RSSDI's Insulin Monograph Rakesh Sahay, Sanjay Agarwal
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flow chart, and t refer to table.
A
Abscess 235
Absolute insulin deficiency 233
Acetyl coenzyme A 288
Acetylcholine 14
Acidosis 187
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 278
Adenine nucleotides 14
Adenosine
diphosphate 11, 15
triphosphate 11, 15, 16
Adipokines 14
Adiponectin 14
Adrenergic pathway 14
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 182, 194
Air-conditioned room 214
Alcohol 192
blunts 192
Allergic reactions 237
Alpha cell interaction 20
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors 89
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 73
guidelines 55
American Diabetes Association 50, 52, 64, 73, 74, 85, 86, 96fc, 154
Amino acid 13, 25, 118f
structure of human insulin 25f
substitutions 26f
Anabolic hormone 182
Anhydroglucitol assay 221
Antibody production 234
Antidiabetic agent armamentarium 102
Antihyperglycemic
medication 301
therapy 61t
Anti-insulin antibodies 234
Ascorbic acid 225
Aspart, structure of 118f
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 192
Augmented glucose secretion 13f
Autoimmune hypoglycemia 194
B
Baker's yeast 233
Bariatric surgery 194
Basaglar 97
Basal-bolus 76, 88
concept 149
insulin regimen 48, 150
regimen 87
therapy 75
Basal dose, calculation of 284t
Basal insulin 48, 49, 54, 64fc, 66fc, 73, 74, 94, 135, 141, 161, 283, 296
analogs 32, 260
glargine, intensification of 69
injection 136
intensification of 65
secretion, patterns of 94
therapy 64, 67, 88fc
initiation of 64
Basal plus regimen 48, 87
Basal therapy 269, 294
BD insulin syringe 201f
Beta blockers, overdoses of 183
Beta cell
endothelial cell interaction 20
interaction 20
Betamethasone 288
Bicarbonate 185
Biomedical nanomotors 123
Biomedical waste 230
management, categories of 230t
Biphasic insulin aspart 41
Blood glucose 17f, 68, 87, 270, 273, 284, 295
control 18f, 214
levels 123, 179
lowering therapy 59f
maintenance of target 285t
management 292t
master regulator of 183
monitoring of 50, 289
regimen, sample self-monitoring of 219t
self-monitoring of 7, 49, 64, 66, 89, 96, 135, 149, 157, 164, 170, 217, 218, 219f, 221, 223, 264
stable 283
target 177
uncontrolled 245
Blood sugar monitoring, frequent 246
Body mass index 103, 200
Bolus insulin, role of 187
Bolus therapy 269, 294
Bolus types 135
Bolus wizard 135
Brain disorders 298
Breastfeeding 166
C
Calcium channel 15f
Canadian Diabetes Association 52, 57, 74
guidelines 57, 58fc
Cancer 256
risk controversy 80
Capillary blood glucose 289
monitoring 171
Capillary glucometers 221
Carbohydrate
factor 134
metabolism, diurnal variation of 18, 19f
Cardiac failure 192
Cardioprotective agent 183
Cardiovascular disease 85, 155, 262
Cardiovascular system 287
Cell failure 276
Cellular transduction pathways 16
Ceramide 288
Cesarean section 301
Cholinergic transmission 14
Chromium
in human nutrition, role of 298
role of 298
Chronic diseases, self-management of 264
Chronic kidney disease, moderate-severe nondiabetic 153
Closed-loop system 170
Coformulation insulin
analog 41
formulations 105
Cold chain 259
costs, reducing 216
process, complete care of 256
Colloquy types 243
Colonic insulin delivery 128
Combination injectable therapy 54fc
Community health care facility 256
Continuous glucose monitoring 50, 127, 133, 222, 226
system 149
technology of 222
types of 222f
use of 224
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 49, 79, 126, 127, 132, 138, 149, 164, 169
Contraceptive pills 181
Control cardiovascular risk 156
Conventional insulin 61
aspart 30
Coronary heart disease 156
Correction boluses 284
Corticosteroids, use of 287
Corticotropin-releasing hormone 182
Counter regulatory hormone secretion 192f
Counterregulatory hormones 185
Critical care setting, utilization in 298
Cushing's syndrome 182
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate 16
role of 14f
D
Dawn phenomenon 94
Deciding bolus quantity 134
