FOGSI’s Postgraduate Obstetrics: A Textbook (Volume 1) Ameya Purandare, Parikshit Tank, Alpesh Gandhi
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abatacept 313
Abdomen 306
causes of acute 428, 429, 432t
surgical 428
Abdominal closure 615
Abdominal contour 556f
Abdominal examination 92, 556, 565
Abdominal fat, excessive 350
Abdominal organs 176
Abdominal pain 99, 304, 306, 439
acute 428
Abdominal situs 175, 176
Abdominal tenderness 430
Abdominal tilt, maternal 437
Abdominal trauma 544
Abdominal wall 630
Abortion 193, 201
classification 193
clinical grading of 196t
complete 193, 195
etiology of 194
first-trimester 194, 197
incidence 193
incomplete 193, 195, 292
induced 194, 197
inevitable 193, 195, 195f
medical 730
missed 193, 195
pathology of 194
recurrent spontaneous 544
second-trimester 194, 197
spontaneous 193, 201, 461
threatened 193, 194
unsafe 198
Abruptio placenta 154, 267, 522, 524f, 526f, 653
complications of 524t
Abruption 227, 688
Abscess 667
epidural 625
Absent end-diastolic volume 492
Absolute lymphocyte count 394
Acardiac twin 464
Accredited Social Health Activist 729, 734
Acetaminophen 444
poisoning 444
Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors 313, 404
Acetylsalicylic acid 252
Acid-base
balance 107
changes 108t
equilibrium 82
monitoring 759
Acid-fast bacilli 321
Acidosis 154, 297, 697
Acid-suppressing drugs 305
Acne vulgaris 336
Acquired immunodeficiency
disease 367
syndrome 367
Acquired thrombophilia 227, 543
Acrania 75
Acrosome reaction 54
Act of violence 51
Actim® Partus kit 505f
Actinomycin 206
Activated charcoal 444
Activated partial thromboplastin time 252, 311
Acupressure 622
Acupuncture 622
Acute kidney injury 292, 293, 293t, 294
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 324, 524, 745
pregnancy-specific 324
severe 774
Acute seizure
differential diagnosis of 328f
intrapartum management of 331fc
Adalimumab 313
Addison disease 267
Adenocarcinoma 295
Adhesion 57
Adipocytes 259
Adipokines 348
Adnexal torsion 364
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital 715
Adrenal tumor 235
Adrenaline 779
Adult advanced life support 772
Adult basic life support 772
Advance fetal echocardiography 175
Advanced cardiac
life support 775
support 437
Advanced magnetic resonance techniques 701
Agalactia 631
Airborne transmission 387
Airway 756
Ajit Rawal method 647, 648f
Alanine
aminotransferase 401, 408
transaminase 302
Albumin infusions 296
Alcohol 97
abuse, chronic 447
poisoning 447
use screening tools 342t
Alcoholic liver disease 418
Alkali denaturation tests 286
Alkalosis 324
Alleles 114
Allergic rhinitis 336
Allograft function 303
Alloimmune factors 194
Alloimmunization 158
Alpha-fetoprotein 135
Alpha-thalassemia 279, 284, 285, 540
minor 285
Aluminum containing antacids 305
Alveolar glands 38
Ambiguous genitalia 715, 718
Ambu bag 691
Amenorrhea 417
Amikacin 667
Amino acids 259, 302, 304
salicylic 306, 315
Aminoglycosides 323, 390
Amiodarone 779
use of 267
Ammonia 304
Amniocentesis 135, 149, 152, 186, 191, 282, 297, 461, 505
advantages of 152
gestational age 149
procedure of 150
tests 150
Amnioinfusion 472, 473, 593
Amnion 459
Amnionitis 154
Amniotic cavity, microbial infection of 484, 505f
Amniotic fluid 144, 321, 470, 514f, 546
abnormal levels of 472t
amount of 162
embolism 325, 522, 770
index 472, 486, 488, 490, 496
pocket 471f
resorption of 470
samples 284
sludge 504
water, circulation of 470f
Amniotic fluid volume 401, 470f
abnormalities of 470
assessment of 158, 471
dynamics of 470
sonographic assessment of 158
Amniotomy 582, 739
Amoxicillin 305, 515
Amphetamines 342
Ampicillin 515
Anaemia Mukt Bharat 380
Anakinra 313
Anal agenesis 715
Anal epithelium 639
Analgesia 621
during labor, indications of 624
Analgesics 282, 674
Anaphylactic reaction 779
Anaphylaxis 771
Ancylostoma duodenale 380
Androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole 211
Anecdotal herbal galactagogues 677
Anemia 273, 279, 320, 461
causes of 274
correction of 275
cycle 274fc
eradication of 277
mild 286
moderate-to-severe 277
postpartum 275, 276
prevention of 297
severe 544
severity of 273t
tests to diagnose 274
treatment of 276, 297
Anencephaly 74, 147, 147f, 542f
Anesthesia 150, 531, 621, 779
Aneuploidy 114, 120, 194, 298, 542
markers 129
screening 95, 128
ultrasonography for 129
Angelman syndrome 68, 117
Angiogenesis 358
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 244, 295, 310, 325
Angiotensin-receptor blockers 310
Anisocytes 286
Ankyloglossia 671
Anomaly scan 230
Antacids 305
Antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin 95
Antenatal care 89, 97, 236, 302, 499, 727
components of 94t
contacts 89, 90t
model 89
package 92
pyramids 128f
utilization of 96
Antenatal complications 461, 508
Antenatal exercises 425
Antenatal information 632
Antenatal management 330
Antenatal pharmacologic therapy 425
Antenatal protocols 230
Antenatal screening 95, 330
Antenatal steroid
role of 240
trial 34
Antenatal wellbeing tests 698
Antepartum fetal
assessment 158
methods of 158
surveillance tests 157, 410, 537
Antepartum management 245
Anterior diaphragmatic defects 78
Anthelmintic treatment, preventive 95
Anthropoid 45
Antiangiogenic drugs 358
Antiarrhythmic drugs 253t
Antiarrhythmic therapy 253
Antibiotic 6, 150, 315, 389, 505, 514
intravenous 197
prophylaxis 247t, 297
therapy 667
Antibody
loss of 374
phospholipid-dependent 311
Anticardiolipin 311
antibody 199, 235
positive for 311
Anticholinergics 304
Anticoagulants 253, 395
prophylaxis 252
Anticonvulsants 194
Anti-D immunoglobulin 437
Anti-D immunoprophylaxis 633
Antiemetics 99
Antiendomysial antibodies 68
Antiepileptic drug 327, 329t, 331
Antiestrogenic hormonal therapy 358
Antihistamines 99
Antihypertensive agents 238
Antihypertensive medications 240
Antimalarials, use of 317
Antimicrobials, role of 506
Antimicrosomal antibody 235, 267
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody 315
Antinuclear antibody 198, 235
Antiobesity 353
Antiperoxidase 267
Antiphospholipid
antibody syndrome 230, 303, 309, 485
autoantibody 311
syndrome 158, 194, 201, 311, 541, 543
Antiretroviral drugs 368, 369t
classes of 368t
Antiretroviral therapy 367, 371b, 384
Anti-Rh immunoglobulin 546
Anti-rheumatic drugs, disease-modifying 312
Antisepsis 6
Antithyroglobulin 267
Antithyroid medications 269, 314
Anti-tumor necrosis factor, use of 313
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor 358
Anxiety 341, 779, 768
generalized 340
Aorta
coarctation of 235
diseases of 255
posterior wall of 180f
size index 249, 250
Aorta-gonad-mesonephros 76
Aortic arch 184f
transverse 183f
Aortic dissection 255
Aortic isthmus 168f
Aortic origin 177
Aortic regurgitation 251
Aortic stenosis 251
causes of 251
Aortic valve 180f, 251
Aplastic crisis 281
Appendages 336
Appendicitis 306, 388
Appendix 306
Arabin cervical pessary 508f
Areola 81f
Arginine butyrate infusions 282
Arnold-Chiari malformation 75
Arrhythmia 253, 287
Arterial blood gas 318t, 322, 331, 443, 754, 760
estimation of 330
Arterial blood pressure 85
Arterial hypertension 348
Arterial invasive blood pressure monitoring 758
Arterial perfusion sequence, twin reverse 464, 542
Arterial pressure, shape of 758
Arteriovenous malformation 331, 610
Arthralgia 310
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 496
Arthropathy 323
Artificial intelligence 26
Ascaris lumbricoides 380
Ascites 304, 401
Aseptic bone necrosis 281
Asherman syndrome 194
Aspartate aminotransferase 408, 412
Aspartate transaminase 302, 401
Asphyxia 463, 697
laboratory evaluation of 699
Aspirin 238, 296, 403
low-dose 230, 312, 491
Asplenia, functional 281
Assisted breech delivery 559, 561
Assisted reproductive technology 135, 228, 256, 457, 460, 512
Asthma 321, 336
acute severe 322
clinical features of 321
during labor, management of 322
exacerbation, acute 322
triggers 321
control of 321
uncontrolled 321
Asymptomatic bacteriuria 95, 283
Ataxia 344
Atelectasis 283
Atenolol 237
Atopic dermatitis develops 336
Atosiban 506, 507
Atria 175
Atrial septal defect 247, 248, 254
Attention-deficit disorder 68, 274, 344
Auditory nerve agenesis 303
Autism attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 350
Autoimmune
defects 194, 230, 270, 544
diseases 739
disorders 68, 308, 311
number of 308
hepatitis 417
vasculitis 314
Automated external defibrillation 772, 774, 777
Autosomal dominant disorders 116b
Autosomal recessive disorders 116b, 288
Auxiliary nurse midwife 734
Avascular necrosis 281
Axilla, management of 361
Axillary lymph node dissection 361
Azathioprine 296, 303, 314, 315, 317, 418
Azithromycin 323, 505
Azoospermic factor C deletion 68
Azygous system 301
B
Baby's heart rate 689
Back pressure 473
Bacteria 451
Bacterial contamination 768
Bacterial infections 380, 385, 451
Bacterial respiratory infections 323
Bacterial vaginosis 94, 375, 387, 504, 512
Bacteroides 387, 504
Bakri balloon 646
Balanced chromosomal structural rearrangements 120
Balloon occlusion catheters 532
Bariatric surgery 306, 354
Barkers hypothesis 414
Bartholin's glands 38, 38f
Basal pneumonia 430
Basic fetal echocardiography 175
Basic life support 777fc
Battledore placenta 482
Beau's lines 336
Bedside clot observation test 525
Bell's palsy 332
Benson and Durfee cerclage 201
Benzene 194
Benzodiazepines 342, 448
poisoning 444
Beta hemolytic streptococci, group B 384
Beta-1 glycoprotein 110
Beta-adrenergic receptors agonists 507
Beta-blockers 237
Beta-cell function 119
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin 134, 135, 170, 297
Beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins 674
Betamethasone 505
Beta-thalassemia 279, 284, 286
hallmark of 286
major 286, 286f, 287
minor 286
Bicornuate uterus 194
Bicuspid aortic valve 256
Biguanide 261
Bilaminar germ disk, formation of 70f
Bilateral renal
agenesis 472
dysplasia 472
Bile acids, accumulation of 410
Biliary cholangitis, primary 416
Biliary cirrhosis, primary 416
Bilirubin levels 410
Bilirubinemia 756
Bilobate placenta 478
Binovular twins 457
Biochemical parameters 357
Biochemical screening 133
Biochemical test 133, 461
Biophysical profile 157, 161, 488, 490, 492
interpretation of 161t
modified 157, 161, 410
reliability of 162
score 161t
Biopsy 320, 360
Biparental complete hydatidiform mole 211, 212, 213f
Biparental familial recurrent mole 213f
Biparietal diameter 140f
measurement of 486
Bird's modifications 599
Birth
asphyxia 227
canal 629
defects, types of 66
preparedness 96
timing of 489
Birth injuries 704
classification 705
ranges, spectrum of 704
risk factors 704
Bishop's score 578, 585, 579fc, 580fc
modified 578, 578t
Bladder 235
care 569, 632
dissected down 658f
dissection of 658
exstrophy 78
identification of 655f
overdistension 473
rupture 473
sharp dissection, dissection of 658f
Blastocyst 57
Blastulation 69f
Bleeding 655, 778
amount of 520t
causes of 438
cessation of 649
diathesis 703
disorder 718
severe 222
Bleomycin 320
Block feeding 675
Blood 628, 766
and blood products 525t
borne transmission 387
changes 104t
in cellular composition of 83t
collection of 38
conservation technique 531
culture 197
gases, implications for 318
glucose monitoring 264
group incompatibility 194
hypercoagulability of 779
hypercoagulable state of 325
products 766
therapy 762
transfusion 6, 282, 287, 766, 767
Blood coagulation factors 105
changes in 105t
Blood loss 644
estimation of 764, 765t
large amount of 646
Blood pressure 233, 234f, 235, 240, 331, 398, 400, 628, 754, 756, 757f
control of 304, 412
measurement
apparatus 233f
method 241
reduces 762
systolic 296, 756 756
Blood sugar
level 421
postprandial 106
raised postprandial 258
Blood urea 759
nitrogen 235, 759
Blood volume 82, 400
loss of 644
Bloody nipple discharge 675
Blunt trauma 439
B-lynch suture 648, 649f
Body cavity, formation of 77
Body fluids 715
Body mass index 260, 349
elevated 303
Boerhaave syndrome 99
Bone marrow 282
micronormoblastic reaction 286
transplant 287
Bone morphogenetic protein 74
activity of 74
Bony pelvis 44, 44t
classification of 44t
Bowel care 632
Bowel injury 196f
Brachial plexus injury 607, 708
Bradycardia 154, 590, 754, 776
Brain injury 697
classic patterns of 698t
neurologic markers of 700
Brain iron concentrations 277
Brain natriuretic peptide 105
Brass V drape 731f
Breast 81, 348, 630, 671
care 632
conserving surgery 360
crawl 686
emptying 674
engorgement 631, 671, 711, 711f
examination of 92
infections 673
lump, differential diagnosis of 360b
mass, evaluation of 360
support garment 674
tumor 332
Breast abscess 667, 673, 674f
risk of 360
Breast cancer
early stage 361fc
late stage 361fc
pregnancy after 362
pregnancy-associated 359
Breast milk
and colostrum, composition of 630t
jaundice 675
Breastfeeding 264, 321, 359, 368, 371, 454, 632
advantages of 676
care 633
contraindications for 631
preparation for 631
preterm 678
techniques 676
Breath holding spells 274
Breathing 436, 622, 756, 774
Breathlessness 394
Breech and transverse lie, diagnosis of 500t
Breech delivery, spontaneous 559
Breech extraction 559
partial 559
Breech presentation 176f, 501b, 562
Broad ligament, anterior part of 40
Bromocriptine 253, 547
Bronchiectasis 323
Bronchopneumonia 395
Bronchoscopy 320
Brow presentation 566, 566f
Brown adipose tissue 682
Budd-Chiari syndrome 303, 417
Bullous lesions 337
Bullous pemphigoid 338
Buprenorphine 448
Buttonhole tear 638
C
Cabergoline 547
Calcineurin inhibitors 296
Calcium 239, 296
binding tendency of 764
channel blockers 238, 506
chloride 779
metabolism 107, 108t
supplements 94
Campylobacter fetus 451
Cancer 356
management of 356, 358t
Candida albicans 671
Candidiasis 375
Cannabis 342
Capillary hemangiomas 76
Capillary refill time 760
Captopril 237
Caput succedaneum 705, 705f, 711, 711f
Carbamazepine 329
Carbetocin 644
Carbohydrate 82
metabolism 105, 258
Carboprost, dosage of 645
Carboxyhemoglobinemia 279
Carcinoma ovary 28
Cardiac arrest 437, 624, 772
in-hospital 776
Cardiac arrhythmia 758
Cardiac disease 244, 245b, 771
Cardiac disorders 256
