IAP Textbook of Research Methodology Dheeraj Shah
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abstract 311
Accuracy and precision 101f
Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance 36
Addressing ethical issues 231
Administration 181
Adoptive cell transfer 53
Allocation concealment 122
Alpha-errors
two-sided 210
Z-statistic values of 210, 210t
Analysis
management of 21
of variance 250, 289
Analytical studies 90
Analyzing diagnostic accuracy studies 109t
Annexure 306
Appendices 306
Appropriate test 251b
Archiving trial documents 228
Assigning study group 120
Associative hypotheses 83
Asthma
proforma on screening for 256b
schoolchildren screened for 257t
Attend conferences 336
B
Background knowledge, richness in 82
Baseline data 302
Basic research 5
Beneficence 231
Beta-errors, Z-statistic values of 210, 210t
Bibliographic databases 70t
Bivariate distribution 255
Blinding 123
Block randomization 205
Blood 72
Body mass index 257, 272
Boolean operators 73
Budgetary allocations 222
C
Case control
design 97
studies 92, 93b, 95
Case record form 21, 179f, 181, 181f, 226, 305
contents of 306
development of 21
Case reports 333
Case series 333
Categorical data 248
Categorical variable 240, 242
comparing 249
Causal hypotheses 83
Central limit theorem 268
Cerebrospinal fluid 72
Chi-square test 290
assumptions for 249b
Clinical data sheet 305
Clinical research 6, 234
Clinical trials 234
design of 113
phases of 115t
registry 69
list of 296t
scenarios 228
Clinico-anthropometric information 256b
Cluster sampling 195, 198, 198fc
Clustered column 54f
Cohort study 94, 95, 96b
design 96
Co-investigator 181
Collaborative research 36, 336
Collaborative ventures 36
Command, sources of 189b
Complex research hypothesis 83
Computer spreadsheet 243, 244f
data entry in 240
Conceptualizing study 13
Conducting clinical trials 221
steps of 221
Confidence interval 266, 269, 289, 290
Confidentiality 233
Congenital rubella 36
Consecutive sampling 204
Consent, certificate of 306
Continuous data 248
Continuous variable 240, 243
Contract research organisation 234
Control group 118
Convenience sampling 203
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 26, 73, 74, 142, 333
infection 19, 100
pandemic 5, 15
pneumonia 208
severity of 239
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 325, 327
Cover page 296
C-reactive protein 24
Critical appraisal 76, 76b
Critical sampling 202
Cross-over trial 114fc
Cross-sectional studies 90, 91b, 95, 98
Cumulative index 69
D
Data 254
based evidence 277
check for normality of 262
extraction and analysis 156
inappropriate presentation of 54f
management 21, 237, 239, 303
manager 181, 181f
poor quality of 50
safety monitoring boards 227
sources of 137
tabulation of 255
types of 248
Data analysis 125, 254, 277
stage 131, 132, 133
Data collection 124
stage 131, 132
Data entry 227, 239
ethical considerations in 244
poor quality of 50
role of 240, 240b
Dengue 73
Department of biotechnology 323, 325, 326
Department of electronics and information technology 325
Department of science and technology 323, 325, 327
Department of scientific and industrial research 326
Dependent variable 278, 278b
type of 288
Descriptive cohort 94
Descriptive statistics 255, 266t
Descriptive study 62f, 90, 213
framing research question for 61
Develop study plan, six reasons to 171b
Diagnostic accuracy 104t, 106t
studies 100
quality assessment of 155
Diagnostic tests, validity of 272
Dichotomous index test, diagnostic accuracy of 104t
Directional hypotheses 83
Discussion 313
Disease frequency, measures of 270
Drafting research 22
Drug Controller General 234, 235
E
Echocardiography 15
Electronic search strategies 75
Epidemiological studies, validity of 128
Epidemiology 270
Errors, type of 281, 281b
Estimation, errors in 130
Ethical aspects 301
Ethical practice, pillars of 231f
Ethical research, fundamental principles of 5t
Exclusion criteria 301
Execution 182
phase planning 171
Exhaustive categories 255
Experimental study 61
classification 18fc
design 111
framing research question for 60
External validity 128
F
Factorial design trial 114
Feedback 224
Fengue 74
Fetus, special case of 8
Finer criteria 335t
Fisher's and Yate's tables 196
Font 307
Force-field analysis 137
Forest plot, step-wise interpretation of 158
Forming idea and framing research question 14
Formulating hypothesis 82
Formulating research question and hypothesis 57
Framing research question 60
Freedom, degrees of 289, 290
Friedman test 290
Funded research 328