Degludec 97, 102, 148
Delta cell interaction 20
Deoxyribonucleic acid 24
Designer insulin analogs 259
Detemir 96, 148, 294
Devote study 80
Dexamethasone 288, 290
injections 290
Diabeo plus telemedicine 265
Diabetes 100, 120, 155, 156, 175, 217, 241, 300
and insulin-glucose infusion 80
and vascular disease 191
aspect of type 1 270
care 259, 260
teams, members of 274
childhood 276
complication
free 263
treatment of 259
control 220
and complications trial 78, 147
cardiovascular risk in 191
develop infections 175
diagnosis of type 1 269
distress 259
drug treatment of type 2 59t
high-risk of 289
history of 289
infections strongly with 176
living with 263
management of 220, 228, 278
type 1 269
type 2 55
women with type 1 301
women with type 2 301
neonatal 169
preexisting 289
pregestational 300
prevalence of 292
problem of 276
psychosocial aspects of 239
secondary 233, 288
self-management blood sugar 273
social marketing of 264
steroid-induced 287
symptoms of 271
test for 291
treatment for 262, 269
trial, type 1 226
type 1 76, 108, 123, 138, 147, 150, 185, 213, 255, 269, 274, 276-278, 300, 301
treatment of 256
type 2 54fc, 57, 59f, 76, 106, 138, 185, 191, 222, 259, 264, 276, 301
treatment of 256
women with
type 1 301t
type 2 301t
Diabetes mellitus 30, 63, 94, 113, 175, 233, 245, 251, 262
and sepsis 176
infections with 176, 176t
management of 181
type 2 57
pathology of 169
prevalence of 63t
type 1 73, 105, 113, 164, 176, 188, 193, 272, 276
type 2 47, 52, 68fc, 73, 74, 85, 100, 103, 105, 126, 176
Diabetic biomedical waste management, education for 231
Diabetic foot ulcers 179
Diabetic infections, complicated 175
Diabetic ketoacidosis 134, 170, 185, 271, 283
complications 188
diagnosis of 185
Diabetic medications, management of 292
Diabetic status 296
Diabetic waste 230
Diacylglycerol 13, 16, 288
Diagnostic agent 182
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate 13
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 42, 56, 68
inhibitor 53, 89
Disposable pen 202f, 231
device, parts of 202f
Disposables waste management 231
Domestic monitoring devices 230
Dose with correctional factor, calculation of 295t
Drug overdose, insulin in management of 183
Dual bolus 136, 136f
Dynamic light scattering 123
Dysglycemia, perioperative 292
E
East African Diabetes Study Group 64
Eating disorders 270
Endocrine deficiencies 193
Endogenous hyperinsulinism 194
Endothelial lipoprotein lipase 181
Enteral feeds 178
Enteral nutrition 297
therapy 297
Escherichia coli 25, 233
Essential medicine
list 253
use of 253
Estrogens 21
European Association for Study of Diabetes 52, 64, 73, 86
Exercise therapy 272
Exogenous human insulin 233
Extracellular fluid compartments 185
F
Fasting blood
glucose 49, 52, 54, 70, 87, 96, 101, 156, 295
sugar level 49
Fasting plasma glucose 39, 42, 49, 66, 68, 70, 71, 74, 85, 88, 89, 108, 291
tests 293t
Fatty acid 14, 26f
Fegludec 102
Fibro-calcific-pancreatic diabetes 199
Flash glucose monitor 225f
Flexpens 202f
Food and Drug Administration 101, 119, 136
pregnancy categories 164t
Fractures 53
Frederick banting 4f
Free fatty acid 14
receptor 14
Freestylelibre flash glucose monitor 265
Freestylelibre sensor 265
Fructosamine assay 221
Fumaryl diketopiperazine 119
G
Gastrointestinal dysfunction 193
Gastrointestinal hormones 14
Gastrointestinal malabsorption 193
Gastrointestinal side effects 101
Gastrointestinal tract 113, 127
Gestational diabetes 233, 300, 301
mellitus 50, 159, 160t, 161
Glargine 97, 101, 148, 171
Gliclazide 61, 79
Glimiperide 61
Glucagon 14
smart 123
Glucagon-like peptide-1 52, 68, 100, 141
receptor agonist 66, 70, 89
Glucocorticoids 288, 290
Glucokinase 12
enzyme 15f
Glucometers 221
Gluconeogenesis 152, 181, 192
Glucose 11
6-phosphate 13
and insulin secretion 12
control, conventional 177
dehydrogenase 221
homeostasis 152
intolerance 298
lowering drugs, use of 89
mediated insulin release 123
monitoring 160, 284
biomarkers for 220, 221
future of 226
perioperative 295