Cardiac evaluation 235, 700
Cardiac failure 269, 270
Cardiac lesions 252t
Cardiac malformations 177f, 178
rate of 176
Cardiac markers 105
Cardiac organs 176
Cardiac outflow tracts 144
Cardiac output 85, 771
reduced 254
Cardiac rhythm 775f
abnormalities of 754
Cardiac situs 144
Cardiac systole, peak velocity during 167
Cardiac transplantation 256
Cardiac valve surgery 256
Cardiff method 158
Cardiff's chart 158f
Cardinal ligaments 659f
Cardiomyopathy 252, 283, 287
Cardiopulmonary adaptation 682
Cardiopulmonary blood flow 773
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 437, 744, 772, 777
Cardiorespiratory diseases 485
Cardiotocograph trace features 574t
Cardiotocography 27, 490, 492, 573, 579, 580
components of 590
continuous 438, 573
role of 487
Cardiovascular anomalies 68
Cardiovascular changes 83f, 435
Cardiovascular system 83, 85, 92
development of 76
Carneous mole 196
Carnett's sign 431
Carpal tunnel syndrome 102, 336
Casirivimab 395
Cataracts 68
Category B medication 261
Cauda equina syndrome 624
Caudal dysgenesis 72
Caudal regression sequence 72
Cavum septum pellucidum 142f
Cefotaxime 323, 667
Ceftriaxone 323
Celiac disease 267, 306
Cell
adhesion molecules 57
culture artifact 116
division 54
fail 280
free deoxyribonucleic acid 135, 186, 188f, 461, 495
salvage 532
size of 57
Central nervous system 74, 87, 222, 253, 327, 384
effects on 274
infections 327
Central pontine myelinolysis 304
Central venous pressure 757f, 758, 762, 768
Cephalhematoma 712f
Cephalic version, external 501
Cephalocele 75
Cephalohematoma 705, 706f, 712
Cephalopelvic disproportion 353, 577, 588, 588t
borderline 596
Cephalosporins 323, 390, 667
Cerclage, abdominal 201
Cerebellar diameter 144
Cerebral aneurysm 610
Cerebral artery, middle 162, 163f, 167, 490
Cerebral palsy 515
Cerebral tumors 327, 332
clinical features 332
imaging status 332
laboratory findings 332
Cerebral venous thrombosis 283, 327, 331
Cerebral ventricles 144
Cerebroplacental ratio 168, 490
Cerebrospinal fluid 75, 332, 386, 718
Cerebrovascular disease 405
Cerebrovascular disorders 327, 330
Certolizumab 313
Cervical
conization 362
dilatation 618
dystocia 353
encerclage 200
index 200
insufficiency, signs of 200
smears, abnormal 362
status 581
Cervical cancer 362
diagnostic evaluation of 362
management of 362, 363fc
screening 28
severe hemorrhage in 5
treatment of 7
Cervical incompetence 194, 199
complications 201
contraindications 201
diagnosis 200
etiology of 200, 200t
management of 200
pathogenesis 200
Cervical length 504
measurement 462
Cervix 40, 81, 629
effacement of 578
evaluation of 578
funneling of 504f
length of 504f
Cesarean delivery 405, 490
high incidence of 610
indications of 610
surgical techniques for 612
uterine incisions for 613f
Cesarean hysterectomy
specimen 532f
technique of 531
Cesarean radical hysterectomy 363
Cesarean scar 529
pregnancy 529
Cesarean section 201, 247, 322, 372, 454, 492, 521, 562, 585, 609, 617
anesthesia for 611
complications of 588
consent for 611
epidemiology of 610
indications of 611t
packs 776
surgical techniques 614
Chagas disease 387
Chelation therapy 282, 287
Chemical pleurodesis 320
Chemoprophylaxis 218
Chemotherapy 219, 357, 361, 365
administration of 357
drugs, dose of 357
indications of 219, 220t
Cherney incision 612
Chest compressions 689, 691, 774f
Chest
pain 283, 394, 768
acute left-sided 779
syndrome, acute 281283
X-ray of 216f
Chicken pox 123
Chlamydia trachomatis 385
Chloasma 102
Chlorpromazine 304
Chlorpropamide 426
Cholangitis 388
Cholecystectomy 288
Cholecystitis 281, 306
Cholelithiasis 281, 287, 348
Cholestasis 227, 302t
Cholestatic hepatosis 409
Chordin 74
Chorioamnionitis 387, 484
Chorioangioma 480
Choriocarcinoma 215, 215f, 332, 337
histology 216f
Chorionic sac 459
Chorionic villus sampling 135, 149, 151, 152, 154, 186, 282, 285, 297
advantages of 152
disadvantages of 152
gestational age 151
techniques 151
Chorionicity 458, 458t
Choroid plexus cyst 144, 145, 146f
Chromatin 114
Chromosomal aberrations 133, 174
Chromosomal abnormalities 67, 119, 123, 128, 129, 153, 174f
Chromosomal anomalies 198
Chromosomal defect 66
Chromosomal disorders 114, 118
Chromosomal markers 144
Chromosomal microarray 117, 118, 120, 124
Chromosomal mosaicism 116
Chromosomal theory 66
Chromosomal translocation 194
Chromosome 53, 113, 114f
analysis 150
extra set of 118
ploidy status, determination of 188f
segment of 114
Chronic disease, anemia of 288
Chronic hypertension, investigations for 235t
Chronic inflammatory disease 305
Chronic medical disorders 228
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 237
Churg-Strauss syndrome 315
Circumvallate placenta 479
Cirrhosis 287, 418
Cisterna magna 142f, 144
Civil registration system 726
Clamping upper pedicles 657f
Clarithromycin 305, 323
Classical cesarean section 654f
Classical uterine
incision 532f
scar 585
Clavicle 707
Clavicular fracture 607, 707, 707f
Cleft palate 117
Clitoris 37
Cloacal exstrophy 78
Clogged milk ducts 672
Clonidine 238
Clostridium 387
welchii 547
Cloxacillin 674
Clubfoot 716f
Clubfoot-congenital talipes equinovarus 716
Coagulation disorders 642
Coagulation profile 197, 778
Coagulopathy 304
Cocaine 342
Coccygeus muscles 41
Coenzymes 350
Cognitive behavioral therapy 344
Cognitive performance, impaired 274
Collagen vascular diseases 235, 295, 337
Collapse, postpartum 522
Colloid 764, 765t
properties of 765t
Colonoscopy 305
Color Doppler 165, 166, 171f
assisted ductus venosus 171f
examination 172
ultrasound 540f
Colposcopic biopsy 362
Columnar epithelium dips 40
Combined oral contraceptives 219, 240, 283
Common bacterial infections 384t
Communication 10, 16, 17
barriers of 14, 14t, 14b
categories of 12t
formal 13
informal 13
methods of 12
nonverbal 12, 13t
one-way 12t
physical nonverbal 12
skills 11
social behavior change 14
two-way 12t
verbal 13t
Community acquired pneumonia 322
Complete blood count 68, 331, 401, 411, 665, 756, 778
Conception
products of 193f
types of 487
Condom 454
catheter 646
Condylomata acuminate grows 336
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, types of 715
Congenital anomalies 463, 684
higher incidence of 319
incidence of 349
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome 475
Congenital malformation 66t, 329, 522
higher risk of 124
severe 703
Congestive cardiac failure 251, 267, 404, 718
Congestive heart failure 763, 764
Congo red dot test 403
Conjoint twins 464, 464f
Connective tissue diseases 255
Constipation 100, 305
etiology 100
treatment 100
Contact dermatitis 338, 712, 712f
Continuous fetal monitoring 602
Continuous intrapartum fetal monitoring 473
Continuous positive airway pressure 745, 745f
Contraception 240, 240t, 248, 264, 372, 633
counseling 303
field of 7
Contraceptive advice 633
Contracted pelvis 564
Contraction stress test 157, 160, 262
advantages of 161
disadvantages of 161
Convulsive disorder 406
Cooley's anemia 287
Coombs test, indirect 495
Cooper's ligament 674
Cord 227, 483t
abnormality of 478, 542
blood glucose evaluation 713
clamping, delayed 684
complications 522
entanglement 464f
hematoma 154, 543, 543f
insertion
abdominal 144
abnormalities 482
length, antenatal determination of 482
round neck 564
vessel
number of 144
thrombosis 496
Cordocentesis 135, 152, 476
complications of 154
Coronary artery disease 255, 348
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 201, 323, 393, 455, 665, 756
infection 396
moderate 395
severe 395
pandemic 28, 583, 723
risk markers in 394t
RT-PCR 583
vaccination against 396
vaccine 34
Corpus callosum, agenesis of 75
Cortical necrosis, acute 292
Cortical reaction 54, 55
Corticosteroids 314, 505, 506, 513
use of 508
Cortisol 259
production of 258
Cosmetic distress 335
Costochondral junction 546
Cotrimoxazole 371
Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy 372
Cough 319
pain test 430
Couvelaire uterus 526f
Cow's milk 630t
disadvantages of 631
Cradle cap 713
Cranial fractures 708
Cranial nerves, disorders of 327
Cranial neuropore, closure of 74
Cranial ultrasound 700
Craniofacial defects 76
C-reactive protein 235, 305, 322, 545
levels of 348
Cri du chat syndrome 68
Crichton's method 572
Crohn disease 305
Crown-rump length 76, 91, 129, 130f
Cryoprecipitate 644, 767
Crystalloids 765t
fluid 764
properties of 765t
Culdocentesis 205
Cushing syndrome 235
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus 310f
Cyanosis 715, 715f
Cyanotic heart disease 244
complex 703
Cyclooxygenase 313
Cyclophosphamide 312, 314, 315, 317
Cyclosporine 303, 316, 317
Cylindrical helix 482
Cyst adenoid malformation 476
Cystic fibrosis 323
Cytokines 57, 504
Cytomegalovirus 123, 194, 302, 381, 384, 389, 414, 542, 678
infection 452
D
Dactylitis 281
Dalteparin 230
Dandy-Walker malformation 75
Decidual bleeding 523
Deep tendon reflexes 708
Deep transverse arrest 557
Deep vein thrombosis 283, 304, 336, 522
pregnancy-related 325
risk of 632
Deferasirox 282, 287
Deferiprone 282, 287
Deferoxamine 282, 287
Defibrillation 774
Defibrillator safety management 775
Deflexion, severe degree of 556
Delivery
in breech, mechanism of 559
of buttocks, mechanism of 559
of head, mechanism of 559
of shoulder, mechanism of 559
timing of 239, 404, 491, 531, 536
Delivery room 684
management 701
Delta hepatitis 415
Dengue 430
virus 383
Deoxyribonucleic acid 53, 113f, 114f, 187f, 189f
analysis 287
determination of fetal 187
direct 150
sequences 113
Depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate 240
Depression 341
Depressive disorder 341t
Dermatological disorders 335
Desferrioxamine 446
Dexamethasone 303, 505
administration of 514
Dextrocardia 177, 177f
Dextroposition 177
Dextrose 304, 444
Diabetes insipidus 475
Diabetes mellitus 158, 201, 258, 259b, 264, 296, 404, 405, 420, 421t, 543, 578
classification 258
global emergency 421f
pregestational 258
type 1 267, 308
type 2 348
uncontrolled 198
Diabetic ketoacidosis 426
Diabetic mother, management of infant of 263t
Diabetic nephropathy 295
Diabetic pregnancy, infant born from 263
Diabetogenic pregnancy 258, 422f
Dialysis 297
Diamorphine 622, 623
Diaphragm 78
Diaphragmatic hernia 78
congenital 476
Diarrhea 717
Diastolic blood pressure 296, 756
Diazepam 444
Dichlorophenolindophenol 287
Dichorionic diamniotic placenta 467f
Dichorionic twins 459f, 542f
Dicloxacillin 674
Dicyclomine 304
Diet 94, 632
DiGeorge syndrome 117
Digestive tract defects 350
Dihydrocodeine 622
Dilation and curettage 204, 205
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 262
Diploid 66
Direct obstetric deaths 726
Discharge per vaginum 362
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 302, 411, 518, 522, 524, 525, 545, 653, 668, 745, 756, 767, 768
Diuretics 238, 325, 404
Dizygotic twins 457
Dobutamine 779
Doderlein's bacilli 38
Dolicocephalic head 564
Dolutegravir 368, 369
Domestic violence and abuse 440
Domperidone 304, 676
Dopamine 779
agonists 547
Doppler cerebroplacental ratio 487
Doppler effect 166
Doppler flow indices 167, 167f
Doppler flow velocimetry waveform analysis, abnormal 311
Doppler velocimetry 158, 162, 262, 495
Dorsal mesentery 77
Double marker test 67
Down syndrome 67, 114, 129, 133, 134t, 135t, 150, 186
phenotype features of 67f
prediction of 67
Doxylamine 99
Drip-drop feeding 678f
Drug
ionization of 357
of abuse, poisoning of 447
toxicity 771
use of 618
Ductal arch 184, 184f
Ductus venosus 134, 167, 168f, 490, 492
Duodenal atresia 474f, 475
Dysfunctional labor 554
Dysgerminomas 364
Dysmaturity syndrome 684
Dyspareunia 638
Dyspepsia 305, 462
Dysphagia 316
Dysplasia 123
Dyspnea 318, 319
Dysrhythmias 174
Dystocia 555
Dysuria 430
E
Early amniocentesis 150
Early obstetric warning
score 753f
system, modified 754t
Early pregnancy 259
complications 193
Ebola 384
Ebstein anomaly 254
Echocardiography 245, 756
timing for 175
Echogenic bowel 145, 145f
Echogenic cardiac focus 144
Eclampsia 35, 267, 311, 398, 404, 406, 411, 541, 543, 770
anticonvulsants for 730
management of 746
prevention of 404
vigilance for 405
Ectoderm 74
development 74f
Ectodermal derivatives 74
Ectodermal dysplasia syndromes 155
Ectopia cordis 78
Ectopic hydatidiform mole 215
Ectopic implantation, site of 203f
Ectopic kidney 473
Ectopic mass 205f
Ectopic pregnancy 70, 198, 202, 206fc
clinical features 203
diagnosis 204
differential diagnosis 205
evolution of 202
incidence 202
location of 70
management of 206
methotrexate treatment for 207t
risk factors for 202, 203t
ultrasound features of 205t
Eculizumab, administration of 294
Eczema 336
Edema, severe 296
Edward's syndrome 67, 114, 129, 150, 186
Efavirenz 369
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 255, 337
Eisenmenger syndrome 247, 254
Ejection fraction 249
Elective cesarean section, indications of 559
Electrical injuries 440
Electrocardiography 689, 692, 756
Electroencephalogram 328, 331
Electrolyte 702
imbalance 305
panel 197
Electronic fetal
heart rate monitoring 577
monitoring 27, 405, 590
Electronic health
informatics, advantages of 26
record, components of 27, 27f
Electronic partograph 575
Elemental iron 276
Elevated cardiac troponin 700
Elevated liver enzymes 239, 413, 747
Embryo, implantation of 53
Embryoblast 69
Embryo-endometrial interaction 57
Embryogenesis, timeline of 65f
Embryonic stem cells 69
Emergency cesarean section 521
risk of 154
Emergency medical service 777
Emergency obstetric care 727, 730, 744
Emerging infectious diseases 455
Emesis, pregnancy unique quantification of 100t
Encephalocele 75
Encephalopathy 294, 304
End-diastolic flow velocity 163f, 167
Endocardial cushion 76
Endocrine
disorders 485
system 84
Endodermal derivatives 77
Endodermal development 77f
Endodermal sinus tumors 364
Endoglin concentrations 402
Endometrial neoplasms 348
Endometritis 387
Endometrium 40, 57
thickness of 40f
Endoscopy 305
field of 7
Endothelial dysfunction 400
Endotoxin mediated injury 294
Endotracheal intubation, indications of 691
Endotracheal tube 774
Enema 568
Energy sources 274
Enoxaparin 230
prophylactic dose of 395
Enterobius vermicularis 380
Enteroviruses 384
