Textbook of Applied Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses PR Ashalatha, G Deepa
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abdomen 20
blood circulation of 190
muscles of 321f
quadrants of 20
sagittal section of 140f
transverse section of 140f
veins of 191f
Abdominal aorta 178f, 179, 179f
branches of 132
Abdominal cavity 20
anterior part of 21f
boundaries of 21
posterior part of 21f
regions of 20f
Abdominal wall, muscles of 323
Abdominopelvic cavity 20, 231
Abducent nerve 522, 526
Abduction 7, 597
Abductor pollicis longus 331
ABO system 222, 222t
Absolute bone conduction test 289
Absorption 97, 98
defective 572
sites of 428, 428f
spectra 301f
Accommodation 300, 597
reflex 300
A-cells 266
Acetabulum 385, 386, 406
Acetylcholine 310, 484
receptors 309
Achalasia 116
Achlorhydria 119
Achondroplasia 556
Acid secretion, regulation of 121
Acid-base balance 201
maintenance of 264
regulation of 203
Acidophils 250
Acidosis 597
Acinar glands 52
Acini, types of 54f
Acoustic meatus
external 281
internal 364
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 243
Acromioclavicular joint 398, 399, 399f
Actin filaments 307
Addison's disease 265
Adduction 7, 597
Adductor magnus 337
muscle 339f
Adductor pollicis 334
Adenine 550, 550f, 553
Adenohypophysis 248, 250
Adenoids 106, 107, 108t
functions of 108
Adenosine triphosphate 31
Adipocyte 58f, 272
Adipose
cells 261
tissue 60, 60f
Adrenal androgens 265
Adrenal cortex
control of 500
hormones of 263
Adrenal gland 245, 246, 262, 579
Adrenal medulla
hormones of 266
regulation of secretion of 266
Adrenocortical insufficiency 265
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 23, 246, 250, 251, 264, 500
actions of 251
Adrenogenital syndrome 265
Adventitia 114, 432f
Adventitious sounds 87
Aerodigestive tract, portal of 108
Afferent nerve 477
Air passages 67, 68f
Air sinus 348f
frontal 70
Airway 107
obstruction of 95
protection of 72
Alanine 28
Albinism 556
Albumin 203
Albuterol 281
Aldehyde 298
Aldosterone 263
actions of 263
secretion, regulation of 264
stimulate 43
Alkali 597
Alkalosis 597
Allergy 597
Alopecia areata 274
Alpha-amylase 146
Alpha-cells 266
Alpha-fetoprotein 561
Alveolar bone 101
Alveolar ducts 469
Alveolar epithelium 89
Alveolar glands 52
Alveolar ventilation 89
Alveoli 78
Alzheimer's disease 575
Amenorrhea 456
Amino acid 28, 597
classification of 28t
derivative 246
hormones 246
essential 28
functions of 28
semiessential 28
Amniocentesis 561
Amorphous matrix 39
Ampulla 441f
Amygdaloid nucleus 493
Amylolytic enzyme 146
Anal canal 132, 132t
interior of 132, 133f
Anal sphincters 132
Anaphase 555, 597
Anatomical snuff box 188
Anatomy 3
subdivisions of 3
Anemia 30, 211, 213, 214t, 215t
causes of 214
classification of 214
megaloblastic 30, 207, 214, 214f
Aneurysm 174, 597
aortic 180
Angina pectoris 161
Angiography, coronary 161
Angioplasty, coronary 161
Angiotensin
actions of 425
converting enzyme 172, 425, 431
role of 431
Angiotensinogen, conversion of 425fc
Angular movements 398
Anion 597
Anisocytes 208
Ankle joint 415
dislocation of 414
extensor retinacula of 416f
flexor retinaculum of 416f
radiograph of 412f
Annulus fibrosus, external 376
Anopia 300
Anorexia 276
Anosmia 279
Anovulatory cycles 456
Anteflexion 443
Anterior abdominal wall
muscles 87, 231
superficial lymphatics of 231f
Anterior cruciate ligament 388, 408
Anterior superior iliac spine 386
Anteversion 443
Antibody 218, 241, 597
classes 241t
functions of 241, 242fc
mechanism of action of 241
production 108
Anticoagulants 220, 221, 222
Anticodon 553
Antidiuretic hormone 246, 253, 425, 429, 430, 500
actions of 253
activity of 429
role of 429, 430
Antigens 238, 597
Aorta 152, 154, 176, 177f
arch of 76, 81, 176, 177f, 178f
ascending 176, 178f
coarctation of 180
descending 178, 178f
first branches of 176
Aortic knob 180
Aortic knuckle 180
Aortic nodes 424
Apex 79, 136, 156, 157
beat 165
Apnea 94
Apocrine 54, 55f
Apoferritin 207
Aponeurosis, bicipital 330
Apoptosis 41
Appendicitis 130
Appendicular skeleton 16, 18, 343, 354, 376
Appendix 129f, 594f
arterial supply of 130
Arachidonic acid 29
Arachnoid mater 485
Arches
classification of 392
functions of 392
Archicerebellum 504
Arcuate vein 423
Areola 59, 275
Areolar tissue 59, 79
Arginine 28
Arm
bones of 578
lateral rotation of 8f
medial rotation of 8f
muscles of 329f, 330
transverse section of 330f
upper 379
Arrector pili muscle 270, 274
Arrhythmia 597
Arteria thyroidea ima 255
Arterial blood pressure 169
regulation of 170, 171fc
Arterial pulse 165
Arteriole 152, 175, 233, 597
Arterioles, muscular 175
Artery 152, 174, 175, 263, 369, 597
anterior interventricular 160
ascending pharyngeal 181
brachiocephalic 177
bronchial 79, 82, 178
classification of 175
epiphyseal 353
facial 195
femoral 193, 194f, 195
gonadal 180
lingual 181
maxillary 181
metaphyseal 353
muscular 175
ophthalmic 181
periosteal 353
popliteal 194, 195, 195f
posterior intercostal 178
pulmonary 79, 82, 154
pulsations of 195t
sinoatrial 160
splenic 190
subclavian 81, 185, 186
subcostal 178
suprascapular 186
vertebrobasilar 181f, 507
Arthritis 575
Articular cartilage 397
Articular disc 397, 403
Articulation 103, 597
Arytenoids 72
cartilage 73
Asparagine 28
Aspartic acid 28
Asthma 95
treatment 281
Astigmatism 302
Astrocytes 480, 481f
Atavistic epiphysis 353
Atherosclerosis 570
Atlas vertebra 374f
Atonia 505
Atrial branches 160
Atrial complex 165
Atrial muscle fibers 162
Atrial natriuretic peptide 246, 430
role of 431
Atrial septal defect 158, 561
Atrioventricular node 161
Atrioventricular orifice 154
Atrioventricular valves 157
Atrium 81, 154, 157, 157f, 158, 159, 159t
Atrophy 597
Auditory area, primary 496
Auditory canal, external 281
Auditory cortex 289
Auditory meatus, external 275, 282, 345f
Auditory pathway 288, 288f
Auditory radiation 289
Auditory tube 283, 284
Auerbach's plexus 98
Auricle 157, 281
anterior surface of 81
external features of 282f
Auricular artery, posterior 181
Auscultation 24
triangle of 329, 330f
Auscultatory gap 169
Auscultatory method 169
Autoimmune diseases 243
Autoimmunity 597
Autonomic nervous system 98, 168, 447, 473, 538
effects of 168
subdivisions of 538
Autonomic neurons, neurotransmitters of 542f
Autoregulation 424f
Autosomal dominant
disorders 555
traits, characteristic features of 555
Autosomal recessive
disorders 556
inheritance, characteristic features of 556
Autosome 549, 597
Axial skeleton 16, 17, 343, 354, 356
Axilla 275
Axillary artery 186, 187f
branches of 186t
parts of 186t
Axillary nerve 327, 535
branches of 535f
Axoaxonal synapse 482f
Axoaxonic synapse 482
Axodendritic synapse 482, 482f
Axolemma 476
Axon 476t
Axoplasm 476
Axosomatic synapse 482, 482f
Azygos system 81, 189, 190f
B
Babinski's reflex 513
Babinski's sign 513, 514, 514f
Bacterial flora 134
Bainbridge reflex 168, 169fc
Ball and socket joint 397, 398f
Baroreceptors 168, 430
Barr body 548
Barrett's esophagus 116
Barrier methods 470
Bartholin's cyst 441
Bartholin's glands 440
Basal cell carcinoma 273
Basal ganglia 494
functions of 494
Basal metabolic rate 570, 597
normal value of 570
Basal nuclei 493
Base 79, 136, 156, 550
Basement membrane 52
functions of 52
Basilar artery, branches of 507
Basilar membrane 287
Basilic vein 188
Basophil 204, 216, 217f, 250
B-cells 266
Becker's muscular dystrophy 312
Bell's palsy 528
Bellini ducts of 421
Beriberi 30
Berry aneurysm 507
Bicarbonate 91
Biceps 330
brachii 330
femoris 337
Bicuspids 101
Bidigital examination 112
Bigelow ligament 406
Bile 142
acids 142
composition of 142, 142fc
functions of 143
pigments 143
salts 142
secretion, regulation of 143
Bilirubin, normal plasma levels of 142
Binocular vision 298, 299f
Biosynthesis 256
Biot's breathing 94
Bipedal locomotion 339
Bipennate muscles 334
Bipolar neuron 475, 475f
Birth canal, axis of 393
Bladder
catheterization of 435
interior of 433
rupture of 434
trigone of 434f
Blastocyst 597
Bleeding
disorders 30
time 220, 221
B-leptin 574
Blind spot 295
Blindness 295
Blood 62, 201
brain barrier 489, 597
functions of 489
structure of 489, 489f
cells 202, 264
origin of 204
production of 234
cellular components of 204
clinical chemistry of 580t
clotting of 260
coagulation of 203, 219
composition of 202, 202fc
excessive loss of 215t
flow, velocity of 170
functions of 201, 201fc
groups 222
determination 207
genotypes of 222t
inheritance of 222
uses of 222
indices 213
leukocytes 58
path of 424fc
physical properties of 202
plasma 488t
pressure 31, 170, 170fc
diastolic 169, 598
measurement of 169
regulation of 172fc, 500
systolic 169
smear, peripheral 214f
transfusion 223
hazards of 223
vessels 46, 152, 152fc, 167, 170, 174, 229
general structure of 174
lumen of 170
viscosity of 170, 203
volume, regulation of 171
B-lymphocytes 58
specificity of 241
Body 1, 138
cavity of 19, 19f
composition of 22
constitute framework of 354
defense mechanism of 203, 238fc
fluid 582t
volume 430
heat, sources of 276
major lymphatics of 229
muscles of 314
organs systems of 10, 11
planes of 5f
temperature, regulation of 277fc, 500
vital centers of 503
water 22fc
Bohr effect 91
Bombay blood group 222
Bones 62, 261
cells 349f
classification of 349
composition of 349fc
forming
joint 403
lower limb skeleton 18, 355, 354
frontal 364, 365f
functions of 354fc
growth 353
factors affecting 353
lamellae 350f
marrow 225, 226, 344, 351
disorders of 214
metacarpal 384
mineralization of 260
navicular 391
nerve supply of 353
occipital 364, 366f
ossification of 352
parietal 364
phalangeal 384
structure 348f
types of 352
Bony labyrinth 285, 285f, 286f, 367
Bowman's capsule 421, 427
Bowman's membrane 294
Brachial artery 186, 188, 195
Brachial plexus 508, 532, 533f
branches of 533
extent of 532f
formation of 533
injuries 533
largest branch of 535
position of 532f
roots of 532
typical plan of 533
Brachialis 330
Brachiocephalic vein, origin of 81
Brachioradialis 333
Brachydactyly 556
Bradycardia 168, 597
Brain 226, 268, 489, 490f, 514f, 579, 589f
blood supply of 506
coronal section of 491f
medial surface 590f
midsagittal section of 499f
ventricles of 487
ventricular system of 487f
Brainstem 501, 514, 515f, 519f
dorsal aspect of 501f
lesions in 522
ventral aspect of 501f, 523f
Breast 456
cancer 458
signs of 457
symptoms of 457
deep relations of 456
female 254
lymphatic drainage of 458f
Breath sounds 87
Brittle bone disease 556
Broad ligament 444, 446
structure of 445f
subdivisions of 444
Brodmann's area 516
Bronchi 67
intrapulmonary 78
Bronchioles 67, 78
Bronchopulmonary segments 83, 84t
Bronchoscopy 79
Bronchus 78, 78t, 79
Brown fat 277
Brush border 41, 47
Buccal branch 527
Buffy coat 212
Bulbar palsy 529
Bulbocavernosus muscle, contraction of 435
Bulbourethral glands 468
Bursae around joint 400
Bypass surgery 161
C
Caisson's disease 94
Calcaneofibular ligaments 412
Calcitonin 258, 260
actions of 258
regulation of secretion of 258
Calcitriol 260
Calcium 31, 260
functions of 260
levels of 259
metabolism 260
regulation of 260fc
serum 261
Calculus, submandibular 112f
Calorigenic action 257
Calot's triangle 139, 140f
Calvaria, bones of 356fc
Calyx
major 422
minor 422
Canal, inguinal 322
Canaliculi 350
Cancellous bone 344, 350, 351
structure of 350
Canines 101
Capsular ligament 408, 409
Capsule 55, 228, 229, 233, 254
Caput medusa 192
Carbaminohemoglobin 91, 210
Carbohydrates 26, 33, 597
classification of 27fc
functions of 27, 35
metabolism of 252, 257, 264, 266
nonenergy yielding 27
Carbon
dioxide 87
diffusion of 90f
dissociation curve 91, 92f
partial 92
transport of 91, 210
isotopes of 31f
monoxide 91
Carbonic anhydrase enzyme 121
Carboxyhemoglobin 210
Carcinogen 598
Carcinoma 598
bronchogenic 83
nasopharygeal 107
Cardiac anomalies 561
Cardiac arrest 161
Cardiac cycle 162, 163f
events of 162
phases of 163, 163f
Cardiac muscle 304, 311, 312, 314t
histology of 312f
Cardiac output 166, 167fc, 170, 598
Cardiac transplantation 161
Cardinal ligaments 445
Cardioaccelerator reflex 169fc
Cardiospasm 116
Cardiovascular diseases 94, 575
Cardiovascular disorders 574
Cardiovascular system 14, 14f, 257, 430, 469
Carina 77
Carotenemia 258
Carotid
artery 180
external 111, 111f, 180, 195
internal 181, 182f, 364, 507
body 180
sinus 180
Carpal bones 383
Carpal tunnel syndrome 534
Carpometacarpal joint 404, 405f, 405t
Carpopedal spasm 262
Cartilage 60, 226, 297, 297f, 302
bone 350
epiphyseal 353
features of 61
semilunar 409
structure of 61
types of 61, 62t, 73
Cartilaginous joints 396
Carunculae myritiformis 448
Catabolism 598
Catecholamine secretion 277
Cauda equina 509f, 510
Caudate nucleus 490, 493
Cavernous sinus 184, 184f
connections of 185t
Cecum 129, 594f
arterial supply of 130
interior of 129f
Celiac trunk 190, 190f
Cell 33, 57
cell adhesion 34
clumps of 250
cytoskeleton of 40t
death 41
process of 41fc
division, types of 553
extensions 40
hierachy 205fc
matrix adhesion 34
membrane 33, 34, 34f, 35f
carbohydrates of 35
composition of 33
functions of 35
lipids in 33
role of 36
structure of 33
microglial 481f
nucleus of 52
organelles 36, 36t, 37f
power-generating units of 39
shape of 35
size of 35
structure of 33
types of 108, 120, 120t, 123, 123t
Cementoenamel junction 100
Cementum 100
Central nervous system 264, 473, 484
anatomical divisions of 473f
neurons 480
Central neuroglial cells 480
Central venous access device 197
Central vestibular system 290
Centromere 549, 554
Centrosome 39
Cephalic phase 121, 147
Cephalic vein 188
Cerebellar peduncles 505fc
inferior 503
middle 502
Cerebellar syndrome 505
Cerebellolabyrinthine artery 507
Cerebellopontine angle 503
