Textbook of Oral Embryology and Histology B Sivapathasundharam
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table
A
Abrasion 60
Abscess, periodontal 123, 124f
Absorption 175
Abundant elastic fibers 203
Accessory canals 84, 343
Acellular cementum 102, 103, 103f, 104, 104t, 106, 106f, 283, 343
Acetic acid 308
Acetone 308
Acid 317
decalcification 317
etching 61
fast bacillus 312
phosphatase 326, 327, 343
Acinar
cells 226, 232, 236
units 218f
Acini 4, 224, 343
Acoustic meatus, external 245
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 268
Acrodont 303f, 343
Adenoids 263
Adherens junction 343
Adipocytes 13, 231
Adipose
cells 118
tissue 202
Adjacent cell membranes 182
Adult stem cell 288, 343
replication of 289f
types of 289
Afferent lymph vessels 264
Afibrillar cementum 102, 343
Agenesis 259f, 343
Agglutinins 232
Agnathan 297, 343
Albright syndrome 161
Albumin-coated glass slide 312f
Alcian blue-stained section 325f
Alkaline
phosphatase 99, 326, 327, 343
salts 129
Allograft 343
Allosome 8, 343
Aluminium ammonium sulfate 314
Alveolar bone 4, 114, 128, 141, 145147, 169, 199, 282, 340
destruction of 149
existence of 147
part of 4
remodeling of 146
resorption of 147, 148f
structure of 145
turnover 146
Alveolar crest 159
fibers 115, 119, 343
group 120f
Alveolar mucosa 195, 202
clinical appearance of 203f
Alveolar process 257f, 343
development of 145
parts of 142f
Alveolar socket 128f, 142f
Alveologingival fibers 120, 199, 343
Amelin 46
Ameloblastin 46
Ameloblastoma 292
Ameloblasts 44, 52, 54f, 55, 55f, 56f, 57, 57f, 59, 79f, 199, 279, 336, 343
life cycle of 53, 58, 58f
secreting enamel matrix 35f
transitional 57
Amelodentinal junction 47
Amelogenesis 52, 53, 58
imperfecta 37, 39f, 59
process of 52
Amelogenins 46, 61, 343
Amelotin 46
Aminopeptidase 326, 327, 343
Anchoring fibrils 189f, 343
Angiogenic factor 327, 343
Angiotensin converting enzyme 186
Ankyloglossia 22
Ankylosed tooth 160
Ankylosis 249f
Anodontia 304, 343
partial 37, 38f
total 37
Antigen presenting cells 89, 91, 186
Antroliths 259
Apatite crystals 70
Apocrine glands 218, 219f, 343
Apoptosis 32, 85
Aprismatic enamel 51, 58
Arch
first 21
branchial 141
pharyngeal 297
Archaic hominids 299
Ardipithecus ramidus 299, 299f
Arthrocentesis 249
procedure of 249f
Articular disk 243, 245, 245f, 343
structure of 246f
Articular eminence 245, 245f
Atherosclerotic plaques 281
formation of 92
Atrophy 344
Attached gingiva 194, 195f, 196, 344
Attrition 279f, 344
Australopithecus 299, 305
afarensis 299f
robustus 299f
Autocrine cells 217
Autocrine glands 217, 344
Autograft 344
Autoimmune diseases 269
Autosome 8, 344
B
Bartholin duct 344
Basal cytoplasm 225
Basal epithelial layer 188, 189f
Basal lamina 188, 188f, 221, 224, 257, 344
attachment of 189f
proteins 182
Basal layer 344
Basement membrane 90, 188, 188f, 344
Basket cells 226, 351
B-cells 266, 344
maturation of 263
Bell stage 33, 40
Beta-glucuronidase 327
Bilaminar germ disk 9
formation of 9, 10f
Biopsied tissue 308f
Birbeck granules 186
Black hairy tongue 210, 210f
Blastema 242
temporal 242
Blastocyst 10f, 288, 344
Blood 175, 269t
capillaries 264
cells, production of 132
stream, plasma of 267
supply 201f, 207, 248, 255
vessels 84, 90, 121
absence of 44
development of 92
types of 1
Body systems 276, 284
Bone 58, 122, 129, 140, 167, 168, 194f, 277, 335, 344, 355
apposition 161
associated cells 116
canaliculi 344
cartilaginous 130
cells 136, 137f
populations, dynamics of 147
changes 147
classification of 129
defects 292
embryonic 133
formation of 133
forming cells 133
growth theory 160
inorganic portion of 139
irregular 130, 130f
long 129, 129f, 135
loss
horizontal 148f
vertical 148f
mandibular 142f
marrow 263, 263f, 344
mass 282
loss of 278
matrix, mineralization of 136, 136f
membranous 130
mineralization of 136
morphogenetic protein 117, 129, 137, 140, 344
osteoclastic 140
remodeling 140, 140f, 141f, 149f, 344
resorption 169
resorptive hormones 170
short 129, 129f
sialoprotein 136, 344
spongy 344
sutural 130, 131f
types of 130
Bony fish 297
Brachydont molar 303f
Brain 276
injury 258
Branched glands 218f
Branchial arch 344
development of 13
Brush border 101
Brush cells 231
Bruxism 108
Buccal extension, development of 28f
Buccal frena 176, 177f
Buccal mucosa 176, 202, 202f, 203, 209, 209f
leukoplakia of 210f
right 211f
Buccopharyngeal membrane 13f, 208f, 344
Bud stage 29, 30f, 40, 344, 357
Bundle bone 4, 344
Bunodont molars 303
C
Cadaveric dissection 256f
Cadherin 344
Caenorhabditis elegans 220
Calciotraumatic line 76
Calcium
ions 136, 184
phosphate 57
hydroxyapatite crystal 3, 45f, 129, 168
Calcospherites 78
Canaliculi 69, 138
Canalization 223
Canals, primary 84
Cancellous bone 131, 146, 147f, 344
structure of 133f
Candida albicans 234
Canine
labial surface of 53f
upper 159
Capsulitis 249
Carbohydrates 322, 326
Carbon dioxide 315
Carbonate 67, 129
Cardiac bulge 17, 17f
Cardiovascular system 276
Carnoy's fluid 308
Carnoy's mixture 324, 344
Cartilage 118, 344
forming cells 135
secondary 144, 144f
Cathelicidins 232
Caveolae 344
Caviar tongue 208, 278
Cavity, vestibular 2f, 27
Cells 88f, 208, 229, 307, 316, 323
adhesion molecule 90
apart 32
biology 274
body 87
caveolated 231
cycle, progress of 282
eosinophilic 237
free zone 344
group of 11, 59, 135
junctions 175, 180
lineage 344
membrane 188f, 276, 281
migration of 123
multiplication 9
number of 94, 217
polarization 54
potency 288
proliferation of 25, 221
pulpal 3
rich zone 84, 88, 345
signaling 6, 6f
stage 9
subtypes of 180
surface receptors 6
synthetic 116
types of 1
Cellular cementum 99, 102, 103f, 104, 104t, 345, 364