Entonox 622
Enzyme
inducing drugs 329
inhibitors 57
linked immunosorbent assay 311
Eosinophilic hyalinization 217f
Epidermal growth factor 57
Epidermal melanocytes, number of 335
Epidermis 74
Epidermolysis bullosa 155
Epidural analgesia 560, 623
Epidural anesthesia 611
Epidural hematoma 707f
Epigastric pain, symptoms of 305
Epigenetic regulations 405
Epilepsy 327, 328, 544
effects of 328
incidence of 327
maternal implications of 328
treatment of 328
Epileptic seizures 327
Epinephrine 693, 779
Episiotomy 605, 607, 635, 636t
collections 667
complications 637
indications 635
late 638
median 636t
mediolateral 636t
postoperative care 637
types of 636
Epithelial ovarian tumors 364
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor 211, 216, 217f, 223
Epithelium leading, erosion of 306
Epoprostenol 254
Epstein-Bar virus 414
Erb's Duchenne palsy 708, 708f, 713, 713f
Ergometrine 615, 645
use of 247
Erythema multiforme 337, 338
Erythrocytapheresis 282
Erythrocyte
porphyrin levels 287
sedimentation rate 235, 282, 320
Erythroid hyperplasia 282, 286
Erythromycin 323, 505, 674
Erythropoiesis, augmentation of 287
Escherichia coli 380, 674
Esophageal atresia 474, 474f
Esophageal cancer 57
Estriol 258
Estrogen 98, 111, 335
role of 409
Etanercept 313
Etymology 610
Euploid pregnancy loss, rate of 348
Exacerbations 321
Exercise 237, 261
Exome 114
Exons 113, 120
External cephalic version, complications of 501, 502b
Extracardiac malformations 174
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation 776
Extracranial injuries 705
Extraembryonic mesoderm, formation of 71f
Extramedullary hematopoiesis 287
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis 321
diagnosis of 321
treatment of 321
F
Face presentation 564
causes of 564
Facial injury 706
Facial lesions 76
Facial nerve injury 708
Facial palsy 709f
Fallopian tube 41, 70, 207f, 657f
ampulla of 53
Falx cerebri 142f
Family planning 727
Fascia of Scarpa's, blunt dissection of 613
Fasciitis, necrotizing 638
Fasting glucose 68
Fasting plasma glucose 421
Fat metabolism 82
Fatty acid 410, 683
Fatty infiltration, evidence of 304
Fatty lever, acute 292, 293, 301, 304, 408, 410, 411b
Fatty metamorphosis, acute 304
Feasible prediction policy 402
Febrile seizures 274
Feet, edema of 325
Femur 708
length 141f
Fentanyl 622
Ferric carboxy maltose, intravenous 276
Fertilization 53, 55f
defects in 56
process of 54
Fetal abdomen 142f
Fetal abnormality 122, 123, 130f
etiology 122, 123
pathophysiology 122
prevention 124
treatment 124
Fetal adaptive immune responses 451
Fetal alcohol syndrome 344
Fetal anatomy
look for in 139
survey 140
Fetal anemia 123, 153, 168, 169f, 522
Fetal aneuploidy 169, 186, 188, 188f
prenatal diagnosis of 186
risk, estimation of 28
Fetal anomalies, assessment of 169
Fetal ascites 496
Fetal asphyxia 561
Fetal assessment 438
Fetal autopsy 229, 544
Fetal biometry 401
Fetal bladder tapping 154
Fetal blood
loss 688
sampling 152, 591, 592
technical aspects of 153t
Fetal bradycardia 688
Fetal brain 259
damage 465
development 267
Fetal cardiac anatomy 170f
Fetal cells
chromosomal analysis of 186
direct analysis of 186
Fetal cephalic presentation 176, 176f
Fetal chromosomal abnormality 540
Fetal circulation 63, 697f
normal 696
Fetal complications 269, 380, 450, 463, 501b
Fetal condition 572
Fetal congenital malformations, diagnosis of 113
Fetal consequences, long-term 463
Fetal crown rump length, measurement of 170
Fetal death 154, 194, 227, 244, 440
etiology of 540
Fetal defects 73t
Fetal defense 379
Fetal demise 442, 466
diagnosis of 539
Fetal development 61
effects on 329
normal process of 122
Fetal diagnosis, invasive tests for 149
Fetal distress 303, 439, 588
consequences of 267
risk factors for 589
Fetal echocardiography 174, 175, 184
advantages of 184f
analysis 592
indications of 174
Fetal face 142f
Fetal fibronectin 504
Fetal fraction, percentage of 135
Fetal gender, evaluation of 459
Fetal genetics 229
Fetal growth 63
and development 62
monitoring 230
ultrasonographic assessment of 236
Fetal growth restriction 118, 158, 167, 267, 287, 303, 319, 384, 387, 400, 410, 463, 485, 490, 492, 542, 684
diagnosis 486
etiology 485
management principles 487
monitoring 487
pathophysiological progression 487
recent advances 491
screening for 486
severe 541f
ultrasonographic biometry 486
Fetal head 561
delivery of 552
expulsion of 552
hyper extended 502
molding of 572t
rotation of 552
Fetal heart 142f, 540f, 562
monitoring 593
screening 175
sound 320, 556
Fetal heart rate 159, 590f592f, 694, 755f
deceleration of 688
management of abnormal 591
mean of 590
monitoring, minimal duration of 159
Fetal hydantoin syndrome 329
Fetal hydrops 153, 475, 495, 540f, 543, 607, 688
Fetal hyperinsulinemia, complications of 259fc
Fetal hypoxia, marker of 167
Fetal infections 154, 388, 450, 540
Fetal inflammation 505f
Fetal inflammatory response syndrome 388
Fetal lungs 476
Fetal macrosomia 323, 349, 354, 588
pathogenesis of 349
risk of 349
Fetal malformations 119, 323, 358
Fetal malposition, effects of 554
Fetal markers 129
Fetal membranes, inflammation of 505f
Fetal metabolism 421
Fetal middle cerebral artery 168f
Fetal monitoring 262, 262t, 438, 760
Fetal morbidity 408
Fetal mortality 408
Fetal movement 476, 590f
count 158, 158f
loss of 439
Fetal neural tube defects 149
Fetal neuroprotection 240
Fetal nutrition 63
Fetal origin 485
anemia of 540
Fetal pancreatic insulin secretion 259
Fetal pelvis 143f
Fetal period 62
Fetal phase 65
Fetal physiology 61, 259, 688
Fetal position 562
Fetal presentation, abnormal 704
Fetal programming 423f
Fetal pulse oximetry 592
Fetal red cells 279
Fetal reduction, selective 461
Fetal renal tract, abnormalities in 472
Fetal scalp
lactate 592
stimulation 592
Fetal screening, biochemical test for 133
Fetal situs 139, 139t
normal 139
Fetal skull 552
transverse section of 141f, 142f
Fetal spinal vertebra 143f
Fetal spine 143f
Fetal stage 61
Fetal status, nonreassuring 439
Fetal structural malformations 230
Fetal surveillance 236, 283, 401, 425, 426
indications of 158
Fetal tachyarrhythmias 497
Fetal tachycardia 591
Fetal therapy 154
Fetal thrombocytopenia, diagnosis of 153
Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy 484
Fetal tissue
biopsy 135, 155
internal 546
Fetal ultrasonography, indications of 95t
Fetal urine 155t
Fetofetal transfusion syndrome 475, 542
Fetomaternal bleed, amount of 546
Fetomaternal organ 478
Fetoscope 155f
Fetoscopic endotracheal occlusion 78
Fetus 542f, 704
and placenta, inspection of 544
exposure of 123
head of 552
papyraceous 467f
sonogram of 473f
Fever 310, 718
causes of 388t
postpartum 387
Fibrinogen, large amounts of 523
Fibroblast growth factor 74
Fibromyoma 194
Fine needle aspiration cytology 360
First-trimester 91, 126, 260, 306
body mass index 267
recurrent pregnancy loss 198
screening 134
Fist percussion test 431
Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy 320
Flow velocity waveforms 163f
Flucloxacillin 674
Fludrocortisone 715
Fluid 762
color of 150
management 100t, 405, 702
overload 305
responsiveness, estimation of 762
restriction 324
Fluid resuscitation 762
colloids for 764
end point of 764
Fluid therapy 762
dosing of 764
Flumazenil 444
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 120, 150
Fluoroscopy 320
Focal nodular hyperplasia 417
Folate, neurological deficiency of 306
Foley's catheter 582, 646
Folic acid 288, 330, 371
supplementation 34, 315, 729
Folinic acid regimen 221
Follicle stimulating hormone 298
Folliculitis, infectious 339
Follistatin 74
Food poisoning 447
Foodborne transmission 387
Footling presentation 558f
Forceps 595
contraindications 596
functions of 596
indications 596
parts of 596f
types of 595
Formaldehyde 194
Foul lochia 387
Fracture 707
risk factors for 708
Fragile sites 68
Fragile X syndrome 68
Fragmentation defects 70
Frank breech 558f
Fraternal twins 457
Free androgens, large amount of 348
Free fatty acids 258
Fresh frozen plasma 644, 767
Friedman's curve 569f
Fulcrum 552
Full fetal echocardiography 246
Functional menstrual disorders 198
Fundal grip 562
Fundoscopy 401
Fundus 39
Fungal dermatitis 712
Fungal infections 380
Funipuncture 152
Furosemide 237, 247
Fusion of gametes 54
G
Gadolinium contrast 356
Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography 235
Galactagogues, role of 676
Galactocele 631, 672
management 673
ultrasonography 673f
Galactokinesis 630
Galactopoiesis 630
Galactosialidosis 496
Galen malformations 169
Gallbladder 141, 142f
disease 306
Gallium scans 432
Gametes, abnormal 68
Gamma-glutamyl transferase 302, 410
Gardnerella vaginalis 504
Gas exchange, impaired 697
Gaskin's maneuver 606, 607f
Gastric peristalsis 305
Gastric pressure 305
Gastroenteritis 305
Gastroesophageal reflux 304, 322
and heartburn 100
disease 319
Gastroesophageal rupture 99
Gastrointestinal conditions 305, 412, 473
pregnancy-specific 304
Gastrointestinal disease 301
Gastrointestinal tract 84, 221, 628
anatomy of 304
physiology of 304
Gastroschisis 78, 473
risk of 350
Gastroscopy 305
Gaucher disease 496
Gel electrophoresis 282
General anesthesia 625
Genes 113, 119, 405
therapy 287
Genetic abnormalities 229
Genetic counseling 230, 282, 288
post-test 188
Genetic disorder 114
suspicion of 230
types of 114, 115fc
Genetic information 191
Genetic syndromes 473
Genetic tests 152, 230, 282
types of 119
Genital tract disorders 518
Genitalia, female external 37f
Genitourinary system 430
Genitourinary tract conditions 412
Genome 113
editing techniques 288
Genomic disorders 117
Genotype 68, 114
Germ cell tumors 364
Gestation trophoblastic disease 325
Gestation, length of 71
Gestational ages 471t
large for 349, 420, 422
parameter of 470f
small for 167, 275, 294, 414, 490, 492, 714
Gestational anemia 275
Gestational carcinoma 211
Gestational choriocarcinoma 215
Gestational diabetes mellitus 105, 117, 119, 258, 267, 349, 350, 420, 475
diagnosis of 422
epidemiology 420
management of 424
screening tests for 106t
Gestational epilepsy 328
Gestational hypertension 398, 404
Gestational pemphigoid 337
Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis 269, 270
Gestational trophoblastic disease 198, 210, 217, 223, 269
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia 211, 216f, 219, 220, 220t, 222, 222t
diagnosis of 219
high-risk 221
low risk 221
postmolar 219
Gestosis score 398, 402t, 420
enigma of 405
significance of 402
Glasgow coma scale 745, 752, 758, 758t
Glibenclamide 261
Globin chain
composition 284
synthesis, quantitative disorders of 279
Glomerular disease 293
Glomerular endotheliosis 293
Glomerular filtration rate 84, 291
Glomerulonephritis 295
Glucocorticoids, administration of 294
Glucometer 260f
Glucose 63
metabolism 63, 422f
monitoring, frequency of 759
transport 63
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 390
Glutamic acid
beta-chain substitution of 284
lysine for 284
Gluten sensitive enteropathy 306
Glyburide therapy 426
Glycemia monitoring 264, 759
Glycemic control 261
Glycerol trinitrate 501
Glycoprotein 311
Glycosylated fibronectin 403
Golimumab 313
Gonadal mosaicism 116
Gonadotropins 348
Gonorrhea 375
Gram-negative enteric bacilli 281
Grand multipara 779
Granular cytoplasmic bodies 286
Granulocyte colony stimulating factors 357
Granulomatosis 315
Granulomatous inflammatory disease, chronic 305
Graves' disease 268, 269, 271, 313, 314
risk of 338
Graves' hyperthyroidism 269
Gravid uterus 301
Greater vestibular glands 38
Growth 61
centile chart of fetal demise 541f
factor beta, transforming 110
factors 357
Guillain-Barré syndrome 316, 327
Gynecoid 45
H
H1N1 virus 323, 380
Haemophilus influenza 281, 323, 380
Hair changes 336
Haploid chromosomes 113
Hartmann's sign 71
Hashimoto thyroiditis 314
Head
and neck masses 475
circumference 486
deflexion of 556
Headache 304, 623
Health and well-being, promoters of 740
Health care, communication in 15
Health communication, applications of 14
Health impacts, severe 266
Health management and information system 747
Health system interventions 96
Healthcare personnel 682
violence 48t
Healthcare seeking behavior 721
Healthcare system 10
Heart
axis 144
chambers of 178f
connections of 175t
defects, congenital 117, 254, 350, 710
disease 243, 244t, 245, 246t, 544
functional class of 246
failure 270
function 180
rate 331, 754, 756
septum 76
size 178
valves of 183f
Heat loss, prevention of 684
Heavy metal absorption 274
Hectic fevers 664
Heinz bodies 286
Helicobacter pylori 305
Hellin-Zeleny's law 457
HELLP syndrome 239, 293, 301, 303, 408, 410, 413, 525
Hemangioendothelioma 496
Hemangiomas 336
Hematological changes 82, 104, 435
Hematoma 523, 667
Hematopoiesis, stage of 287
Hematopoietic stem cells 287
Hematuria 292, 310, 756
Hemoconcentration, severe 411
Hemodynamic adaptation 349
Hemodynamic status 204t
Hemoglobin 104, 279, 403, 531
Bart disease 286f
C 284
concentration 762
deficit, basis of 276
disorders 279
E 284
electrophoresis 286
report, normal 287f
gamma genes of 122
level, normal 273t
structural variants of 279
synthesis, inherited disorders of 279
Hemoglobinopathy 153, 279, 284
classification of 279
clinical features 280
pathophysiology 280
unstable 280
Hemoglobinuria 756, 768
Hemogram 433
Hemolysis 239, 293, 302t, 411, 413, 747
signs of 767
Hemolytic crises 281
Hemolytic reaction, delayed 283
Hemolytic uremic syndrome 292
Hemoperitoneum 207f
Hemopoietic cell transplantation 282
Hemorrhage 223f, 255, 430, 438, 546f, 746, 770
accidental 522
antepartum 292, 462, 518, 527, 694, 743, 763, 770
causes of 518, 518t
epidural 706
fetomaternal 154, 496
intracerebral 328
intracranial 771
intraventricular 707
mild 525
obstetric, causes of 770
postpartum 267, 292, 349, 405, 522, 547, 607, 608, 641, 644t, 645fc, 646, 665, 727, 743, 756, 763, 770
causes of 642
etiology of 647f
preventing 405
severe 675
surgical management of 645
subarachnoid 328, 331, 707
causes of 331
subchorionic 194
subgaleal 706
unavoidable 518
Hemorrhoids 101, 101f, 306
develop 306
etiology 101
symptoms 101
treatment 101
