 282
American Association for Study of Liver Diseases 197
American College of Cardiology 261
American College of Endocrinology 290
American Diabetes Association 264, 295
American Heart Association 261
American Society of Transplantation 187, 189, 427
Infectious Diseases Community of Practice 432
Amikacin 258
Aminoglycosides 207
Aminosalicylates 133
Aminosalicylic acid 133
Amoebic dysentery 231
Amoxicillin 258, 270
Amphotericin 207
B deoxycholate 229
Amsterdam 111
Amyloid 160
light-chain 57
Amyloidosis 57
Ancillary tests 160, 396, 409
Anemia 86, 139, 315
causes of 315t
Aneurysms, intracranial 58
Angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal 73, 358
Angioregression 345
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 284, 317f
inhibitors 128, 133, 260, 282, 283, 296, 314, 315, 319, 325
Angiotensin-receptor blocker 36, 128, 260, 282, 296, 315, 316, 319, 323
therapy 283
Anisakiasis 235
Anterior rectus sheath flap, tension-free closure of 74f
Antibiotic
prophylaxis 246
susceptibility testing 257
Antibody 22f
against nonhuman leukocyte antigens, detection of 35
dependent cellular
cytotoxicity 7, 27
toxicity 150
donor-specific 3, 10, 22f, 23, 26, 29, 30, 30f, 31, 31t, 34, 41, 83, 84, 95, 98, 103, 104, 129, 144, 145, 155, 163, 344, 353, 372, 374, 388
generation 27
immunoglobulin G 398
mediated rejection 7, 26, 32, 34, 83t, 95, 137, 144, 146, 151f, 153, 155, 160, 163, 191, 282, 344, 351, 373, 382, 383
chronic 138, 154t, 163, 164
management of 144t
pathogenesis of 149
testing 20f
Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody 156
Anticholinergics 91
Antidiabetic drugs 296t
Antiendothelial cell antibodies 28
Antiepileptic drugs, pharmacokinetics of 276t
Antigen presenting cell 4f, 6f, 7f, 36, 136, 143, 148
Antiglomerular basement membrane 60, 329
Anti-hepatitis C virus antibody 412
Anti-human globulin 16f, 17, 43
Anti-human leukocyte antigen 22f, 88, 136, 378, 440
antibody testing, evolution of 16f
Antihypertensive medications 284t
Antilymphocyte globulin 100
Antimetabolites, effect of 293
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody 329
Antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody 325
Antiphospholipid 329
antibody 59, 75
Antiretroviral therapy 208
combined 207
Antithymocyte globulin 21, 42f, 84, 101103, 121, 133, 134, 155, 173, 178, 181, 191, 207, 213, 238, 350, 371, 373, 374, 381f, 429
Antitubercular therapy 249, 252
Anti-tumor necrosis factor 326
Antivirals 204
prophylaxis 204
therapy 205
timing of 197
Anxiety disorder 452
Apex swap transplant registry 389
Apnea test 395, 409
Apolipoprotein 52, 261
Arrhythmias 262
Arterial anastomosis 65
Arterial blood gas 409
Arterial intimal fibrosis 151
Arterial thrombosis 86
Arteriovenous fistula 282, 358, 404
Artery 67f
catheter, pulmonary 411
hypogastric 66
systolic pressure, pulmonary 263
Artificial urinary sphincter 90
Aspartate aminotransferase 204, 269
Aspergillosis, invasive 219, 220t
Aspergillus 219
fumigatus complex 219
infections 219
Aspiration 234, 235
Aspirin 260
Association of British Clinical Diabetologist and Renal Association 294
Athena trial 133
Atovaquone 241
Atrial fibrillation 58
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome 439
Augmentation cystoplasty 91, 92
Australia New Zealand Dialysis Transplant Data System 308, 324
Autoantibody 34
Autosomal recessive congenital nephrotic syndrome 168
Azathioprine 109, 120, 121, 131, 133, 134, 134t, 135, 191, 263, 309, 316, 352
drug interactions of 133t
metabolism 132fc
Azithromycin 118, 231
B
Babesia microti 230
Babesiosis 230, 235
Bacillus calmette-guérin 435
Bacteria 182
Bacteriuria, asymptomatic 245
Balamuthia 230
Banff categories 162t
Banff classification
scheme 34
system 143
Banff schema 160
Banff scores 160
Barrier methods 430
Barry technique 68
Basal cell carcinoma 310
Basic kidney disease 60
Basiliximab 101103
B-cell 7
lymphoma, diffuse large 172, 308
neoplasms 172
receptor 27, 149
role of 7, 46
Behcet's disease 11
Belatacept 136138, 140, 157, 348, 429
De novo use of 137
mechanism of action of 136f
resistant rejections 139
Beta-cell apoptosis 292
Betaine 338
Bibliotherapy 455
Biochemical abnormality 87, 302
Biopsy
proven acute rejection 111, 121, 124, 127, 133, 134, 348
technique 355
BK nephropathy 188, 191fc, 346
BK viremia 104, 191fc
BK virus 98, 118, 127, 128, 177, 179, 186, 187, 188t, 190, 190t
diagnostic of 170
disease 189
infection 123, 177, 186t
nephropathy 96, 129, 170, 186, 187, 189, 190, 190t, 191, 348
polymerase chain reaction 188
viremia, absence of 191
Bladder 89
abnormality 89, 90fc
assessment 60
augmentation 92, 92f
dysfunction, management of 90fc
incision 92f
neurogenic 89
normal 89
overactive 91
pretransplant workup of 89
Blastocystis hominis 231
Blood
flow
renal 117
Yin-yang pattern of 367f
group 398, 402, 412
antibodies, role of 379
antigens 379
compatibilities 379, 379f
oxygenation level dependent 364
pressure 49, 85, 136, 282, 283, 284, 295, 297, 428
diastolic 49
elevated 118
monitoring, self 282
systolic 49, 283
product 57
protozoan infections 227
Bloodstream infection, catheter related 177
B-lymphocytes 100
Boceprevir 199f
Body
fluids 379
mass index 4951, 269, 289, 296, 303f, 443, 445
surface area 49
weight 44f
Bone
biopsy 303
disease 304
post-transplantation 109
disorders 358
spectrum of 301f
loss, post-transplantation 303f
marrow 39
edema 278
examination 314
suppression 123, 132
mass 303
metabolism 303f
mineral
density 109, 305
disease 301
disorder 261
specific alkaline phosphatase 305
Bortezomib 21, 42f, 43f, 156, 278
Botulinum toxin
A 91
substrate 132
Brain
abscess, magnetic resonance image of 219
death 394, 395t, 404
diagnosis 408
donation pathway 408
infections, focal 277
injury, traumatic 409
Brainstem
activity 395
death 395, 408
assessment of 395t
pathophysiology of 397, 397f
prerequisites for 409
reflexes 395, 396
Breast cancer 308
Breastfeeding 135, 430
Brincidofovir 184
British Transplantation Society Guideline 352
Bronchoalveolar lavage 227, 238, 256, 277
Bulldog clamps 65
Burkitt lymphoma 172
C
Cadaveric transplant 83