Cerebellum 504, 505f
functions of 505fc
nuclei of 504f
subdivisions of 505f
Cerebral arachnoid 485
Cerebral artery
anterior 181
middle 181
Cerebral cortex 490, 520fc
functional areas of 494
lesions in 522
Cerebral dominance 494
Cerebral dura 484
Cerebral hemisphere 490, 495f
inferior aspect of 491f
lateral aspect of 491f
Cerebral ischemia 94
Cerebral vein
inferior 185
superficial middle 185
Cerebrocerebellum 504
Cerebrospinal fluid 286f, 487, 488, 598
absorption of 488
characteristics of 487
circulation of 488, 488f
collection of 489
composition of 487, 488fc
formation of 488
functions of 488
rhinorrhea 523
Cerebrum 279, 282, 489
arterial supply of 508f
functions of 497, 497fc
transverse section of 493f
white matter of 492
Cervical
line 100
nerve 529
plexus 532, 532f
rib 186
vertebrae 373
atypical 374
Cervix 443
Chemical synapse 482, 483f
Chemoreceptors 168, 598
mechanism 170
peripheral 93, 93f
Chemotaxis 216, 598
Chemotherapy 281
Chest
fixation of 75
physiotherapy 82f
wall 328
X-ray 180f
Cheyne-Stokes breathing 94, 94f
Cholecystography 140
Cholecystokinin 122, 147, 246
Cholesterol 33
Chondroblasts 61
Chondrocytes 61
Chorda tympani 104
Choroid 294
plexuses 487
Choroidal artery, anterior 181
Chromatic vision 301
Chromatids 549
Chromatin 598
Chromosomal trisomies, types of 558f
Chromosomes 547, 598
classification of 549
significance of 549
structure of 548, 548f
Chvostek's sign 262
Chyme 148
Cilia 40, 41f, 598
functional significance of 40
Ciliac ganglion 540f
Ciliary body 294
Ciliary muscle 291, 294
Circulatory system 152, 174
Circulus arteriosus 506, 506f
Circumflex artery 160
Circumvallate papillae 104, 105, 105f
Cisternae 36
Cisternal puncture 485
Claustrum 492, 493
Clavicle 377f
conoid tubercle of 346f
Clavipectoral fascia 328, 329f
Claw hand 534f
Cleft
lip 102, 103f
palate 102, 103f
Clergyman's bursa 410
Clitoris 440
Cloquet glands 440
Clot retraction 221
Club foot 392f
Cobalamin 30
Coccygeal cornua 376
Coccyx 376
Cochlea 286
ducts of 286
Cochlear canal, structure of 286f
Coeliac artery 179
Colic impression 233
Collagen fibers 56, 57f, 60
distribution of 57t
types of 56
Colles’ fracture 382f
Colliculus, inferior 288, 515
Colloid 250
Colon 130
ascending 131
descending 131
histology of 130
Color blindness 301
Color vision 301
Columnar epithelium 45, 47, 48f, 50, 120
Colustrum 470
Commissural fibers 492
Common bile duct 139
Compact bone 344, 350, 350f, 351
longitudinal section of 348f
structure of 350
Conductive system 155, 162t
Condylar process 362
Condyles 347f, 408
Condyloid joint 397, 398f
Congenital anomalies 199, 420, 434, 461
Conjoint synapse 482
Conjunctiva 290
Conjunctival sac 290, 291
Conn's syndrome 265
Connective tissue 45, 46, 55, 59, 306f
components of 56, 56fc
development of 56
fibers of 57f
framework 233
functions of 56
types of 59
Constriction
primary 549
pupillary 300
Constrictor pupillae 291
Contraception 470
Contraction, muscular 310fc
Conus
artery 159
elasticus 73
medullaris 508, 509f
Copper 31
Coracobrachialis 330
Coracohumeral ligament 400
Coracoid process 346f, 379
Cordotomy 517
Cords
medullary 229
oblique 402
Cornea 45, 226, 292294, 295f
special features of 294
Corneal epithelium 294
Corniculate 72, 73
Corona radiata 491f, 492
Coronary artery 159, 159f, 160, 176
disease 29
distribution of 159
Coronary ligament 134
Coronary sinus 160
Coronary sulcus 157
Corpus
body of 117
callosum 492, 493, 493f
fibers of 493
parts of 493
striatum 490, 493f
Cortex 228, 236, 274, 451, 598
Corti organ 287, 287f
Corti rods 287
Cortical nephrons 423
Corticobulbar fibers 519
Corticonuclear fibers 519
Corticopontine 519
Corticospinal system 514
Corticospinal tract 503, 514, 516, 519, 519f
course of 519
lesions of 520
Corticotropes 250
Corticotropin releasing hormone 246, 247, 265, 500
Costocervical trunk 186
Cough reflex 75
Cowper's glands 468
Cranial bones 578
Cranial cavity 19
Cranial fossa
anterior 359, 359f
middle 360, 360f
posterior 360, 360f
Cranial nerves 474, 522, 523f, 530, 531t
attachments of 523t
Cranial outflow 540t
Craniofacial muscles 314
Craniosacral outflow 539f, 540
Craniospinal nerves 474
Cretinism 253, 259
Cribriform plate 367
Cricoid cartilage 72, 73
Cricothyroid 74
Cri-du-chat syndrome 290
Crista ampullaris 287
Cruciate ligament 388, 408, 409
Cuboid 391
Cuboidal epithelium 45, 47, 49, 255
Cuneate tubercles 503
Cuneiform 72, 73, 391
Curvatures, primary 373
Cushing's syndrome 265
Cuticle 274
Cyanosis 95
central 95
peripheral 95
Cysteine 28
Cystic artery, triangle of 139
Cystic duct 139
Cytology 3, 33
Cytoplasm 36
Cytosine 550, 550f, 553
Cytoskeleton 36, 39, 40t
Cytosol 36
D
Dark adaptation 298
Daughter chromosomes 554
D-cells 266
Decidual reaction 455
Deep cervical lymph nodes 104, 230f
Deep circular fibers 406
Deep extensor muscles 331, 333f
Deep fascia 63
Deep palmar arch 188
Deep peroneal nerve 337
Deep reflexes 456, 513, 513t
Deep vein 182, 189, 196
thrombosis 197, 340
prevention of 197
Defecation 149, 598
Deglutition 103, 148
Dehydration 27, 598
Deiter's cells 287
Deltoid 327f
ligament 412, 412f
muscles 379
Dendrites 476t
Dense irregular connective tissue 59, 60f
Dense regular connective tissue 59, 60f
Dental caries 102
Dentin 100
Dentinoenamel junction 100
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 556
Deoxyribonucleic acid 30, 31, 39, 467, 598
basic structure of 550
part of 550f
Depression 7
Dermal papillae 271f
Dermis 270272
Descemet's membrane 294
Diabetes insipidus 253
Diabetes mellitus 243, 267, 575
classical features of 267
Diabetic foot 274
Dialysis 437
peritoneal 142
principle of 437f
Diapedesis 216, 598
Diaphragm 20, 318, 319, 319f
inferior relations of 320f
origin of 320
relations of 320, 320f
Diaphysis 353
Diencephalon 497
divisions of 497t
dorsal part of 497
subdivisions of 497t
ventral part of 498
Dietary fiber 27
Differential leukocyte count 215
Diffuse lymphoid tissue 228, 236
Digestion 4, 97, 98, 143
accessory organs of 134
defective 572
process of 97, 98fc
purposes of 97
Digestive function 113
Digestive organs
accessory 97
primary 97
Digestive system 15, 15f, 97
development of 149f
parts of 99, 100f
Digital examination 132
Digits
abduction of 7f
adduction of 7f
Dihydroxycholecalciferol 260, 419
Dilator pupillae 291
Dinner fork deformity 382f
Diphosphoglycerate 91
Diploic bones 344
Diploid 598
Direct pupillary light reflex 300
Disaccharidases 128
Distal convoluted tubule 421, 428, 429
Distal radius fracture 381f
Diuresis 598
Dopamine, actions of 266
Dorsal column
fibers 514
tract 514
Dorsal horn cells 510
Dorsal nerve root ganglion 530
Dorsal scapular artery 186
Dorsal segment 386
Dorsal surface 103, 103f, 378
Dorsalis pedis artery 195, 195f
Dorsiflexion 413, 414
Dorsogluteal site 386f
Dorsolateral nucleus 498
Dorsum sellae 366
Douglas pouch 141, 142f, 444
Down's syndrome 69, 220, 558f, 559f, 561, 561f
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy 312
Ducts 109
branching of 52
interlobular 137
pancreatic 145f
paramesonephric 459f
system 55
Ductus deferens 464
Duodenum 117, 122, 123, 124f, 592f
histology of 124
microscopic structure of 124f
position of 123f
second part of 123f
Dura mater 484
Dural venous sinuses 183, 183f, 184f
Dwarfism 354f
pituitary 253, 253t
Dysdiadochokinesis 506
Dysmenorrhea 456
Dysphonia 529
Dyspnea 94
Dystrophy, muscular 312
E
Ear
external 281
internal 285, 364
middle 283, 284, 364
ossicles 284, 284f
parts of 282f
Eccrine 54
Ectopic pacemaker 162
Ectopic tubal pregnancy 448
Edema, pulmonary 85, 95
Edward syndrome 558f
Ejaculatory ducts 465
Ejection fraction 164
Elastic 62
artery 175, 175f
cartilage 61, 61f
fibers 57, 57f
fibrocartilage 73
tissue 59
Elbow
joint 400, 401f
anterior relations of 402f
posterior relations of 402f
relations of 401
X-ray of 381f
Electrical synapse 482, 483f
Electrocardiogram 165, 479
Electroencephalogram 479
Electrolyte 252, 264, 598
Electromyogram 479
Electron microscope 33
Electroretinogram 479
Ellipsoid joint 397
Embryo 598
Emissary vein 367
Emotions 170
Enamel 100
End-diastolic volume 164, 167
Endocarditis 156
Endocardium 47, 154, 155
Endocrine
disorders 214
function 468
glands 46, 52, 55, 137, 245f, 246, 246t, 247, 254, 469, 598
functions of 245, 246fc
pancreas 246, 266
system 13, 13f, 245
Endocrinology 4
Endocytosis 35, 35f
Endolymph 287
Endolymphatic systems 286f
Endometrium, thickness of 455f
Endomysium 305, 306f
Endoneurium 476
Endoplasmic reticulum 36, 37f
functions of 36
types of 36
Endoskeleton 16
Endosteum 344
Endothelium 47, 294
pulmonary capillary 89, 90f
Energy
balance 571
dense foods, consumption of 573
requirement 571
source of 30, 312
yielding carbohydrate 27
Enterogastrones 127
Enterohepatic circulation 143
Enterokinase 128
Enzyme 72, 598
proteolytic 128
Eosinophils 58, 58f, 204, 216, 217f
Ependymal cells 481
Epicondyle 331, 347f
Epicranius 314
Epicrine 54
Epidermal papillae 271f
Epidermis 226, 270, 272, 598
cell of 272
layers of 271f
Epididymis 464, 579
functions of 464
parts of 464
Epiglottis 72, 73
Epimysium 305
Epinephrine 598
actions of 266
Epineurium 476
Epiphysis 353, 598
Epiploic foramen, boundaries of 141
Episiotomy 324, 324f
Epithelia, classification of 46
Epithelial cell 236
Epithelial tissue 45
Epithelium 45, 114, 598
development of 46
functions of 46
simple 46
transitional 45, 50, 51, 51f, 432f
Epitympanum 283
Erb's paralysis 533, 533f
Erb's point 327, 533f
Erythroblastosis fetalis 223
Erythrocyte 204, 205, 206f
sedimentation rate 211, 212, 212f
determination of 211
Erythropoiesis 206, 206fc
Esophageal sphincters 115
Esophageal varices 115, 192
Esophagus 81, 97, 114, 114f, 115f, 116f, 579
constrictions of 115
histology of 116f
lower end of 192
Estrogen 251
Ethmoid bone 367, 367f
Ethmoidal air sinuses 71
Ethmoidal nerve, anterior 69
Ethmoidal sinuses
middle 70
posterior 70
Eukaryotic cell 33
Euploidy, types of 558t
Eupnea 94
Eustachian tube 284f
Eversion 598
Excretion 97, 98
Excretory function 35, 113, 201, 468
Excretory system, physiology of 4
Exercise 170
Exocrine glands 46, 52, 54, 137
classification of 52
structural organization of 55f
Exocytic vesicles 36, 38
Exocytosis 36, 36f
Extensor digitorum brevis 341
Extensor muscles, superficial 331, 332f
Extensor pollicis
brevis 331
longus 331
Extensor retinaculum 332f, 415, 416, 416f, 591f
Extracellular fluid 22, 33, 42, 43, 253, 310, 430, 431, 478, 484
Extracellular molecules, absorption of 35f
Extrahepatic biliary apparatus 138, 138f
Extraocular muscles 291
actions of 292
Extrapyramidal tracts 516, 520, 520fc, 520t
lesions of 520
Extrinsic nervous system 98
Eye 292
extrinsic muscles of 291f
muscles of 290
structure of 298t
Eyeball 290
convergence of 300
coverings of 292
features of 294f
layers of 293f
muscles of 291
protrusion of 259f
refractive media of 292t
structure of 292f
wall of 292, 293fc
Eyebrows 290
Eyelids 290
ciliary glands of 275
functions of 290
muscles around 314
F
Face 229
lymphatic drainage of 230f
muscles of 315f
Facial expression 315t
muscles of 526
Facial muscles 314
functional groups of 315t
Facial nerve 110, 314, 522, 526
branches of 110f, 526f, 527f
lesions of 527f
lower buccal branch of 110
marginal mandibular branch of 110
Facial skeleton 356
bones of 356fc
Facial vessels, transverse 110
Falciform ligament 134
Fallopian tube 447, 449, 591f
histology of 448
parts of 441f
Falx cerebri 485, 489
Farsightedness 302
Fascia 63, 598
superficial 63, 226
types of 63
Fasciculation 311
Fasciculus 476
cuneatus 503
gracilis 503
Fat 28
absorption of 143
cell 57, 58f
functions of 29
metabolism 252, 264, 267
Fatty acids 28
classification of 28fc
essential 29
monounsaturated 28
omega 29
polyunsaturated 28, 29
saturated 28
unsaturated 28
Fatty tissue, interlobar 457
F-cells 266
Femur 387f
articular surface of 409f
condyles of 408
head of 345f, 346f, 387, 406
linea aspera of 346f
neck of 387, 388f, 408f
Fertility 258
Fertilization 468, 599
Fetal vessel 199
Fetus, USG of 562f
Fibers 56, 61, 599
anterior 328
parasympathetic 424, 434
projection 491f, 492
Fibrillation 311
Fibrin, formation of 221
Fibrinogen 203
Fibrinolysis 599
Fibrinolytic system 221
Fibroblast 57
nuclei of 60
structure of 57f
Fibrocartilage 61, 62f
Fibromuscular ligaments 444, 445
Fibrous capsule 399
attachments of 406
Fibula 390
functions of 390
Fibular collateral ligament 408, 409
Filaments, intermediate 36, 39, 40
Filiform papillae 105, 105f
Filtration across glomerular membrane 427f
Filum terminale 508
Fimbriae 441f
Fingers, joints of 404
Fissure, portal 135
Fistula 599
Fixed tissue macrophages 243
Flagella 40, 599
Flat bones 343
Flexion 7, 599
Flexor digitorum
longus tendon 415
superficialis 332
Flexor halluces longus 415
Flexor pollicis longus, tendon of 414
Flexor retinaculum 414, 415, 415f, 416f
superficial relations of 415f
Fluid
connective tissue 201
extravascular 22
inner ear 287
interstitial 599
intravascular 22
Foliate papillae 105
Folic acid 30
Follicle
primary 451, 453f
tertiary 452
Follicle-stimulating hormone 23, 246, 247, 250, 251, 454, 455, 466
actions of 251
Fontanelles 361
anterior 357, 361
nucleus of 361
posterior 357, 362
Food, role of 569
Foot
arches of 391, 391f
bones of 390
dorsal artery of 195
edema of 562f
eversion 9, 9f
movement of 414
inversion 8, 8f
movement of 414
muscles of 341
skeleton of 391f
Foramen
cecum 103
magnum 345f, 358, 364
transversarium 373
Forearm
bones of 380, 578
deep flexor muscles of 332f
extension of 7f
flexion of 7f
muscles of 331
principal pronator of 333
pronation of 8f
superficial muscles of 331f
supination of 8f
X-ray of 381f
Foregut
artery of 190
derivatives of 149
Fornix, posterior 449
Fossa
popliteal 593f