veins develop 336
Hemostasis, special care for 654
Heparin, unfractionated 252
Hepatic adenoma 417
Hepatic dysfunction 411, 412
Hepatic failure 445
Hepatic system 408
Hepatitis 382, 414, 415f
A 95, 414
prevention of 414
virus 414
B 89, 95, 408, 414, 453
acute 415
surface antigen 149
C 89, 408, 414, 415
virus 94, 149
D 408, 414, 415
E 414, 416
infective 408
viral serology 411
viruses 413t
Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid 432
Hepatobiliary system 430
Hepatocellular carcinoma 418
Hepatocytes 259, 304
Hepatolenticular degeneration 416
Hereditary anemias 279
Hereditary renal disease 295
Hereditary thrombophilias 541, 543
Heritable thoracic aortic disease 249
Hernia, inguinal 716
Herpes gestationis 337
Herpes simplex 194, 452, 671, 678
virus 375, 381
infections 452
Herpes zoster 671, 678
lesions 671
Heterozygosity, absence of 120
High dependency unit 411
High fetal middle cerebral artery 169f
Hirsutisim 336
Home uterine activity monitoring 504
Homozygous 211, 280, 410
Hormonal abnormalities 339
Hormonal therapy 357
Hormones 677
enzymes 350
Human attitude 8
Human chorionic gonadotropin 70, 84, 85f, 98, 109, 110f, 134, 204, 206, 211, 217, 220, 224, 266, 304, 715
abnormal 198
Human chorionic thyrotropin 266
Human chromosome
packaging of 113f
structure of 113f
Human deficiency virus control 727
Human genome project 113
Human growth hormone 259
Human immunodeficiency virus 89, 124, 149, 194, 321, 323, 367, 370, 382, 454, 678
infection 367, 369, 370
laboratory diagnosis of 368
low prevalence of 368
management of 372
mother-to-child transmission of 737
prevalence 367
transmission 454
types of 367
Human leukocyte antigen 270
Human milk 630t, 674
Human papilloma virus 375
exacerbates 336
Human placental
alpha macroglobulin 504
lactogen 105, 110, 259, 486
lipids 335
Humerus, fracture of 607
Hydatidiform mole 211, 337, 466
complete 211, 212, 214, 214f, 215t
diagnosis of 217
genetics of 211
management of 218
partial 118, 211, 212f, 214, 215t
Hydatidiform pregnancy, benign 325
Hydralazine 238, 296, 310
Hydramnios 324, 461
Hydration 474
Hydrocortisone 357, 715
Hydronephrosis 473
Hydrops 476, 495f
fetalis 475f
Hydroquinones 335
Hydroureter 473
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate 310
Hymen 38
Hyperactivity disorder 68
Hyperbilirubinemia, congenital 302t
Hyperechoic bowel 144
Hyperemesis gravidarum 98, 269, 270, 304, 413
Hypergalactia 675
Hyperglycemia 260, 420
clinical clues for 421
Hyperintense heterogeneous placenta 530f
Hyperkalemia 294, 297, 715, 778
Hyperlactation 675
Hypermetabolic state 270
Hyperosmolar glucose 206
Hyperprolactinemia 198
Hypertension 194, 233, 296, 401, 523, 754, 756
chronic 158, 233236, 240t, 398, 405, 485, 541, 543
control of 237
degree of 237
essential 234
management of 296
masked effect 234
mild 233
pathway for 754
portal 418
pregnancy 158, 292, 303, 461
resistant 237
secondary causes of chronic 234t
severe 233
chronic 239
transient 234, 235
treatment of chronic 236
Hypertensive disorders 158, 398, 420, 485, 541, 543, 547, 743
clinical classification of 399
diagnosis 400
incidence of 398
spectrum of 411
Hyperthyroidism 268, 270
causes of 268
clinical features of 268
effects of 267, 269
essential of diagnosis 268
manifestations of 269
subclinical 268, 270
temporary 270
treatment of 269
Hypertonicity 344
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 253
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy 253
Hyperviscosity 684
Hypocalcemia 297, 684, 778
Hypoglycemia 683, 684
clinical 264
prevention of neonatal 264
Hypokalemia 778
Hyponatremia 304, 715
Hypoplastic kidney 473
Hypoplastic umbilical artery 482
Hypoproteinemia 296
Hypospadias 329, 718
Hypotension 754
management of severe 746
severe 623, 624
Hypothalamic receptors, regulation of 348
Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis 348
Hypothermia 683, 684, 778
Hypothyroid
state 270
treatment of 268
Hypothyroidism 267, 405
causes of 267
complicated pregnancy 271
consequences of 267
diagnostic criteria of 267
encountered, types of 267
management of 266, 267
permanent 270
prevalence of 266
risk factors for 266
severity of 267
temporary 270
Hypotonic saline 474
Hypovolemia 591, 778
acute maternal 473
Hypovolemic shock 764
Hypoxemia, progressive 158
Hypoxia 154, 778
chronic 244
prevent 778
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
classification of 700t
risk factor for 697
treatment of 701
Hysterectomy 215f, 219f, 223f, 647
Hysterotomy 197
resuscitative 438
I
Ichthyotic disorders 155
Icterus gravidarum 409
Iliac crest, right 306
Iliac vessels, external 171
Iliopsoas test 430
Illness, self-limiting 332
Imatinib 358
Imdevimab 395
Imipenem 323
Immune
complexes 485
fetal hydrops 495
diagnosis 495
management 495
status, impaired 274
system 104
changes 450
Immunization 95, 451, 633
Immunoglobulin 302, 309
G 268, 311, 667
Immunologic techniques 389
Immunology 399
Immunosuppressive agents 296
Impetigo herpetiformis 337
Implantation failure 58
Imprinting disorders 117
In situ publication bias 25
In utero hypoxia 688
In vitro fertilization 212
embryos 69
Inadequate placental perfusion 399
Indomethacin 297, 473, 476
Infant feeding policy 632
Infections 194, 227, 336, 378, 379t, 388, 504, 637
categories of 379t
chronic 485
congenital 388
control policy 615
effects of 388
prevention of 390
types of 389
Infectious disease screening 89
Infective endocarditis 247
prevention of 247t
Infertility 28, 267, 348
Inflammation, intensity of 484
Inflammatory bowel disease 305, 315
Infliximab 313
Influenza 323
A 380
vaccination 323
vaccine 95
virus 414
Inherited anemias 153
Inotropic agent 779
Insect-borne transmission 387
Instrument, parts of 595, 599
Instrumental birth, reduced 737
Instrumental delivery
frequency of 610
high 596
incidence of 595
Instrumental vaginal delivery 595
classification of 596t
complications 598
Insulin 6, 426
binding of 259
free 259
resistance 422f
obesity related 349
secretion 258
therapy 261, 425
Insulin-like growth factor 76
binding protein, levels of 348
Intensive care unit 349, 411, 743745, 745f, 747, 749, 756, 760, 766
Intensive critical care medicine, principles of 749
Intensive multi-modality therapy 222
Interglandular tissue 40
Interleukin 348
Internal capsule, posterior limb of 700
Internal iliac artery 42, 648f
anterior division of 43f
branches of 43f
ligation 532
ligation of 649f
Interstitial nephritis 295
Intertwin membrane thickness 460
Interventional chest procedures 319
Intestine 430
Intimate partner violence 89, 437
Intra-amniotic infections 505
Intracardiac echogenic focus 146f
Intracranial injuries 706, 706f
Intracranial translucency 130
Intractable heart failure, acute 247
Intraembryonic mesoderm
formation of 72f
migration of 73f
Intrapartum analgesia, reduced 737
Intrapartum care 240, 396, 476, 586
routine 567
Intrapartum complication 368, 463
Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring 573
methods of 573fc
Intrapartum fetal monitoring 405
Intrapartum loss 230
Intrapartum management 330, 404, 426, 507, 593
Intrapartum periods, management of 418
Intrapartum surveillance, methods of 589
Intrapartum tests 567
Intrathoracic masses 475
Intrauterine death 292
late 118
Intrauterine device 240, 303
failure 194
Intrauterine fetal death 230, 545, 578, 583
causes for 542
Intrauterine fetal demise 267, 539
evaluation of 544
Intrauterine gestational sac 126f
Intrauterine growth
restriction 227, 283, 442, 522, 524, 540, 578, 694, 713, 714f
retardation 384
Intrauterine infection 504
stages of 505f
Intrauterine system 240
Intrauterine transfusion 476
Introns 113
Invasive disease 362
early stage 362
Invasive mole 215
Invasive monitoring, methods of 644
Invasive squamous cell 217f
Inverted nipple 631
Iodine insufficiency, moderate-to-severe 266
Iron 633
absorption
enhancers of 276
inhibitors of 276
chelators 282, 287
deficiency 274, 286
anemia 274, 287, 288
consequences of 274
deposition 286
indices 286
intoxication, acute 446
metabolism 82
sucrose
complex therapy 276
intravenous 276
supplementation 94, 729
Ischemia 688
Ischemic heart disease 255, 405
Ischemic stroke 327, 330
Ischial spine 624
Isochromosome 116
Isoniazid 321
prophylaxis 321
indications of 321t
Isotonic crystalloid solution 768
Isotonic saline 474
J
Jacobs syndrome 186
Jacquemier's maneuver 606, 607f
Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram 729
Janani Suraksha Yojana 729
Janus kinase inhibitors 313
Japanese encephalitis 384
Jaundice 91, 287, 302, 302t, 430, 714, 714f
causes of 302t
physiological 714
recurrent 409
Jehovah's witnesses 532
Joel-Cohen incision 612
Joint replacement 312
Jugular venous pressure 325
K
Kangaroo mother care 676, 684
Karyotype, abnormal 542
Kasabach Merritt syndrome 496
Kayser-Fleischer ring 416
Kerr incision 613
Ketones 258, 259
Ketonuria, quantification of 414
Ketosis, signs of 414
Kidney 235, 281, 473, 496
biopsy 294
damage 473
disease 405
chronic 294, 295, 298
donors 298
dysfunction, stage of 295
function 291
assessment of 296
measurement of 293
injury, postrenal acute 293
Kielland forceps 598, 598f
Klebsiella 380
Kleihauer test 546
Kleihauer-Betke test 437
Klinefelter syndrome 67, 133, 150, 186
Klumpke's palsy 708
L
Labetalol 237, 296
Labia
majora 37
minora 37
Labor 550, 555
active management of 573
analgesia 621
clinical correlation 551
clinical course of 563
complications 743
course of 556
elective induction of 583
first stage of 586
general management of 247
induction of 405, 537, 577, 579, 580t, 582, 582t
initiation of 550fc
malpresentations in 558
management of 565
first stage of 568
fourth stage of 574
second stage of 573
mechanism of 553, 554, 556, 559, 565
poor progress of 586
preparation for 567
progress of 568, 569, 572
prolonged second stage of 588t
room nurse 371
second stage of 586, 588
stage of 560
third stage of 353, 522, 574, 643
Labor and delivery 246, 319, 353
management of 283
Lacerations 704, 705
Lactate dehydrogenase 401, 403
Lactation 305, 547, 630
management 454
mastitis 387
physiology of 630
preparation for 631
support 747
suppression of 631
Lactation failure 675, 677fc
management of 676
secondary 675
Lactogenesis 630
Lactogenic diet 677
Lamivudine 368, 369
Language impairment, risk of 264
Laparoscopic surgery 206, 357
Laparoscopy 205
Laparotomy 206, 668
Large-bore cannula 778
Laryngeal mask airway 436
Laryngeal nerve injury 709
Laryngeal papilloma 336
Lassa fever 384
Latching pain 671
Late pregnancy
complications 499
loss 229t
maternal evaluation for 228t
Laxatives 639
Lead poisoning 288, 446
chronic 447
Leaving placenta in situ 532
Lecithin 150
Leflunomide 312
Left tubal ectopic pregnancy 207f
Left uterine displacement 772, 773f
Left ventricular ejection fraction 248
Left ventricular failure 398
Left ventricular outflow tract 140, 175, 177, 180, 180f
Leopald's maneuver 93f
Leprosy 337
Leptin 98
Leptospirosis 385
Lethal multiple pterygium 496
Leukocytes 83, 104
Leukopenia 310
Levator ani 41
muscle 38, 552
Levetiracetam 330, 702
Levonorgestrel 240
Levothyroxine sodium 267
Leydig cell testosterone secretion 348
Life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage 767
Ligament 655
broad 657f
ligation of 660
portion of broad 657f
Lignocaine 779
Limb
defects 350
reduction 123, 123f
shortening 144
Linea nigra 102f
Lipid emulsion, intravenous 779
Lipid metabolism 106
changes in 106t
Lipid profile 68
Lipid solubility 357, 678
Lipolysis 683
Liquid based cytology 28
Liquid chromatography 282
Liquor amnii 572
Listeria monocytogenes 451
Listeriosis 388
monocytogenes 542
Lithium 267, 475
Litzmann obliquity 551
Liver
anatomy of 301
biopsy 304, 410, 411
conditions 301
enzymes 68, 401
functions of 301
hematoma 304
metastases 222
oxidize ketones 259
parameters 665
physiology of 301
spleen scans 432
test 235
volume 78
Liver disease 301, 302, 408
chronic 416
classification of 409t
end-stage 416
nonpregnancy-related 409
pregnancy-related 409
Liver disorders
classification of 408
evaluation of 418
Liver function test 106, 107t, 197, 218, 302, 303, 310, 331, 384, 403, 408, 409, 433, 443, 756, 778
abnormal 408
physiological changes in 408t
Liver transplant 418
recipient 303
Local anesthesia 624
Lochia 629
alba 629
rubra 629
serosa 629
Long forgotten disease 453
Loop diuretics 237
Loss of weight 628
Lovset's maneuver 561, 562f
Low birth weight babies 678, 683
Low end-tidal carbon dioxide 780
Low intelligence quotient 267
Low molecular weight heparin 252, 283, 296, 312, 325, 395, 491
Low platelet count 747
Low serum alpha-fetoprotein 133
Lower esophageal
pressure 304
sphincter tone, reduced 305
Lower segment cesarean section 197, 230, 384, 577, 580, 582, 586f, 718
Lower urinary tract 654
obstruction 154, 473
Lower uterine segment 613
cesarean section 353
measurement of 619
Lump, abdominal 430
Lung
diseases, infiltrative 324, 324t
injury, acute 320, 768
tumor 332
Lung-to-head ratio 78
Lupus anticoagulant 199, 311
Lupus nephritis 297
Luteal phase defects 198
Luteinizing hormone 298
Lyme disease 386
Lymphadenopathy 310
Lymphatic abnormalities 496
Lymphedema, congenital 496
Lymphocyte abnormalities 270
Lymphocytic hypophysitis 271
M
Macerated fetus 195f
Mackenrodt's ligaments 40
Macrolide 323, 390
Macrosomia 353, 420, 704
Macular pigmentation 335
Magnesium sulfate 324, 506, 515
role of 240
Magpie trial 35
Maladaptation, risk of 683
Malar rash 310f
Malaria 194, 386
abdominal 430
parasite 411
prevention intermittent 95
prophylaxis 282
Malformation 66, 450, 542
Mallory-Weiss tear 98
Malpresentations 462, 499, 522
diagnosis 499
differential diagnosis 499
investigations 500
management 499
Mammary gland 74
Mammogenesis 630
Manual uterine displacement 437
Manual vacuum aspiration 730
Marfan syndrome 255
Marijuana 342
Marshall burn's technique 560
Mass media method 14
Massive blood transfusion 768
risk of 768
Massive hemoperitoneum 207f
Massive perivillous fibrin deposition 483
Massive transfusion protocol 766
Mastectomy 360
therapeutic equivalence of 360
Mastitis 388, 673, 674f, 711
causes of 673
infectious 673