formation of 108
Cellular organelles 138
Cementicles 345
Cementoalveolar fibers 115
Cementoblastic processes 99
Cementoblasts 4, 97, 99, 105, 114, 116, 117, 117f, 122, 336, 345
progenitors 110
Cementocytes 4, 36, 99, 100, 100f, 101, 101f, 101t, 102, 345
Cementodentinal junction 67f, 107
Cementoenamel junction 76, 98, 107, 107f, 108f, 115, 169, 197, 282, 345, 365
Cementogenesis 103
Cementoid 106
Cementum 3, 44f, 58, 67f, 76, 9799, 100f, 109, 113, 118, 122, 168, 281, 282, 316f, 335, 340, 345
abnormal thickening of 109
avascular 98f
cells of 99
chemical composition of 99fc
classification of 103, 338
derived attachment protein 99
extrinsic fibers of 347
fibers of 101
formation 105f
functions of 108
growth of 109
hypertrophy 109
incremental lines of 106, 106f, 283
intermediate 107, 349
mineralization of 105
types of 98
Central articular disk 242f
Central nervous system 91
Central polygonal cells 32
Centroblasts 345
Centrocytes 345
Cervical
loop 32, 40, 345
lymph nodes 268
sinus 13
C-fibers 91
Chemical composition 67, 68fc, 98, 99fc, 129
Chloride 231
Chloroform 309
Chondrichthyes 297
Chondroblasts 13, 135, 292
Chondrocytes 135
Chondroitin sulfate 345
Chondronectin 323
Chromic acid 308
Chromosome 59, 275, 345
Cilia 345
Ciliated cells 257
Cingulum theory 303
Circular fibers 120, 345
Circulatory system 90
Circumoral tissues 282
Circumpulpal dentin 73, 345
Circumvallate papilla 205, 205f, 206f, 208, 337, 345
Cisterna chyli 264
Clarke's fluid 308
Cleavage 9
Cleft lip 21
Cleidocranial dysplasia 161
Clonogenic cells 287
Coarse woven bone 132, 133
Collagen 191
alterations 280
cross-linking of 274f
fibers 44, 102, 103, 114, 177, 190f, 191, 199, 203, 208, 246, 265
bundles 192f
formation 114
fibrils, morphology of 323
macromolecule 90
types of 99
Collagenous fibrous tissue 247
Communication 90
Compact bone 130, 345
structure of 132f
Computed tomography 256f, 292f, 293f
Concrescence, theory of 302
Condylar
blastema 242
cartilage 242
process 241f
Condyle
mandibular 244f
neck of 246
Confocal microscopy 329, 330f
Conjunctiva 264
Connective tissue 116, 188, 194f, 258f, 323, 345
fibers 122
papillae 201
stroma 224
Conodonts 297
Contractile cells 226
Cope-Osborne theory 303, 305
Copper 99
Copula 21
Core binding factor alpha 1 134
Coronal cementum 102
Coronal dentin 66, 77
Coronal pulp 83, 85, 90, 345
extension of 76
Cortex 345
Cortical plate 141
COVID 19 330
Cranial mesoderm 17
Crest cells 187
Cribriform plate 145, 146f, 345
Cross-linking theory 274
Crown 2f
formation, completion of 159f
middle portion of 49f
Crystallites 58
Crystals, long axis of 46f
Cuboidal basal cells 183f
Cushion hammock ligament 159, 345
Cuspal origin, theory of 302
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 117
Cyclostomes 297
Cynodonts 298, 345
Cystatins 232
Cysts
mucous extravasation 237f
odontogenic 37
Cytochrome oxidase 324, 326, 327, 345
Cytokeratin 181, 181fc, 345
distribution 181t
profile 195
Cytokines 136
Cytoplasm 86, 89, 118f, 168, 314
large amount of 116
Cytoskeleton 158
D
Dark colored gingiva 186f
Daughter cells 9, 79f
Dead tracts 75, 76, 280, 280f, 345, 363
Decalcification 316, 346
methods of 317
Deciduous canine 166
Deciduous dentition 153, 154f, 339, 340, 346
Deciduous mandibular central incisor 166, 166f
apicolingual resorption of 166f
Deciduous molars 156, 156f, 167f
crown of 168
occlusal planes 156f
shedding of 167
Deciduous teeth 115, 153, 166f, 169, 291
eruption of 155f
germ 156
root 167
Defense cells 118
Deglutition 234, 279
Dehydration 309, 309f, 314, 346
Dendrites 89
Dendritic cells 88, 89
Dens evaginatus 37, 38f
Dental arch 25
establishment of 27f
form 278
Dental caries 61, 233
development of 51
protection against 233
risk of 107
Dental cuticle 198
Dental ectoderm 26
Dental fluorosis 60, 60f
Dental follicle 31, 107, 158f, 346
stem cells 290, 291
theory 161
Dental hard tissue 36, 129
Dental lamina 26, 26f, 27, 27f, 28f, 29, 40, 71, 158, 346
development of 28f
Dental origin, stem cells of 291
Dental papilla 28, 32, 33f, 34, 36, 41, 78, 85, 91, 290, 346
cells 32, 34, 77, 79f
transforms 91
Dental precursor cells 290
Dental primordium 26
Dental pulp 292, 346, 366
mature 291
stem cell 89, 288290, 290f, 291, 292, 293f, 346
injection of 294f
isolation of 291
tissue 290
Dental sac 31, 33, 34, 346
cells 36
Dental stalk 32
Dental stem cells 290, 292
source of 290
Dental tissues 279
age-related changes of 283
Denticles 346
Dentin 3, 44, 44f, 56f, 58, 66, 67f, 168, 280, 282, 316f, 335, 340, 346
avascular 91
chemical
composition of 68fc
properties of 66
color of 66
complex 71
dysplasia 79
formation of 35, 71, 79
histology of 68
inner 70
innervation 72, 72f
intermingle 48
irregular secondary 76
matrix 70, 78
mineralization of 73, 77, 78
peritubular 68, 69, 70f, 71, 73, 352
phosphoprotein 68
physical properties of 66
portion of 68
primary 72, 73, 353
pulp complex 280
reparative 76, 353
secondary 72, 73, 84, 280, 354
secreting cells 26
sensitivity 76, 77f
sialophosphoprotein 55
sialoprotein 68, 99, 346
structure of 72fc
tertiary 76, 280, 355
thickness 80
translucency 283
transparent 75, 75f
types of 76f
Dentinal
fluid 68f, 71, 77
lymph 66, 70
sclerosis 75
translucency 283
tubules 68, 69f, 71f, 72, 73, 80, 87, 91, 280, 315f, 346
course of 68f
cross section of 69f, 70f, 362
primary curvature of 68f
Dentinoenamel junction 47, 49f, 51f, 67f, 77, 346
Dentinogenesis 77, 346
Dentition
development of 153
mixed 154f
permanent 154f, 339, 340
primary 340
types of 301, 302
Dentogingival fibers 115, 120, 198, 199, 346
Dentogingival junction 346, 369
development of 199, 199f