Calcineurin inhibitors 38, 85, 97, 98, 100, 114, 117t, 118, 119, 127, 128, 136, 153, 155, 162, 164, 179, 190, 191, 198, 208, 220, 249, 263, 276, 278, 282, 290, 292, 293, 306, 309, 318, 326, 344, 347, 350, 371, 373, 374, 428
levels 117t
mechanism of action of 114fc
nephrotoxicity 117
acute 9698
neurological side effects of 278t
nonrenal side effects of 118
toxicity 97, 137, 164, 346
spectrum of 166f
Calcium 304
channel blockers 118, 282, 284
oxalate crystal deposition, Birefringent fan-shaped 337f
Calcofluor white stain 224f
Cancer 187, 255, 308
donor-related 309, 310
screening 57, 312, 448
Candida pyelonephritis 171
Candidemia 221
Candidiasis 220
invasive 220, 221
Carbamazepine 133, 276
hypersensitivity 11
Carbon dioxide 79
Carcinoma, hepatocellular 271, 316
Cardiac death, donation after 407
Cardiac failure, congestive 260
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 410f
Cardiovascular disease 57, 260, 265, 446
advanced untreatable 412
screening for 261
spectrum of 262
Cataracts 108
Catastrophic brain injury 395
Catheter
care 86
directed thrombolysis 75
Cauda equina syndrome 89
Cefotaxime 258
Ceftriaxone 258
Cell death, activation-induced 6
Cellular rejection, acute 96, 114, 134, 281
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 84
Central nervous system 212, 219, 227, 256, 275, 409, 410f, 446
dysfunction 275
malignancy 279
tumors 310
Central venous
catheter 85
pressure 85
Cerebral angiography 395
Cerebrospinal fluid 276, 277
Cerebrovascular accident 275
irreversible 412
Cerebrovascular disease 279
Cesarean section, lower segment 26
Cestodes 234
Chagas disease 228, 235
Chagasic cardiomyopathy 228
Chemokine, urinary 190
Chemotherapy 311
Chest
computed tomography scan of 53, 238
radiographs 251f
X-ray 53, 57, 238
Chickenpox 132
Chimeric tolerance 40
Chloroquine 230
Cholecystitis 58
Cholelithiasis 58
Cholera 434
Chromic silver methenamine stain 172
Chronic allograft dysfunction 344
Chronic allograft injury 343, 344, 344fc, 346, 348
early detection of 347
mechanism of 345
Chronic allograft nephropathy 129, 134, 344
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 316
Cincinnati transplant tumor registry 308
Circulatory death, donation after 137, 404, 409
Cirrhosis 438
decompensated 57
Citrate 338
Clavien-Dindo system, Kocak-modified 54
Clazakizumab 157
Clindamycin 241
Clonal anergy 40
Clonal deletion 40
Clozapine 133
Cognitive disorder 452
Cold ischemic time 63
Colony-forming units 244
Column agglutination technique 379
Combined kidney pancreas transplantation 443
Combined liver 440
kidney transplantation 438
Common central nervous system infections postrenal transplantation 277t
Complement-dependent
cytotoxicity test 100
microlymphocytotoxicity test 10
Complete blood count 131, 398
Computed tomography 60, 73, 75f, 76f, 244, 250, 276, 289, 311, 356, 364, 395
angiogram 77f
contrast-enhanced 356
scan 251f
high-resolution 240, 248
urography 95
Conception, timing of 427
Connective tissue growth factor 345
Constipation 79f, 139
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis 84, 413
Continuous positive airway pressure 409
Contraception 430, 430t
Contraceptive method 430
Coronary artery disease 260, 262
screening 57
Coronavirus 215
Cortex 356f
Cortical-rim sign 359f
Corticosteroids 116, 242, 278, 292
therapy 255
Costimulatory molecules 7f
Costovertebral angle 136
Cotrimoxazole 133, 241
Cough 139
reflexes, absence of 396
COVID-19 59, 215, 434
infection 164, 191, 215, 222, 450
concomitant 191
messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines 123
pandemic 215, 222
pneumonia 182
moderate-severe 350
vaccination 433
vaccine 59, 138, 434
Cranial nerve response, absence of 396
C-reactive protein 178, 261, 315
Creatinine 337, 337t
Cross-reactive epitope group 32
Cryptococcosis 221, 222t
Cryptogenic cirrhosis 440
Cryptosporidiosis 231
Cryptosporidium infections 231
Crystalline nephropathy 160
Cuboidal metaplasia 239f
Cultured donor bone marrow 42f44f
Cushingoid appearance 108
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 293
Cyclosporine 131, 134, 189, 259, 263, 273, 278, 293, 327
intravenous 327
Cystinosis 52
Cystogram 79f
Cystoisospora belli 231
Cystoscopy 90
Cysts, renal 52
Cytochrome P450 system 284t
Cytomegalic cells 182
Cytomegalovirus 50, 53, 56, 78, 84, 85, 102, 109, 118, 123, 128, 134, 168, 172f, 176178, 181, 183f, 184t, 189, 208, 212, 238, 261, 270, 271, 291, 315, 316, 347, 364, 383, 388, 398, 428
antigens 183f
disease, laboratory features of 182t
infection 170, 182, 185, 223, 255, 294
nephritis 170
vaccines 185
Cytopenia
after kidney transplant, etiology of 317f
post-transplantation 314
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte 4f, 327
antigen 5, 7f
Cytotoxicity, complement-dependent 10, 16, 17t, 18t, 22f, 23, 28, 83, 150, 289, 350, 370, 374, 408
D
Daclatasvir 199, 199f
Dapsone 241
Daratumumab 157
Dasabuvir 199f
De novo
disease 160
donor-specific antibodies 29, 344
glomerulonephritis 166, 323
malignancies 309
membranous nephropathy 168
primary infection 249
purine synthesis, inhibition of 122fc
Death, clinical determination of 410f
Deep venous thrombosis 86
Deglycerate dehydrogenase 335
Delirium 452
Dendritic cells 5, 8
Dense deposit disease 60, 325
Deoxyribonucleic acid 3, 6f, 10, 11, 12f, 13f, 15, 41, 53, 122, 131, 132, 140, 152, 171, 181, 186, 190, 202, 229, 271, 277, 278, 309, 337, 347, 428
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate 430
Dequalinium chloride 339
Desensitization 31, 380
Desmopressin 399
Diabetes 89, 264
control 264
and complications trial 291
insipidus 397f
central 397, 398, 399t
mellitus 10, 49, 51, 264, 282, 289, 295, 350
post-transplantation 87, 106, 108, 114, 115, 118, 197, 198, 244, 289291, 291fc, 293, 294, 296, 297, 344
Dialysis 339
after graft failure 351, 353
Diarrhea 132, 139
Dietary oxalate, restriction of 337
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid 86, 357
Digital rectal examination 57
Digital subtraction angiography 73, 358, 359
Dilated renal pelvicalyceal system 362f
Dipeptidyl peptidase 264
inhibitors 296, 297
Diphtheria 434, 436