Maternal adaptations 80
Maternal anatomy uterus 144
Maternal anemia 295
Maternal blood
glucose levels 349
supply, development of 59f
Maternal cancers 190
Maternal cardiac disease 243, 610
effects of 244
Maternal cardiovascular risk 248
classification of 249t
Maternal circulation, glucagon in 259
Maternal cyanotic heart disease 158
Maternal death 405, 726, 727, 733, 734
audit 730
causes of 726
classification of 726
surveillance 734f
Maternal defenses 378
Maternal depression 405
Maternal dietary supplementation 489
Maternal disorders 199
Maternal early warning criteria 751
Maternal human leukocyte antigen 312
Maternal hydration 473, 474
Maternal hyperglycemia 422, 423f
Maternal hyperthyroidism, poorly controlled 158
Maternal hypothyroidism 271
Maternal hypoxemia, severe 254
Maternal infection 123, 199, 388, 450, 451, 678
routes of 387
Maternal injury, risk of 608
Maternal morbidity 583, 762
severe acute 349, 743
Maternal mortality 255, 725
rate 725727
ratio 726, 728t, 729, 738, 743
reduce 731
Maternal nutritional deficiency 123
Maternal obesity 350, 354, 705
Maternal organs 400
Maternal plasma 186, 495
Maternal polycythemia 244
Maternal preeclampsia, screening for 171
Maternal pulmonary disease 610
Maternal serum biochemical markers, abnormal 523
Maternal syndrome 400
Maternal syphilis 374
Maternal trauma 541
Maternal ultrasonography 401
Maternal uterine vasculature 84
Maternal varicella infection 123f
Maternal vascular
diseases 158
malperfusion 483
Mauriceau-Smellie-Veit technique 561f
Maylard incision 612
McDonald's operation 200
McFonald's suture, placement of 201f
McRobert's maneuver 605, 606, 606f, 607
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 282
concentration 104
Mean corpuscular volume 282
Mechanical ventilation 745f
Meckel Gruber syndrome 473
Meconium aspiration syndrome 349, 683, 684, 710
Meconium passage 688
Meconium-stained
amniotic fluid 694
liquor 593, 693
Mediastinal adenopathy 321
Medical disorders, prevalence of 610
Medical nutritional therapy 425
Medical simulation technology 27
Medical termination of pregnancy 194
indications of 271
role of 271
Medical therapy, maximal 251
Megacystis 473
microcolon 473
Meiosis 66f
Melanocyte stimulating hormone 335
Melanoma 337
Melena 430
Melisma, exacerbations of 335
Membrane 483t
rupture of
artificial 579, 580
prelabor 463, 721
premature 154, 578, 694
prolonged 524
Memory, impaired 405
Mendelson's syndrome 779
Meningeal sac, herniation of 75
Meningocele 147f
Meningomyelocele 716, 716f
Menstrual irregularities 348
Menstrual losses 275
Menstrual period 71
Menstruation 629
Mental health
impact of 340, 343
issues 340, 341, 345
problem 341, 343
management strategies for 343
Mental retardation 344, 450
genetic cause of 133
Mentzer index 286
Mercury sphygmomanometers 241
Meropenem 323
Mesoderm 75
development 75f
Metabolic acidosis 222, 667, 715
refractory 294
Metabolic adaptation 683
Metabolic control 260
Metabolic disorder 258, 303, 778
Metabolism, inborn errors of 496
Metalloproteinase, tissue inhibitors of 57
Metastatic cerebral tumors 332
Metastatic disease 223
Metastatic tumors 481
Metformin 261, 677
therapy 425
Methadone 448
Methamphetamine 543
Methemoglobinemia 279
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 323, 675
Methimazole 269
Methotrexate 206, 221, 312, 314, 315, 317
therapy 207t, 315
use of 533
Methyldopa 238, 296, 404
Methylene dioxymethamphetamine 342
Methylergometrine 405
Methylprednisolone 357
Metoclopramide 305, 676
Metronidazole 305, 390, 505, 667
Microarray analysis 542
Microinvasive disease 362
Micronized progesterone 462
Microvesicular fatty infiltration 304
Microvesicular steatosis 304
Mid face hypoplasia 344
Midpelvis 44
Midwifery services framework 738
Mifepristone 197
combination of 547
Migraine headache 327
Milia 718
Milk
blisters 671, 672
fever 671
fistula 360
insufficiency syndrome, secondary 675
rejection sign 360
stasis 673
Millennium development goals 693, 727
Miller-Dieker syndrome 68
Mineral metabolism 82
Mineralocorticoids 715
Miscarriage 198
rates of 294
recurrent 198, 199t, 417
risk of 135, 244
spontaneous 117
Misoprostol 197, 305, 579, 580, 615
Mitigate violence 48, 49t
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation 410
Mitosis 66f
Mitral regurgitation 251
etiologies of 251
Mitral stenosis 248
Mitral valve 180f, 248
Mitral valvotomy, closed 251
Mityvac cup 599f
Mityvac vacuum 599
Mobilization 568
Mode of delivery 405, 497, 676, 705
Molar pregnancy 98, 118, 218f
clinical presentation of 217
Mole-focal hydropic degeneration, partial 214f
Mongolian blue spots 718
Monoamniotic twins 458, 459f, 463, 464f
Monochorionic twin 459f, 460f, 464
complications 172
gestation 475
Monoclonal antibodies 395
Monogenic disorders 116
Mononuclear cells 339
Monosomy X 189
Monotherapy, antihypertensive for 237
Monozygotic twinning 457, 458, 458t, 463
etiology of 460
rate of 457
testing in 190
Mons pubis 37
Mood disorders 340
symptoms of 341
Moro's biceps 708
Moro's reflex 707
Morphine 444
Morphological growth 62
Morphological left atrium 178
Morphological right ventricle 178
Mortality
maternal 731
neonatal 731
Morula stage embryo 57f
Morulation 69f
Mosaicism 66
Motor vehicle collision 439
Mouth ulcers 306
Mouth-to-mouth breathing 774
Mucolipidoses 496
Mucopolysaccharidoses 496
Mucus, passage of 305
Mucus-secreting tubule, pair of 38
Müllerian anomalies 194
Müllerian defect 194
Multicystic dysplastic kidney, bilateral 472
Multidisciplinary team
approach 288
care 530
involvement of 395
Multifactorial disorders 117
Multifetal gestation
diagnosis of 461
mechanism of 457
Multiorgan failure 222
Multiparity 564
Multiple births, incidence of 457
Multiple café-au-lait spots 337
Multiple gestation 154, 227, 324, 475, 523, 684
Multiple organ dysfunction score 749
Multiple pregnancy 154, 194, 304, 457, 519, 540
complications of 544
incidence 457
screening in 135
testing in 190
Multiple sclerosis 316, 327, 332
Multiple soft markers 146
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification 120
Multisystem disorders 684
Mumps 384
Murphy's sign 430
Muscle
cells 274
fibers 216f
spasm 316
Musculoskeletal dysplasia 129
Musculoskeletal injuries 441
Musculoskeletal system 87
Music and aroma therapy 622
Myasthenia gravis 313, 332
Mycobacteria 674
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 321, 385, 451
Mycophenolate 314
mofetil 317, 418
Mycoplasma hominis 504
colonization 512
Myeloid leukemia, positive chronic 358
Myelomeningocele 75
Myelosuppression 222
Myocardial infarction
acute 255t
risk of 240
Myoma uterus 194
Myomectomy scar 197
Myometrial scar thickness, role of 583
Myometrium 223f
Myotonic dystrophy 333, 496
N
N acetyl-P-benzoquinone imine 445f
N-acetylcysteine 444, 445f
Naegele's s obliquity 551
Nail growth 336
Naloxone 444, 448, 693
administration of 444
Narrow palpebral fissures 344
Nasal bone 134
Nasal septal dislocation 706
National AIDS Control Organization guidelines 369
National Center of Health Statistics 720
National Family Health Survey 686
National Health Mission 729
National Infant Feeding Guideline 372
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 237, 740
National Institutes of Health 514
database 248
National Maternity Benefit Scheme 729
National Medical Commission 28
National Midwifery Training Institute 741
National Partnership for Maternal Safety 745
National Program 368
National Registries 28
National Safe Motherhood 728
National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization 95
Nausea 98, 99, 412f
and vomiting, form of 413
complication 98
examination 99
excessive 461
investigations 99
treatment 99
Navirapine, single dose 368
Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram 693
Necator americanus 380
Necrotizing enterocolitis 683
risk of 515
Neisseria gonorrheae 384, 512
Neoglucogenic substrate 259
Neonatal abstinence syndrome 344, 345, 448
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia 153
Neonatal care 263
Neonatal coagulopathy 329
Neonatal complications 244
Neonatal encephalopathy 700
Neonatal hypothyroidism 267
Neonatal infection 388
Neonatal intensive care unit 168
Neonatal iron biology 277
Neonatal mortality 319
Neonatal resuscitation 688
program 689
Neonatal screening 124
Neonatal sepsis 349
Neonatal transport 686
Neonate develops respiratory depression 623
Neonates born 277
Nephrotic syndrome 295
Nerve
grafting 708
injuries 624, 708
Neu-laxova 496
Neural crest cells 74
Neural tube defects 74, 117, 147, 329
Neurofibromatosis 337
Neurological conditions, classification 327
Neurological disorders 327, 412
Neurological disruption 475
Neuromuscular junction blocker 330
Neuromusculoskeletal problems 633
Neuronal discharge, abnormal 327
Neuronal trauma 697
Neuroplasty 708
Neuroprotective strategies 702
Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio 394
Newborn care corner 684
Newborn mortality 737
Nifedipine 238, 296, 404, 501, 506
Nimesulide 473, 476
Nipple
bite 671
fissuring of 336
pain 671
Nitric oxide 254
donors 507
inhaled 282
synthesis 349
Nitrous oxide 622
Nonalcoholic hepatitis 418
Non-breastfeeding infants 454
Nonimmune fetal hydrops 118, 227, 495, 496
diagnosis 496
etiology 496
management 497
Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure 395
Noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturations 756
Noninvasive prenatal testing 186, 187
accuracy of 188, 189t
principle of 187f
Nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors 368
Nonopioid analgesics 622
Nonpersonal violence 47
Nonpharmacologic lifestyle interventions 236
Nonpneumatic antishock garment 731, 732f
Nonreactive nonstress test 160f
Nonretractable prepuce 718
Nonshockable rhythms 775
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug 246, 282, 305, 310, 321, 615, 622
Nonstress test 157159
advantages of 160
disadvantages of 160
twice weekly 263
Nonsurgical scar 529
Nontraumatic liver rupture 304
Nontubal ectopic pregnancy 206, 208t
Noonan syndrome 255
Noradrenaline 779
Nordic obstetric surveillance study 529
Normal pregnancy, hyperlipidemia of 106
Normal puerperium 628
anatomical changes 629
physiological changes 628
Nuchal arms 502
Nuchal cord 143f
Nuchal fold 144
thickness 144, 145f
Nuchal translucency 130f, 133, 134
levels 297
Nucleic acid 413
Nucleotide 113
polymorphism, single 189f
Nutrition
monitoring of 759
supplementation 371
Nutritional deficiency 485
Nutritional interventions 94
Nystagmus 68
O
O'lLeary method 648f
Obese pregnant patients 348
Obesity 267, 318, 347, 348, 543
effects of 348
management of 350
paradox 348
postpartum 353t
prevention of 354
Obsessive compulsive disorder 340, 341
Obstetric care 297
Obstetric cholestasis 303, 409, 541, 543
Obstetric deaths, indirect 726
Obstetric emergency 619
Obstetric examination 92
Obstetric formula, terminology for 92t
Obstetric high-dependency unit 745
Obstetric hysterectomy 652, 655f
complications of 652t
decision of 652
indications of 653
technique of 647
Obstetric intensive care unit 745
Obstetric management 444, 546
Obstetric shock 598, 762, 763fc
Obstetric transition 735
Obstetrical care 727
Obstetrical complications 292, 348
Obstetrical emergency 304
Obstetrical neuropathy 633
Obstructed labor 618
Obstructive sleep apnea 348
Obturator test 431
Occipital cortex 557
Occipital frontal circumference 706
Occipitoposterior position, diagnosis of 556
Occult blood 433
Occulta 147
Ocular injuries 706
Oculocutaneous albinism 155
Odon device 602
Oligohydramnios 158, 162f, 287, 311, 472, 475
causes 472
etiology of 472, 472t
incidence 472
pathogenesis 472
sequence 472
Oligomenorrhea 417
Omissions 726
Omphalocele 78
Ondansetron 304
Oocyte
denudation 56f
maturation 54
Operations, types of 595
Operative deliveries, risk of 420
Operative vaginal delivery 602, 618, 705
Opioid 282, 622
diagnostic of 444
poisoning, chronic 448
Opium poisoning 448
Oral anticoagulant 250
Oral cavity 91
Oral contraceptive pills, use of 460
Oral glucose challenge test 105, 230, 263, 545
Oral heart failure therapy 253
Oral hygiene 102, 760
Oral hypoglycemic agents 158, 261, 262, 262t
Oral iron 276
Oral steroids, indications of 394
Organ function assessment
quick sepsis-related 752t
sepsis-related 749
Organ systems, range of 405
Organogenesis 73
Orofacial clefts 329
Oseltamivir 323
Osmotic fragility 282, 286
Osmotic laxatives 305
Osteomyelitis 281
Osteonecrosis 281
Osteoporosis 306
Outflow tracts 142f
Ovarian artery ligation 647, 648f
Ovarian cancer 363
clinical presentation 363
management 364
Ovarian cystectomy 364
Ovarian follicle grows 53
Ovarian function 315
Ovarian germ cell tumors 364
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 256
Ovarian ligament 657f
Ovarian torsion 198
Ovarian tumors, malignant 364
Ovary corpus luteum 85
Overwhelming post splenectomy infection 281
Ovular phase 65, 69
Ovulation 629
Ovum
plasma membrane of 53
transport 54
Oxygen
administration 778
affinity, altered 279
consumption 84
delivery 762
concept of 762
saturation 752, 762
toxicity 717
Oxytocic drugs 730
use of 615
Oxytocin 247, 581, 588, 615, 645
contraindications for 644
drip 579
infusion 602
nasal spray 677
P
P-450 enzyme 321
Packed cell volume 767
Packed red blood cell concentrates 767
Pain 101
changes, location of 306
etiology 101
medication 282
relief 569
score 759f
treatment 101
types 101
Palatal anomalies 671
Pallor 91
severe degree of 430
Palmar edema 102
Palmar erythema 335
Palpable tender liver 325
Pancreatitis, acute 411, 430
Panel tests 190
Papillary necrosis, acute 281
Paracentesis, abdominal 432
Paracentric inversion 114, 115f
Paracetamol 622
Paralysis 316
Parasites 380, 451
Parasitic twin, external 464
Parathyroid glands 85
Paraxial mesoderm 76
Parenteral antiemetic therapy 304
Parenteral steroids, indications of 394
Parietal fascia 42
Paroxysmal disorder 327
Partogram 569
components of 572
Parvovirus B19 123, 381, 542
infection 123
Passive leg raise maneuver 762
Patau syndrome 67, 116, 129, 150, 186
Patent ductus arteriosus 247, 248, 254, 507, 683
Patwardhan's maneuver 589f, 614