and funding agencies 319
Funding resources 322
G
Good clinical practices 234
Good hypothesis, criteria for 26b
Good research 24
basic characteristics of 25b
basic requisites of 25b
criteria of 24
design 27
objective, characteristics of 27b
question, characteristics of 59, 62
Grants and funds scheme 336
Gross domestic product 33
H
Health and medicine, research in 4
Health insurance portability and accountability 5
Health ministry's screening committee 234, 235
Health research 9, 319, 172
project 181f
Heart septal defects, pubmed mesh tree structure for 71f
Hereditary multiple exostoses 39
High dependency unit 19
Homogeneous sampling 201
Hyaline membrane disease 37
Hypothesis 8082, 278, 280
formulation 82
in research 80
testing 247, 277
errors in 280
Hypothetical data 258t
I
Ideation phase planning 171
Implementation 103, 167
Independent variable 278, 278b
Indian Council of Medical Research 5, 223, 233, 234, 326
Information bias 131
Informed consent
document 179f, 181, 181f
form 306
contents of 307b
Infrastructure grants 326t
Institutional Ethics Committee 36, 179f, 181, 181f, 234
role of 234
Institutional Review Board 21, 232
Instrument bias 132
Interactive voice response system 206
Interest, lack of 46
Internal validity 128
International collaborations 325t
Interpret forest plot 160
Intervention 302
Interviewer bias 132
Intravenous immune globulin 15, 20
Introduction 298, 311
Intussusception 36
Investigation, direction of 89
K
Kangaroo mother care 334
Kaplan-Meier survival analysis 287
Keywords 311
Knowledge, attitude, and practices 39
Kruskal-Wallis test 290
L
Literature
review of 299
writing review of 68fc, 77
Literature review 16t
advantages of 335
steps of 67
Literature search 15, 67, 69
and review 67
steps of 68fc
Lottery method 195
Low birth weight 96
Lung cancer 28
M
Magnetic resonance imaging 6
Major study designs 28t
Mann-Whitney U test 290
Margins 307
Maximal variation sampling 201
McNemar's test 290
Mean difference 157
Mean, standard error of 268
Medical research 248fc
Medical subject headings 71
Medicine, types of research in 5
Meningitis 36
Meta-analysis 145, 157
Methodology 311
Metric data, tabulation of 255
Monitoring 183
Motivation, lack of 46
Multiphase sampling 195, 199
Multistage sampling 195, 199
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome 15, 15b, 16
Multivariable analysis 287, 287b
Multivariable model 287
choice of 288, 288t
N
National Institute of Health 221, 322
Negative predictive value 104
Neonatal and childhood illness, integrated management of 7
Neonatal intensive care unit 37, 39
Neonate, special case of 8
Nested case-control study 92, 93b
Networking 336
Newcastle Ottawa scale 155
Nondirectional hypotheses 83
Nonparametric tests 290t
Nonprobability sampling 200
method 21
N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 15
Nuclear magnetic resonance 6
Null hypothesis 83
Numerical variable, descriptive study of 213
O
Objectives 17, 26, 113
Observation, period of 89
Observational analytical study 61b
framing research question for 61
Observational study 89, 333
categorization of 89t
classification 18fc
Observer bias 131
Office practice
research in 32
types of research feasible in 36
One-sided alpha-errors 210
One-way analysis of variance 250b
One-way frequency distribution 255, 258t
Opportunistic sampling 202
Oral rehydration solution 6
Organizing meetings 327t
P
Paired data 249
Parallel-group trial 114
Parametric tests 289t
Participant/patient/parent information sheet 306
Participants
randomization of 225
types of 149
Participatory action research 137
Patient information sheet 306, 307b
Peak expiratory flow rate 37
Pediatric disease annotation and medicine 69
Pediatric intensive care unit 19
Pediatric research 7
in office setting 34
Perform univariate analysis 282
Performance bias 132
Performing research during office practice, benefits of 35b
Personal research support 323t
Pharmaceutical/vaccine company, research projects for 36
Pie chart 54f
Planning
lack of 49
study 17
Pneumonia 36
Poor conclusion 52
Poor data representation 53
Poor monitoring 50
Population 301
Positive test, likelihood ratio of 105
Postgraduate thesis programs 334
Preliminary information 301
Primary data 254
Primary outcome measures 302
Principal investigator 181
Probability proportional sampling 199
Probability sampling method 21
Procedure 302
Program management processes 187t
Programmatic research 7
Project management 169, 172, 186
body of knowledge 174
institute 174
processes 174t
software programs 190