Diphyllobothriasis 235
Direct-acting antiviral
agents 271
therapy 56
Direct-antiviral agents 195, 199f
Direct-endothelial injury 150
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 397f, 399
Distal aorta 70f
Dithiothreitol 17, 32, 379
Diverticulitis 58
Domino paired kidney exchange 387
Donor
assessment of 451, 452b
care 393, 453b
hematopoietic stem cells 45
nephrectomy 62
quality 345
service areas 402
specific antibody 3, 10, 22f, 23, 26, 29, 30, 30f, 31, 31t, 34, 41, 83, 84, 95, 98, 103, 104, 129, 144, 145, 155, 163, 344, 353, 372, 374, 388
assessment of 30
attributes of 32t
monitoring of 30
testing for 152
specific transfusion 43, 44f, 45
role of 40
types of 461
Double filtration
plasma exchange 383
plasmapheresis 373, 378
Double kidney transplants 410
Drainage, percutaneous 361
Drug
development 120
drug interaction, clinical implications of 122
interactions 132, 198, 259, 284
level monitoring 127
resistance 184
toxicity 278
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 304, 305, 358
Dyselectrolytemia 117, 117t
Dyslipidemia 108, 265
Dysplasia 89
E
Echinococcosis 234, 235
Echinococcus
granulosus 234
multilocularis 234
Echocardiography 57
Eculizumab 21, 136, 156, 318, 329
Edema, peripheral 139
Ejaculatory dysfunction 425
Elastography, transient 195
Elbasvir 198, 199, 199f
Electrocardiogram 57, 84, 305, 410f
Electroencephalogram 410f
Electrolyte 411
disturbances 275
imbalance 275
Electron microscopy 160, 162, 329
Encephalitis 277
Encephalitozoon intestinalis 231
Encephalopathy, hypertensive 276
Endarteritis 163
Endocrinopathy management 398
Endophthalmitis 219
Endoplasmic reticulum 3
Endothelial cells 5, 26
Entamoeba histolytica 231, 235
Entecavir 205, 271
Enterocytozoon bieneusi 231
Enterohepatic recirculation 122
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 15, 16f, 18, 227, 234
techniques 127
Epithelial mesenchymal transition 345
Epithelial sodium channel 282
Epstein-Barr virus 18, 53, 173, 176, 177, 213, 277, 308, 310, 310f, 315, 317f, 318, 348, 364, 388
Erythrocytosis, post-transplantation 314, 316, 319
Erythropoietin stimulating agents 314, 319
Esophageal candidiasis 208, 221
Esterase inhibitor 155, 156
Estimated glomerular filtration rate 4951, 129, 133, 155, 296, 302
Estrogen 430
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 21, 23, 32, 116
European Society of Cardiology 261
Everolimus 199, 292, 310
Excretion 126
Exophytic heteroechoic mass lesion 365f
Expanded criteria donor 54, 282
External iliac artery 73f, 355, 360f
dissection 72
Extracellular vesicles 36
Extracorporeal machine oxygenation 407
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 339
Extracorporeal therapy 380f
F
Familial non-neuropathic systemic amyloid 439
Fasting glucose, impaired 294
Fatty liver disease
metabolic associated 272
nonalcoholic 270, 272, 438
Febuxostat 133
Fertility 425
Fibronectin 37
Fibrosis, interstitial 43, 89, 129, 164, 344
Field stains 230
Fistula, lymphocutaneous 77f
Florid follicular hyperplasia 172, 318
Flow crossmatch 42f, 83
reactivity 18t
Flow cytometry 379
crossmatch 17, 18f, 23t, 373
Flowpra screening 19f
Fluid
balance 86
challenge 97
therapy, intraoperative 85
Fluorescein isothiocyanate 19
Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 259, 357
Folic acid 260, 262
Follicle-stimulating hormone 425, 426f
Foreign antigens, recognition of 4
Foscarnet 207
Fournier's gangrene 264
Fracture 303f
risk assessment tool 303
Framingham risk score 262
Fungal
culture 224f
hyphae 173f
infections 170, 171, 179, 219, 240
Fungi 182
G
Galactose 327
Gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay 144
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 269
Ganciclovir 183, 184
Gastroenteritis 179
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions 123
Gastrointestinal disease 58
Gastrointestinal motility disorders 118
GeneXpert 250
Genomic pathways 107
Giardia duodenalis 231
Giardiasis 231, 235
Giemsa stains 230
Glaucoma 108
Gleason score 59, 310
Glecaprevir 198, 199, 199f
Glibenclamide 296
Gliclazide 296
Glimepiride 296
Glipizide 296
Glomerular basement membrane 162, 168, 169f, 196
Glomerular diseases 324
Glomerular filtration rate 50, 51, 51t, 118, 129, 134, 137, 205, 241, 246, 261, 302, 315, 335, 347, 445
Glomeruli 160
ischemic necrosis of 173f
Glomerulitis 165f
segmental 161f
Glomerulonephritis 60, 164, 166, 198, 323326, 345
after kidney transplantation
classification of 323
types of 324t
chronic 100, 142, 172, 202
membranoproliferative 167, 168, 196, 324, 326
post-transplantation 324
recurrent 166, 325t
secondary 329
Glomerulopathy, transplantation 147, 155, 165f
Glomerulosclerosis focal segmental 41, 60, 96, 114, 167, 324, 325, 346
Glomerulus 161f, 169f
Glucagon-like peptide 264
agonists 289
receptor 296
agonists 295, 297
Glucocorticoids 107, 241, 281, 282, 303, 304
direct effects of 302f
indirect effects of 302f
induced leucine zipper 107
receptor 107
responsive element 106, 107
Glucose
6-phosphate dehydrogenase 229, 315
tolerance
perioperative impaired 293
test 50, 291
Glucuronide mycophenolic acid glucuronide 122
Glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase 131
Glycolate oxidase 338
Gomori's methenamine silver 221
Graft
dysfunction 78f, 95, 139
assessment 413
function, delayed 85, 134, 137, 282, 346, 353, 363
hydroureteronephrosis 77f
intolerance syndrome 352
kidney
biopsy 366
hydronephrosis of 363f
hydroureteronephrosis of 362f
parenchyma of 357f
pyonephrosis of 362f
nephrectomy 77, 172, 352
obstruction 77f
outcome 93
preparation 63
pyelonephritis 96, 98
rejection, effector phase of 5
renal artery 73f, 360f
types of 1f
Gram staining 257
Granular inclusions 170
Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor 184, 317, 433
Granulomatous disease, chronic 255
Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis 244
Grazoprevir 198, 199, 199f
Groningen 111
Ground-glass amorphous appearance 170
Grow urothelial cells 92
Growth
factor, transforming 182, 309
retardation 108
Guanosine
monophosphate synthetase 132
triphosphate 132
H
Haemophilus influenzae 433