Peak systolic velocity 169f
Pedal edema 102, 102f, 461
Pedicles 655
ligation of 658
Pelvic
anatomy 37, 604
architecture, influence of 553
assessment 230
brim 572
collections 667
diaphragm 41
fascia 42
floor muscle 39f
rehabilitation 639
grip 562
hematoma 38
infection, acute 428
inlet 44
kidneys 170f
musculature 630
organs 629
outlet 45
region, muscles of 41
shape 555
ureters 43
Pelvis, abnormal 588
Pemphigoid gestationis 337
Pena-Shokeir syndromes 496
Penicillin 323
G benzathine 374
Peptic ulcer
disease 305
perforation of 430
Per vaginal examination, procedure of 568b
Perfusion 702
Pericardial effusions 496
Pericarditis 294
Pericentric inversion 114, 115f
Periconceptional folic acid supplementation 74
Perimortem cesarean
delivery 776
section 247, 438
Perinatal asphyxia 684, 696698, 698fc, 699
causes of 696, 697t
neonatal signs of 698t
postpartum screening for 699
risk of 699
developing 683
screening tests for 699
Perinatal death 284, 720, 721
causes of 721b
classification of 721, 721b
majority of 720
notification of 724
surveillance 721, 722
Perinatal infection 73t
Perinatal management 701
Perinatal mortality
rate 720
risk increases 544
Perinatal transmission
estimated risk of 367
rate of 367
with intervention, risk of 367t
without intervention, risk of 367t
Perineal muscles 639
Perineal skin 639
Perineal tears 638
classification 638
management 639
risk factors 638
Perineal trauma 635
reduced 737
Periodic fevers 664
Peripartum cardiomyopathy 252, 325
Peripheral fat 348
Peripheral nerve injury 708
Peripheral nervous system 74
Peripheral neuropathy 327
Peripheral smear 275f, 286, 411
Peripheral vascular resistance 85, 233
Peripheral vasodilators 238
Peristaltic sounds 431
Peritoneal closure 614
Peritoneum 40, 630
reflections of 39f
Peritonitis, complications of 430
Pethidine 622
Pfannenstiel incision 612
Phenothiazines 304
Phenotype 114
Phenytoin 329
Pheochromocytoma 235
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, activation of 683
Phosphorylated insulin 504
Phrenic nerve injury 709
Physiological adaptation 80, 85t, 266, 762
Pinard's maneuver 562f
Piper's forceps 560
Piperacillin 323
Pituitary gland 74, 84
Placenta 63, 69, 143f, 144, 227, 410, 478, 483t
abnormality 475, 478, 542
accrete spectrum, incidence of 169
delivery of 643
development of 58, 59f
diffusa 480
gross examination of 480f
increta 520, 532f
lacks 167
low lying 519
manual removal of 779
normal 478
percreta 520, 530f
posterior 152f
processing of 484b
removal of 730
shape, abnormalities of 478
single 459
size, abnormalities of 480
triangular projection of 459f
Placenta accreta 520, 530f
spectrum disorders 528, 529t
diagnosis 530
epidemiology 529
management 530, 534fc
Placenta previa 227, 502, 519, 520, 577, 653, 653f
accreta 529
diagnosis of 519f
incidence of 519
lateral 519
marginal 519
partial 519
previous 519
total 519
woman with 522
Placental abruption 283, 439
chance of 438
classification 524
clinical picture 523
complications 524
incidence 522
management 524
pathophysiology 522
previous 523
risk factors 523
Placental adherent syndrome 653
Placental block 546
Placental chorioangioma 496
Placental circulation 60f
Placental development 53, 59
Placental evaluation 483
Placental examination 229
Placental gene expression changes 405
Placental growth 58
hormone 98
Placental insufficiency 472, 541, 543, 715
Placental location 401
Placental morphology 401
Placental site trophoblastic tumor 211, 216, 223
Placental transfusion 715
Placental tropism 388
Placental tumors 480
Plaques 338, 338f
Plasma
reduced blood 767
volume 104
Plasma protein
A, pregnancy-associated 134, 170
changes 106t
levels of pregnancy-associated 186
Plasmodium falciparum 388
Plate mesoderm, lateral 76
Platelet-rich plasma 767
Pleonasm 610
Pleural effusion 321, 401, 496
Pleuritic pain 310
Plotting partogram 572
Plugged ducts, management 672
Pneumococcal vaccine 95
Pneumocystis jirovecii 321
Pneumonia 282, 322, 380, 388, 430, 668, 710
bacteriology of 322
causative organisms for 323t
severity of 323t
Pneumothorax 710
Poikilocytes 286
Point-of-care
quality improvement methodology 723
test 374
Poison 442, 443, 448
Poisoning
diagnosis of 443
effects of 443
fetal effects of 445
high risk factors for 443t
management of 444
medicolegal aspects of 444, 444b
Polar bodies, abnormal 68
Policeman tip appearance 708
Polyangiitis 315
microscopic 315
Polyarteritis nodosa 295, 315
Polycystic kidney 295
disease 472
Polycystic ovary syndrome 348, 420, 677
Polycythemia 684, 715
Polydipsia 304
Polygenic cardiac disease 244
Polygenic disorders 117
Polyhydramnios 158, 174, 474, 475, 475f, 496, 523
causes of 475
development of acute 462
etiology 474
fetal causes 474
incidence 474
mild 476
pathogenesis of 474
relief of 476
severe 476
Polymastia 631
Polymerase chain reaction 284, 384, 386, 387, 389
Polymicrobial infections 380
Polymorphic eruption 337, 338, 338f
Polypeptide chains 286
Polyploidy 114
Polythelia 631
Polyuria 304
Ponderal index 486
Portal vein thrombosis 418
Positive antinuclear antibody 309
Postabortion care 727
Postarrest prognostic factors 780
Post-cesarean analgesia 625
Postdural puncture headache, management of 746
Postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, diagnosis of 220t
Postpartum complication 463, 522
Postpartum convulsions 400
Postpartum hemorrhage, risk factors for 643t
Postpartum management 330, 353
Postpartum periods, management of 418
Postpartum pyrexia 663
clinical monitoring 666
complications 668
etiopathogenesis 664
history 664
investigations 665
management 667
physical examination 665
prevention 668
prognosis 668
risk factors 664
Postpartum surveillance 270
Postprocedural fetal loss rates 151, 154
Postresuscitation care 693
Post-term pregnancy 158, 473, 535
etiology 536
incidence 535
management 536
pathogenesis 536
prevention 537
Post-traumatic stress disorder 230, 340
Potassium chloride 206
Prader-Willi syndrome 68, 117
Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan 730
Prazosin 237
Precipitate labor 573
Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act 320
Preconception care 88, 97
Preconception clinic 124
Preconception screening 124
Preconceptional counseling 88, 123, 245, 260, 269, 329
Predelivery, risk factors in 664t
Prednisolone 303, 315, 357
Prednisone 296, 332
Predominant bacterial organism 665t
Preeclampsia 109, 117, 119, 255, 267, 283, 293, 304, 310, 319, 324, 398, 399f, 406, 411, 412b, 541, 543, 758
anticonvulsants for 730
early-onset 399, 400
epidemiology of 398
etiopathology of 399
late-onset 399, 400
management of 403fc, 746
mild 403, 404
pathogenesis of 241
prevention of 296, 403
screening for 241
severe 239t, 292, 399, 404, 404t, 746
sign of 406
superimposed 239, 398
Pre-existing morbidities, pregnancy with 233
Pregnancy
abnormal 301
autoimmune disorders of 308
causes of 293t
complications 283, 461
continuation of 362
dating of 536
dermatoses of 337
effects of 243, 295, 310, 312, 336
failure 127t
first half of 428
high-risk 737
intrahepatic cholestasis of 118, 409
management 350
morbidity 311
normal 53, 106
obesity 352t
progression, abnormal 174
research 33
second half of 428
stage of 539
treatment of 267, 294, 360
underlying risk of 256
vomiting of 412b
Pregnancy after previous fetal loss 227
etiology 227
evaluation of fetal death 228
management strategies 229
maternal evaluation 228
postnatal follow-up 229
risk assessment 228
Pregnancy loss 227, 312, 348
recurrent 67, 118, 199f, 348
second-trimester 199
Pregnant women, resuscitation of 744
Preimplantation genetic
screening 282
testing 298
Preinvasive disease 362
Premarital screening 124
Premature labor 324
Prenatal genetic screening test, timing of 135
Prenatal screening 330
Prenatal testing 190
Prepartum management 426
Prepregnancy
care 350
counseling 305
immunization 89
Preterm baby 713
Preterm birth 462
prediction of 508
Preterm delivery 294
Preterm infant 683
Preterm labor 154, 440, 503, 522
complications 507
diagnosis of 504
incidence of 350
management of 505, 506t, 507
predictors 504
prevention of 505
risk factors 503
treatment of 462
Preterm premature rupture of membranes 158, 389, 512, 516
complications 513
diagnosing 513
etiology 512
infections 512
management of 513
prediction of 513
Prevent circulatory collapse 437
Previous cesarean
delivery 582
section 519, 617, 617f
Primary health centers 729
Primary lactation failure 675
Primary milk insufficiency syndrome 675
Primi paternity, concept of 399
Primidone 329
Primitive chorionic villi 62
Proctosigmoidoscopy 432
Progesterone 98, 110, 258, 259, 291, 335, 505
only pills 240
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis 409
Proinflammatory cytokines 504
Prolactin 98, 259
levels 298
Prolapse piles leads 306
Proliferated columnar endocervical glands, extension of 81f
Promethazine 304
Pronucleus, abnormal 68
Prophylactic forceps 599
concept of 599
Propranolol 237
Propylthiouracil 269, 270
Prostaglandin 206, 254, 547, 579, 643, 645
inhibitors 476, 506
Prosthetic heart valve 251, 252
Protein
binding 357
capacity 678
metabolism 82
synthesis 301
Proteinuria 109, 293, 401
hypertension without 643
management of 296
Proton pump inhibitor 305
Protozoal infections 380, 386t
Prune Belly syndrome 473
Pruritic folliculitis 337, 339
Pruritic uricarial pappules 338, 338f
Pruritus 102, 623
gravidarum 335
severe 335
Pseudomonas 380
Pseudoseizures 328
Psoriasis 316, 336, 671
Psychiatric medications 344
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures 328
Psychological monitoring 760
Psychosis 341
Psychotherapeutic drugs 345t
Psychotropic drugs 345
Ptosis 344
Pubic symphysis 93f
Pubocervical ligaments 40
Pudendal block 624
Puerperal fever 663
Puerperal pyrexia 663
causes of 664, 664t, 666t
Puerperal sepsis 292, 663
delivery for 664t
labor for 664t
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 324
Pulmonary arterioles 688
Pulmonary artery 182f
bifurcation 182f
pressure 254
monitoring 758
right 182
Pulmonary edema 294, 324, 325
causes of 405
Pulmonary emboli, acute 255
Pulmonary embolism 282, 325
Pulmonary fluid secretion 472
Pulmonary function tests 318
Pulmonary hypertension 270, 281, 282, 324, 325, 507
consequences of 254
persistent 683, 684
primary 255
severe forms of 247
Pulmonary hypoplasia 465
Pulmonary infarction 282
Pulmonary stenosis 248, 251
etiology of 251
Pulmonary thromboembolic disease 254, 325
Pulmonary thromboembolism 771, 779
Pulmonary veins 179f
Pulsatility index 171f, 490
Pulse 628
oximetry 322, 756
Pupil
reactivity score 758t
score 758
Purandare's system 646f
Pus, aspiration of 674
Push technique 588
Pustules 714, 714f
Pyelectasis 144
mild 146, 146f
Pyelonephritis 283
acute 430
Pyloric sphincter competence 305
Pyloric stenosis 475
Q
Q fever 380
Quadruple test 134
Quantitative defect 279
Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction 120
Quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease 224
Quotidian 664
R
Radial aplasia 329
Radiation 6, 194
therapy 359, 361
Radical cesarean hysterectomy 363
Radical hysterectomy 363
Radical trachelectomy 363
Radiculopathy 624
Radiocolloid, dose of 356
Radionuclide scans 432
Ramipril 237
Range of movements 313
Rational emotive behavior therapy 344
Raynaud's phenomenon 671
Reactive nonstress test 159f, 160
Recombinant human erythropoietin 282
Rectal bleeding 430
Rectal examination 639
Rectovaginal fistula 638
Recurrent abortion 194, 198
causes 198
diagnosis 199
etiology 199
treatment 199
Recurrent pregnancy loss, causes of 200
Red blood cell 104
Red cell concentrate 767
Reflection and echoing 15
Reflux
esophagitis 305
nephropathy 295
Refractory hypoxemia 254
Refractory neoplasia 222
Refuting misconception 676
Regional analgesia 623, 739
Regional anesthesia 353
Regress postpartum 336
Regular fetal antepartum testing 158
Regular perinatal death audits 723
Rehydration 304
Remdesivir 395
Remifentanil 622, 623
Renal agenesis 473f
Renal anomalies 68, 473
Renal causes, signs of 401
Renal disease 227, 291, 293, 295
chronic 194, 199
end-stage 295, 297, 764
pregnancy of 294
Renal evaluation 700
Renal failure 283
acute 98, 403, 747, 764, 768
anemia of 288
chronic 281
Renal function 155t
monitoring 759
parameters 108t
test 68, 107, 197, 218, 235, 403, 433, 443, 778
Renal impairment 304
Renal insufficiency 293
degree of 294
Renal parameters 665
Renal parenchyma 401
Renal pathology 235
Renal plasma flow 84
Renal system 84, 233
Renal transplantation, pregnancy after 298
Renal ultrasonography 68
Renal ultrasound 294
Replacement feeding 371
Reproductive autonomy 190
Reproductive capacity 298
Reproductive cloning 69
Reproductive health 729
Reproductive system 80
Reproductive tract, internal 39f
Rescue cerclage 200
Respectful maternity care 739
Respiratory arrest 304
Respiratory autogenic training 622
Respiratory changes 435
Respiratory depression 623
Respiratory disorders, management of 318
Respiratory distress 267, 476, 710
syndrome 683, 710
Respiratory function, monitoring 759
Respiratory physiology 318
Respiratory rate 430, 745, 754, 756
Respiratory signs 319
Respiratory symptoms 319
Respiratory system 92
Respiratory tract 84
Responsive feeding 632
Rest and exercise 632
Resuscitation 685, 688
Resuscitative cesarean section delivery 776
Resuscitative fluids, types of 764
Reticulocyte count 282
Retinal detachment 281
Retinal hemorrhage 707
Retinoids 335
Retinopathy of prematurity 683, 716, 717
examination for 716
Retinopathy, progressive 281
Retracted nipple 673f
Retroperitoneal adenopathy 321
Retroplacental bleeding 523
Retroplacental hematoma 524f
Rh
alloimmunization 150
immune globulin 149
incompatibility 518, 540
Rheumatoid arthritis 267, 308, 312
effects of 312
Rh-negative blood 694
Rhythm, assessment of 754
Ribonucleic acid 187f
Rickettsiae 380
Rifampicin 321, 371
Right umbilical vein, persistent 482
Right ventricular outflow tract 140, 175, 177, 180, 181
Ring chromosome 116
Ringer's lactate 304, 694, 764, 778
Ripening cervix, process of 579
Ritodrine 324, 507
Robertsonian translocation 115, 115f, 116