oxidase 221
profiles, twenty four-hour 67
reabsorption in kidneys 153
responsive insulin 121, 141
secretion 21
transporter 12, 153, 176
inhibitor 124
type 4 181
tubular maximum for 153
value 61
Glulisine 26f, 118
structure of 119f
Glycated hemoglobin 66, 87, 259
Glycemia, normalization of 177
Glycemic control 55f, 67f, 107f, 120, 175, 177-179, 181, 237, 296, 300
during labor 300
effects
dependent of 177
independent of 177
monitoring for 270
Glycemic goals, guidelines for 85
Glycemic homeostasis 298
Glycemic monitoring 220
concept of 220
methods, types of 223t
Glycemic targets 67, 177
Glycemic thresholds 192f
Glycemic variability 178
Glycerol-3-phosphate, formation of 12
Glycogen storage diseases 193
Glycogenolysis 152, 181, 192
Glycohemoglobin 48
Glycosylated hemoglobin 68, 217
Gold nanoclusters 124
Good glycemic control 300
Goto-Kakizaki rats 176
Growth hormone 21, 182
H
Hagedorn 4
Health care 258
facility
distributor to 256
to home 256
professional 270
burnout 270
Heart failure 53
Hemoglobin 52
A1c 220, 221, 223
in glucose monitoring, role of 221
in pregnancy 160
tests 293t
Hepatic destruction, rapid 193
Hepatic dysfunction 193
Hepatic failure 193
Hepatic gluconeogenesis 187
Hepatic glucose production 49
Hepatic-directed vesicle insulin 115
High-performance liquid chromatography 223
Human immunodeficiency virus 278
Human insulin 30, 162, 259, 260
conventional 234
Human premix insulin 39t
Hybrid insulin pump with sensor 134f
Hydrocortisone 288, 290
Hyperglycemia 113, 159, 160, 175, 178, 178t, 187, 233, 258, 262, 265, 283, 287, 292, 293, 295-297
development of 297
management 295
persists 290
reducing 262
signs of 272
steroid-induced 289
stress-induced 292
treatment of 298
using insulin, management of 293
Hyperglycemic conditions, acute 185
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state 188
Hyperkalemia
insulin in management of 182
management of 182
Hyperpigmented spots 235, 236f
Hypersensitivity reaction 235, 236f
Hypertriglyceridemia, management of 181
Hypoadrenalism 193
Hypoglycemia 39, 42, 53, 54, 86, 108t, 149, 151, 170, 177, 178, 178f, 183, 186, 191-195, 226, 259, 260, 270, 271, 292, 293
accidental 195
and safety 270
surreptitious 195
causes of 191
fasting 194
in diabetic patients, causes of 192t
in nondiabetic patients, causes of 192t
malicious 195
management 270
monitor for 61
night-time 270
nocturnal 42
prone patients 191
reactive 194
risk factors of 195
signs of 272
symptoms of 271
Hypoglycemic treatment, overbearing 178
Hypokalemia 182, 183, 186
Hypopituitarism 193
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis 182
Hypothyroidism 193
I
Immune system 287
dysfunction 175
Indian National Consensus Group 65, 75
Infection 292
related hospitalization 175
Initial glargine intervention 80
Injecting equipment, collection of 229fc
Injection site 205, 208f
rotation 205, 208f
Injection technique 150
day 264
Innate immunity, components of 175
Innovative model 274
Insulin 61, 147, 154, 169, 181-183, 214, 241-243, 253, 262, 297
action, temporal pattern of 95f
active 135
adding 56f
adequacy of 257
adjusting 270
administration 119, 185, 189, 199, 208, 253, 297
advances in 186
in pregnancy 209f
routes of 199, 200t
advances in 111
advantages of 156
anabolic property of 183
analogs 5, 30, 61, 234, 252, 253, 259, 260
long-acting 26f
safety of premix 39t
short-acting 26f, 61
types of 30, 31t
ultra-rapid acting 30, 31
use of 253
and economic factors, cost of 269
animal 234
aspart 41, 105, 108
fast-acting 118, 138
assessment of 276
autoimmune hypoglycemia 194
availability of 276-278
available
making 277
types of ultrafast-acting 117
barriers to 242t
acceptance of 241
use of 251
benefits of 259
biosimilar 260
biosynthesis of 5
intracellular pathways of 12f
biphasic human 91
bolus 134, 161, 283, 296
breaking of 170
buccal 128
business 258
carrying case with gel packs 215f
causes
low blood sugar 246
organ damage 245
renal failure 245
weight gain 246
choice of 283
classification of 27t, 233, 234t