migration of 170
shift of 199, 200f
Dentoperiosteal fibers 115, 119, 120, 199, 346
Deoxyribonucleic acid 8
Dermis 177
Desmolytic stage 58
Desmosomes 181, 346
Desquamation 346
Devonian period 297
Diarthrodial joint 241, 242
Diazones 49
Diffuse calcifications 92, 346
Digestion 234
Digestive system 276
Digital pathology 318
Dimer theory 303
Dinitrofluorobenzene 325, 326
Diphyodont 1, 346
Diploid 8
Direct neural theory 76
Discoloration 279
Diskal ligament 247
Distal secretory site 56f
Disulfide bonds 184f
Drosophila 26
melanogaster 220
Dry mouth 278
Duct 217, 346
cells 223
salivary 237
types of 218f, 229
Ductal epithelial cells 232
Ductal morphology 217
Ductal system 229
Dysfunction syndrome 249
E
Ear
internal 264
middle 243
Ectoderm 9, 13, 18, 288, 346
Ectodermal cells, proliferation of 11f
Ectomesenchymal cells 31, 32, 77, 78, 91, 122
Ectomesenchyme 12, 25, 25f, 29, 29f, 221, 346
Ectopic eruption 162
Edema accumulates 269
Elastic fibers 192, 246, 258, 312, 323
loss of 277
mature 121
Elastic microfibrils 120
Elaunin fibers 121, 346
Electron microscopy 315
Electrophoresis 317
Embryo 9, 25, 288, 346
development of 132
folding of 13, 25
Embryoblast 9, 10f, 288
Embryology 346
Embryonic stem cell 89, 287, 288, 288f, 346
Enamel 3, 35, 44, 44f, 45, 48, 56f, 61, 67f, 76, 168, 279, 282, 316f, 335, 340, 346
broach 52, 279, 346
scanning electron microscopic appearance of 52f
caps 52, 279
chemical composition of 45fc
cord 32, 40, 346
cuticle 51, 198, 199, 347
development of 59
epithelium 35f, 40, 51, 57, 102, 104, 157, 199, 353
formation 44
genetic control of 59
hydroxyapatite crystals of 67
hypomineralized structures of 49
hypoplasia 59, 347
inter-prismatic 56
knot 32, 33, 40, 347
lamellae 50, 347, 360
development of 51
loading of 51
loss of 279
matrix formation 54f
mineral 58
niche 32, 40, 347
organ 28, 32, 347
organic matrix of 45
pearl 60, 347
pits 279
proteins 46
rods 46, 47f, 48f, 347
cross section of 359
direction of 47
end 51, 279
exhibiting tortuous pattern 359
fish scale pattern, cross section of 359
long axis of 46f
septum 40
spindles 49, 71, 347, 361
structure of 46, 53fc
surface structures of 51
thickness of 45, 56
tuft 51, 347, 361
Enamelin 46, 347
gene 59
Endochondral ossification 135, 135f, 242, 347
Endocrine system 277
Endocrine theory 274
Endoderm 9, 288, 347
Endodermal origin 289
Endoplasmic reticulum 54, 89, 99, 231
Endosteal layer 133f
Endosteum 131, 347
Endothelial cells 90, 116, 189, 191, 264, 289
Endothelial cytoplasm 281
Endothelium, capillary 281
Enzymatic digestion 291
Enzyme 322, 323, 325327, 327t, 347
histochemistry 347
linked immunosorbent assay 328, 329f
lysosomal 308
Eosinophils 89, 118
Epiblasts 9
Epidermis 177
fishnet pattern of 328f
Epiphyses 129
Epithelial band, primary 28f, 40, 353
Epithelial cells 18, 32, 37, 51, 58, 116, 118, 179, 180, 180f, 188f, 201, 210, 221, 233, 325f
Epithelial connective tissue 178, 198
Epithelial cord
branching of 224
dichotomous branching of 222
formation of 222
growth of 222
terminal parts of 222
Epithelial diaphragm 92
Epithelial enamel organ 29, 31
Epithelial germ layers 301
Epithelial maturation 180f
Epithelial mesenchymal
interaction 221, 301
transition 104
Epithelial pearls 347
Epithelial proliferation 180
Epithelial ridges 178, 179
Epithelial root sheath 114
Epithelial tissue 323
Epithelium 5f, 25, 29f, 175, 178f, 179, 188f, 189f, 196, 246, 347
keratinized 179, 182, 183f, 350
nonkeratinized 185, 185f
orthokeratinized 179f
outer enamel 32, 34, 40
salivary 181t
squamous 326f
thickness of 175
types of 4
Erosion 60
Eruption 5, 155, 155f, 166f, 347
mechanical failure of 162
passive 162
premature 161
Eruptive tooth movement 157, 158, 347
Erythrocytes 264
Esterase 327, 347
Esthetics 175
Ethmoid sinus 253
Ethmoturbinals 255
Ethyl alcohol 308
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 317
Excementosis 347
Excretion 175, 234
Excretory duct 224, 230, 230f, 236, 347
large 234
Exfoliative cytology 308, 318
Exocytosis 231
cytoplasmic 99
Extracellular fibers 314
Extracellular matrix 88f, 89, 189, 191, 221, 274, 347
changes 276
role of 224
Extrinsic fibers 101, 347
F
Face 277, 283, 341
development of 17, 17f, 19f, 21
Facial
cleft 22
deformity 249f
prominences 17f, 21
structures 17
Fat 118
Fatty tissue 237
Fenestration 149f
Ferric ferricyanide 325
Fertilization 8, 9, 9f, 14, 347
Fibers 84, 90, 101, 106, 191, 316, 323
apical 115, 119, 343
horizontal 115, 119, 349
interdental 199
intrinsic 101, 102
longitudinal 199
periodontal 118, 370
system, secondary 120
types of 1
vasoconstrictor 232
vasodilator 232
vertical 199
Fibroblasts 4, 13, 88, 90, 114, 116, 116f, 122, 140, 189, 190, 190f, 231, 323, 347
growth factor 26
like cells 34, 140, 246
oral mucosal 190
phagocytosis 116
Fibrocartilaginous layer 244
Fibro-elastic ligament 304
Fibronectin 99, 323, 347
Fibronexus 116
Fibrosis, oral submucous 210, 210f
Fibrous capsule 242
Fibrous connective tissue 245
Fibrous joint, types of 128
Fibrous matrix 133f
Field theory 30, 31f
Filiform papilla 204, 204f, 208, 337, 347, 368
Fine fiber bundle bone 132, 134t
Fine needle aspiration cytology 318
Fissures 45
Fixation 308, 324
Flat bones 130, 130f
Fleming's fluid 308
Flow cytometry 330, 347
Fluid
components 175
interstitial 175
Fluoride 99
chronic 60
Foliate papilla 205, 205f, 208, 337, 348
Follicles
compartment 265
lingual 350
Follicular cells 114f
Follicular dendritic cells 266, 348
Food manipulation 302
Foramen
apical 36, 84, 343
cecum 21
Fordyce's spots 176, 176f, 209, 209f, 348
Formalin 308
toxicity 309
Free false pulp stones 366
Free gingiva 195, 195f, 348