Robotic cerclage 201
Robotic surgery, form of 8
Root-cause analysis 722
Rosacral ligaments 40
Routine antenatal care 88
Rubella 94, 123, 194, 381, 451, 452, 542
Rubeola virus 384
Rubin's maneuver 606, 606f
Rupture uterus 616, 779
diagnosis 618
management 619
risk factors 617
Ruptured berry aneurysm 331
Ruptured ectopic pregnancy 207f
Rusty pipe syndrome 675
S
Sacral agenesis 72
Sacrococcygeal teratoma 72, 169, 496
Safe abortion services 729
Safe motherhood
initiative 725, 727
pillars of 727
Salicylate poisoning 445
Salivary estriol 504
surge, detection of 504
Salmonella 674
typhosa 451
Salpingectomy 207f
Salt restriction 237
Sampson's artery 657
branches of 654
Saphenous, varicosities of 336
Scalp electrode injuries 706
Scar
ectopic pregnancy 208f
endometriosis 638
integrity of 582
Schizophrenia 341, 343
Schlusskoagulum 71
Scleroderma 295, 313
Sclerosing cholangitis, primary 416
Seborrheic dermatitis 713
Sedation 150
Seizure 304, 344
absence of 327
activity 328
causes of 327
disorder 327, 328
persist 330
Selective estrogen receptor modulators 362
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 72
Self-inflating bag 691
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube 646f
Sensory abnormalities 316
Sensory epithelium of ear 74
Sentinel node procedure 356
Sepsis 387, 743, 746, 766, 771
stage of severe 766
syndrome 283
Septate uterus 194
partial 199f
Septic abortion 194, 196, 196f, 201, 387, 743
management 197
pathology 196
surgery in 197
Septic shock 197, 768
Septicemia 194, 222, 430
Septostomy 461
Sequential organ failure assessment 388, 749, 752t
Serology 373
Sertoli cell function leading 348
Serum
alpha-fetoprotein, measurement of 134
beta-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement 204, 205
bilirubin 401, 714
complement levels 294
creatinine 294, 296
electrolytes 218, 443, 759
ferritin 274
human chorionic gonadotropin level 109t
lactate levels 107
tumor markers 364
Severe acute respiratory syndrome 455
conronavirus 383
Sex chromosome 68
anomalies 150
monosomy 133
Sex cord-stromal tumors 364
Sex hormone-binding globulin, levels of 348
Sexually transmitted disease 386, 727
Sexually transmitted infections 89, 367, 372
effects of 375t
Sheehan's syndrome 675
Shirodkar operation, modified 200
Shock 683, 762, 763t
classification of 763fc
maternal 440
moderate-to-severe 766
Shockable rhythms 775
Short obstetric forceps 596f
Shoulder
delivery of 553, 560
disimpaction, anterior 607
neglected 563, 563f
posterior 606f
Shoulder dystocia 604, 605, 605t, 608
complications 607
incidence 604
management 605
risk factors 604
Shunt
right-to-left 254
vesicoamniotic 474
Sialidosis 496
Sickle cell
anemia 279, 280
C disease 280
crisis 255
D disease 280
disease 158, 279, 280, 283, 288
disorders 279
E disease 280
syndrome 282
thalassemia disease 280
trait 280, 284
Sickling process, stages in 280f
Sickling solubility test 282
Sickling test 282
Sideroblastic anemia 286, 288
Silastic vacuum cup 599f
Sildenafil citrate 474
Silent stroke 281
Simpson's long forceps 596
Single gene 116
defects 153
deletion 285
disease 124
disorders, diagnosis of 298
Singleton pregnancy 461, 463
Sinusitis 321
Sinusoidal pattern 591, 592f
Sirenomelia 72
Situs inversus 72, 176
Situs solitus 176
Skeletal defects 329
Skeletal system 107
Skilled birth attendant 728, 730
supervision of 728
Skilled manpower 28
Skin 81
changes 102
contact, direct 387
edema 496
incision 612
lesions 310
suturing 637
Skin-to-skin contact 686, 737
Skull 708
base 140
bones, overlapping of 540f
Sleep 632
pattern, abnormal 344
wake cycles 701
Sloping pelvic floor 552
Small cortical cysts 473
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome 473
Sneezing 344
Sodium
bicarbonate 305, 779
deficiency 715
dithionite, solution-like 282
nitroprusside 238
Soft markers, absence of 146
Soft tissues
injury 705
swelling of 705
Somite differentiation 76
Sonoembryology 126
Spalding sign 540f
Special poisoning syndromes 444
Sperm
acrosome reaction 55f
oocyte binding 55
plasma membrane of 53
transport 54
Sphingomyelin 150
Spider nevi 335
Spina bifida 75, 147, 147f
Spinal anesthesia 611
high 779
Spinal cord
disorders 327
injuries 704, 709
Spinal epidural hematoma 624
Splanchnopleuric mesoderms 77
Splenectomy 288
Splenic sequestration crisis 281
Spontaneous labor, risk of rupture in 618
Spot urine protein 401
Squamous cell carcinoma 363f
Staphylococcus aureus 671
Static intensity 319
Static pulmonary function tests 318, 318t
Statins 244
Status epilepticus 330
Steal phenomenon 701
Stem cell transplant 287
Stenotic lesion 248
Sterile water injections 622
Sternal defects 78
Sternocleidomastoid muscle, spasm of 564
Steroid 394, 776
and immunosuppressive therapy 294
hormone 291
production 110
therapy 304
treatment 335
Stillbirth 319, 463
recommendation 548b
reduced 737
trends of 539
Stomach 142f
Stool culture 305
Streptococcus pneumonia 281, 323, 380
Streptomycin 321
Striae gravidarum 102f, 335
Striking basophilic stippling 286
Stroke 281
Strongyloides stercoralis 380
Structural chromosomal abnormalities 120, 298
Structural valve deterioration 251
Strychnine 444
Subcapsular hematoma 401
Subcutaneous fat necrosis 705
Subdural hematoma 707f
Subdural hemorrhage 706
Subfertility 348, 417
Subsequent pregnancy, management of 230, 639
Substance abuse 447, 543, 678
assessment 89
Substance use, management strategies for 344
Substantial blood loss 362
Subtotal obstetric hysterectomy 659f
Suburethral nodule 216f
Succenturiate placenta 479f
Suckling promotes 631
Sucralfate 305
Sudden collapse 778
Sudden obstetric collapse 770
clinical causes 770
supportive management 776
Sudden tumor collapse 220
Suicide 343
Sulfasalazine 313, 315, 317
Sulfonamides 390
Sulpiride 676
Supplementary therapy, role of 241
Supralevator hematoma 38
Suprapubic pressure 606, 606f, 607
Supraventricular tachyarrhythmia 253
Surgical scar, direct 529
Suturing muscles 637
Swansea criteria 304
Swansea diagnostic criteria 411b
Sweating 344
Symphysiotomy 607
Symphysis-fundal height, measurement of 93f
Symptomatic systemic
bacterial infection 703
congenital viral infection 703
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone 702
Syphilis 89, 94, 124, 373, 375, 374t, 376t, 384, 388, 451, 542
congenital 375, 376b, 453
pappules 374f
Syrup
navirapine, dose of 370
zidovudine 370
Systematic analysis 178
Systemic absorption 323
Systemic diseases 194
Systemic lupus erythematosus 71, 124, 158, 199, 227, 235, 267, 308310, 337, 541, 544
effects of 310
management of 310
Systemic vascular resistance 85, 762
T
T sign 460f
Tachycardia 320, 387, 590, 718, 768
Tachypnea, transient 683
Tachysystole 581
Tacrolimus 303, 317, 418
Tactile stimulation 689
Takayasu arteritis 314
Talipes equinovarus, congenital 716f
Tazobactam 323
Tear drop cells 286
Teeth, enamel of 74
Telangiectasia 335
Telemedicine 28
practice guidelines 28
Tenderness, site of 431t
Tennessee classification 413
Tenofovir 368, 369
regimen of 369
Teratogen exposure, effects of 65f
Teratogenesis 71
Teratogenic drug 297
defects 73t
Teratomas, immature 364
Teratospermia 68
Terbutaline 324
Term breech trial 35
Terminal ileum 305
Termination of pregnancy 198, 201, 362
Tetanus toxoid 95
injection 197
Tetracyclines 320, 323, 390
Tetralogy of Fallot 254
Thalassemia 284, 287, 288
major 286f, 288f
mild 287
minor 284, 286
severe forms of 284
types of 284
Theca lutein cysts 218f
Therapeutic hypothermia 702
Thermal adaptation 682
Thermal injury 440
Thermoneutral environment 684, 685f
Thermoregulatory imbalance 345
Thiamine deficiency 99
Thiazides 237, 238
Thionamides 269
Third stage bleeding 247
Third-trimester 260, 460
Thoracic abnormalities 496
Thoracic cavity 78
Thoracoscopy 320
Thoracotomy tube 437
Thrombocytopenia 153, 309
Thromboembolism 252, 283, 328, 405
side effect of 767
Thrombophilia 523, 544
inherited 198
Thromboplastin 523
Thromboprophylaxis 282, 296
Thrombotic microangiopathy 293, 294
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, clinical syndromes of 293
Thumb technique 691
Thyroglobulin, proteolytic destruction of 270
Thyroid
antibodies 267
autoimmune disorders of 313
binding globulin 85f
production of 266
cancer 365
disease, screening for 266
disorder 201, 266, 271
treatment of 269, 269fc
dysfunction 198
function test 218, 751
levels of 107t
gland 84
functioning 266
hormone 267
physiology 266, 266t
peroxidase antibodies 270
physiology 106, 107t
stimulating hormone 68, 266, 268fc, 268t
storm 269, 270
treatment of 270, 270fc
Thyroiditis 270
postpartum 270, 314
Thyroid-stimulating antibody, formation of 268
Thyrotoxicosis 269
destruction-induced 270
Thyrotropin, inhibition of 266
Thyroxine 266
myocardial effects of 270
Tissue
oxygenation 762
thromboplastin 523
Tocilizumab 395
Tocolysis 150, 297, 501, 506, 593
short-term 515, 463
Tocolytic agents 246t, 324
Tocolytic pulmonary edema 324
Tocolytic therapy 515
Tolbutamide 426
Tongue tie 671, 718
Topical bleaching creams 335
TORCH infections 59, 452
Total breech extraction 559
Total obstetric hysterectomy 654f, 660f
Touch technology 47
Toxic compounds
formation of 445f
pathophysiology of 445f
Toxic doses, radiation in 194
Toxic effects 303
Toxicologic analysis 443
Toxins, environmental 194
Toxoplasma gondii 451
Toxoplasmosis 123, 386, 452
T-piece resuscitator 691
Tracheal occlusion 78
Tranexamic acid 531
Tranquilizer poisoning 446
Transabdominal technique 151
Transcerebellar diameter 141f
Transcervical technique 151
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation 622
Transfusion reactions 768
life-threatening 768
mild 768
moderately severe 768
Transient diabetes insipidus 411
Transplacental passage 453
Transplacental therapy, monitoring of 154
Transvaginal chorionic villus 151
Transvaginal scan 200, 204
Transvaginal sonography 519
Transvaginal ultrasonography 204
Transverse grooves 336
Transverse lie 502, 562, 563f, 577
Transverse section 143f
Trauma 434, 436, 439, 523
assessment of 436
causes of 436, 439
complications of 441
management of 436, 438
penetrating 440
signs of 438b
symptoms of 438b
types of 436
Trendelenburg position 685
Treponema 123, 373
infection 123
tests 374
Treponema pallidum 451, 453
hemagglutination 374
particle agglutination 374
Triaging policy 745
Trichomoniasis 336, 375, 386, 512
Trichuris trichiura 380
Tricuspid regurgitation 134, 251
Triglyceride 258
Triiodothyronine 266
Trimethadione 329
Trinucleotide repeats 120
Triple drug therapy 368
Triple X syndrome 186
Trisomy 67, 114, 129, 133, 135, 186, 189
screening for 230
sonological marker in 134t
Trophoblast 69, 213f
hyperplasia of 214f
normal 212
Trophoblastic disease 211
management of 222
Trophoblastic disorder 337
Trophoblastic invasion, second wave of 485
Trophoblastic lesions, pathology of 214
Trophoblastic tumor cells 217f
True knot 483
Trypanosoma cruzi 451
Tubal ectopic pregnancy, ruptured left 207f
Tuberculin skin test 320
Tuberculosis 124, 320, 321, 678
Tuberculous ulcer 430
Tubular necrosis, acute 292
Tumor 496
borderline 364
collapse 222
necrosis factor 512
Turner syndrome 68, 150, 186, 255, 256
phenotype features of 68f
Turtle sign 605, 605f
Twin anemia polycythemia
sequence 466, 496
syndrome 465
Twin fetuses, discordant growth of 466
Twin molar pregnancy 466
Twin pregnancy 158, 172t, 194, 224, 224f, 461
Twin delivery 462
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome 170, 463, 465, 465f, 476, 496
Typhoid 388
ulcer 430
Tyrosinase, upregulation of 335
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor 358
U
Ulcerative colitis 305
Ultrasound
basic steps of 140f
biometry 95
Umbilical artery 162, 167, 482, 490
perivesical 170f
single 482
Umbilical artery Doppler
fallacy of 487
measurements, abnormal 689
serial worsening of 168f
velocimetry 592
waveforms 488f
Umbilical blood sampling, percutaneous 152
Umbilical cord 166f, 481
abnormalities of 481t
bleeding 154
clamping of 689
timing of 684
contents of 481
cyst 483
four vessel 482
normal 143f
segment 546
Umbilical granuloma 714, 715
Umbilical venous catheter 690
Undescended testis 715, 715f
Unicornuate uterus, inversion of 654f
Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 364
Uniovular twins 457
Uniparental disomy 116, 117
United Nations Children's Fund 670, 738
United Nations Population Fund 727
Universal vaccination 414
Unstable hemoglobin variants 279
Upper pedicles 658f
Upper respiratory tract infection 321
Ureaplasma urealyticum 504, 512
Uremic organ dysfunction 294
Ureter 43t, 235
Ureteric injury 662
Ureterovaginal fistula 652
Urethral obstruction 472
Urgent exploratory laparotomy 432
Uric acid 304
Urinalysis 197, 292, 293, 433
Urinary albumin 109
Urinary bladder 143f
Urinary casts 310
Urinary components 155t
Urinary dipstick method 401
Urinary infection 84
Urinary protein 108, 311, 401
Urinary sepsis, suspicion of 667
Urinary symptoms 99
Urinary tract 496, 628
infection 259, 380, 386, 389, 512, 652
obstruction, congenital 472
tumors of 295
Urine 628
albumin 401
analysis 107, 235, 282, 443
monitoring color of 759f
output 756
retention of 101
tests, rapid qualitative 443
Urine sample 109t
chemical examination of 109t
physical examination of 108t
types of 108t
Urogenital defects 329
Ursodeoxycholic acid 303, 410
Uterine activity 551, 554
classification of abnormal 554
Uterine anomalies 529
Uterine artery 164, 172f
blood flows, normal 172f
embolization 648, 649
retrograde 649f
ligation of 647, 648f
bilateral 647
Uterine atony 642
refractory 653
Uterine balloon tamponade 731, 732f
Uterine blood flow 85
Uterine closure 614
Uterine compression techniques 648
Uterine contractions 439
assessment of 438
Uterine dehiscence 617, 617f, 619fc
Uterine discharge 634
Uterine dysfunction 561
Uterine endometrium 53
Uterine evacuation 668
Uterine exteriorization 614
Uterine incisions 613
Uterine malformations, congenital 618
Uterine manipulation maneuvers 618
Uterine massage 643
Uterine pathology
primary 529t
secondary 529t
Uterine pedicles 659f
Uterine rupture 541, 583, 586f, 617f, 618, 619, 619fc
complete 617