Halo sign 219
Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy 62
Headache 139
Heart
disease, structural 260, 262
failure 262
congestive 262
Heat shock protein 107
Heavy chain deposition disease 57
Helicobacter pylori 310f
Hematologic disease 59
Hematological disorders 314
management plan for 319t
Hematoma, perinephric 360, 360f
Hematopoietic stem cells 40, 45
transplantation 255
Hematuria 86, 329, 367
microscopic 51
persistent 49, 51
Hemodialysis 84, 85, 261
Hemoglobin 49, 50, 56, 246, 314, 319
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome 60
Hemophagocytic syndrome 314, 318, 319, 319b
Hemorrhage
postoperative 86
subarachnoid 409
Hepatic dysfunction 269
Hepatic venous pressure gradient 196
Hepatitis 84
A 434
virus 434
acute 57
B 56, 59, 84, 177, 398, 412, 432, 435
antibody 53
core antibody 53, 59, 204, 398
immunoglobulin 204, 435
surface antibody 59, 398, 436
surface antigen 53, 59, 203, 412
vaccination against 59
virus 53, 59, 177, 178, 202, 205, 208, 270, 310f, 433, 440
B E-antigen 270
C 56, 177, 312, 398, 412
infection 56, 59
virus 53, 59, 177, 195198, 199f, 199t, 207, 209, 271, 289, 291, 294, 310f
chronic 59, 197
D virus 203
Hepatorenal syndrome 438
Hepcidin 314
Hernia 79
incisional 79, 79f
paratransplant 79
post-transplantation 79
Herpes simplex virus 177, 212, 270
treatment of 212t
Herpes zoster virus 212, 213, 213t
Herpesvirus infection 212
Highly active antiretroviral therapy 207, 208, 238
High-performance liquid chromatography 116, 127
Hinman-Allen syndrome 89
Histidine 85
rich protein 230
Histoplasmosis 53
Hodgkin's lymphoma 311, 351
classical 173, 318
Hoeppli-Splendore reaction 256
Hormonal contraception, combined 430
Hormone, parathyroid 56, 301, 303f, 304, 305
Horseradish peroxidase 12
Horseshoe kidney 70
Human cytomegalovirus 181
Human herpesvirus 310f, 311, 315, 317
Human immunodeficiency virus 50, 53, 56, 84, 202, 207209, 227, 238, 241, 255, 275, 289, 310f, 317f, 398, 412, 448
associated nephropathy 207
infection 187
Human leukocyte antigen 2, 2f, 3, 10, 11, 14f, 18, 19f, 20f, 22f, 23, 26, 29, 31, 32, 32t, 34, 40, 45, 46, 50, 76, 83, 102, 104, 147, 148, 164, 181, 186, 291, 325, 344, 347, 352, 370, 371f, 372, 373, 374t, 375, 376f, 387, 411, 450
advantages of 15t
antibody detection assays 16
compatibility 372
complex 10
disadvantages of 15t
matching 402
molecule, structure of 2f, 372f
nomenclature 2f
outcome of 375
sequenced-based 13f
structure 2
typing technologies 10
Human papillomavirus 214, 310f, 434
Human T-cell leukemia virus 215
Hydrocortisone 399
Hydronephrosis 283
Hydroureteronephrosis 78f, 362f
Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A 108
Hydroxypyruvate reductase 335
Hyperacute rejection 143
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 283
Hyperdense collection 360f
Hyperglycemia 397
management of 294
pathogenic mechanisms for 293t
preoperative care of 85
severe 85
transient post-transplant 290
Hyperinfection syndrome 232
Hyperkalemia 117, 139
transient 119
Hyperlipidemia 118
Hypernatremia 399
Hyperoxaluria 52, 335, 336f, 337f, 439
acquired 335
dietary 336
enteric 335
secondary 335
systemic manifestations of 336
Hyperparathyroidism 301
Hyperplasia
myointimal 166
plasmacytic 172, 318
Hypersensitivity, delayed-type 46
Hypertension 10, 49, 52, 87, 108, 117, 118, 136, 139, 263, 281, 282, 285, 296
gestational 53
mechanism of 117t
post-transplantation 282, 346
pulmonary 58, 263
resistant 285
secondary 282
treatment of 283
Hypokalemia 139
Hypomagnesemia 117, 294
Hypotension 75f, 87
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis 425
Hypovolemia 98
intravascular 74
Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 122, 132
Hypoxia 316
I
Iliac artery, common 66f
Iliac fossa 355, 362f
Iliac vessel
dimension 60
Doppler of 57
Imipenem 258
Immune
complex
kidney disease 207
mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 325
memory, assessment of 29
monitoring assays 183
system 3
Immunity, cellular arm of 38
Immunization, passive 435
Immunobiology, transplantation 1
Immunofluorescence 162, 169f, 329
Immunoglobulin
A 110, 164, 269, 281
nephropathy 167, 324, 325
G 19f, 31, 32, 83, 150, 164, 181, 372, 381f
endopeptidase 157
intravenous 21, 142, 144, 145, 155, 156, 184, 319, 373, 374, 380, 381f, 383, 435
M 17, 18, 164, 183, 227, 270, 398
nephropathy 325
Immunohistochemistry 160, 162, 171f, 172f, 183f
Immunological memory 28
Immunology, transplantation 4
Immunopathogenesis 227
Immunosuppression 83, 136, 309, 350, 380f
chronic 212
effect of 425
management of 351, 428
modification of 260, 264, 296
post-transplantation 205, 209
related factors 281
role of 309fc
therapy 198
withdrawal of 351
Immunosuppressive drugs 100, 293t, 296, 316
Immunosuppressive medications 199t
role of 303
Immunosuppressive therapy 205
Impaired glucose tolerance test 289
Incision 64
Indian Society of Nephrology 432
Indiana approach 440
Induction antithymocyte globulin 260
Induction immunosuppression therapy 104fc
classification of 101t
Induction therapy 100, 103t, 104
Infections 53, 59, 88, 123, 248, 276
malarial 230
primary 181
severity of 241t
Inflammation
chronic 275
granulomatous 160
interstitial 165f, 167f
microvascular 150, 165f
Inflammatory cytokines 345
Influenza 219, 433
Injury
ischemic 346, 74fc
nonimmune causes of 347
procurement 345
Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 121, 122, 132
Inotropes 411
Insulin 260, 399, 411, 445
Intensive care unit 138, 404, 408, 450, 460
Interferon 4f, 32, 46, 205
gamma release assays 251
regulatory factor 107
Interleukin 6f, 41f, 107, 114, 261, 315
blockade 157
receptor 381f
antagonists 101, 103
Internal iliac artery 64
International Kidney Paired Donation Programs 388
International Pancreas Transplant Registry 443
International Registry in Organ Donation and Transplantation Registry 406, 406t
International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas Methodology 406
Interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate, mild 172
Interstitium 160
Intestinal nematodes 232
Intracranial pressure 397f
Intraglomerular thrombus 167f