co-formulations 105
concentrated 97
concentrations 19f, 188
correctional 135, 283
cost 259
containment and 258
factors affecting 258
costly treatment 246
daily dose of 223, 294t
daily intake of 169
decreased 185
degludec 35t, 37, 41, 105, 108
aspart, development of 105
development of 105
delivery 237
adjustment of 179
closed-loop 170
methods 126
mode of 157
system, intelligent nanoscale 123
delivery devices 126, 201
syringes 201
types of 201
dependent patients
monitoring of 218
sugar monitoring of 218
detemir 37, 108
diabetes on 271
discovery of 3, 6, 30, 117
road to 3
dose 147, 149, 181, 222, 290, 294
adjustments 150
total daily 283, 294, 295
during labor and delivery 165
factors affecting absorption of 208
fast-acting 119, 120
for preterm delivery 164
formulation 139
forskolin 124
free disbursal of 278
fridge to store 256
from intravenous to subcutaneous, transitioning 283, 294
gene 24
glargine 34t, 36t, 37, 294
efficacy of 35t, 36t
longer-acting version of 138
safety of 35t, 36t
glucagon-like peptide-1 100f
glulisine 31
single injection of 69
granule exocytosis 13f, 14, 15f
green use of 228
guidelines 45
high-dose 186
high-mix 91, 93
historical trials of 78
history of 3, 7
homeostasis 153
improves sepsis 177
in diabetic ketoacidosis 185
in elderly 155
in hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state 188
in infants 169
in pregnancy, choice of 161
in Ramadan 76
infusion 178, 186, 187
therapy 296
inhaled 127, 142
initiation 73-75, 86
dose 290t
injecting 207f, 246
injection 236, 262
basic reinforcement of 270
causes pain 245
frequent 297
local issues of 233
intensification of 75, 76, 87, 88t
intensifying 56f
intermediate-acting 28, 148, 170, 289
leakage of 207
like growth factor 1 25, 154
lispro 30, 38
mix 38
long-acting 28, 61, 148
manufacturers 259
market 260
mini refrigerator 215f
myths 246
nasal 128
nondiabetic use of 181
noninjectable 113
nutritional 283
patients already on 246
pen 126, 215f
devices 202f
digital health advancements for 209
pharmacodynamic profiles of 95, 95t
pharmacokinetic profiles of 95, 95t
physiological actions of 181
physiology 159
potency in extreme temperatures, changes to 214
practices, present day 199
premixed 294
preparations, types of 148t
pump 132, 134, 226, 230, 301
advantages of 135
in pregnancy 164
sensor-augmented 226
therapy 132, 133t
therapy, disadvantages of 136
types of 133
with infusion set 132f
regimen 47, 49, 50, 148, 162, 269, 295
available, advantages of 87f
disadvantages of 87f
during labor 301
factors affecting 48
intensification of 87
studies 79
types of 48
related self-care 147, 150
release of 11
requirement
factors affecting 162
mealtime 293
resistance 289
psychological 241, 242t
right 261
safety in pregnancy 163
secretagogues 285
secretion 13, 14
biphasic pattern of 15
diurnal pattern of 17
hormone regulation of 21
interim pathways for 18
mechanism of 169
non-nutrient regulators of 14t
patterns of 94
physiology of 11
regulation of 16
self-mixing of 151
self-monitoring in 217
sensitivity 169, 295
short-acting 27, 147, 179
signaling 288
social marketing 262, 263
mix for 264t
spiraling cost of 258
split-mixed 48
steps for injecting 204
storage of 119, 213, 214, 216, 256
clay pot for 215f
fast-acting 119t
methods of 204f
stored 204f
structure of 117, 117f
supplemental 285
supply of 257, 277
synthesis of 11
syringes 231
taxonomy of 24, 24t
technique 199, 203
pearls of 211
storage 203
technosphere 119
temperature for 213
testing of 256
therapy 52, 68fc, 73-75, 147, 186, 188, 199, 217, 245, 289
barriers of 209
children on 272
complications of 207
in diabetes 64, 159
in young, challenges of 269
initiation of 66fc, 67t
intensification of 49t, 65
local problems with 233
low-dose 186
managing 281
perioperative management 292
principles of 160
starting 186
with pump 134
thermostable 215, 216
titration and safety studies 80
tolerance test 182
total daily dose of 284t
transdermal 129
transport of 256
treated patients 235