effects of 620t
incomplete 617
previous 585
risk factors for 617t
risk of 617t
types of 617
Uterine scar
extension of 585
rupture, clinical features of 586
Uterine surgery 617
previous 585
Uterine vessels 658f
clamping of 662
Utero-ovarian ligament 531
Uteroplacental blood flow 81
Uteroplacental circulation, spasm of 543
Uteroplacental insufficiency 410, 440
Uterovesical interface evaluation 171f
Uterus 39, 80
appearance of 223f
brace suturing of 649f
dropsy of 211
enlarged 80f, 305
inversion of 779
involution of 629, 629f
layers of 40
ligaments of 40
lower segment of 39
myometrial wall of 647
parts of 39
relations of 40
round ligaments of 40
section of 223f
sub-involution of 633
V
Vacuum cup 600f
Vacuum extractor 599
complications 601
contraindications 600
over forceps, advantages of 601
principles of traction 600
steps of operation 600
Vagina 38
posteriorly 38
Vaginal birth 585
after cesarean
delivery 585
section 585, 618
spontaneous 739
Vaginal bleeding 216f, 439, 520, 523, 525, 712, 712f
Vaginal breech delivery, modes of 559
Vaginal candidiasis 101
etiology 101
incidence 101
treatment 101
Vaginal cerclage 200
Vaginal clindamycin 505
Vaginal delivery 247, 416, 578t
Vaginal discharge 712, 712f
Vaginal examination 92, 372, 438, 562, 581
Vaginal infection 505f
Vaginal insertion 462
Vaginal lacerations 607
Vaginal mucosa 639
suturing of 637
Vaginal swabbing 661
Vaginal vault 662f
Valproate 329
Vanillylmandelic acid 235
Varicella 123, 388, 542
zoster 382
virus 336
Varicose veins 102
etiology 102
treatment 102
Variola 194
Vasa previa 483, 526, 577
classification 526
clinical presentation 526
diagnosis 527
incidence 526
management 527
Vascular anastomosis 464
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 256
Vascular endothelial damage 485
Vascular endothelium 349
Vascular thrombosis 311, 353
Vasculitis 314
Vasoconstriction secondary 400
Vaso-occlusive crises 281, 282
Vasopressin 779
Vasopressor support 324
Vasorelaxing agents 253
Velamentous cord insertion 482
Vena cava
compression of inferior 357
inferior 301, 320, 776
occlusion 771
superior 182f
Venous stasis 306
Venous system 163
Venous thromboembolism 283, 395, 522, 763
Ventilation 701
breaths 774
lack of 693
positive-pressure 690, 692
Ventral body wall defects 78
Ventricles 175
Ventricular fibrillation 775
Ventricular septal defect 77, 247, 248, 254
Verbal communication 12, 12t
Vermian agenesis 75
Vertical skin incision 532f
Vertical transmission, risk of 408
Vesicovaginal fistula 652
Vesiculobullous lesions 338
Vessel number 482
Vestibule 37
bulbs of 38
Vibroacoustic stimulation test 591
Vice versa 235
Vicious circle 523
Vigilant fetal monitoring 230
Vigorous suctioning 689
Villous dysmaturity 484
Villous invasion, depth of 529
Violence
effects of 48
incidents of 48
types of 47, 47f
Viral hepatitis 302t, 418
acute 414
Viral infections 194, 379, 381t, 451
Viral load test 369
Virus 451
Viscera herniate, abdominal 78
Visceral fascia 42
Visceral injuries 709
Visceral layer 76
Visceral situs 177
Visual aids 14
Visual disturbances 304
Vital signs 751
abnormal 754
physiological 759
unstable 430
Vitamin 633
A supplements 94
B12 99
B6 99
C 288
D3 296
K 330
deficiency 99
supplementation 304
Vitreous hemorrhages 281
Voluntary muscles, movement of 539
Vomiting 98, 99, 304, 430, 717
complication 98
examination 99
excessive 461
investigations 99
treatment 99
Vulval hematoma 38, 637
Vulval lacerations 607
W
Waiter's tip deformity 713
Wandering method 599
Warfarin 244, 252
overdose 767
Warm stool smears 433
Warm water immersion 622
Water intoxication, risk of 645
Water metabolism 82
Waterborne transmission 387
Weak cry 688
Wegener granulomatosis 315
Weight gain 82
range of 92t
Weight loss 237
Weight management 237
Wernicke's encephalopathy 99
Wheezing 283
White blood cell count 431
White coat hypertension 234
Whole blood 766
finger prick test 371
Whole exome sequencing 120
Whole genome sequencing 120
Widal test 666
Wilson's disease 416
Witch's milk 711
Woman's dating ultrasound scan 190
Woman's death 5
Wood's screw maneuver 606, 606f
Wound dehiscence, incidence of 638
Wound infection 387
Wurm's stitch 201
X
X chromosome 67, 114
X-linked dominant disorders 117b
X-linked recessive disorders 117b
Y
Y chromosomal microdeletion 68
Yellow atrophy, acute 304, 410
Yolk sac, secondary 70
Z
Zanamivir 323
Zarate 262
Zavanelli maneuver 607, 608f
Zidovudine therapy 454
Zika 123
virus 383, 542
Zinc 282
Zona pellucida 57
glycoprotein of 53
penetration of 55, 56f
Zona reaction 54, 56
Zona thinning 70
Zoonotic disease 380
Zoonotic transmission 387
ZPP test 287
Zygosity 458, 458t
Zygote 53
division of 69, 458, 458t
×
Chapter Notes

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FOGSI's POSTGRADUATE OBSTETRICS A TEXTBOOK
FOGSI's POSTGRADUATE OBSTETRICS A TEXTBOOK
Volume 1 Editor-in-Chief Alpesh Gandhi MBBS DGO FICOG FRCOG Post PG (Hospital Management) Senior Consultant, Obstetrics and Gynecology Critical Care in Obstetrics and High-risk Pregnancy Expert Arihant Women's Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat President, The Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI), 2020 Editors Parikshit Tank MD DNB DGO DFP MNAMS FICOG FRCOG Senior Consultant Obstetrician and Gynecologist Ashwini Maternity and Surgical Hospital Jupiter Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Honorary Professor, Assisted Reproduction Pacific Medical College and Hospital Udaipur, Rajasthan, India Treasurer, The Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI), 2021-2024 Joint Secretary, FOGSI, 2012 Joint Treasurer, FOGSI, 2018-2020 Chairperson, Safe Motherhood FOGSI, 2014-2017 Ameya Purandare MD DNB FCPS DGO DFP MNAMS FICMCH FICOG Fellowship in Gyne Endoscopy (Germany) Senior Consultant Obstetrician and Gynecologist Purandare Hospital, KJ Somaiya Medical College and Hospital Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Research Centre Bhatia Hospital, Masina Hospital, Mumbai Police Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 2nd Vice President Elect, The Association of Maharashtra Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies (AMOGS), 2022-2024 Joint Secretary, FOGSI, 2019 Chairperson, Food, Drugs and Medical and Surgical Equipments Committee, FOGSI, 2015-2017 Assistant Administrator, FOGSI Manyata Project
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FOGSI's Postgraduate Obstetrics: A Textbook
First Edition: 2022
9789354653858
Printed at
Dedicated to
The students of Obstetrics and Gynecology, especially the postgraduates and their teachers
And
The girls and women of our country whom they are privileged to take care of
Section Editors Contributors Preface
It is with great pride that I present to you the FOGSI's Postgraduate Obstetrics: A Textbook.
At the beginning of the year, we declared our wish to compile a detailed textbook that will comprehensively, yet in a concise manner, cover all the topics with the latest scientific evidences that a postgraduate student requires to thoroughly understand this subject. We believe that FOGSI being such a large and responsible federation should have its significant contribution in the curriculum for undergraduate and postgraduate education in Obstetrics and Gynecology. The content of such a curriculum should be scientifically and ethically sound, and useful in our Indian scenario.
This textbook has been a labor of love. At FOGSI, we have always believed that an investment in training and guiding future clinicians will reap the best rewards. With this in mind, we have made PG students our primary focus this whole year. This includes initiatives like the PG Forum, the PG Training Program, and the UG-PG Curriculum. This textbook is the crowning glory of the PG activities. The idea behind these activities was to promote respect and brotherhood among colleagues, to provide them with training, education and research opportunities, facilitate interactions between PG teachers and students from all over the country, to provide a mentor-mentee type experience and enable better learning; in short, to help them to become well-rounded practitioners once they go out into the world. This book is a continuation of that theme.
It is a source of great pride to have our FOGSI research and guidelines on many topics highlighted in this book. It gives our future clinicians a straightforward perspective when it comes to making decisions. It also provides a sense of uniformity to have students across the country referencing the same guidelines.
This is an exhaustive compendium, divided into 2 volumes with a total of 207 chapters, encompassing every aspect of our ever-changing and evolving field. We start with the basics of Obstetrics, where we discuss anatomy, communication, counseling, and good clinical practices. We then cover normal pregnancy and fetal evaluation, stressing on newer concepts like genetics and genomics, noninvasive prenatal testing, as well as covering the gold standards like antenatal assessment and laboratory evaluation. We have five separate sections dedicated to complications in early and late pregnancy, preexisting medical conditions, and their management. We then move on to labor, its mechanisms and management, as well as its complications, anesthesia and analgesia, and rounding up with postpartum issues. We have separate sections dedicated to social obstetrics, to enlighten our readers about the steps that are being taken to tackle public health issues like maternal mortality and perinatal deaths. There is also a section on critical care, to make our future obstetricians capable of managing emergency situations with confidence.
The second volume is on Gynaecology. We begin with contraception and pregnancy termination, to highlight the importance of a woman's choice to motherhood. The next sections cover the basics of the reproductive cycle, including chapters on neuroendocrine development, puberty and adolescence going on to menopause. We then cover basic ultrasound and diagnostic techniques. There are three dedicated sections on the care, management and operative aspects in general gynecological conditions. We then move on to specialized topics like infertility, endoscopy, urogynecology and oncology, giving our readers a 360-degree viewpoint of every aspect of gynecology.
It was a Herculean task, which could not have been completed successfully without the wholehearted support of the editors, Dr Parikshit Tank and Dr Ameya Purandare.
A special thanks to my amazing, energetic and efficient section editors, who worked quickly and competently to follow-up on authors, validate data, and compile this manuscript into the version you see today.
The final result is this magnum opus. We sincerely hope that it proves to be of value, not just to PG students, but to clinicians and academicians all across the country and beyond.
To quote Carl Jung, “Medicines can treat diseases, but only doctors can treat patients.”
We aim to create such doctors.
We look forward to your feedback.
Alpesh Gandhi
President, FOGSI, 2020
FOGSI Office Bearers 2020
Dr Alpesh Gandhi
President FOGSI
Dr Jaydeep Tank
Secretary General FOGSI
Dr Anita Singh
Vice President
Dr Archana Baser
Vice President
Dr Atul Ganatra
Vice President
Dr Ragini Agrawal
Vice President
Dr T Ramani Devi
Vice President
Dr Madhuri Patel
Deputy Secretary General
Dr Suvarna Khadilkar
Treasurer
Dr Parikshit Tank
Joint Treasurer
Dr Sunil Shah
Joint Secretary
Dr Nandita Palshetkar
Immediate Past President
Dr Shantha Kumari
Incoming President Elect
Acknowledgments
We thank the office bearer of FOGSI 2020. We are thankful to them for their wholehearted motivation and support throughout the year for this initiative. The entire FOGSI family has been a source of strength.
We are thankful to all the medical colleges and teachers across India for inspiring us for this useful initiative.
This book comprises 207 chapters and we had to work closely with more than 400 amazing authors for the last one and a half years. They are the experts in the subjects that they have written on. We would like to personally thank each of these brilliant authors who contributed high quality chapters for this project.
We are thankful for the immense work of editing and compilation of the chapters by our team of experienced section editors—Dr Pratima Mittal, Dr Suyajna Joshi, Dr PK Shah, Dr Pushpa Junghare, Dr Gokul Das, Dr Anuradha Khanna, Dr JB Sharma, and Dr Amita Maheshwari. It was a huge task. They worked day and night with great care and expertise to make this a high-quality textbook. We sincerely appreciate their invaluable contribution. The section editors have been helped in this work by the ablest doctors in their departments. We place on record our thanks in particular to Dr Jyotsna Suri and Dr Rekha Bharati (both Professors in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Dr Priya Ballal (Professor and Head, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the KMC, Mangaluru), Dr Shweta Tahlan from Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai and Dr Shikha Sachan (Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IMS, BHU, Varanasi).
We thank Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India. They are one of the most reputed and largest medical publishing houses in the world. They have been instrumental in giving us insights into the publishing process and giving much sought suggestions throughout the project.
Mr Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman) took great personal interest and care of this project. His patience and trust was a great support. Ms Chetna Malhotra (Associate Director–Content Strategy) played the role of a seasoned and experienced facilitator. Ms Saima Rashid, Ms Kritika Dua and other team members were thorough professionals and pure perfectionists. They provided amazing support with their personal care. We sincerely appreciate their support.
TEAMWORK MAKES THE DREAM WORK.