Intranuclear inclusion 172f
Intrauterine devices 430
Intrauterine growth retardation 428
Intravesical leadbetter-politano technique 68
Isavuconazole 220
Ischemia
cortical 345
reperfusion injury 29, 381f
Isoniazid 252, 270
Isotonic saline 398
Israel Penn Transplant Tumor Registry 308
J
Japanese encephalitis 434
John Cunningham
polyomavirus 214
virus 277
K
Kaposi sarcoma 311
Ketoglutarate 85
Kidney 98, 379, 439, 443
allocation 404t
principles 403b
allograft 355
biopsy, composite picture of 151f
failure 343
rejection, acute 144, 145fc
biopsy 56
frozen section of 413
bone-mineral
disease, management of 305
disorders 304t
congenital anomalies of 93
disease 283, 323
chronic 52, 202, 255, 261, 273, 282, 303f, 323, 337, 343, 370, 406, 425, 426f, 428, 432, 438
diabetic 120
end-stage 34, 50, 56, 136, 142, 147, 195, 244, 261, 301, 324t, 343, 352, 387, 425, 438, 443
genetic 56
improving global outcomes 109, 144, 188, 196, 204, 242, 262, 282, 303, 304, 310, 314, 426, 429
polycystic 269
pre-chronic 260
donor profile index 136, 347, 401
function 412
stage 304
glomerular disease 324t
graft implantation 63t
injury, acute 86, 328, 336, 438
insufficiency, chronic 439
paired donation 23, 387, 388f, 390t
preparation 65
replacement therapy 147, 339
solid organ response test 144, 153
stones 52
transplantation 26, 34, 38, 46t, 58, 61, 61f, 72, 88, 100, 101f, 101t103t, 106, 108t, 121, 124, 128t, 129, 142, 147, 176, 178, 208, 261, 279, 289, 301f, 305fc, 314, 318, 319t, 334, 352, 370, 371f, 378, 425, 439441
histopathology of 160
incompatible 373, 374t, 375, 376f, 387
infections in 176
isolated 339, 340
post-transplant outcome of 205
recipient 4f, 56, 83, 111, 129, 133, 176, 181, 191fc, 202, 219, 239b, 244, 246, 246b, 260, 262, 269, 275, 276, 281, 283b, 289, 294, 297, 301, 303t, 308, 314, 426, 428, 428t, 430t, 432, 434, 435, 435t, 450
surgical techniques of 61
total 394f
ultrasound of 57
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors 151
Klebsiella pneumoniae 178
L
Lacosamide 276
Lactate dehydrogenase 240, 317, 328, 334
Lactation 119
Lamivudine 204
Lamotrigine 276
Laparoscopic right donor nephrectomy 62
Late allograft failure, causes of 351
Ledipasvir 198, 199
Leflunomide 189
Left ventricular hypertrophy 260
Leishmania
donovani 228
infection 228
Leishmaniasis 228
cutaneous 235
mucocutaneous 235
Leptin 292
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome 120
Letermovir 184
Leukocytes 56
Leukocytosis 361f
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal 177, 214, 277
Leukopenia 86, 139, 314
drug-induced 316
post-transplantation 316
Levetiracetam 276
Levonorgestrel 430
Leydig cell dysfunction 425
Light chain deposition disease 57
Linagliptin 296
Linezolid 258
Lipase 398
Lipoprotein
high-density 269
low-density 118, 265, 269, 296
Liposomal amphotericin B 229
Live attenuated vaccines 123
Live donor kidney transplant 387
Live vaccines 432
Liver 334, 439, 446
disease 58, 273
causes of 270t
chronic 438
polycystic 273
post-transplantation 196
staging of 195
enzymes 56
abnormal 269
function 412
test 56, 86, 131, 398
injury, drug-induced 272
stiffness measurement 269
transplantation 338
Living donor 461
kidney 65
transplantation 104fc, 370
liver transplantation 340
Living kidney donation
contraindications for 50b
risk factors for 49t
Living kidney donors 54, 402
evaluation of 49, 50t
Lomentospora prolificans 223
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification 240
Low ionic strength solution 379
Lumasiran 338
Luminex
assay 19
based reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide method, principle of 13f
crossmatch 21, 22f
platform-based assays 19
sequence-specific oligonucleotide 12
Lung 446
alveoli, histopathology of 239f
injury, acute 397f
lesions 256
Lupus nephritis 10
Luteinizing hormone 426f
Lymphatics, ligation of 64
Lymphocele 76, 77f, 86, 96, 361
posterolateral 77f
Lymphocytotoxicity
assay, modifications of 16, 17t
crossmatch 42f
tests 2
Lymphoid tissue 36
Lymphoma 215
Lymphopenia 316
M
Maastricht classification 404t
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 302f
Magnesium concentration 338
Magnetic resonance
angiography 73
imaging 234, 256, 276, 277, 306, 355, 357, 395
Major depressive disorder 452
Major histocompatibility complex 2, 2f, 4f, 7f, 20, 26, 34, 36, 39, 41f, 370
Malaria 229, 235
Malignancy 52, 59, 118, 209, 308, 312, 316
recurrent 309
Malnutrition 275
Mammalian target of rapamycin 38, 75, 118, 126, 127, 153, 155, 212, 259, 265, 291, 293, 315, 317f, 319, 326
complexes 126
inhibitor 101f, 126, 127, 127tt, 128, 128t, 292, 293, 429
mechanism of action of 126f
Maribavir 184
Mean arterial pressure 398, 411
Mean fluorescence intensity 30, 32, 83, 137, 155, 156, 373, 374
Measles, mumps, and rubella 132
vaccine 435
Medicolegal cases 407, 463
Medulla 356f
Meglitinide 296
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, complement-mediated 325
Meningitis 277
Mental status 454
Mercaptoacetyltriglycine 357
Mesangial granular immunoglobulin A 169f
Mesenchymal stem cells 40
role of 40
Messenger ribonucleic acid 126, 188, 229
Metabolism 115, 122, 126, 131
Metformin 296
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 364
Methylmalonic aciduria 439
Methylmercaptopurine 132
nucleotide 132
Methylprednisolone 191, 399
Microbiology 240, 245
Microparticle enzyme immunoassays 116
Micro-ribonucleic acids, quantification of 145
Microsporidiosis 231, 235
Miltefosine 229
plus paromomycin 229
Mineral bone disease 301
Minimum inhibitory concentration 257
Mini-Pfannenstiel incision 62
Minocycline 258
Minor histocompatibility antigens 3, 34
Mitogen-activated protein kinases 6f, 106, 107
Molecular blood biomarkers 144
Molecular microscope diagnostic system 153
Molecular mismatch analysis 32t
Monoclonal deposition disease 160
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 345
Mononucleosis, infectious 172, 318
Monophosphate 122
Motivation enhancement therapy 456
Motor cranial nerve 395
Mucormycosis 222, 222t
risk factors for 289
Multiorgan
dysfunction syndrome 235
transplants 139