treatment 155, 217
in young, challenges of 267
types of 7, 139, 147, 148
analog 31
ultrafast-acting 27, 117
ultralong-acting 28
use of 7, 78, 251, 259
user 263
waste 230
zinc suspension 148
Insulinoma 194
Intensive care unit 292
monitoring in 226
Intensive glycemic monitoring 226
Intensive insulin therapy 79, 177
International Diabetes Federation 52, 57, 63, 73, 85, 126, 159, 175, 251, 262
Guidelines 73
International Diabetes Management Practical Study 64
International Guideline Recommendations for Insulin Initiation 52
Intra-abdominal infections 176
Intracellular phosphate 188
Intraoperative blood glucose 292
Intrapartum glycemic management 301t
Intratracheal route 129
Intravenous
glucose 16
glulisine insulin 187
Intravenous insulin infusion 164
protocols 301
Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine 21
Isophane insulin 28, 148
K
Ketoacidosis 187
resolution of 186
Ketone bodies 185
Ketonemia 185
Ketonuria 185
Kidney disease, chronic 153, 154, 181
L
Labor, induction of 301
Lactic-co-glycolic acid 114, 124
Leptin 21
Less-intensive regimens 149
Levofloxacin 191
Linagliptin 61
Lipoatrophy 209f, 235, 235f
Lipodystrophy 234
Lipohypertrophy 209f, 234, 235f, 236
Lipoprotein, high-density 262
Lipotoxic action 288
Liraglutide 102
Lispro 26f, 117
structure of 118f
Liver disease, chronic 181
Liver-preferential mealtime insulin analog 141
Lixisenatide 101
Local tissue ischemia 176
M
Maternal plasma glucose 301
Medication waste 230
Meglitinides 285
Melatonin 21
Mesoporous silica 123
Metabolic acidosis 185
Metabolic derangement 292
Metabolic diseases 262
Metabolic disorders 94, 183
Metabolic imbalance 298
Metabolic memory 79
Metformin 79, 89
Methacrylated hyaluronic acid 123
Methylprednisolone 288, 290
Microneedle technology 129
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 252, 256
Modern insulin pumps 169
Monitoring sugars 270
Morbidity and mortality 298
Multiple daily injections 79, 127, 149, 169
Multiple daily insulin 113
injections regimen 48
Myocardial infarction trials, acute 80
N
National AIDS Control Organisation 228
National Health Service 259
National Institute for Clinical Excellence 52
sugar trial 79
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 259
National Institute of Biologicals 256
National list of essential medicines 251, 252
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority 253
Needle size for insulin injection 203f
Needle usage, frequency of 205
Neisidoblastosis 194
Neutral protamine hagedorn 4, 5, 27, 28, 54, 74, 87, 95, 148, 154, 156, 162, 283, 295
New insulin formulations 277
New NLEM Committee 253
Newer insulins 215, 228, 259
on horizon 139t
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate 175
Nicotine substitutes 263
Noncommunicable diseases 233
Nongovernment organization 274
Noninsulin therapies 289
Noninsulinoma 194
Noninvasive glucose monitoring 226
Nonislet cell tumors 194
Normal bolus 135, 135f
Normal paraffin hydrocarbon 169
Normal tissues 236
Nosocomial infection, risk of 175
Novolog-insulin aspart 171
Nutrition delivery, synchronization of 298
Nutritional support 272
O
Open tender system 259
Optimum glycemic control 255
Oral antidiabetic drugs 64, 79, 97, 120, 191, 251, 285
Oral antihyperglycemic agents 251
Oral contraceptives 263
Oral glucose 16
Oral hypoglycemic agents 293, 301
Oral insulins 114, 128, 141
Oral rehydration solution 263
Osteomyelitis 179
P
Pancreas shutdown 245
Pancreatic beta cell 21f, 272
Pancreatic diabetes 193
Pancreatogenous hypoglycemia 194
Parenteral nutrition 297
total 178, 182
Particulate carrier delivery system 115
Pen device 201, 203t, 204
parts of reusable 203f
types of 201
Pen filled devices, injection process for 206f
Phenylboronic acid 122
pH-sensitive polymers 123
Pioglitazone 61
Pituitary surgery 182
Plasma glucose 19f, 293
values of 19f
Plastic waste 231
Point-of-care glucometers 295
Polycystic ovary syndrome 300
Postpartum 301
insulin requirements 165
Postprandial blood glucose 49, 87
tests 293t