Free radicals theory 274, 274f
Frontal sinus 253
Frozen sections 315, 324, 348
Fungiform papilla 204f, 205, 205f, 206f, 337, 348, 368
Fusion 37
G
Gametes 9
Ganglion, sphenopalatine 255
Gap junction 32f, 348
Gastrulation 9
Gemination 37
Genes, mutation of 210
Genotype 348
Germ cells 9
embryonic 288
Germinal center 266, 348
Ghost tooth 79
Gill's hematoxylin 314
Gingiva 180, 179, 193f, 194, 195, 201f, 202, 209, 281, 282, 341, 348
innervation of 201
lamina propria of 196
lingual 176
mucosa of 175
vasculature of 201
Gingival connective tissue 121
Gingival crevice 197
Gingival crevicular fluid 200, 201
Gingival epithelium 197, 198, 282
Gingival fibers 119, 198, 198f, 348
Gingival fibroblasts 282
Gingival recession 98, 281, 348
Gingival stippling 196f
Gingival sulcus 195, 195f, 348
Gingivitis 147
Glands 216, 267f
classification of 216
compound 218f
connective tissue component of 231
endocrine 217, 219f, 347
eubepithelial 258
exocrine 217, 219f, 347
holocrine 219, 219f, 349
mixed 220, 238
periphery of 265f
secretory portion of 234
simple 217f
sublingual 236, 236f, 338, 355
submandibular 235, 235f, 237, 338, 355
Glandular epithelial cells 216
Glandular metabolism, control of 228
Glenoid
fossa 241f, 242, 243, 244, 244f, 245, 348
medial 246
Glossitis, benign migratory 209, 209f
Glossopalatine 238
Glucuronidase 348
Glutaraldehyde 308, 324
Glycogen 324
Glycoprotein 258, 323, 324, 348
Glycosaminoglycan 18, 32, 89, 323, 348
Glycosylation 276
Gnarled enamel 49, 348
Gnathostomes 297, 298, 348
Goblet cells 194, 217f, 257, 258f, 348
Golgi apparatus 54, 116, 182, 197, 231, 246
Golgi bodies 139
Golgi complexes 281
Gomphosis 128, 348
attachment 304
Granular cell layer 184f
Granules
eosinophilic 118f
membrane coating 174, 184
secretory 56f
Grinding tooth 317f
Growth
factors 233
maxillary 255
Gubernacular canal 158
Gubernacular cord 158f, 348
Gum pads 153
Gustafson's method 283
H
Haematoxylum campechianum 314
Hairy tongue 210
Haplodont 303, 348
Hard palate 142, 176f, 179, 193, 193f, 194f, 196, 209
section of 194f
Hard tissue 1, 36, 167, 316, 335
formation 36
forming cells 336
processing 316
resorption of 165
Hare lip 21
Haversian canal 131, 131f, 348
Haversian system 97, 98f, 101f, 131f, 132f, 348
Head and neck
lymph nodes 267t
lymphatics of 267
Hearing 276
Heart 276
diseases, ischemic 292
Hematopoiesis 132
Hematopoietic stem cell 129, 288, 289
Hemidesmosome 32, 57, 181, 182f, 189f, 348
Heparan sulfate 348
Hertwig's epithelial root 36, 84
sheath 35, 36, 92, 104, 105, 105f, 114f, 158, 348, 358
formation of 104f
Heterodont dentition 302f
Hiatus semilunaris 349
High-iron diamine thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate 325
Highmore antrum 254, 351
Hilum 349
Hirschfeld canal 145, 146f, 344
His copula 21
Histatin 232
Histiocytes 88, 89, 190, 191f
Histochemical
stains 330
techniques 324
Histochemistry 325, 326, 349
Holocrine secretion 219
Homeobox gene 25, 190
Homeodomain 25
Homo sapiens 300, 349
Homodont dentition 302f
Hopewell-Smith, layer of 107, 350
Hormones, metabolic 232
Horseshoe-shaped primary epithelial band 26f
Howship's lacunae 139, 139f, 140, 168, 349
Human blood cells 307
Human chromosome 8f
Human dentition, evolution of 300
Human exfoliated deciduous teeth 291, 354
Human masticatory complex, evolution of 304
Human skeleton 131
Hunter-Schregor bands 45, 49, 50f, 349, 361
Hurler's syndrome 161
Hyaline cartilage 349
Hyaluronan 246, 349
Hydrodynamic theory 77
Hydroxyapatite 349
crystals 45, 46f, 47f, 55, 67, 129
Hydroxyl ion 45
Hypercementosis 109, 109f, 281, 349
Hyperplasia, cemental 345
Hyperplastic squamous epithelium 324f
Hypertrophy 349
cemental 345
Hypoblasts 9
Hypobranchial eminence 21
Hypoplasia 259f
Hypsodont 349
dentition 302
molar 303f
I
Immature teeth 291
Immunofluorescence 328, 349
Immunoglobulin
A, salivary 278, 354
secretory 232
Immunohistochemistry 326, 326f, 349
Immunological theory 274
In situ hybridization 328, 349
Incisive papilla 176f, 193f, 194, 195f
Incisors, lower central 176
Infections, microbial 330
Inferior alveolar nerve 144
Inflammatory cells 89, 91, 187, 189, 191
Inner cell mass 287, 288
Inner enamel 54
epithelial cells 33, 34, 36, 54, 77
epithelium 32, 33, 40, 349
Insulin-like growth factor 1 117
Integrins 349
Intercalated ducts 224, 229, 229f, 236, 349
cells 226
Intercellular bridges 349
Intercellular substance 89, 221
Interglobular dentin 73, 349, 362
formation of 74f
ground section of 74f
Interlobular ducts 236, 349
Internal resorption 94
Interradicular fibers 119, 349
Intertubular dentin 68, 70, 349
Intra-articular disk 246
Intrabony tooth movements 157
Intracellular membranes 314
Intramembranous ossification 134, 134f, 350
Intratubular dentin 69, 78
Intratubular nerves 77
Ion exchange resins 317
Iron 99
Ivory bone 345
J
Jacobson's organ 350
Jaw 300
bone 128
evolution of 297
growth 167
lower 243
quadrant 301
Joint
capsule 130, 243, 246f, 248
cavity 242f
inferior 245
superior 245
compartments 246
disorders 249
part of 245
space 249
Junctional epithelium 197, 197f, 198, 199, 350
attachment of 199
cells of 197
K
Keratan sulfate 350
Keratin 184
Keratinization 350
types of 179
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 194f
Keratinocytes 181, 185, 186f, 350
Keratinosome 184, 350
Keratohyalin granules 183, 185, 350
Kidney 276, 277
Kinetogenic theory 303
Korff fibers 73
Krause's bulbs 207
L
Labial expansion 292f
Labial frenum 176, 177f
Labial mucosa 202, 202f
Labyrinthodont 298, 350
tooth, cross section of 298f
Lacteals 350
Lactoferrin 232
Lacunae 99, 131, 138, 138f
Lamella, interstitial 147f, 349