Multiple inflammatory mediators, steroids reduce expression of 108
Multivitamins 260
Mumps 436
Muscle relaxants 91
Musculoskeletal manifestations 301
Mycobacteria, nontuberculous 253
Mycophenolate 344
mofetil 41, 87, 108, 111, 114116, 118, 120, 121t, 122124, 131, 134, 155, 166, 178, 190, 191, 199, 207, 209, 219, 231, 238, 244, 255, 260, 263, 281, 289, 293, 309, 323, 350, 371, 374, 380f, 381f, 426, 429
clinical pharmacokinetics of 122f
mechanism of action of 122fc
sodium 120
steroids sparing study 133, 134
Mycophenolic acid 103, 120122, 122f, 124, 129, 139, 189, 191, 316, 426
drug level monitoring 124
glucuronide 122f
Myelodysplastic syndromes 314
Myeloid neoplasms 319
Myeloma, multiple 57
Myocardial perfusion 58
Myocytes, vacuolation of 166f
N
Naegleria
fowleri 230
infections 231
Naïve B cells 27
Nateglinide 296
National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program 291
National Institutes of Health 16, 16f, 17
National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization 403, 403b, 408, 412, 464
Natural killer cells 7, 29, 36, 46, 150
Natural orifice 62
transluminal endoscopic surgery 62
Nausea 132, 139
Necrosis, ischemic 173f
Necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes, enlarged 251f
Nedosiran 338
Negative predictive value 153, 52
Neoplastic diseases 123
Nephrectomy 62
pretransplant 60
retroperitoneal laparoscopic 62
Nephrocalcinosis 334
bilateral 335f
Nephrolithiasis, recurrent 334
Nephron loss 167
Nephropathy 106
diabetic 207
ischemic 283
membranous 60, 196, 324, 325, 328
Nephrostogram, antegrade 78f
Nephrostomy, percutaneous 78f
Nephrotoxicity
chronic 119
drug-related 364
Neurological disease 58, 275
evaluation in 58
Neurological disorder 215, 275
Neuromodulation 91
Neuroschistosomiasis 233
Neurotoxicity, mechanism of 278
Neutrophils
infiltrate of 161f
suppression 46
New-onset diabetes after transplantation 137, 168, 197, 264, 290, 351
Next-generation sequencing 10, 14, 15, 144
Nippostrongylus brasiliensis 256
Nocardia 255, 256
farcinica 255
nova 256
otitidiscaviarum 256
Nocardiosis 255, 256, 259
cutaneous 257
invasive 256
lymphatic cutaneous 256
pulmonary 257
Nomenclature 2, 289
Nondestructive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder 172
Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers 263
Nondirected anonymous donors 387
Nonheart transplant 228
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 308
Nonhuman leukocyte antigen 18f, 34, 36, 36t
antibodies 29, 35, 152, 164
Nonmelanoma skin cancer 310
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 208
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 270
Nontransplant organ retrieval centers 407
Normal transplant kidney 357f
Doppler features of 356f
Nuclear factor kappa-beta, receptor activator of 302f
Nuclear medicine 357
Nucleic acid amplification testing 53, 183, 195, 250
O
Obesity 51, 60, 265
central 293
prevalence of 265
Obstruction 89
Obstructive sleep apnea 282, 283
Ofatumumab 327
Oligoanuria, postoperative 87
Oligonucleotide
assay, sequence-specific 12f
probe, sequence-specific 10, 11
Ombitasvir 199
Oncogenic viruses 310
Oral antibiotic regimens 258
Oral contraceptive pills 270
Oral glucose tolerance test 289, 294
Oral hypoglycemic agents 260
Oral polio vaccine 435
Oral therapy 258
Organ
allocation 401, 412, 414, 464
systems 401
donation of 463
donor
maintenance 410
specific management of 398
procurement 102, 209
retrieval 411
transplantation 102, 187, 209, 413
awareness 226
evolution of 393
recipients 234fc, 235t
solid 255, 451
Osteomalacia 301
Osteonecrosis 301, 305
Osteopenia 303
Osteoporosis 108, 301, 303
prevalence of 304
Osteoprotegerin 302f
Owl's eye appearance 182
Oxabact 338
Oxalate 334, 337, 337t
metabolism 334
reduction strategies 340
Oxalobacter formigenes 334, 338
Oxalosis, systemic 336
Oxazyme 338
Oxybutynin 91
P
Packed cell volume 319
Packed red cells 57
Pain syndrome 278, 306
Pancreas 64, 379, 443
transplants 443
Pancreatitis, chronic 58
Pancytopenia 314, 316, 317
Panel reactive antibody 10, 23, 148, 352
Papanicolaou test 215
Parasitic diseases 226
Parasitic infection 226, 235t
post-transplantation 235
Parathyroidectomy 60
total 305
Parenchymal renal disease 438
Paritaprevir 199
Paromomycin 229, 231
Partial thromboplastin time 411
Parvus et tardus 281
Passenger lymphocyte syndrome 318
Peak systolic velocity 73, 356
Pediatric donor
en bloc kidneys 69
kidneys, preparation of 71f
Pediatric kidneys, transplantation of 69, 69f, 285
Penicillium brevicompactum 120
Pentamidine 241
Peptic ulcer disease 58
Peptide major histocompatibility complex 149f
Perigraft hematoma 74, 75f
Perinephric collection 88, 360
Periodic acid-Schiff 162, 169f
Peripheral blood 145
mononuclear cell 46, 347
stem cells 43
Peripheral nervous system 275
dysfunction 276
Peripheral vascular disease, evaluation of 447
Peritoneal cavity 70f
Peritoneal dialysis 84, 85, 339, 352
Peritubular capillaries 151, 155, 345
Perlecan 37
Peroxidase, streptavidin-horseradish 12f
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 302f
Pertussis 434
Pfizer vaccine 138
Pharmacokinetics 106, 131, 276t
clinical 115, 126
Pharmacotherapy 264
Phenobarbital 276
Phenotype panels 20
Phenytoin 276
Pheohyphomycosis 223
Phosphatase, dual-specificity 106
Phosphate
disorders 301
urinary 338
Phospholipase 107
Phycoerythrin, streptavidin-conjugated 12
Pibrentasvir 198, 199
Pioglitazone 296
Plasma
cells 100
myeloma 172
exchange 144, 327, 383
glucose, fasting 290
Plasmacytoma 172
Plasmapheresis 156, 318, 327, 374, 381f
Plasminogen activating factor-1 345
Plasmodium falciparum 229
Platelets 56, 57
derived growth factor 345
ratio index 204
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 433, 436
Pneumococcal polysaccharide 436
vaccine 436
Pneumocystis 239, 240
carinii 238
jirovecii 179, 223, 238, 249
pneumonia 84, 123, 250
pneumonia 223, 241, 241t
diagnosis of 240t
infection 208
prophylaxis of 242t
risk factors for 239b
treatment of 241t
Pneumonia, community acquired 255
Polio 132
Polyclonal globulins 102t
Polycystic kidney disease 269
autosomal