Project manager 181
power for 189b
responsibilities of 189b
role of 189
Proportion, standard error of 268
Proposal, summary of 297
Prospective cohort studies 94
two-group 96
Pulmonary function test 257, 258t
Purposive sampling 200
P-value 290
Q
Qualitative data analysis 139
Qualitative methods 135
Qualitative outcome variable, statistical test for 285fc
Qualitative research 135, 334
approaches to 138
findings, rigor in 140
methods 135, 137
sampling in 139
Qualitative variables 254
Quality improvement research 7
Quantitative outcome variable, statistical test for 284fc
Quantitative variables, comparing 250
Quasi randomization 205
Quota sampling 203
R
Random errors 130, 208
Random number method, table of 196, 196t
Random sampling 206
Randomization 121, 204, 206
types of 204fc
Randomized clinical trial 111
Randomized trials, types of 114fc
Recall bias 132
Receiver operating characteristic curve 107, 107f
Reduce information bias 132t
References 303, 314
Rehabilitation 72
Research 3, 24, 309
completion of 30
cycle 169
design 27
funding, issues of 44
grants 324t
hypothesis 83
importance of 10
in paediatrics, career opportunities in 11
place of 19
process 13, 14f
protocol, structure of 296
reasons for poor state of 33
scopes of 24t
type of 332
Research project
elements of protocol of 295
life cycle and stages 170f
planning, two phases of 171
risk breakdown framework for 182b
Research question 15b, 25, 113, 147, 286
assess smartness of 65t
origins of 59
Resources, lack of 48
Retrospective cohort study 95, 96
Review process 314
S
Sample
cover page 297b
Gantt chart 181f
selection of 194fc
Sample size 20, 139
calculation 211, 213, 214, 216, 218
need for 209
formulas 218t
Sampling 192
breakdown 193f
concepts in 193f
distribution and standard error 267f
frame 193
scheme 193
types of 193
unit 193
Sampling method 192
software used for 206
types of 194fc
Sampling technique 20
terminologies used in 28t
Science and Engineering Research Board 325
Science, research in 3
Scientific methods 3
Scientific writing 293
Secondary data 254
Selecting research problem 335
Selection bias 130
Severe acute malnutrition 24
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic 34
Simple experimental studies 333
Simple random 121, 205
sampling 195, 195f
Simple research hypothesis 83
Single analytic cohort 94
Single group prospective cohort study 96
Snowball sampling 201, 202f
types of 202fc
Social desirability bias 132
Social media 336
Social sciences
spreadsheet, statistical package for 262b, 262f
statistical package for 258, 259f, 261t, 272f
Standard error 267
Standard normal distribution 263
Standard operating protocols 223
Statistic 254
Statistical analysis 29, 228, 303
poor understanding of 51
Statistical comparisons, basics of 246
Statistical hypothesis 83
Statistical power 220
Statistical test 284fc, 285fc, 288, 289t, 290t
choice of 282
Stratified random 122, 205, 206f
sampling 195, 197
Structured operational research training initiative 48
Student T-test 250
assumptions for 250b
Study
duration 301
exclusion of 154
flow diagram 304fc
flowchart 302
hypothesis 113
identification of 153
inclusion of 154
objective of 17
participants, size, and sampling 28
plan, relevance of 170
planning 169
population 20, 193
rationale of 16
tools, standardization of 49
types of 149
Study design 17, 87, 89, 254
stage 131, 132, 133
types of 17fc
Summarizing skills 52
Summary sheet, sample of 298b
Surgery 72
Surveillance projects 36
Survey research 333
Systematic error 130, 208
Systematic random sampling 195, 196
Systematic review 145
key aspects of 147t
making sense of 146
T
Teamwork 337
Theoretical replication 203
Theory-based sampling 203
Tippet's random number 196
Title 310
Title page 297
sample of 297b
Translational research 7
Travel grants 326t
Trials, characteristics of 222
Triglyceride data, box plot for 265f
normal Q-Q plot on 265f
Two-group analytic cohort 95
Two-way classification 255
Two-way table 258t
spreadsheet for 259f
U
Unfunded research 332, 333b, 334
advantages of 337
Unique values, displaying list of 243f
Univariate analysis 287b
University grants commission 326
Unpaired data 249
V
Vancouver style 305b
Variables, classification of 279fc
Variances 250
Venn diagram 137
Virology 72
Vulnerable group 8
W
Wilcoxon signed rank test 290
Write hypothesis 84
Writing introduction, funnel approach for 299f
Writing literature review 77
Writing paper, hour-glass model of 310f
Z
Z-statistic values 210, 210t
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