Lamellar bone 146, 350, 366
Lamina
cribrosa 145
densa 188, 188f, 350
dura 146f, 350
limitans 350
lucida 188, 188f, 350
propria 177, 178f, 187f, 188, 189, 189f, 191f, 196, 198, 200, 350
cells of 189
components of 190f
fibroblasts of 188f
reticularis 188f
Laminins 323, 350
Langerhans cell 185f, 186, 187, 187f, 197, 350
origin of 187f
population 187
tennis racquet-shaped Birbeck granules of 187f
Lead 99
Lens placodes 18
Leuckhart's L molds, separation of 311f
Leukemia 268
Leukocytes 232, 233
Leukofuchsin 324
Leukoplakia 210, 210f
Ligaments 242
part of 115
runs 247
traction theory 160
Light microscopy 308
Linea alba 176, 176f
Lingual frenum 204f
Lingula 350
Lining mucosa 4, 177, 178f, 179, 201, 336, 350
Lipids 322, 323, 325, 326, 350
histochemistry of 325
Lipofuscin 350
Lipoma 330
Liposarcoma 330
Lips 201
lower 209
portion of 202
upper 18
vermilion zone of 202f
Live microorganisms 307
Living cells 307
Living theory, rate of 274
Lobule formation 222
Long-chain sugar polymer 246
Lubricin 246
Lungs 276
Lymph 262, 264, 267f, 269t, 350
capillaries 90, 264, 265
structure of 264
circulation 266
course of 167, 266
formation of 264f
node 263, 265, 266f, 267, 268, 268f, 269t, 350
capsule of 265, 266f
cut section of 265f
distribution of 265
enlarged 268
jugulodigastric 268
regional 186
structure of 265
submandibular 255
nodule 350
sac 263
spaces 350
transport of 264
vessels 90, 264, 267
structure of 264, 265f
Lymphadenopathy 350
Lymphatic
capillaries 265f
failure of 269
nodule 263
germinal center of 348
mantle zone of 351
organs 262, 350
primary 262
secondary 263
system 262, 267, 350
categorization of 267fc
components of 262fc, 264f
development of 263
structure of 264
types of 1
vessel 351
Lymphoblast 351
Lymphocyte 88, 89, 191f
mature 263
production 262
Lymphoid 350
cells 266, 266f
follicles, secondary 266
lobule 351
organs 353, 354
primary 353
secondary 354
portion 204
stem cells 263
tissue 267
arrangement of 268f
bronchus associated 263
gut-associated 263
mucosa associated 263
skin-associated 263
tertiary 263
Lymphomas 268
Lysosomes 71, 190, 351
Lysozyme 232
M
Macrodontia 37
Macrophages 88, 118, 189, 190, 231
Magnesium 67, 99
Malassez cells rests 105f, 116, 118, 344, 347
Mammalian jaw 298
Mammary gland 219
Mandible 143, 245, 283, 341
computed tomography of 292f, 293f
condyle of 243, 244f
depression of 248
development of 141, 144f
growth of 145f
lateral view of 292f
neck of 243
structure of 144f
Mandibular deciduous teeth 166
Mandibular fossa 4, 243245, 245f
Mandibular incisors 39f
Mandibular permanent central incisors, emergence of 155f
Mandibular teeth 339
Mantle dentin 36, 72, 73, 351
matrix of 77
Masson's trichrome 312, 327, 327f
Mast cell 89, 118, 118f, 188f, 189, 190, 191f, 231, 351
Mastication 234, 279
Masticatory mucosa 177, 178f, 193, 201, 202, 336, 351
Matrix, cemental 99
Maturation stage 57, 58
Maxilla 141, 283, 341
development of 141, 143f
palatine process of 193f
parts of 142, 142f
Maxillary antral wall 254
Maxillary antrum 259f
anatomy of 254f
epithelial lining of 258f
innervation of 257f
malignancies of 259
Maxillary arch 142
Maxillary artery, branch of 248
Maxillary bone, loss of 278
Maxillary first molar 38f
Maxillary nerves 18
Maxillary ostium 351
Maxillary sinus 4, 143, 253255, 256f, 257, 258, 278, 351
absence of 258
anatomy of 253, 254
development of 255, 256f
enlargement of 255
invasion of 257f
Maxillary teeth 339
Mayer's hematoxylin 314
Meckel's cartilage 13, 143, 144, 297, 305, 351
remnants of 247
Medulla 265
Meiosis 9, 351
Meiotic division 9
Meissner's corpuscles 207
Melanin 186f
pigmentation 175, 186f
Melanocytes 185f, 186f, 197, 351
Melanophages 187f
Melanosomes 186
Melanotic macule 209f
Membrana preformativa 29, 351
Membrane
bound vesicles 116
embryonic 13
Meniscus 245
Mercuric chloride 308
Merkel cells 185, 185f, 187, 187f, 197, 198, 207, 351
nucleus of 187
Merocrine glands 217, 219f, 351
Mesenchymal cells 18, 88, 133
Mesenchyme 12, 351
Mesiodens 38f
Mesoderm 18, 288, 351
Mesodermal origin 289
Metabolism, bacterial 234
Metal replica 161
Metalloproteinases 351
Microglossia 22
Microtome 5, 308, 351
Mid-palatine raphe 193f, 194f
Mikulicz disease 237
Mineralization 58, 73, 77, 78, 105, 136, 136f
Minerals 56, 322
Minor salivary glands 4, 202, 220, 226, 229, 236
types of 220t
Mitochondria 71, 86, 138, 230, 237
number of 116
Mitosis 180f, 351
Mitotic index 179
Mitotic spindle 79f
Modern dentistry 290
Modulation 57
Molar
incisor hypomineralization 60
permanent 115, 157
pulp organ 83
section of 44f
tritubercular 303
Molten paraffin wax 309f, 310f
Monocytes 88
derived cells 140
Monophyodonty 302, 351
Morphogenesis 221
Morula 9, 10f, 288, 351
Mouth, floor of 1, 2f, 203, 203f, 204f
Mucin 351
Mucogingival junction 351
Mucopolysaccharides 258
Mucosa
keratinized 367
thick 155
Mucous acini 225, 227t, 337
Mucous cells 228f, 236, 258, 351
Mucous glands 194, 220, 227f, 238, 258
Mucous membrane 4
Mucous saliva 278
Mucous salivary gland 370
Multirooted tooth 36
Multi-tubercular
teeth 303
theory 303
Mumps 237
Muscles 118, 242, 248
Myelinated nerve fibers 206
Myeloperoxidase 232
Myoepithelial cells 224, 226, 227, 228f, 236, 351
contraction of 227
identification of 228
shape of 227
N
Naive B-cells 351
Naive T-cells 351
Nakan's periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde 324
Nasal cavity 253
floor of 194f
Nasal pit 18, 351
Nasal placodes 18
Nasmyth's membrane 51, 57, 199, 352
Nasolacrimal furrow 18
Nasopalatine duct 194
Natal teeth 161, 162f, 352
N-cadherin 12
Nerves 84, 90
fibers 32, 307
ingrowth of 92
pulpal 93
types of 121
supply 207, 248, 255