subscapular 378
Fovea centralis 295
Foville's syndrome 502
Fracture 414
supracondylar 381f
Friction rub 156
Frontal lobe
precentral gyrus of 494
syndrome 494, 496
Fundoscopy 297
Fundus 116, 138
Fungiform 105f
papillae 105
G
Galactosemia 556
Gallbladder 45, 97, 138, 139f
bile 142, 142t
functions of 139fc
histology of 138
parts of 138
Gallstones 140, 140f, 143
Gamete 599
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 483
Ganglia 493, 539
prevertebral 539
Ganglion cell layer 296
Gases
exchange of 35, 67
partial pressure of 90t
transport of 89
Gastrectomy 119
Gastric
artery 118, 119, 190
emptying 148
gland 120
impression 233
inhibitory polypeptide 246
juice 120, 240
composition of 120fc
pain 119
pit 120
secretion 264
phases of 121, 122fc
Gastrin 147
Gastrocnemius 339
Gastrocolic reflex 149
Gastroepiploic artery 118
Gastroesophageal reflux 116
Gastrointestinal tract 27, 46, 97, 98, 268, 469
function 572
innervation of 98
Gaucher's disease 556
Genes 599
expression, regulation of 551, 551fc
structure of 551, 551f
X-linked 556
Y-linked 556
Genetics 545, 547
code 551
Genital organs
external 439
internal 441
Genitalia 440, 440f
Genitofemoral nerve 440, 536
genital branch of 464
Genome 599
Germinal layer 271
Gestation 599
Gigantism 253
Glabrous skin 271
Glands 52, 109, 134
classification of 52, 54fc
intestinal 122
mixed 108
mucous 52, 108
parathyroid 245, 246, 260
pituitary 245247, 248f, 579
simple 52
sublingual 109, 112
submandibular 109, 112
submaxillary 112
Glandular tissue 457
Glans penis 275
Glaucoma 296
Glenohumeral joint 399
Glenohumeral ligaments 400
Globulins 203, 209, 599
Globus pallidus 490
Glomerular blood flow, regulation of 425
Glomerular capsule 421, 422f
Glomerular filtration 426
barrier 426, 426f
rate 427
measurement of 427
regulation of 425
Glomerulus 421
Glossopharyngeal nerve 104, 522, 528
Glucagon 267
secretion, regulation of 267
Glucocorticoids 260, 264
actions of 264
secretion 265f
regulation of 264
Gluconeogenesis 137, 268, 599
Glucuronide 211
Glutamic acid 28
Glutamine 28
Gluteal muscles 336
Gluteal
extent of 336
muscles of 335, 335f
region, anterosuperior quadrant of 336
Gluteal tuberosity 388
Gluteus maximus 335f
relations of 336
Gluteus medius 335f
Gluteus minimus 335f
Glycemic index 27
Glycine 28
Glycogen 599
Glycogenolysis 268
Glycolipids 35, 35f
Glycolysis 268, 599
Glycoproteins 35
molecules 35f
Goblet cells 48, 48f, 53
Goiter 259
Golgi apparatus 36, 37
functions of 37
Golgi body 36
Golgi complex 36
structure of 37f
Golgi neurons 475
Gomphosis 396
Gonadotropes 250
Gonadotropin releasing hormone 246, 251, 247, 500
Graafian follicle 452, 454f
Gracile tubercles 503
Graft rejection 243
Granulocyte 599
Granulopoiesis 599
Graves’ disease 243, 259
Great saphenous vein 161, 196
Greater vestibular glands 440
Growth 267
hormone 246, 252, 260, 353, 467
actions of 252, 252fc
inhibiting hormone 246, 247, 252, 500
regulation of secretion of 252
releasing hormone 246, 252, 500
secretion, regulation of 252f
physiology of 252
Guanine 550, 550f, 553
Guanosine triphosphate 39
Gums 99
Gut 114
histology of 114
layers of 114f
wall, general structure of 114
Gynecomastia
asymmetric 468
symmetric 468
H
Haemophilus influenza 486
Hair 70, 270, 273
Cells
inner 287
outer 287
follicle 270, 272, 274, 274f
papilla 274
parts of 274
shaft, structure of 274
Hairy skin 272
Haldane effect 91
signficance of 91
Hamstring muscle 338f
Hand
carpal bones of 577
dorsal interossei of 334f
extensor retinaculum of 332f, 591f
intrinsic muscles of 333
joints of 404
skeleton of 383, 383f
Haploid 599
Hard palate 102, 358
Harris-Benedict formula 570
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 243
Hasner valves 70, 291
Hassall's corpuscle 23
Haversian canal 350, 351f
Haversian system 351
Head
and neck 229
blood circulation of 180
muscles of 314
Hearing
physiology of 288, 288f
sense of 279, 281
Heart 46, 152, 152fc, 153, 156f, 160, 168, 579, 594f
anatomical position of 154, 155f
block 162
blood supply of 158f, 159
chambers of 157
conducting system of 160, 161, 162f
contractile unit of 155
diaphragmatic surface of 157
disease 95
congenital 95
ischemic 161
exterior of 156
features of 156f
interior of 157
layers of wall of 154
measurements of 153
nerve supply of 160, 160f
pacemaker of 161
peripheral 339
rate 167
factors affecting 168fc
regulation of 500
relations of 156
section of 154f
sound 165, 165t
sternocostal surface of 156f, 157
surface of 320f
venous drainage of 160, 160f
Heat
conservation, mechanisms for 277
exhaustion 278
loss, channels of 276
production 277
mechanisms for 277
stroke 278
Heimlich maneuver 76, 76f
Heister spiral valve 139
Helical polymer chain 307
Helicobacter pylori 119
Helicotrema 286
Helper T cells 242
Hematemesis 599
Hematin 210
Hematology 201
Hematoma 507
extradural 358f
Hematopoiesis 205fc, 205t
sites of 204
steps of 204, 205fc
Hemianopia 300
homonymous 300
Hemiazygos vein 189
accessory 189
Hemoglobin 30, 91, 201, 208, 584
derivatives of 210
destruction of 210
disorders 211
dissociation curve 91f
estimation of 208
fate of 212f
functions of 210
glycosylated 210
normal 210
structure of 210f
synthesis of 210
Hemoglobinopathies 211, 556
Hemolysis 599
Hemophilia 221, 556
Hemopoiesis 599
Hemopoietic function 127
Hemopoietic growth factors 207
Hemorrhage 599
pontine 94, 502
subdural 507
Hemorrhoids, internal 133f
Hemostasis 219, 220, 220fc, 599
primary 219, 220, 220fc
Henle loop 421
Heparin 221
Hepatic artery 136, 142, 142t, 190
branches of 137
Hepatic ducts 138
Hepatic nodes 458
Hepatitis 143
Hepatocytes, radiating cords of 137
Hepatomegaly 138
Hepatorenal pouch 141
Hering-Breuer reflex 93
Herpes
simplex 486
zoster 530
Herring bodies 251
Hilum 135, 228, 233, 419, 599
Hindgut, derivatives of 149
Hinge joint 397, 398f
Hip bone 385, 385f
acetabulum of 406
Hip girdle 385
Hip joint 407t
anterior relations of 407f
ligaments of 406f
posterior relations of 407f
radiograph of 406f, 408f
relations of 407
unique features of 407
His bundle 162
Histidine 28
Histiocytes 57
Histology 3, 33, 115
Histotoxic hypoxia 95
Hoarseness 529
Holocrine 54, 55f
Homeostasis 22, 599
disruption of 24
system
components of 22, 23fc
mechanism of action of 23
Hormones 207, 245, 246, 260, 261, 599
anterior pituitary 250
antidiuretic 246, 253, 425, 429, 430, 500
classification of 246, 246t
effect of 467
gastrointestinal 147, 246
influencing selective reabsorption 429
mechanism of action of 246
metabolism of 419
parathyroid 260, 261
polypeptide 246
regulating
calcium metabolism 259
of secretion of 247
transport of 202
Horn cells, lateral 510
Horner's syndrome 292, 542
Horse's tail 510
Horseshoe kidney 420, 420f
Host defenses 108
Human body, organization of 33, 45
Human chorionic gonadotropin 468, 561
Human immunodeficiency virus 243
Human placental lactogen 468
Humerus 379, 379f
intertubercular sulcus of 345f
lower end of 347f
relation of 381
surgical neck of 535
Hyaline 62
cartilage 61, 61f, 73
membrane disease 83, 85
Hydrocele 464f
Hydrocephalus 489
Hydrochloric acid 120, 240
functions of 120
Hydrocholeretic agents 143
Hydro-pneumothorax 86f
Hyoglossus 104
Hyoid bone 354, 368, 368f
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 265
Hyperglycemia 268
Hyperinsulinism 267
Hyperirritability 30
Hyperlipidemia 29
Hypermetropia 302
correction of 302f
Hyperosmia 279
Hyperosmolarity 430
Hyperparathyroidism 262
Hyperprolactinemia 251
Hyperproteinemia 204
Hypertension 95, 172, 599
essential 172
portal 193
primary 172
Hyperthyroidism 259, 259t
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, congenital 119
Hypertrophy 599
Hyperventilation 599
Hypoglossal nerve 104, 522, 529
rootlets of 503
Hypoglycemia 267, 268
Hypoparathyroidism 262
Hypophyseal fossa 366
Hypophysis 579
cerebri 245, 247
subdivisions of 248f
Hypoproteinemia 204
Hypotension 172, 599
primary 172
Hypothalamic thermostat 276
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system 249, 249f
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis 264
Hypothalamus 245248, 252, 265, 499f, 500
functions of 500, 500fc
role of 258
stimulates 247
Hypothenar muscles 334
Hypothermia 278, 599
Hypothyroidism 259, 259t
Hypotonia 505
Hypoventilation 599
Hypoxia 95, 599
anemic 95
anoxic 95
hypoxic 95
ischemic 95
stagnant 95
Hysterosalpingography 448
I
I band 306
Icterus 143
Idioventricular rhythm 162
Ileum 122, 125, 125t
arterial supply of 127
histology of 125
Iliac arteries 193
Iliac tuberosity 386
Iliac veins 191
Iliofemoral ligament 406
Iliohypogastric nerve 536
Ilioinguinal nerve 440, 536
Immunity 218, 238, 239fc, 599
acquired 218, 238
active 239
cell mediated 242, 242f, 242t
classification of 238
humoral 240, 240f, 241, 241fc, 242, 242t
innate 218, 238
natural 238
passive 239
specific 238
Immunodeficiency diseases, congenital 243
Immunoglobulins 72, 218, 241
Immunological defense 240
Immunology 4, 108
Imperforate hymen 449
Implantation 468
Impulses, velocity of 162t
In vitro fertilization 452
Incisors 101
Incus 284
Infarction 599
Infection 112, 599
Inflammation 599
acute 240, 240t
cardinal signs of 240
chronic 240, 240t
signs of 240
types of 240
Infrahyoid muscles 316f
Infranuclear lesions 528
Infrapatellar bursa, subcutaneous 410
Infraspinatus 326
Infundibulum 441f, 447
Ingestion 97, 98, 599
Inguinal ring, superficial 322, 322f
Injury, neuronal 480f
Inspiration 87, 599
primary muscles of 87
secondary muscles of 87
Insulin 43, 260, 266
secretion, regulation of 267
Integumentary system 11, 11f, 599
Inter nodal fibers 162
Interatrial septum 154
development of 157
Intercostal muscles
external 318
internal 87, 318
Interferons 240
Internal capsule 491f, 492, 492f
parts of 492, 492f
Internal iliac artery 193, 194f, 432
branches of 132, 193
Intertrochanteric crest 387
Interventricular septum 154, 158
Intervertebral discs 17, 376
prolapse 376
Intestinal lipase 128
Intestine 261, 579
large 97, 128, 129, 129t, 131, 133, 133fc, 594f
Intra-alveolar pressure 86
Intracellular fluid 22, 33, 42, 43, 478
Intracranial dural venous sinuses, features of 183
Intra-pleural pressure 86
Intrathoracic pump 167
Intratonsillar cleft 234
Intrauterine contraceptive devices 470
advantages of 470
disadvantages of 470
Intravesical pressure 435
Intrinsic muscles 74, 103, 291
functions of 75fc
Intrinsic nerve plexus 98f
Intrinsic nervous system 98
Inversion 560, 560f, 599
Iodide
oxidation of 256
pump 256
trapping 256
Iodine 31, 256
Iris 292, 295
muscles of 295
Iron 31
deficiency anemia 214, 214f
overload 223
Ischemia 599
myocardial 166
Ischiofemoral ligament 406
Ischiopubic rami 445
Ischium
body of 386
ramus of 386
Isochromosome 560
formation of 560f
Isoleucine 28
Isometric contraction 599
Isotopes 30, 31f, 599
Isthmus 76, 441f
levels of 255f
nasopharyngeal 107
J
Jaundice 143, 211, 294f
pathological 211
Jejunum 122, 125, 125t
arterial supply of 127
histology of 125
Joints 395, 414
artificial 408f
cartilaginous 396, 396f
cavity 397
classification of 395, 395t
fibrocartilaginous 396
fibrous 395
metacarpophalangeal 405, 405t
plane 397, 398f
primary cartilaginous 396
radioulnar 401, 403f
subtalar 414f
sutural 395
Jugular foramen syndrome 528, 529
Jugular vein
external 182
internal 185, 197f
Jugular venous pulse 164
Jugulo-omohyoid node 230
Juxtaglomerular apparatus 424, 424f
mode of action of 425
Juxtaglomerular cells 171, 425, 431
K
Karyotype 562, 599
normal 552f
Kehr's sign 234
Keratin 51, 272
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 51
Keratinocytes 271, 272
Keratohyalin 271
Kerckring valves 122
Ketonuria 268
Ketosis 268
Kidney 261, 419, 424fc, 579, 591f, 594f
anomalies of 436
arteries of 424f
artificial 437
collecting tubule of 45
development of 436, 437f
functions of 426, 426fc
gross structure of 420, 421f
hilum of 419
histology of 421f
microscopic structure of 420
posterior relations of 420f
Kiesselbach's area 69
Killer T cells 242
Kinocilium 288
Klinefelter syndrome 563, 563f
Klumpke's paralysis 533, 534
Kluver-Bucy syndrome 497
Knee joint 408, 410f, 410t, 590f
anterior relations of 411f
ligaments of 408f
posterior relations of 412f
relations of 410
X-ray of 408f
Korotkoff sounds 169
Kupffer cells 137
L
Labia
majora 440
minora 440
Laborer's nerve 534
Lacis cells 425
Lacrimal apparatus 290, 291f
Lacrimal bones 368
Lacrimal gland 290
Lacrimal papilla 291
Lacrimal sac 290, 291
Lactation 469
Lactose intolerance 147
Lacunae 350
Lambdoid suture 356
Lamellae, arrangement of 350f
Lamellar bone 350
Lamina 347f
propria 62, 114, 120, 432f
Landsteiner's law 222
Laryngeal nerve
external 75, 255
internal 75, 104
Laryngeal prominence 73
Laryngopharynx 106, 107
posterior view of 107f
Larynx 67, 72
cartilages of 72
cavity of 73, 74
functions of 75, 149
ligaments of 73
muscles of 74, 75f
skeleton of 72
ventricle of 74
Laser method 465
Lateral meniscus
anterior horn of 388
posterior horn of 388
Latissimus dorsi 328, 330f
Leg
anterior compartment of 337
lateral compartment of 341f
posterior compartment of 339f
transverse section of 340f
Lens 292, 296
anterior curvature of 300
Lentiform nucleus 490, 493
Leucine 28
Leukemia 216
Leukocytes 204, 215, 585, 600
features of 216
types of 215
varieties of 217f
Leukopenia 600
Leukopoiesis 215
Levator ani muscles 323, 445f
Levator palpebrae superioris 291, 524
Lieberkühn crypts 122
Ligaments
extrinsic 73
inguinal 322, 322f
intrinsic 73
peritoneal 141, 444, 446
Ligamentum
arteriosum 178, 179f
patellae 337, 408, 409
Light band 306
Light-transmitting media 292, 296
Limb
anterior 492
posterior 492
Linea alba 321
Linea aspera 346f, 387
Linoleic acid 29
Linolenic acid 29
Lipase 600
Lipids 33, 600