dominant 52, 58, 63, 207, 270, 273, 291, 316
recessive 270
Polycystic liver disease 273
Polymerase chain reaction 10, 11, 13f, 14f, 15, 187, 188, 191, 203, 212, 220, 227, 228, 234, 240, 250, 257, 277, 278
Polyomavirus nephropathy 160, 164, 344
Posaconazole 220
Positive end-expiratory pressure 411
Positive predictive value 153
Postchemotherapy 89
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 276, 278
Post-kidney transplantation course 204
Postradiation 89
Postrenal transplantation 266fc
alterations 301
recipients 261t
Post-transplantation anemia 314, 315, 315fc, 319
causes of 314
prevalence of 314
treatment of 315
Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus 197, 198, 289, 291, 291fc, 293, 294, 296, 297
diagnosis of 290, 291t
impact of 297
incidence of 290
management of 294, 295b
pathogenesis of 290
prevalence of 290
screening of 290
Post-transplantation hypertension 282, 346
etiology of 281
mechanism of 282fc
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease 102, 118, 129, 137, 145, 172, 173, 177, 197, 214, 277, 308, 311, 357, 365, 376
risk of 197
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder 308, 309, 314, 318
Post-transplantation malignancy 129, 308, 310f, 312
classification of 309t
etiopathogenesis of 309fc
Post-transplantation tuberculosis 250t, 251f, 253
recurrence of 253
Post-traumatic stress disorder 452, 454
Post-tuberculosis 89
Postvoid residual urine 90
Praziquantel 233
Prednisolone 255, 311
Preeclampsia 53
Pre-existing neurological disease 275
Pregnancy 57, 119, 123, 135, 187, 426, 427
management of 427
risks 53
Pretransplant hemolytic uremic syndrome 318
Primaquine 241
Probiotics 339
Progestin 430
only pills 430
Propantheline bromide 91
Propè tolerance 38
Prostate cancer 308
Prostatic enlargement 89
Proteasome inhibitors 156, 373
Proteins
creatinine ratio 126
serum 56
Proteinuria 329
Prothrombin time 56
Proton pump inhibitor 84
Proximal tubules 166f, 297
Prune belly syndrome 89
Pseudoaneurysm 76, 77f
juxta-anastomotic 76
Pseudomonas 240
aeruginosa 245
Psoas muscle 70f
Psychiatric disease 59
Psychiatric disorders 279
Psychotic disorder 452
Pyelonephritis 89
acute 170, 171, 245
Pyperoxaluria, primary 96, 334336, 338t, 339, 341, 441
Pyrexia 139, 250
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate 338
Pyridoxine 338
high-dose 338
Pyrimethamine 241
Pyuria 49, 51
Q
Quantitative nucleic acid testing 182
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction 182, 188
benefits of 188
R
Rabbit antithymocyte globulin 100, 101, 101f, 110, 111, 142, 145, 316
Rabies 435
Ramsay Hunt syndrome 213
Randomized controlled trials 103, 108, 121, 124, 138, 144, 155, 157, 220, 398, 399
Rapamycin, mammalian target of 38, 75, 118, 126, 127, 153, 155, 212, 259, 265, 291, 293, 315, 317f, 319, 326
Real-time polymerase chain reaction 12
Recurrent urinary tract infection 79f, 89, 245
evaluation of 246b
Red blood cells 166, 379
Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization 404, 412, 464
Regulatory T-cell 40, 45
suppression, mechanism of 41f
Reloxaliase 338
Renal allograft 350fc
biopsy, histology of 188
compartment syndrome 73, 74fc, 358
fungal infections of 170
global infarction of 359f
post-transplant infections of 169
rejection of 363
related factors 281
Renal artery 66f
anastomosis of 66, 66f
inferior 77f
kink 72
multiple 62, 69
stenosis 78
diagnosis of 356
thrombosis 75, 359
Renal biopsy 160, 170
summary 168, 169, 171, 172
Renal cell carcinoma 311, 316, 365f
Renal disease 187
end-stage 10, 51, 61, 120, 136, 167, 195, 207, 248, 269, 275, 301, 312, 370, 378, 401, 404, 406
hereditary 52
Renal failure
drug-induced 438
hypovolemia-induced 438
Renal function 350
tests 56, 98, 398
Renal replacement therapy 406, 439, 440
Renal sinus 356f
Renal thrombotic microangiopathy 196
Renal transplantation 3, 26, 29t, 38, 40, 57, 70f, 114, 131, 133, 134t, 166, 248, 253, 262, 310
candidates 261
evaluation of 57
complications 358
fertility after 425
pathology 160
recipients 248, 250, 269, 270, 270t, 315t, 362f, 430
workup for 57
Renal tubular acidosis 117
Renal vein thrombosis 75, 86, 359
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 153, 196, 281, 282
Repaglinide 296
Residual renal function, loss of 352
Resistive index 87
Respiratory syncytial virus 208
Resuscitation
goals of 411
hormonal 411
Retina, inflammation of 189
Retinitis 189
Retransplantation 192, 352
Revascularization 65
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction 46, 56, 189
quantitative 144
Ribavirin 133
Ribonucleic acid 122, 163, 195, 202, 318, 323, 448
interference 338
agents 338
Rifampicin 249, 250
Ringer's lactate 398
Ritonavir 199
Rituximab 102, 136, 155, 156, 327, 380f, 381f, 383, 429
dosing of 383
monotherapy 311
Robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy 62
Rosiglitazone 296
Rotavirus 132
vaccine 435
Rubella 436
S
Sabouraud's agar 221
Salivary gland 379
Saxagliptin 296
Schistosoma 233
mansoni 233
infection 233
Schistosomiasis 89, 233, 235
Scientific Renal Transplant Registry 102
Secondary hypertension 282
causes of 283b
Seizure 276
disorder 58
Semidirect pathway 5, 26
Sensitization 31, 352, 402
Serology 240
advantages of 11
disadvantages of 11
Seroma, subcutaneous 77
Sertoli cell atrophy 425
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 138, 215, 219
Simeprevir 199
Single antigen bead 10, 23, 83, 95
Single nucleotide polymorphism 116
Single-stitch Taguchi technique 68
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome 272
Sirolimus 127, 129, 199, 292, 310, 315
Sitagliptin 296
Skin
cancers 310
management of 310
closure 69
Smooth muscle cells 92, 93f
Sodium 282
chloride cotransporter 282
glucose cotransporter inhibitors 264, 297
Sofosbuvir 198, 199
Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor 325
Spectrum 301
Spinal cord injury 89
Spondylitis, ankylosing 11
Sponge theory 353
Spousal donor transplants 462
Squamous cell carcinomas 308
Standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity test 16f
Staphylococcus
aureus 178
saprophyticus 245
State Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization 404, 408, 411, 464
Steatohepatitis, nonalcoholic 440
Stem cell
factor, serum-soluble 316
therapy 40, 43f, 44f, 45
transplantation 40
Stenosis 78
Steroids 106109, 120, 260, 263, 276
effect 107
free maintenance 110, 111t
mechanism of action of 107f
therapy 108, 110
upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 106
Stiripentol 338
Stomach 120
Streptococcus pyogenes 157, 373
Strongyloides 232, 232f, 233
stercoralis 232
Strongyloidiasis 235
Subcutaneous fat, ischemic necrosis of 78f
Substance misuse, assessment for 454
Substance use disorder 452
Substrate reduction therapy 338
Sulfadiazine 241
Sulfamethoxazole 178, 207, 224, 227, 228, 235, 241, 241t, 255, 258, 270
Sulfasalazine 133
Sulfonamide 258
Sulfonylureas 296
Surgery, steps of 63
Surgical site infection 78, 176
Swap donation 462
Systemic lupus erythematosus 59, 317f
T
Tachycardia 75f
Tacrolimus 103, 111, 115, 115b, 116, 118, 120, 121, 126, 129, 131, 147, 155, 166, 176, 191, 219, 244, 255, 259, 260, 263, 278, 289, 293, 297, 316, 344, 380f, 429
reducing metabolism of 131
toxicity 78f
T-cell
activation of 5, 136
cytotoxicity 149f
leukemia, adult 215
lymphoma
hepatosplenic 173
peripheral 172
mediated rejection 142, 147, 148, 153, 162, 350
acute 145, 162, 164
chronic 162, 164
pathogenesis of 148
neoplasms 172
receptor 3, 4f, 7f, 39, 149f
Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid 50
Tenofovir 205
alafenamide 271
disoproxil fumarate 205
Testicular pathology 425
Testosterone 425
Tetanus 434436
Tetracycline 259
Therapeutic drug monitoring 107, 124
Therapeutic plasma exchange 154156
Thiazolidinediones 296
Thick-walled cavitary disease 251f
Thioguanine nucleotide 132
Thioinosine monophosphate 132
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase 131, 132
Thiouric acid 132
Thrombocytopenia 86, 314
post-transplantation 317
Thromboembolism, pulmonary 86
Thrombotic microangiopathy 78f, 96, 117, 127, 146, 151, 314, 317, 317f, 328, 383
after renal transplantation 169
complement-mediated 327
diagnosis of 87b
Thromboxane 282
Thymoglobulin 102, 136
Thyroid stimulating hormone 397
Thyroxine 399
Tissue 227
injury, pathogenesis of 29
transplantation 459
organization 414
T-lymphocytes 100
Tocilizumab 157
Tolerance induction protocol 43, 44f
Topiramate 276
Total leukocyte count 316
Total lymphoid irradiation 41, 45
Toxicity
acute 166
central 278
chronic 166
peripheral 278
Toxoplasma
gondii 227
infection 228
Toxoplasmosis 227, 235
Transfusion 57
donor-specific 43, 44f, 45
Transient ischemic attack 58
Transplantation 1, 176, 255
kidney 85
arteriovenous fistula 366f
pseudoaneurysm 367f
nephrectomy, effect of 353
of Human Organ Act 393, 394, 403, 404, 406, 459, 460, 461t
recipients, scientific registry of 207, 448
renal artery stenosis 96, 282, 283, 359, 360f
types of 196
ureteric stricture 363f
Transversus abdominus muscle 74f
Transvesical ureteroneocystostomy, steps of 68f
Tree-in-bud nodules 251f
Tricontinental study 133
Triiodothyronine 399
Trimethoprim 178, 207, 224, 227, 235, 241, 241t, 255, 258, 270
Trypanosoma cruzi 53, 228
Tryptophan 85
Tube method 379
Tuberculin 251
skin testing 251
Tuberculosis 53, 59, 177, 179, 182, 248250, 253, 412
disseminated 244
extrapulmonary 256
global prevalence of 248
multidrug-resistant 252
mycobacterium 208, 242, 249
pathogenesis of 249
prevalence of 248, 248t
reactivation of 177
Tubular atrophy 43, 129, 164, 344
Tubular epithelial cells 171f, 172, 172f, 183f
Tubular necrosis, acute 74, 86, 96, 114, 358, 364, 413f
Tubular oxalate crystal deposition 336f
Tubules 160
renal 337f
Tubulitis, moderate 165f
Tubulointerstitial nephritis 187
Tubulopathy 117
Tumor
growth factor-beta 41f
necrosis factor 4f, 41f, 107, 149, 149f
Typhoid 132, 434
U
Ultrasonography 90, 95, 97, 98, 244, 246, 272, 355
contrast-enhanced 355, 356, 364
United States Renal Data System 109, 178, 226, 351
Ureteral leak 75
Ureteric complications 88
Ureteric obstruction 72, 78
ultrasonography assessment for 362
Ureteroneocystostomy 67
extravesical 68, 68f
Urethral stricture 89
Urethral valves, posterior 89
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 122f
Urinary bladder 98
Urinary oxalate measurements 337
Urinary tract 93
infection 84, 139, 177, 178, 209, 220, 221, 244, 245247, 255, 289, 297
impact of 246
recurrent 79f, 89, 245
types of 245
obstruction 97
reconstruction of 67
Urine culture 56
Urine electron microscopy 188
Urinoma 361
Urothelial cells 93f
V
Vaccination 59, 123, 132, 178, 203
Vaccines 434
Valganciclovir 181, 316
Valproate 276
Varicella 59, 132, 433
vaccine 435
zoster
diagnosis of 213
virus 177, 212, 213, 213t, 270, 272
Vascular anastomosis 65
Vascular basement membrane 37
Vascular clamps, application of 65
Vascular endothelial
cells 35
growth factor 128, 310
Vascular obstruction 96
Vascular outcome reduction 262
Vascular thrombosis 74, 96, 97
Vasopressors 411
Vein anastomosis 67f
Velpatasvir 198, 199
Vena cava, inferior 398
Venereal disease research laboratory 412
Venous outflow obstruction 73
Ventilation 411
Ventricular assist device 28, 31
Vertebral osteosclerosis 335f
Vesicoureteral reflux 85, 244
Vesicoureteric
junction 78f
reflux 79
Vesicular nuclei 170
Vessels 160
Vestibulo-ocular reflex, absence of 396
Vildagliptin 296
Vimentin 37
Viral infections 138, 181, 188, 212, 376
nonhepatotropic 271
Virchow's triad 74
Viremia 187
Virological response, early 199
Visceral leishmaniasis 235
Vitamin
D
deficiency 301
receptor activator 305
supplements 304
K antagonist 59
Voiding dysfunction 89
Vomiting 132, 139
Voriconazole 220
Voxilaprevir 199
W
West Nile virus 53
White blood cell 101, 132
World Health Organization 264, 291, 295
classification 172
Fracture Risk Assessment Tool 304f
Wound
complications 77
dehiscence 77
infection 77
Wright stains 230
X
Xanthine oxidase 132
inhibitors 133
X-ray absorptiometry 358
Y
Yellow fever 132, 434
Yin-yang pattern 367f
Y-tube system 68f
Z
Ziehl-Neelsen stain, modified 257f
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Chapter Notes

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