types of 1
Nervous system 11, 276
Neural crest 25, 352
cascade 11
cells 11, 113, 352
formation of 11
influence of 25f
Neural degeneration 281
Neural groove 11, 352
Neural plate 352
Neural tube
formation of 12f
part of 11
Neuroectoderm 11
Neuromuscular theory 161
Neurons 13
Neuropeptides 232
Neutrophils 201
Night vision 276
Ninhydrin 325
Non-embryonicor somatic stem cells 288
Non-enamel protein genes 59
Non-hematopoietic stem cells 289
Nonkeratinocytes 185, 185f, 186, 352
Nuclear staining 314
Nucleic acids 322
presence of 314
Nucleoporins 276
Nucleotide 352
probes 352
Nutritional deficiency 59
Nutritive function 122
O
Oblique fibers 119, 352
Occlusal enamel, loss of 279
Occlusal forces 149
Occlusal wear, compensation for 281
Odland bodies 184, 184f, 350
Odontalgia 93
Odontoblastic layer 85, 85f
pseudostratified appearance of 86f
Odontoblastic process 68f, 70, 71f, 77, 105
terminal branching of 362
Odontoblasts 13, 34, 36, 66, 72, 77, 78, 79f, 8587, 87f, 88, 91, 92, 336, 352
differentiation of 79f
life cycle of 85
number of 92
process 352
Odontoclasts 94, 168, 169f, 352
formation of 168f
resorbing dentin 168f
Odontocyte 86
Odontodes 300, 352
Odontodysplasia, regional 79
Odontogenesis 25, 26t
stages of 338
Odontogenic apparatus 27
Odontome 155
forming cells 301
Olfactory organs 194
Oligopotent 288
Oncocytes 237, 278
Oral cavity 1, 1f, 159f, 174, 209, 300, 322
boundaries of 175
normal 175f
parts of 177
primitive 25
Oral ectoderm 26, 27, 27f
Oral epithelial cells 318
Oral epithelium 29, 58, 159f, 179, 181, 181t, 197
nonkeratinocytes of 185f, 186
Oral frenum 176
Oral hard tissues, histochemistry of 326
Oral melanotic macule 209
Oral mucosa 177, 178f, 194, 207, 210, 234, 283, 336, 341
classification of 177
color of 175
components of 177
development of 208
epithelial ridges 178f
nerves ending of 207f
thickness of 175
types of 336
Oral mucous membrane 4, 174, 278, 279f
connective tissue of 5f
functions of 174
Oral soft tissues, histochemistry of 326
Oral tissues 233, 282, 322
histochemistry of 322
microscopic structures of 5
overview of 1
structure of 5
Orbit 264
Organelles, cytoplasmic 100
Oroantral fistula 259, 259f
Orofacial region, lymphatics of 262
Orthodontic
tooth movement 123
treatment 149f
Orthokeratin 352
Osmium tetroxide 308
Ossification, divergent spread of 144f
Osteichthyes 297
Osteoblasts 4, 13, 98, 114, 116, 117, 117f, 118, 122, 133, 136, 137f, 139, 158, 169, 297, 336, 352
functions of 137
Osteocalcin 99, 129, 136, 282
Osteoclasts 4, 101, 116, 117, 138, 139, 139f, 352
formation of 139f
structure of 139f
Osteocytes 36, 86, 100, 101, 101t, 134, 135f, 137, 138, 138f, 352
structure of 138f
Osteodentin 76f, 352
Osteogenesis 133
Osteoid 72, 134, 137, 137f, 352
formation 137f
Osteon 131
primary 140
secondary 140
Osteonectin 129, 136, 323
Osteopontin 99, 136
Osteoprogenitor cell 136
derivatives of 136f
Osteoprotegerin 147, 352
acts 147
Ostia 253
Ostium 255
Ostracoderms 297
Otomandibular ligaments 248
Ova 352
Ovum, fusion of 9
Owen contour lines 75, 75f, 345
Oxytalan fibers 120, 352
Oxytocin 232
P
Pain
intolerable 93
myofascial 249
pulpal 93
Palate 178f
development of 17, 18, 194
primary 353
primitive 18
Palatine
bone 193f
glands 194f, 238
papilla 194
Palatoquadrate cartilage 297
Paleoproteomics 61
Papilla
apical 290, 291
cells 92
Papilla
appearance of 57
interdental 195f, 196, 196f
Paracone 303
Paracortex 352
Paracrine glands 217, 352
Paraffin infiltration 352
Paraffin wax 309
Paranasal sinuses 253, 257, 258
development 255
location of 253f
Parathormone 170
Parathyroid hormone 165
Parazones 49
Parenchyma, salivary 237
Parotid
duct 5f
gland 220, 233, 234, 235f, 338, 352
Pellicle, salivary 354
Pemphigus 210
Periapical fibers 119
Periapical inflammation, chronic 109
Pericytes 90
Perifollicular cells 114, 114f
Perikymata 49, 52, 61, 279, 352
scanning electron microscopic appearance of 53f
Periodate lysine-glutaraldehyde 324
Periodic acid-Schiff stain 323, 325f
Periodontal ligament 4, 36, 100, 100f, 105f, 108, 113, 114, 117, 118, 118f, 122, 145, 157, 160f, 167, 170, 282, 290, 291, 341, 352
cells of 114, 114f
fibers 119f, 282
attachment of 107, 109
embedded portion of 129f
remodeling of 115f
fibroblasts 282
functions of 122
principal fibers of 115f, 120f
role of 160
stem cells 290, 291
thickness of 123
Periodontal pockets 210, 211f
Periodontitis 4, 97, 123, 147, 148f, 281, 352
aggressive 123
chronic 123, 123f
Periodontium
development of 36, 114
evolution of 303
marginal 194
structure of 116
tissue of 113f
Periosteum 131, 244, 352
layers of 133f
Peripheral cells 36
Permanent mandibular incisors 166
eruption of 166f
Permanent mandibular molars 157f
Permanent maxillary molars 157f
Permanent teeth 153, 165
bud, positioning of 167f
eruption of 155f
Peroxide, salivary 232
Petrosquamosal suture 245
Peyer's patches 263, 353
pH 233, 353
Phagosome 191f
Pharyngeal arches 13, 14f, 17, 18, 19f, 204
development of 18
Pharyngeal clefts, fate of 13
Pharyngeal mucosa 234
Pharyngeal pouch 13
Phenotype 353
Philtrum 18
Phosphate 45
inorganic 136
Phosphoprotein, secretory calcium-binding 59
Pickerill imbrication lines 52
Picric acid 308
Pigments 322
cells 13
Pink tooth 353
Pits 45
Plasma
calcium homeostasis 140
cells 89, 191f, 231, 353
composition 232
membrane 198
Platelet derived growth factor 117
Pleurodont 302, 303f, 353
Plexus
intermediate 121
subepithelial 207
Plica
fimbriata 204, 204f
sublingualis 176, 203, 204f
Plump endothelial cells 266
Pluripotent 288, 353
mesenchymal cells 134
stem cells 288
Pneumatization 255, 353
Polygonal cells 179
Polymerase chain reaction 328, 329f, 353