arrangement of 34f
layer, functions of 34
metabolism of 257
Lipolytic enzymes 146
Lipoprotein lipase 574
Lips 99
large 440
small 440
Lithotomy position 4, 4f
Little brain 504
Little's area 69
Liver 97, 134, 135f, 137f, 579, 592f, 594f
bare area of 136
cirrhosis of 143
functions of 137, 137fc
hilum of 135
histology of 137
lobule 226
peritoneal folds of 134
physiological lobes of 135f
position of 134f
role of 221
Lobe
anterior 249
occipital 497
posterior 249
Long bone 352
arterial supply of 353, 353f
parts of 352, 352f
Long saphenous vein 196
Loose connective tissue 56f, 59
Loose platelet plug 220
Louis angle 371
Lower airways, protection of 75
Lower esophageal sphincter 115
Lower limb 231, 384, 508
arteries of 193, 193f, 193fc
blood circulation of 193
bones of 578
chief artery of 193
joints of 405
muscles of 335
sesamoid bones of 391
skeleton of 384f
superficial vein of 196f
Lower motor neuron 521
concept of 513
effects of 527f
lesion 513, 521t, 527
palsy 528, 528f
position of 514f
Lumbar plexus 508, 536, 536f
extent of 536f
position of 536f
Lumbar puncture 486, 511
purposes of 486, 511
Lumbar vertebra 374, 375f
Lumbrical muscles 334, 334f
Lumen 131, 170, 432f
shape of 448
Lump 458f
Lunate surface 406
Lung 79, 80f, 81, 81f, 82, 82t, 579, 593f595f
alveoli of 45
alveolus of 49
capacity 88
diseases 95
functions of 84
histology of 83f
lobes of 80
non-respiratory functions of 84
root of 79
structure of 83
units 226
upper lobe of 82f
volumes 88
Luschka foramina 487
Luteinizing hormone 23, 246, 250, 251, 454, 455, 467
actions of 251
control of secretion of 251
releasing hormone 246, 247
Lymph 62, 225, 600
capillaries 225, 226, 226f
composition of 225, 226fc
node 225, 228, 229
axillary 229, 230, 231f
bronchopulmonary 79
cell of 228
cervical 229, 230f
deep inguinal group of 232, 232f
external iliac 466
functions of 229
histological structure of 229f
inguinal 229, 232, 232f
internal iliac 466
sacral group of 466
structure of 228f
superficial cervical 230f
rate of flow of 225
vessels 225, 226, 464
characteristics of 226
Lymphangitis 227
acute 227
chronic 227
Lymphatic drainage 77, 83, 85, 104, 107, 119, 119f, 127, 230f, 235, 255, 263, 440, 447, 447f, 449, 451, 457, 458f
Lymphatic duct 227
Lymphatic follicle 228, 229
Lymphatic nodule 228, 236
Lymphatic system 14, 14f, 225
components of 225
functions of 225
Lymphatic tissue 227
Lymphedema 227
Lymphocytes 58, 58t, 217f, 218, 228, 235
functions of 218
large 204
small 204
Lymphoid organs 228
classification of 228fc
Lymphoid tissue 225, 227, 228, 264
cell of 131
mucosa-associated 107, 228
Lysine 28
Lysosomes 36, 38
functions of 38
types of 38fc
Lysozyme 240, 600
M
Mackenrodt's ligaments 445
Macrocytes 208
Macrominerals 29, 30
Macronutrients 570
Macrophage 57, 600
cell 58f, 137
Macula
densa 425
lutea 295
sacculi 287
utriculi 287
Magendie foramen 487
Magnesium 31
Major histocompatibility complex antigens 242
Major salivary glands 108
ducts of 109t
Malignant melanoma 273
Malnutrition 569, 572
effects of 572
Malpighian corpuscle 421
Mammary gland 275, 456, 457f
Mammogram 459f
Mammotropes 250
Mammotrophs 250
Mandible 362, 362f
base of 362
Mandibular canal 345f
Mandibular nerve 315, 366, 525
branches of 525f
Manubrium 371
sterni 76
March fracture 391
Marfan's syndrome 555, 556
Mast cell 58, 59f
Mastication 103, 148
muscles of 315
Masticatory muscles 315, 316f
actions of 316t
Mastoid
antrum 285
fontanelles 362
wall 283
Mature neutrophils, formation of 215f
Maxilla 363, 363f
McBurney's point 130, 130f
Mean arterial pressure 169
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 213
Meatus 600
inferior longitudinal 70
middle 69, 70
superior 69, 70
Medial canthus 290
Medial dorsal nucleus 498
Medial geniculate body 289, 497
Medial meniscus 409
anterior horn of 388
posterior horn of 388
Median cubital vein 188, 189
Median longitudinal fissure 490
Median nerve 331, 414, 534, 534f
distribution of 534
Mediastinum 20, 155, 600
Medulla 228, 236, 263, 274, 313, 451, 504f, 600
oblongata 503
reticular formation of 515
Meibomian glands 290
Meiosis 555, 600
significance of 555
Meissner's plexus 98
Meissner's tactile corpuscles 276
Melanocyte 272
stimulating hormone 246
Melena 600
Membrane
bone 350
bound
cell organelles 36
vesicles 36, 37
fluid mosaic model of 34f
interosseous 396f, 402
postsynaptic 483
semipermeable 42f
Membranous labyrinth 286, 288, 288f
lateral aspect of 285f
parts of 287f
Memory
B-cells 241
T-cells 242
Menarche 600
Meningeal artery, accessory 367
Meninges 484, 485f
Meningitis 94, 486
Menisci, functions of 409
Meniscus 397
Menopause 456
Menorrhagia 456
Menses 600
Menstrual cycle 454, 455f
hormonal control of 456
phases of 454f
stages of 455f
Menstruation 600
Merkel cell endings 276
Merocrine 54, 55f
Mesenchymal cells 58f
Mesenteric artery, inferior 180, 191, 191f
Mesenteric ganglion, inferior 540f
Mesentery 141
Mesoderm
intermediate 436
paraxial 436
Mesothelium 47
Messenger ribonucleic acid 551, 553
Metabolic disorders 94, 574
Metabolism 4, 600
Metaphase 555, 600
Metaphysis 353, 600
Metatarsals 391
Metathalamus 499f
Methemoglobin 210
Methionine 28
Metrorrhagia 456
Microcephaly 556
Microcytes 208
Microfilaments 36, 39, 40
Microglia 480
Microminerals 29, 30
Microtubules 36, 39, 40
Microvilli 41
Micturition 435, 600
process of 436fc
Midbrain 501
parts of 502fc
reflexes 512
transverse section of 502f
Midclavicular lines 20
Middle ear 283, 284, 364
muscles of 284, 284f
parts of 283f
ventilation 107
Midgut, derivatives of 149
Milk ejection 470
reflex 254, 254f
Millard-Gubler syndrome 502
Mineralocorticoids 263
Minerals 29
classification of 30fc
functions of 31t
metabolism 267
Mitochondria 36, 39
functions of 39
structure of 39f
Mitosis 553, 600
characteristic features of 554
stages of 554f
Mitral valve 154
Mobile macrophages 243
Modiolus 286
Molars 101
Monocular vision 298, 299, 299f
Monocyte 204, 216, 217f, 243
Morison's pouch 141
Morning after pill 470
Motor 102
area
primary 494
supplementary 495, 516
cortex, primary 516
dysfunction 521t
function, disorders of 521
homunculus 495, 495f
nerve 104, 477
neuron
lesion 513
single 308f
pathways, lesions of 522
root 526
speech area 495
system, control of 519f
unit 308
Mountain sickness 93
Mouth 97
floor of 103f
muscles around 314
Movement posture heat 577
M-phase 554
Mucoid tissue 60
Mucosa 62, 114, 119, 131, 600
acini 54, 54t
Müller's muscle 292
Müllerian agenesis 459
Müllerian ducts 459
Multicellular glands 46, 53f
Multipolar neuron 475, 475f
Muscles 104
accessory 87, 321
adductor group of 337
atrophy 572
bundle 305f
classification of 304
coat 432, 432f
contractile elements of 306
contraction 260, 309, 312
types of 311
extrinsic 74, 104, 104f, 291, 291f
fatigue 311
fiber 155, 304, 305f, 306, 306f, 308f, 479t
inferior longitudinal 104
inspiratory 88f
intercostal 318, 318f
interosseous 334, 577
intraocular 291
involuntary 305
non-striated 304
pump 167
mechanism of 167f
superficial 331, 331f
superior longitudinal 104
suprahyoid 316f
tone 311
maintenance of 311
transverse 104
vertical 104
voluntary 304
Muscular system 12, 12f, 304
Muscularis externa 114, 120, 123, 130
Muscularis mucosa 114, 120
Musculoskeletal disorders 574
Musculoskeletal system 304, 343, 395
Musician's nerve 335
Mutation 600
Myasthenia gravis 243, 309
Myelin 600
sheath 477f
composition of 477
functions of 477
Myelinated nerve fiber 476, 477f, 477t, 478, 478f
structure of 477
Myelination 477
Myocardial infarction 161, 166, 172
Myocarditis 156
Myocardium 155
larger mass of 160
middle 154
Myocytes 304
cardiac 312
Myoepithelial cells 45
Myofibril 306, 306f, 307f
microscopic structure of 306
Myofilaments 600
arrangement of 307f
Myoneural junction 308
Myopia 301
correction of 302f
Myosin 306
filaments 306, 310f
Myringotomy 285
Myxedema 259
N
Nails 275
parts of 275
Nasal bone 368, 368f
Nasal cavity 68
lateral wall of 70f, 368f
Nasal conchae, inferior 368
Nasal septum 68, 68f
arterial supply of 69f
nerve supply of 69f
Nasal sound 103
Nasal trauma 69
Nasolacrimal duct 70, 290, 291
Nasopalatine nerve 69
Nasopharynx 106
Natural killer cells 240
Neck
muscles of 315, 316t, 317f
nerve point of 532, 532f
transverse section of 77f
Necrosis 41, 600
Neisseria meningitides 486
Neocerebellum 504
Neoplasm 600
Nephritis, glomerular 423
Nephrogenic cord 436
Nephron
juxtamedullary 423, 423f
parts of 421, 422f, 422fc, 423
Nerve 369
accessory 522, 529
cells 509, 510f
body 475
cross section of 476f
entrapment syndrome 332
femoral 536, 537f
fibers 479t
classification of 476
degeneration of 479
layer of 296
myelinated 476, 477f, 477t, 478, 478f
properties of 477
regeneration of 480
impulses, transmission of 260
lingual 104, 525
maxillary 525
musculocutaneous 534, 534f
organization of 476
perineal 440
peripheral 476, 476f
plexuses 530
pulmonary plexus of 79
Nervous system 12, 12f, 257, 473, 542
divisions of 473, 474fc
peripheral 473, 474f, 481fc, 600
Nervous tissue 45, 46, 62
Net filtration pressure 427
Neural arch 373
Neurilemma 477
Neurites 476
Neurofibrils 475
Neurofibromatosis 555, 556
Neuroglia 474, 480
functions of 482
types of 480, 481fc
Neuroglial cells, peripheral 481
Neurohypophysis 248, 250
Neuroma, acoustic 528
Neuromelanin 502
Neuromuscular junction 308, 309
Neuromuscular transmission 309, 310fc
Neurons 474, 600
classification of 474
first order 299, 514
non-myelinated 478
postganglionic 539
postsynaptic 483
presynaptic 483
second order 299
structure of 475
types of 475fc
Neurotransmitters 483, 541, 542f, 600
classification of 483
inhibitory 483
Neutrophils 204, 216, 217f, 218f
functions of 216
hypersegmented 214f
Niacin 30
Night blindness 30, 298
Nipple 275
retraction of 458, 458f
Nitrogen 87
No scalpel vasectomy 465, 471
Nodules 108
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium 51
Nonmembranous cell organelles 36
Non-myelinated nerve fibers 476, 477f, 477t, 478f
Norepinephrine 600
actions of 266
Norma basalis 356, 358, 359f
posterior part of 358
Norma frontalis 356, 357, 357f
Norma lateralis 356, 358, 358f
Norma occipitalis 356, 357, 357f
Norma verticalis 356, 357f
Nose 67
dorsum of 68
external 67, 68f
functions of 71
internal 70
lateral wall of 69
physiology of 71
Nosocomial disease 24
Nostrils, muscles around 314
Nuchal cyst 562f
Nuclear
components 39
division, stages of 554
envelope 40f
membrane 39
Nucleases 147
Nuclei 60, 498, 499t, 504f
Nucleoli 40
Nucleolus 39
Nucleoplasm 39, 40
Nucleotide 550, 600
composition of 550f
Nucleus 39
ambiguus 92
anterior 498
central 312f
cuneatus 503
functions of 40
gracilis 503
lateral posterior 498
paraventricular 500
pulposus, internal 376
Nutrients, excessive loss of 572
Nutrition 567, 569
Nutritional disorders 571
pathological causes of 572t
O
Obesity
android 573
central type of 573
dangers of 574
dietary treatment of 574
gynoid 573
pattern of 573f
types of 573
Oblique muscle
external 321
internal 321
Oblique popliteal ligament 408, 409
Obstructive respiratory diseases 89
Obturator foramen 387
Obturator nerve 336, 537
Occipitofrontalis 314
Oculomotor nerve 522, 524
distribution of 524f
palsy 524
Olfaction 72, 600
Olfactory bulb 279, 280f
Olfactory epithelium 70, 279, 280f
Olfactory mucosa, location of 280f
Olfactory nerves 69, 279, 522
Olfactory pathway 279
Olfactory receptor cells 279
Oligodendrocytes 481, 481f
Olivary nucleus
accessory 515
inferior 503
superior 515
Omental bursa 141
Omentum 141, 141f
Oogenesis 451, 453fc
Ophthalmic vein
inferior 185
superior 185
Opsin 298
Optic canal 367
Optic chiasma central part, lesions of 300
Optic nerve 290, 300, 522, 523
Optical defects 301
Oral cavity 99, 100f
Oral contraceptive pills 470
advantages of 470
adverse effects of 470
Orbit, muscles of 291
Organs 156f, 247, 419, 439, 579
external 439
internal 439
systems 65
Oropharynx 106, 107
Orthograde degeneration 479
Osmoreceptors 430, 600
Osmosis 42, 42f, 600
Osmotic pressure 202, 203, 600
Osteoblast 349f
Osteocytes 349, 349f, 350f
position of 350f
Osteogenesis imperfecta 556
Osteoid 600
Osteology 344t
Osteopenia 600
Osteoporosis 575
Osteoprogenitor cells 349
Otitis media 285
complications of 285
Oval macrocytes 214f
Ovarian cycle 452
hormonal control of 453, 456
Ovarian follicle
development of 451
mature 454f
Ovarian fossa 450f
boundaries of 449
Ovarian function 451
regulation of 451
Ovary 579, 591f
corpus luteum of 245
functions of 451
histological structure of 451f
histology of 451
Ovulation 23, 600
Oxygen 87, 312
diffusion of 90f
dissociation curve 91
transport of 89, 210
Oxygenation reaction 210
Oxyhemoglobin 600
dissociation curve 91
Oxyntic cells 120
Oxyphilic cells 261
Oxytocin 254
control of secretion of 254
P
Pacemaker 155, 161
Pacini corpuscles 276
Packed cell volume 211, 212, 213f
Palate 102, 102f
nerve of 102
Palatine bone 367, 368f
Palatine tonsil 108, 108t, 234, 234f
histology of 236f
Palatoglossus 104
Paleocerebellum 504
Palmar adduct 334
Palmar arch 187
superficial 187f, 188
Palmar interossei 335f
Palmaris brevis 334
Palpation 24
Palpatory method 169
Palpebrae 290
Pancreas 143, 144, 144f, 145f, 266, 268, 579, 592f
body of 144
ducts of 144
exocrine part of 97
histology of 145
parts of 144f
position of 144f
tumors of 140
Pancreatic juice 145
composition of 146fc
Pancreatic secretion, regulation of 147
Pancreozymin 122, 147
Pantothenic acid 30
Pap smear test 447
Papillae 103, 105, 105f, 280
Paracrine effect 266
Paracrine gland 46, 52
Parafollicular cells 255
Paralysis 103
Paranasal sinuses
development of 71
functions of 71fc
Parasympathetic nervous system 473, 474, 540, 541f, 600
stimulation of 541
Parasympathetic system 538
Parathormone 246, 260, 261