Postprandial glucose 39, 74, 85, 92, 96, 101
Postprandial plasma glucose 48, 68, 71
Potassium, displacement of 182
Prandial insulin 49
doses 68f
therapy 65
Prandial secretion 94
Prednisolone 288, 290
Prednisone 288
Predominant intracellular anion 182
Pregnancy, monitoring in 226
Premix insulin 48, 49, 74, 75, 85, 86
analog 38, 87, 88
therapy 89fc
formulations 105
therapy 65, 67, 71
Premix regimen 149, 150
Prochaska's therapy 243
Proinsulin molecule 12f
Protein kinase 16
A, activation of 17
Protein oral delivery 141
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance 123
Pseudo-Cushing's states 182
Psychiatric disorders and cancer, management of 183
Psychological support system 273
Psychological triage model 243
Psychotypic triage 242t
Public health and insulin 249
Pulmonary insulin
development of rapid-acting 113
long-acting 114
Pump therapy 149
Purified human insulin 237
R
Rabbit surgery trial 79
Randomized controlled trials 31, 186
Rapid-acting insulin 27, 169
analogs 30, 132, 148, 186, 187
aspart 108
Rectal route 129
Regimen 169
differentiating 298
Regular human insulin 30, 283
Regular insulin 27, 186, 295
infusion 187
Renal disease 192
Renal dysfunction 193
Renal failure 245
Renal glucose transporter 153
Renal impairment 152
Renal physiology, essential of 152
Research Society for Study of Diabetes 50, 52
diabetes therapeutic wheel 60, 61f
guidelines 60
Respiratory infections 176
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis 175
Right needle length and injection technique 203t
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 11
S
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 233
Salbutamol inhalation 182
Schizophrenia 183
School-based support system 274
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system 128
Sensor-augmented pump 127
therapy 127
Sepsis 193
Serum potassium 182
Sick day
in infants 170
management 269
Skeletal muscle 287, 288
Skin
anatomy of 200
infections 176
layers of 200f
lift technique 205, 207f
Smart composite microneedle 123
Smart insulin 121, 141
cells 122
delivery 123
patch 122
systems 122
working of 121f
Smart pens, types of 210t
Social marketing assessment 263
Society for Prevention and Awareness of Diabetes 274
Sodium
coupled glucose cotransporters 153
glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor 56, 89
Soft tissue infections 176
South Asian Guidelines on Insulin Therapy 73
Square bolus 136, 136f
Standard bolus 135, 135f
State Drug Control Organizations 255
Steroid 287-289
discontinuation of 287
induced hyperglycemia, management of 288
managing 287
preparations 288t
single morning dose 290t
therapy
discontinuation of 290
injections of 290
single morning dose 289
wears off 289
Storage, picture of 204f
Stress hyperglycemia
infection related 176
transition in 285
Subcutaneous therapy, transition to 284
Subcutaneous tissue 200, 201f
thickness, factors determining 200
Sulfonylurea 50, 53, 61, 74, 89, 285
receptor 16
short-acting 61
Synaptosomal-associated protein-25 14
Syringe 203t
injection process for 205f
usage, frequency of 205
Systemic illness 192
Systemic steroid use 287
T
Tackle insulin myths 246
Taking insulin dose 270
Thiazolidinedione 53, 285
Traffic light system chart 219f
Transition basal regimen 284
Transition bolus regimen 284
Transmission electron microscopy 123
Triamcinolone 288
Tricarboxylic acid cycle 12
Tumor necrosis factor 177
U
United Kingdom National Institute for Clinical Excellence 43
United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 79, 85, 156
insulin arm 79
University Group Diabetes Program 78
Unsafe disposal practices, causes of 228
Until glucose falls 189
Upper gastrointestinal bleed 120
Urinary tract infections 176
US Food and Drug Administration 170
V
Viral hepatitis 256
Viral infections 256
Vitamins and trace elements 297
W
Waste disinfection 229f
Waste disposal
education 230
from drop-in center 229fc
Weight gain disorders 270
World Health Organization 264
×
Chapter Notes

Save Clear