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 188f, 191f
Polyphyodont 1
Post-canine tooth morphology 302
Posteruptive tooth movement 157, 159, 353
Potassium 99, 231
dichromate 308
Precementum 106
Prechondroblasts 244
Prechordal plate 9
Precursor cells 287
Predentin 72, 78, 91, 353
dentin junction 85f
Pre-eruptive tooth movement 156, 157, 353
Premaxilla 353
Premolars
molars 156
placement of 167f
Preodontoblast 78, 353
Presbyopia 276
Prickle cell layer 182
Primary saliva 231
modification of 230
Primitive node 353
Principal fibers 115f, 119, 120f, 353
Prismatic enamel 58
Proacinar cells 224
Prochordal plate 9, 353
formation 11f
mesoderm 17
Progenitor cell 116, 118, 182, 190, 287, 289, 353
Progerin 276
Programmed cell death 18, 85, 170
Programmed longevity theory 274
Prostaglandins 136
Protargol 315
Proteases 46
Proteins 56, 322, 323, 325, 326, 353
basic 233
extracellular 201
fibrillin 120
fibrous 315
homeostasis 276
noncollagenous 99
translation 276
Proteoglycans 99, 192, 323, 324, 353
aggregating 323
localization of 325
Proteolipids 99
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium 194f, 258f
Pterygoid
fovea 244f
medial 248
muscle, lateral 242
Pulp 3, 66, 72f, 76, 79f, 80, 83, 89, 91, 168, 280, 282, 340
architecture 85f
canal 83, 84, 94
volume of 92f
cells of 88
central 281
chamber 83, 93f, 281f, 284, 316f, 353
volume of 280
component of 71
core, cells of 85
dentin capacity, regeneration of 290
development of 91
diffuse calcifications of 346
extracellular matrix of 88f
fibers of 90
functions of 91
growth theory 159
horns 94
recession of 94
odontoblastic layer of 72
resorption of 169
space 85
stones 92, 93f, 281f, 353
incidence of 92
structure of 84, 84fc
tissue 330f
volume of 281f
Pulpal architecture, development of 91
Pulpitis 93, 93f
Q
Quadritubercular molar 303
R
Radicular dentin formation 79
Radicular pulp 83, 84, 353
Radioautographic techniques 330
Ramus 241f
Raschkow plexus 353
Regenerative medicine 288, 290
Rehydration 314
Reichert's cartilage 13, 353
Renal disorders 283
Resorption bays 139
Resorptive cells 116, 117
Respiratory epithelium 4
Respiratory system 277
Rete ridges 178, 179
Reticular network 354
Reticulin fibers 121, 354
Retrodiscal laminae 245
Retroperitoneal sac 263
Retzius incremental lines 49, 49f, 360
Retzius striae 45, 49, 354
Rivinus ducts 236, 346
Robust australopithecus 299
Rod
segments 47
sheath 46, 47f
Root
apical third of 84
apices of 254
canal 83, 84, 284
anatomy 93
dimension 280
development 36f
formation 36, 114
fracture 109
growth theory 159
Rossman's fluid 324
Rotary microtome 311f
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 87f
RT-PCR technique 330
Ruffini corpuscles 207
Rugae 193f
S
Saliva 4, 233, 234, 318, 354
composition of 232, 232fc
discharge of 5f
ductal modification of 232
flow of 237
formation of 231
functions of 233
inorganic constituents of 232
primary 231
properties of 233
protects 233
secretion of 231
unstimulated 233
Salivary flow rate 233
Salivary glands 4, 202, 216, 217, 217f, 218, 220, 221, 224, 226, 229, 237, 278, 283, 341, 354
acini 327
anatomy of 237
classification of 220
development of 174, 220, 221, 222f, 223f, 224
discharge 4
epithelial cells 231
histology of 224, 225f, 237
inflammation of 237
major 5f, 220, 220t, 223, 234, 338
mixed 371
neoplasms 237
organs 237
serous 206f, 370
stage of 223
structure of 225f
Salivary secretions, total 233
Salter lines 106, 350
Salts, inorganic 131
Sarcomeric muscle 289
Sarcopterygians 298
Scalloped dentinoenamel junction 48f, 67f
Scarless oral healing 190
Schiff's reagent 324
Schneiderian membrane 257, 354
Schwann cells 13
Sclerotic dentin 75, 75f, 280, 280f, 354
Second maxillary molar teeth 254
Secretions 175, 231
types of 219, 220
Secretory cells 236, 258
Semicircular fibers 199
Sensation 174
Sensory
cortex 93
function 113, 122
impairments 276
innervations 255
nerves 91
Septum, interdental 145
Seromucous acini 225
Serous acini 225, 227t, 337
Serous cells 226, 236, 354
Serous demilunes 226, 354
Serous glands 220, 226f, 238, 258
Serre rests 354
Sesamoid bone 130, 131f
Sex chromosomes 8, 61
Shallow depression 255
Sharp teeth 304
Sharpey's fibers 101, 101f, 102, 102f, 106, 119, 121, 121f, 128, 129f, 146f, 354
Sheathlin 46
Shedding, mechanism of 167
Sialadenitis 237
Sialadenosis 237
Sialic acid 323
Sialorrhea 237
Sialosis 237
Silicon 99, 129
Silver
methenamine stain 315
proteinate 315
Single tooth-bearing bone 298
Sinus 253
bony walls of 257
cavity 254
development of 255
enlarges 255
polyps 259
Sinusitis 259
Sjögren syndrome 237
Skeletal system 277
Skeletal trauma 283
Skeleton, cartilaginous 298
Skin denticles 301
Skull
base of 245f
temporal bone of 241
Small cytoplasmic extensions 70
Smear 308
Smooth ended
ameloblast 57, 58
cell function 57
Smooth muscle cells 13, 226
Sodium 231
Soft palate 203, 203f, 205
Soft tissue 1, 131, 308
Somatic cells 275
Somatic DNA damage theory 274
Somites 354
Speech 234
Sperm 9, 354
fusion of 9
Sphenoid sinus 253
Sphenomalleolar ligament 13
Sphenomandibular ligament 13, 243, 247
Spinous cell layer 184f, 282
Spleen 263
Spore 288
Sputum 318
Squamous cell carcinoma 210, 211f
Stellate reticulum 32, 34, 40, 55, 354
cells 34
Stem cells 118, 287, 290, 291, 354
application of 290
basis of 289
classification of 288
derived cancer 287, 291
history of 287
mechanism of action of 289
potential uses of 290
property of 287
source of 288
Stensen's duct 354
Stomatodeum 17
Stomodeum 17, 18, 25, 354
Stone 259
tools, development of 304
Stratified squamous epithelium 179, 179f
Stratum
basale 180f, 182, 354