Parathyroid 579
glands 245, 246, 260
development of 261
histology of 261, 261f
position of 261f
hormone 260, 261
actions of 261
inferior 261
superior 261
Paratonsillar vein 235
Parenchyma 55, 233
Parietal lobe syndrome 496
Parieto-occipital sulcus 490
Parkinson's disease 494
signs of 494
symptoms of 494
Parosmia 279
Parotid duct 110, 111, 111f
Parotid gland 108110, 110f, 112, 579
accessory 110
anterior border of 110f
tumors of 528
Parotid swelling 111f
Pars intermedia 248, 250, 250f
Pars nervosa 248
Pars tuberalis 248
Patau syndrome 558f
Patella 388, 389f
functions of 388
Patent ductus arteriosus 561
Patent foremen ovale 158
P-cells 155
Peau D'orange 458, 458f
Pectoralis
major 328, 328f
minor 328, 328f
Pellagra 30
Pelvic
axis 393f
brim 392
cavity 21, 22f, 393
boundaries of 21
diaphragm 323, 324f, 445
floor 445
girdle 18, 384, 392, 392f
inlet 392
organ prolapse 446
outlet 393
part 432
plexus 461
surface 375f, 386
Pelvimetry 393
methods of 393
Pelvis 392
blood circulation of 193
depth of 393f
female 394t, 433f, 590f
inclination of 393f
male 393f, 394t, 433f, 590f
muscles of 323
Penis 460
body of 460
bulb of 460
components of 460f
deep dorsal vein of 465
functions of 461
root of 460
transverse section 461f
Pepsin, actions of 121fc
Pepsinogen 121
Peptidases 128
Peptide, gastrointestinal 127, 148
Pericardial cavity 155
Pericardiocentesis 156
Pericarditis 155
Pericardium 154
Perichondrium 61
Perilymph 285, 287
Perimysium 305, 306f
Perineal body 446f
Perineum, boundaries of 446f
Perineurium 476
Periodic acid-Schiff method 52
Periodontium 101
Periosteum 344, 348
functions of 348
Peripheral vestibular system 289
Peristalsis 601
Peritoneum 140, 140f
double fold of 444
lesser sac of 141
rectouterine pouch of 444
Peritonitis 448
general 130
Permanent dentition, stage of 101
Peroneal nerve 390f
Peroxisomes 36, 39
Pes anserinus 110f
Petrosal nerve 367
Petrosal sinus
inferior 184
superior 184
Phagocytes 137
Phagocytosis 36, 218f, 239, 601
process of 216fc
Phagolysosomes 38f
Phagosomes 36, 38
Phalanges 384, 391
Pharyngeal arch 314, 315
Pharyngeal bands, lateral 108
Pharyngeal tonsil 106
Pharynx 67, 72, 97, 105
muscles of 108
nerve supply of 108
paramedian section of 106f
parts of 106
Phenotype 601
Phenotypic anomalies 561
Phenylalanine 28
Phenylketonuria 556
Pheochromocytoma 266
Phlebothrombosis 197
Phonation 75
Phosphate levels 261
Phospholipid 33, 34
molecule 34f
Photoreceptors, structure of 298f
Phrenic nerve 81, 319, 532
Physiology 4
subdivisions of 4
Phytohemagglutinin 551
Pia mater 485
Pigeon chest 371
Pigment cells 58, 58f
Pigment epithelium, layer of 296
Piloerection 277
Pinna 281
muscles of 526
Pinocytosis 36, 601
reverse 36
Pinocytotic vesicles 36, 38
Piriform fossa 107
Piriformis 324
relations of 325f
Pitch 289
Pituitary gland 245247, 248f, 579
development of 248
histology of 249
hypoactivity of 172
relationship of 248
subdivisions of 248
Pivot joint 397, 398f
Placenta, functions of 468
Plantar
arch 195
flexion 340, 413, 414
muscles 341
reflex 514f
normal 514f
Plasma 202, 601
cell 59, 59f
membrane 33
osmolality of 253, 430
proteins 202
functions of 203, 203fc
synthesis of 203
Plasmatocytes 59
Platelet 204, 218, 219f, 585, 601
adhesion 219
aggregation 219
disorders 219
fate of 219
functions of 219, 219fc
plug, formation of 219
Platysma 315
Pleura 85, 601
Pleural cavity 85, 85f, 86
Plexus 530, 601
myenteric 98
sympathetic 464
Pluripotent stem cell 204
formation of 204
Pneumatic bones 343, 352
Podocyte 422f
Poliomyelitis 103, 510
bulbar 103
Polypeptide, pancreatic 268
Polyuria 601
Pons 502
reticular formation of 515
Pontine centers 92, 503
Porphyria 556
Porta hepatis 135
Portal vein 136, 192
branches of 137
Portosystemic anastomosis 133
Post-coital pill 470
Posterior pituitary hormones, secretion of 251, 500
Potassium 31
excretion of 263
Pott's fracture 414
PP cells 266
Pre-Botzinger complex 92
Pregnancy, diagnostic tests for 469
Premotor cortex 516
Prepatellar bursa, subcutaneous 410
Presbyopia 302
Pressure
diuresis 171
epiphysis 353
Primary dentition, stage of 101
Primordial follicle 451, 453f
Pringle's maneuver 135
Processus vaginalis, remains of 464
Proctoscopy 132
Proelastase 146
Profunda femoris artery 193
Progesterone 251, 468
only pill 470
Prolactin 251
action of 251
control of secretion of 251
inhibiting hormone 246, 247, 500
releasing hormone 246, 247
Proline 28
Pronation, movements of 403
Pronator quadratus 333
Pronator syndrome 332
Pronator teres 332
Prophase 601
Prostate 465, 579
gland 465, 466f
lobes of 465, 466f
transurethral resection of 466
Prostatic utricle 465
Prosthesis 408f
Proteases 146
Proteins 27, 33, 34, 246, 601
classification of 28fc
energy malnutrition 570
functions of 28
integral 34, 35
layer, functions of 34
metabolism 252, 257, 264, 267
peripheral 34
peripheral membrane 35
synthesis of 551, 553
Protodiastole 164
Protoporphyrins 209
Protrusion 8
Proximal convoluted tubule 421, 428, 429
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium 45, 48, 48f, 50
Psoas major 323, 323f
Pterygoid muscle
lateral 316, 316f
medial 316f
Puberty 451, 601
females 451
males 468
Pubic
crest 386
inferior ramus of 386
superior ramus of 386
symphysis 445
Pubocervical ligament 444, 445
Pubococcygeus 324, 445
Pubofemoral ligament 406
Puborectalis 324
Pudendal artery, internal 465
Pudendal nerve 538
Pulmonary function tests 87
Pulp 100
canal 100
chamber 100
Pulpitis 102
Pulse 601
pressure 169
Pupil 292, 293
Pupillary light reflex 300
pathway for 301fc
Purkinje fibers 162, 165
P-wave 165
Pyelography, intravenous 435
Pyloric region 117
Pyloric sphincter 117
Pyramidal tract 503, 516, 520t
Pyridoxine 30
Q
QRS complex 165
Q-T interval 166
Quadrangular membrane 73
Quadrate tubercle 387
Quadriceps femoris 336
Quadruple tests 561
Quiescent period 163
R
Rachitis rosary 371
Radial artery 187, 195, 382f, 534f, 535
Radiation 601
Radicular arteries 511
Radioactive isotopes 30
Radioisotopes 30
application of 31
Radiological anatomy 83, 125
Radiotherapy 31
Radioulnar joint
inferior 401, 403
middle 401, 402
Radius 416
Rami, pair of 362
Ramstedt's operation 119
Ranvier nodes 477
Rectal artery
middle 132, 465
superior 132
Rectouterine pouch 141
Rectum 131
lower end of 193
prolapse of 132
Rectus
abdominis 322
inferior 524
lateral 524
medial 292, 524
sheath 322, 322f
superior 524
Recurrent laryngeal nerve 75, 255
injury 529
Red blood cells 30, 31, 35, 90, 201, 205, 208, 212
destruction of 234
extrinsic abnormality of 215
fate of 207, 207fc
formation of 206
functions of 207, 207fc
life span of 207
Red nucleus 515
Red pigment 208
Red pulp 233
Reflexes 512, 513
acquired 512
arc 512f
classification of 512
local 128
medullary 512
nasal 72
pathological 513
polysynaptic 513
superficial 513, 513t
Refraction 601
errors of 301
Refractory index 298
Refractory media 298
Regurgitation, nasal 103
Renal artery 422
Renal corpuscle 421
Renal pelvis 422
Renal system 418
Renal transplantation 420
Renal tubules 421
different segments of 429f
water reabsorption of 429
Renin-angiotensin
aldosterone system 431f
mechanism 170, 171, 172fc
system 425
control 264
Reproduction 258
Reproductive cell division 553, 555
Reproductive organs
female 22f
male 22f
Reproductive system 439, 562
female 16, 16f, 439, 440f, 471
male 16, 16f, 460, 460f, 466, 471
Respiration 71, 75, 87
accessory muscles of 321
chemical control of 93
internal 67
nervous control of 92
physiology of 87
regulation of 92
Respiratory bronchiole, division of 78fc
Respiratory diseases 94
Respiratory disorders 574
Respiratory distress syndrome 85
Respiratory function 468
Respiratory gases, transport of 201
Respiratory membrane 90f
Respiratory minute volume 89
Respiratory movements 87
Respiratory paralysis 77
Respiratory pump 167
Respiratory system 15, 15f, 67, 469
air passages, organs of 67
defense functions of 84
Restrictive respiratory disease 89
Reticular activating system 503
Reticular cells 59
Reticular fibers 56, 57f
Reticular formation 503, 515
characteristics of 503
functions of 504
Reticular pathway, ascending 503
Reticular tissue 59
Reticulocyte 601
Reticuloendothelial system 243
Retina 292, 295, 296
central artery of 295
central vein of 185
ganglion cells of 523
histology of 296
iridial parts of 295
layers of 296f
rods and cones of 298t
Retinacula 414, 415
Retinal detachment 295
Retrograde degeneration 480
Rh
incompatibility 223
system 222
Rheumatoid arthritis 243
Rhodopsin 298
Rhomboid muscles 325
Rib 370
angle of 369
atypical 370
Riboflavin 30
Ribonucleic acid 31, 39, 551, 601
transitional 551, 553
Ribosomes 36
Rickets 354f, 371f
osteomalacia 30
Rickety rosary 371
Rigor mortis 311
Ring chromosome 560
formation of 560f
Rinne's test 289, 289f
Rivinus, ducts of 109
Robertsonian translocation 559, 559f
Rodent ulcer 273
Rods and cones, layer of 296
Rolandic fissure 490
Romberg's sign 516
Root canal 100
Rosenmuller fossa 106108
Rotator cuff 327, 399
formation of 327f
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 36
Rouleaux formation 203, 204, 206
Russell's bodies 59
S
Saccular glands 52
Saccule functions 287, 290
Sacral artery, median 132
Sacral canal 375
Sacral plexus 508, 537, 537f
Sacrum 375, 375f, 375t
Saddle
joint 397, 398f
nose 69
Sahli's hemoglobinometer 208, 209f
Saliva 112
composition of 112, 112fc
functions of 113, 113fc
lysozyme in 240
Salivary calculi 112
Salivary glands 97, 108, 109f
classification of 108
ducts of 49
minor 108, 112
sublingual 112
Salivary secretion, regulation of 113
Salpingitis 448
Saltatory conduction 478, 601
mechanism of 478
Saphenous nerve 536
Saphenous vein
short 196
small 196
Sarcolemma 306
Sarcomere 306, 307f
Sarcoplasm 306
Sarcoplasmic reticulum 307, 307f
Satellite cells 481
Scala
media 286
tympani 286
vestibule 286, 286f
Scalp 229
lymphatic drainage of 230f
veins of 183f
Scaphoid, fracture of 188
Scapula 326, 378f
infraspinous fossae of 345f
parts of 378
supraspinous fossae of 345f
winging of 326, 326f
Scar 601
Schwann cells 477, 481
Sciatic nerve 537, 538f, 590f
tibial component of 336
Sclera 292294, 294f
functions of 294
Scotopsin 298
Scrotum 461
Scurvy 30
Sebaceous gland 270, 272, 274, 274f
Sebum, functions of 275
Secretion of
adrenocorticotropic hormone, control of 251
antidiuretic hormone, control of 253
Sella turcica 366
Sellar joint 397
Sellick maneuver 73
Semen 468
Semicircular canals 286
functions 290
Semicircular duct 286, 287
Seminal fluid 468
Seminal vesicles 465
Semon's law 76
Sensorineural deafness 528
Sensory 102
disorders 517
epithelium 45
homunculus 496, 496f
nerve 477, 601
neurons 510
organs 279
Sepsis 572
Septomarginal trabecula 158
Septum primum defect 158
Septum secundum defect 158
Serine 28
Serosa 62, 114, 130
outer 124, 127
Serosal membrane 62
Serous acini 54, 54t
Serous glands 53, 108
Serratus anterior muscle 326f
Sesamoid bones 337, 343, 352, 391
peculiarities of 344
Sex
chromosome 549, 601
determination 547
linked inheritance 555, 556
Sharpey fibers 348
Shock, circulatory 95
Shoulder
blade 378
girdle 18
joints of 398
muscles of 325
joint 399, 400f, 400t
relations of 400
Sialogram 112
Sigmoid
colon 131
sinus 184
Simian crease 561, 561f
Simple columnar epithelium 47, 47f, 50
Simple cuboidal epithelium 47f
Simple squamous epithelium 47f, 49
lining of 49
Singular labium
majus 440
minus 440
Sinoatrial node 155, 161
Sinus 229
anterior intercavernous 184
aortic 159
frontal 70
maxillary 70, 71
occipital 184
posterior intercavernous 184
Sinusitis 71
Sinusoids 152
Skeletal anomalies 562
Skeletal muscle 46, 258, 304, 305, 306f, 312, 314t
contraction 167
fibers 305f
types of 311, 311t
functions of 305
innervation of 308
properties of 310
structure of 305, 305f
Skeletal neuromuscular junction 308f
Skeletal system 11, 11f, 343
Skeleton 16, 17f, 354
functions of 355, 356fc
Skin 70, 270
appendages of 273
color of 272
dermis of 60f
functions of 273
grafting 273
infections of 274
layers of 270
malignant diseases of 273
receptors of 275
structure of 270
thick 45, 271, 272, 272f
thin 272f
types of 271
Skull 17, 17f
bones of 356
exterior of 356
functions of 17, 356
interior of 359
joints of 356
methods of study of 356
parts of 17fc, 356fc
sutures of 396f
Sleep 170
Sliding filament theory 309
Small intestinal secretion, regulation of 128
Small intestine 50, 97, 122, 123t, 129, 129t, 595f
functions of 127, 127fc
histology of 122
juice 127
mucosa of 123
Smell, sense of 279
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 36
Smooth muscle 304, 311, 313, 314t
arrangement of 313
fibers 291
histology of 313f
layer 62
Sneezing 72
Sodium 31
channel activation 479
conservation of 263
Soft palate 102
muscles of 102
Sole, muscles of 340
Soleus 339
Somatic abnormalities 562
Somatic cell division 553
Somatosensory area 516
Somatostatin 252, 268, 500
Somatotropes 250
Somatotrophs 250
Sound, properties of 289
Special senses 279
Speech 75, 103
Sperm 467
Spermatic cord 464, 591f
constituents of 464
varicose veins of 464
Spermatids 462
Spermatocytes 462
Spermatogenesis 463, 467, 467fc
factors controlling 467
steps of 467
Spermatogonia 462
Spermatozoon, structure of 467, 468f
Sphenoid
bone 366, 366f, 367f
pterygoid hamulus of 347f
Sphenoidal fontanelles 362
Sphenoidal sinus 71
Sphenoparietal sinus 185
Spherocytosis 35
Sphincter 313, 601
external 132, 435
internal 132, 435
Sphygmomanometer 169
Spinal arachnoid 485
Spinal artery
anterior 511
posterior 511f
Spinal column, levels of 577
Spinal cord 99f, 226, 507, 509f, 510f, 514f, 520fc, 530f, 589f
coverings of 508
descending tracts of 516
gray matter of 509
injuries 512
internal structure of 508
tracts of 510, 514