corneum 180f, 184, 185f, 354
germinativum 182, 197, 354
granulosum 180f, 183, 354
intermedium 34, 40, 54, 55f, 56f
spinosum 180f, 182, 197, 354
superficiale 185
Striated ducts 224, 230, 230f, 236, 354
Stromal vascular fraction 293f
Stylomandibular ligament 243, 244f, 247
Subepithelial collagen fibers 188
Sublingual fold 203
Submucosa 192, 355
absence of 177
presence of 177
Subodontoblastic layer, cells of 79f
Succinate dehydrogenase 326, 327, 355
Sudanophilia 326
Sulcular epithelium 195, 197, 201
Sulcus terminalis 21, 204, 355
Superficial cells 318
Superficial temporal artery 248
Supernumerary maxillary sinus 259
Supraeruption 162, 355
Sweat gland 219
Swellings, lingual 350
Syndesmosis 113
Synovial cells, macrophage-like 246
Synovial fluid 247, 355
Synovial joint 242, 355
Synovial membrane 242, 246, 247, 247f, 355
Synovial tissue 246
Synovial villi 247f
Synovitis 249
Syphilis, congenital 259
T
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 117, 355
Taste
bud 205, 205f, 206, 206f, 208, 355
number of 276
structure of 206f
cell 206f
pore 206, 206f
sensation, distribution of 207f
T-cells 355
Teeth 3, 167, 301
absence of 128
anatomy of 2f
anterior 196
apex of 281
cervical constriction of 83
compound 302
crypt 145f
development 25, 28, 28t, 36f, 37, 188, 338
advance bell stage of 358
bud stage of 30f, 357
cap stage of 357
early bell stage of 358
initiation of 174
stages of 29f, 303
timeline of 27t
displacement of 29
ectodermal derivative of 3
eruption 58, 115, 153, 159
failure of 161
theory of 159
timeline of 339
evolution 297
model of 301
exfoliates 94
formation 33
functions of 1, 44
germ 27, 157, 355
ground section of 67f, 280f, 316f
hypothesis explaining evolution of 301
initiation 29
morphology of 66
movement 5, 149, 155, 157, 281
histology of 157
pattern of 155
neonatal 161, 352
part of 200
patterning 30
permanent 153, 165
posterior 196
presence of 128
primary 153, 156
resorbing cells 122
resorption of 168
secondary 153, 156
sensitivity 80
small 37
socket 116
submerged 162, 355
substance, loss of 279
succedaneous 165
supernumerary 155
surface 61
upper posterior 259
Telomere 355
length 275f
regulation 275
Temporal bone 4, 13, 241, 243, 245
glenoid fossa of 244f
part of 13
Temporomandibular joint 4, 5f, 241, 242f, 244f, 278, 279, 283, 341
ankylosis 249, 355
capsule of 246
clicking of 249
development of 242, 243f
dislocation 249
disorders of 249
functions of 248
gross anatomy of 243
ligaments of 247
microscopic structure of 243
movements of 248f
nerves innervations of 248f
Temporomandibular ligament 243, 244f, 247
Tenascin 99
Terminal tubule cells 224
Thecodont 302, 303f, 355
Thermal regulation 175
Thoracic duct 264
Thymus 263, 263f
Thyroglossal duct 21, 204
Thyroid
gland 216, 217
lingual 210
Tissue 262, 307, 315
blocks 311
culture 307
fibrous 175
fixation 355
fluid 265f
loss 267
fragments of 307
interstitial 121
keratinized 197
microarray 316
odontogenic 181, 181t
processing 307, 318fc, 355
section 191f, 311
shrinkage 309
T-lymphocytes 197, 263, 266
Tomes’ fiber 70, 87
Tomes’ granular layer 73, 74f, 355, 363
Tomes’ process 46, 47, 51, 55, 55f, 56f, 355
Tomes’ resorbing organ 169
Tongue 178f, 204, 278, 283, 341
anterior portion of 22f
body of 204
circumvalate papillae of 369
development of 17, 21
developmental deformity of 22
differs, innervation of 21
dorsal portion of 21f, 204
dorsum of 177
filiform papillae of 368
fungiform papillae of 368
large-sized 22
lateral border of 205f
lymphoid part of 205f
papilla of 204, 337
part of 21
posterolateral 237
small sized 22
ventral surface of 2f, 204, 204f
Tonofilaments 355
Tonsillar crypts 355
Tonsils 94, 128f, 263, 355
lingual 205f, 206, 207f
Toothache 93
Totipotent cells 355
Touch cells 187
Toxins 85
Trabeculae 355
Transcytosis 231
Transduction theory 77
Transgingival fibers 199
Transmission electron microscope 315
Transseptal fibers 120, 199, 355
Trauma, severe 109
Tricalcium phosphate 292
Triconodont 303, 355
teeth 303
Trilaminar germ disk 9
formation 9
Tritubercular theory 303, 305
Trophoblast 10f, 288, 356
Tropocollagen 90
Tubarial glands 237
Tuberculous bacillus 312
Tuberculum impar 21, 356
Tuftelin 46, 356
Tumor
cells 268
necrosis factor 247
Tunica
adventitia 90
intima 90
U
Unipotent progenitor cells 287
Uranyl acetate 324
Urine 318
Uvula 178f, 203, 203f
V
Varices, lingual 350
Vascular pressure theory 159
Vasomotor function 122
Verhoeff-van Gieson stain 312, 327f
Vermilion 201
border 202f, 356
zone 201, 202f
Vertebrates 241, 356
Vesicular nucleus, large 116
Vestibular lamina 27, 28f, 356
Villi 206f
Viral infection 237
Visceral arches 13
Viscerocranial elements 297
Viscosity 233
Vision 276
three-dimensional 298
Vital cementocytes 100
Volkmann's canal 131, 356
von Ebner's glands 205, 208, 356
von Ebner's incremental line 75f, 349
von Korff's fibers 356
von Willebrand factor 281
W
Waldeyer's ring 267, 268f
Waste material, amount of 277
Wax
block, sectioning of 311f
ribbon floating 312f
Wear and tear theory 274
Weber glands 237
Weibel-Palade bodies 281
Weil cells free zone 88
Wharton's duct 235, 356
Wheatsheaf’ appearance 280
White sponge nevus 209
Wisdom tooth 153
Wormian bones 130
Wound healing 234
Woven bone 133f, 134t, 356, 367
X
X chromosome 8
Xenograft 356
Xerostomia 237, 278, 356
Xylene, replacement of 309
Y
Y chromosome 8
Yolk sac cavity 9
Z
Ziehl-Neelsen stain 312
Zinc 129
Zuckerkandl canal 145, 146f, 344
Zygote 288, 356
formation of 9f
Zymogen 225
granules 225, 356
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Chapter Notes

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