Spinal dura 485
Spinal ganglion 530
Spinal meninges 485f, 509f
Spinal nerve 313, 474, 530, 530f
exit of 530
Spinal reflexes 512
Spinal segments 510, 511f
Spine 347f
Spinocerebellum 504
Spinothalamic tract 514
anterior 514, 516
lateral 514, 516
lesions of 517
Spiral lamina 286
Spirogram 88
Spleen 225, 232, 579, 592f, 593f
enlargement of 234
functions of 233, 234fc
gross anatomy of 232f
histology of 233
rupture of 234
Splenic pulp 226
Spongy bone 344, 350
Squamous cell
carcinoma lip 595f
carinoma 273
Squamous epithelium 45, 46, 49
Stapedius 284
Stapes 283, 284
Starling's law 164
Stensen's duct 109
Stereocilia 41, 288
Sterilization
female 471
male 471
Sternal angle 371
Sternoclavicular joint 398, 399, 399f
Sternocleidomastoid
muscle 315, 317f
relations of 318
Sternocostal surface 156, 156f, 157
Sternum 371, 371f
body of 371
Steroid hormones 246
Stimulation, parasympathetic 128, 168
Stomach 97, 116, 121f, 579, 592f, 595f
anterior surface of 117
blood supply of 118
body of 117, 120f
carcinoma of 119
functions of 116, 117fc
histology of 119
interior of 119
internal structure of 120f
lymphatic drainage of 119f
parts of 116, 117f
posterior relations of 118f
Stomatitis, angular 30
Strap muscles 76
Stratified columnar epithelium 45, 52f
Stratified cuboidal epithelium 45, 51f
Stratified squamous epithelium 45, 48, 48f, 50, 51f, 236, 272
Stratum
basale 270, 271, 454
compactum 454
corneum 270, 271
germinativum 271
granulosum 270, 271
lucidum 270, 271
spinosum 270, 271
spongiosum 454
Stress
fracture 391
relaxation mechanism 170, 171
Stretch reflex 513
Striated muscle 304, 305
Stroke volume 601
Stroma 55
Sturdy laminae 374
Styloid apparatus 364, 364f
Subarachnoid space 484, 486f, 512f
Subcapsular sinus 228
Submucosa 62, 114, 123, 124, 127, 130
Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando 510
Substantia nigra 502
Substantia propria 294
Succus entericus 127
composition of 128fc
Sucking reflex 254
Sugar 550
Sulcus
central 490
lateral 490
posterolateral 530
Superficial perineal
pouch 441f
nerve 337
Superficial vein 182, 188, 196
thrombosis 197
Superior iliac spine, posterior 386
Superior mesenteric artery 180, 190, 191f
syndrome 125
Superior radioulnar joint 401, 402
osseofibrous ring of 403f
Supination 8f, 601
movements of 403
Supraclavicular nodes 458
Supracondylar lines, lateral 388
Supraoptic nucleus 500
Suprarenal arteries
inferior 263
middle 263
superior 263
Suprarenal glands 245, 262f, 591f
blood supply of 263f
histology of 263f
Swallowing 103
Sweat gland 270, 272, 275
atypical 275
ducts 45
modified 275
typical 275
Sweating 256, 276
Sylvian fissure 490
Sympathectomy, lumbar 542
Sympathetic chains
extent of 539f
ganglia of 539
Sympathetic fibers 424, 434, 450, 461
course of 539
Sympathetic ganglia 539
lateral chains of 539
Sympathetic nerves 538
segmental distribution of 540
Sympathetic nervous system 540f
stimulation of 540
Sympathomedullary system 266
Symphysis 396
menti 362
Synapse 482, 601
classification of 482, 483f
functions of 483
properties of 484
Synaptic cleft 483
Synchondroses 396
Syndesmosis 395, 396f
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone 253
Synovial joint 396, 398, 405
components of 397
condylar variety of 405
features of 397f
types of 397, 398f
Synovial membrane 397, 408
Syringomyelia 517, 517f
Systole 601
T
Tabes dorsalis 516, 516f
Tachycardia 168, 601
Tactile menisci 276
Tail bone 376
Tarsal bones 391
Tarsal plate 290
Taste 103
appreciation of 113
buds 105, 280, 280f
location of 280
structure of 105f
pathway 281, 281f
sensation, abnormalities of 281
sense of 279, 280
T-cells 242f
cytotoxic 242
Tectorial membrane 287
Teeth 97, 99
anterior 101
functions of 101
nerve of 101
vessels of 101
Telophase 555, 601
Temporal artery, superficial 195
Temporal bone 363, 363f
Temporal lobe syndrome 497
Temporary hemostatic plug 219
Tendon 601
Tensor
fasciae latae 336
tympani 284
Tentorium cerebelli 485
Teratogen 601
Terminal lymph ducts 225, 227
Testes 462, 579, 591f
basic structure of 462f
coverings of 462
descend of 464
functions of 466
histology of 462
interstitial cells of 245
structure of 462, 463f
Testicular function, control of 466
Tetanus 311
Tetany, mechanism of 262fc
Tetraiodothyronine 256
Thalamic nuclei
anatomical classification of 498
subdivisions of 498fc
Thalamic phantom limb 500
Thalamic syndrome 500
symptoms of 500
Thalamocortical fibers 499
Thalamus 498, 499f
functions of 499fc
horizontal section of 498f
nuclei of 499t
Thalassemia 211
Thenar muscles 334
Thermogenesis, diet-induced 571
Thiamine 30
Thigh
medial compartment of 338f
muscles of 336
Thoracic aorta, descending 81
Thoracic artery, internal 186
Thoracic cage 17, 18f, 354, 368, 369f
functions of 17
Thoracic cavity 19, 19f, 231
boundaries of 20
Thoracic duct 185f, 226f, 227, 227f
Thoracic nerves 538
Thoracic vertebra 374, 375f
Thoracolumbar outflow 538, 539f
Thorax
blood circulation of 189
bones of 369
inlet of 368
skeleton of 368
Threonine 28
Thrombocytes 204, 218, 601
Thromboembolism, pulmonary 83
Thrombophlebitis 197
Thrombosis 601
Thrombus 601
Thumb
movements of 405f
opposition of 9f
Thymine 550, 550f
Thymocytes 235
Thymus 225, 235, 236f, 579
functions of 237
histology of 235, 236f, 255
lymphocytes of 235
Thyrocervical trunk 186
Thyroglobulin, secretion of 256
Thyroid 579
artery
inferior 186, 255
superior 181, 255
cartilage 72, 73
function tests 259t
gland 245, 246, 254, 254f, 258
arterial supply of 256f
hormones of 256
relations of 255, 255f
structure of 255f
vessels of 76
hormone 43
actions of 257, 258fc
secretion of 256, 257fc, 258f
lies, isthmus of 76
lobe, posterior surface of 261f
stimulating hormone 246, 250, 251, 277
role of 258
swelling 256f
Thyrotoxicosis 259, 259f
Thyrotropes 250
Thyrotrophs 250
Thyrotropin releasing hormone 246, 247, 500
Thyroxine 256, 258, 277
Tibia 388
articular surface of 409f
condyles of 408
lower end of 347f
Tibial artery
anterior 195
posterior 195, 415
Tibial nerve 339, 415
Tibial tuberosity 346f
Tibialis posterior tendon 415
Tibiofibular mortise 411
Tidal volume 88
Tissues 45, 46, 474
classification of 45t
fibrous 59, 457
muscular 45, 46, 62
primary 45
subcutaneous 63
T-lymphocytes 58
Tongue 97, 103
carcinoma of 105, 105f
dorsal surface of 103f
extrinsic muscles of 104, 104f
histology of 104
intrinsic muscles of 104f
muscles of 103
nerve supply of 104f
node of 230
Tonsil 225, 234
bed of 235f
blood supply of 235f
functions of 108
histology of 235
lingual 103, 108
nasopharyngeal 106, 108
node of 230
Tonsillar fossa 234
Total hip replacement 408f
Trabeculae 236, 350
Tracer technique 31
Trachea 67, 76, 76f, 81
histology of 77
lymphatic drainage of 77
nerve supply of 77
transverse section of 77f
Tracheobronchial tree 78, 78f, 84
Tracheostomy 77
indications of 77
tube 77f
Traction epiphysis 353
Tractus solitaries, nucleus of 281
Transmembrane proteins 35
Transport across cell membrane, mechanism of 42fc
Transverse arch 392
Transverse cervical
artery 186
ligament 444, 445
Transverse sinus 184
Transversus abdominis 321
Trapezius 325, 379
Trapezoid body 288
Triangular ligament 134
Tricarboxylic acid cycle 39
Triceps brachii 330
Triceps surae, actions of 340
Tricuspid valve 154
Trigeminal nerve 502, 522, 525, 525f
spinal nucleus of 503
Tri-iodothyronine 256
Triple tests 561
Triplet code 553
Triquetral bones, part of 403
Trisomy 290, 558f, 561
Trochanter 347f, 387
Trochlea 347f
Trochlear nerve 522, 524
Trophoblast 602
Tropomyosin 307f
Troponin 307
proteins 307f
Trousseau's sign 262
True vocal cords 74
Trunk, muscles of 318
Trypsin 146
Trypsinogen, activation of 127
Tryptophan 28
T-tubules 307
Tubal insufflation test 448
Tubal tonsil 106, 108
Tubectomy 448f, 471
Tuberculosis 172
Tuberculum cinereum 503
Tuberosities, ischemic 445
Tubular absorption, concept of 428f
Tubular glands 52
Tubular reabsorption 426, 427
Tubular secretion 426, 428
Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism 425
Tumor 459f, 602
fixation of 458
pituitary 300
Tunica
adventitia 174, 602
albuginea 462
externa 293
fibrosa 293
interna 293
intima 174, 602
media 174, 293, 602
nervosa 293
vaginalis 462
vasculosa 293, 462
Turner syndrome 562
T-wave 166
Tympanic membrane 281, 282, 283
rupture of 285
Typical cervical vertebra 373, 374f
Typical chemical synapse, structure of 483f
Typical sweat glands 275
arts of 275f
Tyrosine 28, 246
iodination of 256
U
Ulcer
duodenal 125
peptic 119
Ullrich-Turner syndrome 562
Ulna 416
olecranon process of 331
Ulnar artery 187
Ulnar collateral ligaments 404
Ulnar nerve 335, 534f, 535
branches of 535
deep branch of 335
Ultrasonography 561
Unicellular gland 53f
Unipolar neuron 475, 475f
Upper esophageal sphincter 115
Upper limb 230, 376
arteries of 186f
blood circulation of 185
bones of 377t, 577
joints of 398, 399f, 405t
muscles of 325, 326f
skeleton of 377f
veins of 188f
Upper motor neuron 527
concept of 513
effects of 527f
lesion 513, 521t
position of 514f
Uracil 553
Ureter 45, 431, 591f, 594f
histology of 432, 432f
relations of 432, 432f
Urethra
female 434
male 45, 434, 435f
prostatic 465
Urinary bladder 45, 422, 433, 591f
histology of 433, 433f
relations of 433f
Urinary catheterization
female 434
male 434
Urinary system 13, 13f
arts of 418, 418f
functions of 418
radiological anatomy of 435
Urine 602
composition of 430fc
concentration of 429
formation 428
physiology of 426
path of 423fc
properties of 429
Urography, intravenous 435
Urothelium 45, 51
Uterine
cycle 454
glands 455f
prolapse 447f
tube 45, 447, 449
functions of 447
ligation of 448
microscopic structure of 448f
Uterosacral ligament 444, 445
Uterovaginal canal, formation of 459f
Uterus 254, 441, 444f, 591f
angulation of 444f
anomalies of 459, 459f
arts of 442, 442f
bicornuate 459, 459f
didelphys 459, 459f
histology of 442
ligaments of 446f
lymphatic drainage of 447f
microscopic structure of 443f
round ligament of 444, 445, 446f
septate 459, 459f
subseptate 459
supports of 444, 446f
unicornuate 459, 459f
wall of 442
Utricle 287
functions 290
Uveal tract 293
Uveitis 293
Uvula vesicae 466
V
Vagal influences 93
Vagal tone 161
Vagina 448
fornices of 449
histology of 449
relations of 450f
vestibule of 440
Vagotomy 119
Vagus nerve 522, 528
lesions of 529
Valine 28
Valsalva aortic sinuses 176
Valves, semilunar 157
Varicocele 464
Varicose vein 197f, 464
Vas deferens 464, 465
Vasa recta 423
Vasectomy 465, 465f, 471
Vasoactive intestinal
peptide 127
polypeptide 246
Vasoconstriction 602
immediate 219
Vasopressin 253, 260
Vault, internal surface of 359
Veins 152, 176, 263, 369, 602
azygos system of 81, 189, 190f
brachiocephalic 185, 185f
bronchial 79
intercostal 189
interlobar 423
large 176, 176f
peripheral 197
portal 136, 192
pterygoid plexus of 183f
pulmonary 79, 82, 154
subclavian 197f
superior pulmonary 79
Vena cava
inferior 152, 154, 191
superior 81, 152, 154, 185, 185f
Venae comitantes 176
Venous drainage 82, 119, 124, 130, 132, 160, 160f, 182, 188, 189, 191, 196, 233, 235, 255, 440, 447, 465, 507
Ventilation 89
perfusion ratio 89
pulmonary 89
Ventral anterior nucleus 498
Ventral horn cells 509
Ventricle 81, 154, 158, 158f, 159, 159t
Ventricular muscle fibers 162
Ventricular septal defect 561
Venules 152, 176, 602
Vermiform appendix 129, 130, 131f
Vertebrae 17
prominens 374
typical 373, 373f
Vertebral arch 373
Vertebral artery 186, 507f
intracranial branches of 507
Vertebral column 17, 18f, 354, 372, 372f, 577
curvatures of 372
functions of 18
movements of 376
Vesical artery, inferior 432, 465
Vesical venous plexus 465
Vesicular follicle 452
Vessel wall, elasticity of 170
Vestibular glands 441f
Vestibular nuclei 515
Vestibule 68, 74, 286
bulbs of 440
Vestibulocerebellum 504
Vestibulocochlear nerve 522
Villi, presence of 122
Virchow's triad 197
Virus 602
Visceral reflexes 513
Visible spectrum 297, 298f
Vision
accessory organs of 290
chemical basis of 298
essential organs of 290
field of 298, 300f
neural basis of 297
sense of 279, 290
Visual cortex 497
Visual pathway 299, 299f, 299fc, 300
Visual receptors 299
Vitamin 29, 30, 30t
classification of 29fc
D3 260
K
antagonists 222
dependent procoagulants 221
role of 221
metabolism 258
Vitreous humor 296
Vocal cord 74, 75
attachments of 74f
histology of 74
paralysis of 529
Vocal fold 74, 74t
Vocalis 74
Volkmann's canal 351, 351f
Volkmann's ischemic contracture 381f
Volvulus 127
Vomer 368
Vomiting 149
von Recklinghausen's disease 555, 556
von Willebrand's factor, role of 221
Vulva 439
W
Waist
circumference 573
hip ratio 573
Waldeyer's ring 107, 108, 108f, 234
Wallerian degeneration 479
Water 26
absorption 429
balance 127, 202, 430
regulation of 501
excretion, control of 430
functions of 26
insoluble fibers 27
intoxication 27
metabolism 264
reabsorption of 429
soluble fibers 27
Weber's test 289, 289f
Wernicke's area 495, 496
Westergren's tube 212f
Wharton's duct 109, 112
White blood cells 202, 215
formation of 215
life span of 216
White fibrocartilage 61, 62
White fibrous tissue 59
White pulp 233
Willis circle 506, 506f
Wilson's disease 494, 556
Wintrobe's method 212
Wintrobe's tube 212, 212f
Wound healing 572
Woven bone 350
Wrist joint 403, 403f, 404t, 414
anterior relations of 404f
flexor retinaculum of 415f
posterior relations of 404f
relations of 404
Wry neck 317
X
Xiphisternum 371
Xiphoid process 371
X-linked inheritance 556
characteristic features of 556
Z
Zeis glands 290
Zinc 31
deficiency 281
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 119
Zona
fasciculata 262
glomerulosa 262
orbicularis 406
reticularis 263
Zygapophyses 373
Zygomatic bones 358, 364, 365f
Zygote 602
×
Chapter Notes

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1Body and its Constituents
1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
2. Introduction to Chemistry of Life
3A. Organization of Human Body—Cell Level
3B. Organization of Human Body—Tissue Level2

Introduction to Anatomy and PhysiologyCHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
 
ANATOMY
 
Subdivisions of Anatomy
  • Gross anatomy: It is the study of structures of human body usually with naked eyes.
  • Systemic anatomy: It is the study of the body systems, e.g., digestive system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, etc.
  • Regional anatomy: It is the study of structure and organization of a definitive part of the body. The various parts or regions of the body studied are as follows:
    • Head and neck
    • Thorax
    • Abdomen
    • Pelvis
    • Back
    • Extremities—upper and lower limbs
  • Functional anatomy: Study of anatomy which provides correlation between structure and function of various organs.
  • Developmental anatomy: Study of prenatal and postnatal developmental changes of the human body.
  • Histology and cytology: Study of various body structures, organs, tissues and cells, in greater details with the help of microscope.
  • Surface anatomy: Study of projection of internal body parts on the corresponding external surface area of the body. This helps in clinical correlation with normal and abnormal anatomy.
  • 4Clinical anatomy: It emphasizes the structure and function of a part of body or the entire body in relation to the practice of medicine and other health related professions.
  • Comparative anatomy: Study of structural variation between other animals and human beings. This helps to trace the sequence of events in the structural evolution of human beings.
 
PHYSIOLOGY
 
Subdivisions of Physiology
The study of functioning of each system of the body can be studied under the following subdivisions of physiology:
  • Neuromuscular physiology
  • Respiratory physiology
  • Cardiovascular physiology
  • Physiology of excretory system
  • Digestion and metabolism
  • Immunology
  • Endocrinology.
BASIC ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
 
ANATOMICAL POSITION
All descriptions in Human Anatomy and Clinical Medicine are expressed in relation to “Anatomical Position” (Fig. 1.1).
 
Importance of Anatomical Position
All structures of our body are described in relation to this position, irrespective to any body posture in space.
 
Other Positions of Body
  • Supine position: Person lies straight on the back with face directed upwards (recumbent position) (Fig. 1.2).
  • Prone position: Person lies straight on the abdomen and face is directed downwards (Fig. 1.3).
  • Lithotomy position: Person lies supine with hips and knees semi-flexed, thighs abducted and feet strapped in position (Fig. 1.4).
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Fig. 1.1: Anatomical position (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.2: Supine position (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.3: Prone position (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.4: Lithotomy position (schematic representation).
5
 
ANATOMICAL PLANES
Anatomical descriptions are also based on four imaginary planes that pass through the body in the anatomical position. They are:
  • Median
  • Sagittal
  • Coronal
  • Horizontal.
 
Median Plane
This is the imaginary vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves (Fig. 1.5).
 
Sagittal Planes
These are parallel to the median plane. They are named alter the sagittal suture of the skull (Fig. 1.6). The sagittal plane that passes through the median plane can be called the mid-sagittal plane (i.e., in center). The sagittal plane which does not pass from center but passes parallel to midsagittal plane is called parasagittal plane (Figs. 1.7 and 1.8).
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Fig. 1.5: Median plane (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.6: Skull viewed from above showing sagittal and coronal sutures (schematic representation).
 
Coronal Planes
These are imaginary vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. These planes are named after the coronal suture of the skull, which lies in the coronal plane (Fig. 1.7).
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Fig. 1.7: Planes of body—sagittal, coronal and transverse (schematic representation).
 
Horizontal Planes or Transverse Plane
These are imaginary planes passing through the body at right angles to both the median and coronal planes (they are parallel to the “horizon”). A horizontal plane divides the body 6into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. A horizontal plane is also referred to as the transverse plane (Fig. 1.7).
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Fig. 1.8: Sagittal planes (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.9: Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison (schematic representation).
 
TERMINOLOGY
 
Terms of Relationship
Various terms (adjectives) are used to describe the relationship of parts of the body in the anatomical position (Fig. 1.9 and Table 1.1).
TABLE 1.1   Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison.
Term
Meaning
Example
Superior (cranial)
Nearer to the head
The lung is superior to the diaphragm
Inferior (caudal)
Nearer to the feet (tail)
The stomach is inferior to the heart
Anterior (ventral)
Nearer to the front
Cornea is anterior to the lens
Posterior (dorsal)
Nearer to the back
Lens is posterior to the cornea
Medial
Nearer to the median plane
Heart is medial to the lung
Lateral
Away from the median plane
Kidney is lateral to the vertebral column
Proximal
Nearer to the trunk or point of origin
The knee is proximal to the ankle
Distal
Farther from the trunk or away from the origin
The wrist is distal to the elbow
Superficial
Nearer to the surface
Muscles of the thigh are superficial to the bone femur
Deep
Farther from the surface
Farther from the surface the femur is deep to the muscles of thigh
External (outer)
Toward the exterior
The sclera is the external coat of the eyeball
Internal (inner)
Toward or in the interior
Retina is internal to the sclera and choroid
 
Terms of Movement
Various terms are used to describe the different movements of the limbs and other parts of the body. Movements take 7place at joints where two or more bones meet or articulate with one another.
 
Flexion
In this movement, two flexor surfaces come in approximation and angle of the joint is reduced (Fig. 1.10).
 
Extension
In this movement there is approximation of extensor surfaces whereby angle of joint increases (Fig. 1.11).
 
Abduction
It describes the movement away from the median plane, away from the middle finger in hand or away from the 2nd toe in foot (Fig. 1.12).
zoom view
Fig. 1.10: Flexion of forearm.
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Fig. 1.11: Extension of forearm.
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Fig. 1.12: Abduction of digits.
 
Adduction
This describes the movement towards the median plane or toward the middle finger in hand or toward the 2nd toe of foot (Fig. 1.13).
 
Medial Rotation
Medial rotation denotes movement toward median plane or inward rotation (Fig. 1.14).
 
Lateral Rotation
Lateral rotation denotes rotation away from the median plane or outward rotation (Fig. 1.15).
 
Circumduction
Combined movement of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction in a circular manner is termed as circumduction.
 
Elevation
Raising or moving a body part toward the cephalic end is termed as elevation.
 
Depression
Lowering or moving a body part caudally is termed as depression.
zoom view
Fig. 1.13: Adduction of digits.
8
zoom view
Fig. 1.14: Medial rotation of arm.
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Fig. 1.15: Lateral rotation of arm.
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Fig. 1.16: Pronation of forearm.
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Fig. 1.17: Supination of forearm.
 
Protrusion
It is the forward movement of a body part.
 
Retraction
It is the backward movement from protrusion.
 
Pronation
It is the medial rotation of forearm so that the palm comes to face backward (Fig. 1.16).
 
Supination
It is the lateral rotation of forearm so that the palm comes to face anteriorly (forward) (Fig. 1.17).
 
Inversion of Foot
It is the movement that causes the plantar surface of foot to face inward and downward (Fig. 1.18).
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Fig. 1.18: Inversion of foot.
9
zoom view
Fig. 1.19: Eversion of foot.
 
Eversion of Foot
It is the movement that causes the plantar surface of foot to face laterally and downward (Fig. 1.19).
 
Opposition
It is a combination of abduction, medial rotation and flexion. This movement characteristically occurs in the thumb (Fig. 1.20).
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Fig. 1.20: Opposition of thumb.
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Fig. 1.21: Anterior or ventral aspect of body (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.22: Posterior or dorsal aspect of body (schematic representation).
10LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION AND ORGAN SYSTEMS OF BODY
 
LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
For clear understanding of the body and how it functions, it is important to know the organization of the body (Fig. 1.23).
  • Level 1 (chemical level): The smallest unit of a body is an atom. Two or more atoms joined together are called a molecule.
  • Level 2 (cellular level): Molecules combine to form cells, which are the basic structural and functional units of an organism.
  • Level 3 (tissue level): Groups of cells that work together to perform a particular function are called as tissue. There are four basic types of tissues in body—(i) epithelial tissue, (ii) connective tissue, (iii) muscular tissue, and (iv) nervous tissue.
  • Level 4 (organ level): Different types of tissues join together to form an organ. Each organ has a specific role to perform.
  • Level 5 (system level): A system consists of related organs with a common function.
zoom view
Fig. 1.23: Levels of structural organization of the human body (schematic representation).
11ORGAN SYSTEMS OF BODY
The human body has several organ systems that work interdependently and carry out specific functions. These systems influence each other and work together to maintain health, provide protection from disease, and allow for reproduction of the human species. The various structures constituting these body systems and their functions are discussed in Figures 1.24 to 1.35.
 
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (FIG. 1.24)
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Fig. 1.24: Integumentary system (schematic representation).
 
SKELETAL SYSTEM (FIG. 1.25)
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Fig. 1.25: Skeletal system (schematic representation).
 
12MUSCULAR SYSTEM (FIG. 1.26)
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Fig. 1.26: Muscular system (schematic representation).
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM (FIG. 1.27)
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Fig. 1.27: Nervous system (schematic representation).
 
13ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (FIG. 1.28)
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Fig. 1.28: Endocrine system (schematic representation).
 
URINARY SYSTEM (FIG. 1.29)
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Fig. 1.29: Urinary system (schematic representation).
 
14CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (FIG. 1.30)
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Fig. 1.30: Cardiovascular system (schematic representation).
 
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (FIG. 1.31)
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Fig. 1.31: Lymphatic system (schematic representation).
 
15RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (FIG. 1.32)
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Fig. 1.32: Respiratory system (schematic representation).
 
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (FIG. 1.33)
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Fig. 1.33: Digestive system (schematic representation).
 
16FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (FIG. 1.34)
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Fig. 1.34: Female reproductive system (schematic representation).
SKELETON
The skeleton (Fig. 1.36) is the bony framework of the body. It forms the cavities and fossae that protects some structures, forms the joints and gives attachment to muscles.
The human skeleton is internal to muscles so it is described as endoskeleton. In lower animals, such as insects, the muscles are attached to the inner aspects of rigid material which also offers protection, this type is called as exoskeleton.
 
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (FIG. 1.35)
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Fig. 1.35: Male reproductive system (schematic representation).
A detailed description of the bones and skeleton is given in Chapter 13B. Here we are considering an overview.
The skeleton is described in two parts:
  1. Axial skeleton: This includes bones of head (skull), vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. Hyoid bone is also the part of axial skeleton.
  2. Appendicular skeleton: It consists of bones of extremities, i.e., upper limb and lower limb.17
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Fig. 1.36: Skeleton. Note: The green colored areas indicate axial skeleton (schematic representation).
 
AXIAL SKELETON
The axial skeleton consists of the skull, thoracic cage and vertebral column.
   
Introduction
The skeleton of the head is called skull. It consists of the cranium and mandible. The upper part of cranium forming the brain box is termed the calvaria and the remainder of the skull forms the facial skeleton (Flowchart 1.1).
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Flowchart 1.1: Parts of skull.
 
Functions of Skull
  • Protection of brain
  • Protection of special sense organs like ears, eyes, tongue and nose
  • Protection of beginning of respiratory and digestive tracts.
 
Thoracic Cage (Fig. 1.38)
The thoracic cage is formed by:
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae
  • 12 pairs of ribs
  • 1 sternum.
 
Function of Thoracic Cage
The thoracic cage protects the chief organs of respiration and circulation.
 
Vertebral Column (Fig. 1.39)
The vertebral column (spine, spinal column or backbone) is the main part of axial skeleton. It consists of 33 bones called vertebrae and the intervertebral discs between them. The vertebral column forms a strong and flexible support for the trunk; it extends from the base of the skull through the neck and trunk.
The vertebral column is made up of 33 vertebrae—7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal; but only 24 of them are movable (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar). In adults, the 5 sacral vertebrae are fused to form the sacrum and the coccygeal vertebrae are fused to form the coccyx.
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Figs. 1.37A and B: Skull: A. Photograph of skull; B. Schematic representation.
18
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Fig. 1.38: Thoracic cage (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.39: Vertebral column (schematic representation).
 
Functions of Vertebral Column
  • The vertebral column has important roles in posture, support the body weight, locomotion and protection of spinal cord and nerve roots; it also transmits the body weight to the ground through the lower limbs.
  • The 24 movable vertebrae give the vertebral column considerable flexibility; the intervertebral discs between them also play an important role in movements and in absorbing shocks.
 
APPENDICULAR SKELETON
The appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulder girdles and upper limbs, and the pelvic girdle and lower limbs.
  • The shoulder girdle is formed by the clavicle and scapula.
    Bones forming upper limb skeleton:
    • Clavicle
    • Scapula
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • Ulna
    • 8 carpal bones—scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
    • 5 metacarpals
    • 14 phalanges
  • The pelvic girdle is formed by the two innominate bones (hip bones) and the sacrum.
    Bones forming lower limb skeleton:
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • 7 tarsal bones—talus, calcaneum, navicular, cuboid and three cuneiform bones
    • 5 metatarsals
    • 14 phalanges.
 
Functions
  • The bones, joints and muscles of appendicular skeleton are involved in producing voluntary movements of the body.
  • It protects delicate structures like blood vessels and nerves from injury.
19CAVITIES OF THE BODY
Body cavities are spaces within the body that help, protect, separate, and support internal organs. Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures separate the various body cavities from one another. The various body cavities are discussed below (Fig. 1.40).
 
CRANIAL CAVITY
The eight fused cranial bones form a hollow space of the head called cranial cavity. They are as follows:
  • Frontal bone anteriorly
  • Occipital bone posteriorly
  • Sphenoid and ethmoid bone inferiorly
  • Paired parietal bones superiorly
  • Paired temporal bones laterally
The cranial cavity is occupied by the brain.
 
THORACIC CAVITY (FIG. 1.41)
The thoracic cavity is one of the major cavities of the body.
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Fig. 1.40: Body cavities (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.41: Structure forming the walls of thoracic cavity (schematic representation).
 
20Boundaries of Thoracic Cavity
  • Anteriorly: Sternum and anterior parts of ribs and their costal cartilages
  • Posteriorly: Bodies of the 12 thoracic vertebrae, intervertebral discs and posterior parts of ribs
  • On each side: 12 pairs of ribs and the intercostal muscles
  • Superiorly: By the structures forming the root of neck
  • Inferiorly: By a muscular sheet known as diaphragm.
 
Contents
The main organs and structures in the thoracic cavity are:
  • Trachea, bronchi (2 in number) and lungs (2 in number)
  • Heart, aorta, superior and inferior vena cavae
  • Esophagus
  • Lymph vessels
  • Nerves.
 
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
The abdominopelvic cavity is the other major cavity of the body. It extends from the diaphragm to the groin. It is encircled by the muscular wall of the abdomen, and bones and muscles of the pelvis.
The abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into two regions:
  • Abdominal cavity
  • Pelvic cavity.
 
Abdominal Cavity
It is the largest cavity in the body.
For purposes of description, the abdominal cavity is divided into nine regions by the two lateral vertical planes (midinguinal or midclavicular) and 2 horizontal planes (transpyloric plane and transtubercular plane) (Fig. 1.42).
 
Transpyloric Plane of Addison
Passes midway between the suprasternal notch and pubic symphysis, roughly a hand's breadth below xiphisternal joint. It passes through the tips of the 9th costal cartilages anteriorly and through the body of L1 vertebra posteriorly.
 
Transtubercular Plane
Transtubercular plane passes through the iliac tubercles on the iliac crests. It passes through the body of L5 vertebra.
 
Midclavicular Lines
The midclavicular lines or planes extend from the midpoint of clavicle to the midinguinal point (midpoint of a line joining anterior superior iliac spine and pubic symphysis).
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Fig. 1.42: Regions of abdominal cavity (schematic representation).
 
Quadrants of the Abdomen
For simplicity, clinicians routinely divide the abdomen into four quadrants, right and left, upper and lower quadrants. The median and transumbilical planes are used to divide the abdomen into these quadrants.
 
21Boundaries of Abdominal Cavity
  • Superiorly: The diaphragm separates it from thoracic cavity
  • Inferiorly: It is continuous with pelvic cavity
  • Anteriorly: Anterior abdominal wall
  • Posteriorly: Lumbar vertebra and posterior abdominal wall
  • Laterally: Muscles of abdominal wall and lower ribs.
 
Contents (Figs. 1.43 and 1.44)
The main organs and structures in the abdominal cavity.
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Most of the large intestine
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder and bile ducts
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen
  • Kidneys (2 in number) and the upper part of the ureters
  • Adrenal (suprarenal) glands (2 in number)
  • Numerous blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes.
 
Pelvic Cavity
The pelvic cavity extends from the lower end of the abdominal cavity.
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Fig. 1.43: Organs occupying anterior part of abdominal cavity (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.44: Organs occupying the posterior part of abdominal cavity (schematic representation).
 
Boundaries of Pelvic Cavity (Fig. 1.45)
  • Superiorly: It is continuous with abdominal cavity
  • 22Inferiorly: Pelvic floor
  • Anteriorly: Pubic bones
  • Posteriorly: Sacrum and coccyx
  • Laterally: Hip bones (innominate bones).
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Fig. 1.45: Male reproductive organs and other structures in the pelvic cavity (schematic representation).
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Fig. 1.46: Female reproductive organs and other structures in the pelvic cavity (schematic representation).
 
Contents
The main organs and structures in pelvic cavity are:
  • Urinary bladder
  • Lower parts of the ureters
  • Urethra
  • Lower part of colon including sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal
  • In the male, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, spermatic cords, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra (Fig. 1.45)
  • In the female, uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and vagina (Fig. 1.46).
COMPOSITION OF BODY
In average adults, 60% of total body weight is water, 8% is protein and related substances, 15% is fat and 7% is minerals.
The body water is divided into two parts:
  1. Intracellular fluid (ICF): It is the fluid contained within the cells. It forms two-third of total body water and 40% total body weight.
  2. Extracellular fluid (ECF): It forms one-third of total body water and 20% of total body weight. It is further divided into two components:
    1. Intravascular fluid: It is 25% of ECF and forms 5% of total body weight. Plasma along with various cellular elements forms blood which circulates in the vascular system and is called as intravascular system.
    2. Extravascular fluid: It is 75% of ECF and forms 15% of total body weight. This fluid lies outside the blood vessels and bathes all the cells except red blood cells and is found in pleural cavity, pericardial cavity and around joints (Flowchart 1.2).
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Flowchart 1.2: Body water.
The normal cells function depends on the composition of interstitial fluid. It constitutes the internal environment of the body or milieu intérieur. The internal environment of the body is kept constant by multiple regulatory factors. This is called homeostasis.
HOMEOSTASIS
The word “homeostasis” was coined by Walter B Canon.
 
COMPONENTS OF HOMEOSTATIC SYSTEM
The homeostatic system is a self-regulating mechanism that occurs in a cyclical pattern. There are three components of homeostatic system (Flowchart 1.3):
  • 23Receptors: These recognize any deviation from normal level of a physiological parameter and provide feedback to control center.
  • Control center: This receives the information about variation in the physiological parameters from receptors and activates the effector system.
  • Effectors: These receive the information from control center and correct the deviation.
 
Mechanism of Action of Homeostatic System
The homeostatic system acts through feedback mechanisms. Feedback is a process in which some proportion of the output signal of a system is fed (passed) back to the input. There are two types of feedback mechanisms:
  • Negative feedback mechanism
  • Positive feedback mechanism.
 
Negative Feedback (Flowchart 1.4)
Negative feedback is the one, to which the system reacts in such a way so, as to arrest the change or reverse the direction of change.
After receiving a message, the effectors send the negative feedback signals back to the system. Now the system stabilizes its own function and makes an attempt to maintain homeostasis.
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Flowchart 1.3: Components of homeostatic system.
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Flowchart 1.4: Negative feedback mechanism.(ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone; +: stimulates; –: inhibits)
Most of the homeostatic mechanisms in the body function through negative feedback, for example, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion.
ACTH released from anterior pituitary stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex. The increase in blood cortisol levels inhibit secretion of ACTH from anterior pituitary so that cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex decreases. On the other hand low cortisol levels induce pituitary gland to secrete ACTH to stimulate cortisol secretion to maintain normal levels.
 
Positive Feedback (Flowchart 1.5)
Positive feedback is the one to which the system reacts in such a way as to increase the intensity of the change in the same direction. In other words, in positive feedback, the response reinforces the stimulus rather than decreasing or removing it. Positive feedback systems are less common and occur in both physiological and pathological state.
This is very useful in life processes. Examples of positive feedback system are:
  • Ovulation
  • Parturition
  • Clotting of blood.
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Flowchart 1.5: Positive feedback mechanism.(FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; LH: luteinizing hormone)
24
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Flowchart 1.6: Commonly used terms to describe disease.
  • Pathogenesis: The word is derived from the Greek word “pathos” which means “disease”and “genesis” meaning “creation”. The pathogenesis of a disease is defined as the mechanism that causes the disease. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic or recurrent. Acute disease is a disease with a rapid onset and/or a short course. Chronic, i.e., which is slow in onset and a prolonged course of illness that do not resolve spontaneously until treated. Recurrent disease, i.e., those disease whose signs and symptoms reappear after remission.
  • Symptoms: Subjective changes in the body functions that are not apparent to the observer but felt by the patient.
  • Signs: Objective changes in the body that are visible to the observer.
  • Inspection: The word is derived from Latin word “Inspectio” meaning “the act of beholding”. It is the thorough and unhurried visualization of the patient.
  • Palpation: The method by which a healthcare practitioner, diagnoses a disease by using both of his hands by feeling the organ in the body to determine its size, shape, firmness, or location. Typically used for thoracic and abdominal examinations, but can also be used to diagnose edema and to measure the pulse.
  • Percussion: It is the method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure. It is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen. There are four types of percussion sounds—resonant, hyper-resonant, stony dull or dull. A dull sound indicates the presence of a solid mass under the surface. A more resonant sound indicates hollow, air-containing structures.
  • Auscultation: Derived from the Latin verb “auscultare” that means “to listen”. It is used for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. The sound heard on auscultation are-breath sounds, heart sounds and bowel sounds.
  • Complications: Complication is an unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show new pathological changes or become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems.
  • Prognosis: The word is derived from Greek word “progignoskein” meaning “fore-knowing or foreseeing”. It is defined as a medical term for predicting the likely outcome of a disease.
  • Acute disease: A disease condition characterized by a relatively sudden onset of symptoms that are usually severe.
  • Chronic disease: A disease condition which is persistent or lasts for a longer time.
  • Nosocomial disease: The term “nosocomial” comes from two Greek words “nosis” meaning “disease” + “komeiion” meaning “to take care of”. Hence, “nosocomial” should apply to any disease contracted by a patient while under medical care. However, this term is now synonymous with hospital-acquired infection.
  • Syndrome: A group of symptoms that occur together and are characteristic of a specific disorder, disease or condition.25
REVIEW QUESTIONS
 
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
  1. Define anatomy. Classify the various types of anatomical positions.
  2. Define the term skeleton. Discuss about axial and appendicular skeleton.
  3. Explain the mechanism of action of homeostatic system in detail.
 
SHORT NOTES
  1. Cavities of the body
  2. Types of movements
  3. Anatomical planes
  4. Composition of body
 
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
  1. The inferior border of pelvic cavity are formed by
    1. Abdominal cavity
    2. Pelvic floor
    3. Sacrum
    4. Hip bones
  2. The cranial cavity is formed by the fusion of a total of how many bones:
    1. 8 fused cranial bones
    2. 2 occipital and 3 frontal bone
    3. 8 facial bones
    4. Only sphenoid and ethmoid bones
  3. Anatomical plane is:
    1. Median
    2. Supine
    3. Flexion
    4. Abduction
  4. Nearer to the back is termed as:
    1. External
    2. Superior
    3. Posterior
    4. Inferior
  5. Organ which is not in the pelvic cavity:
    1. Urethra
    2. Rectum
    3. Gallbladder
    4. Urinary bladder
 
Answer Key
1. b 2. a 3. a 4. c 5. c
MATCH THE FOLLOWING
1. Histology
A. Lungs
2. Integumentary system
B. Brain
3. Respiratory system
C. Pituitary gland
4. Lymphatic system
D. Bones of limbs
5. Urinary system
E. Microscopic study of tissues
6. Pelvic cavity
F. Vertebral column
7. Cranial cavity
G. Tonsil and thymus
8. Appendicular skeleton
H. Skin
9. Axial skeleton
I. Kidneys
10. Endocrine system
J. Uterus
 
Answer Key
1. E 2. H 3. A 4. G 5. I 6. J 7. B 8. D 9. F 10. C