Textbook of Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion Rashmi GS Phulari
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Achalasia 293
Adjacent teeth 46, 47, 206, 230
by cementum 198
distal surface of 9f
of canines 141
Afferent fibers 261
Alveolar artery
anterosuperior 257
inferior 258
middle superior 257
part of inferior 258
Alveolar bone 192, 257
Alveolar crest 254
Alveolar mucosa 263
Alveolar nerve
anterosuperior 262
inferior 263
middle superior 262, 263
posterosuperior 262
Amelogenesis imperfecta 31, 32f
Amelogenin protein of enamel, coding for 64
Anatomic crown and root 7f
Angle's key of occlusion 198, 199f
Angular system 22
Animal teeth 64
Anomalies, developmental 116, 122, 131, 136, 145, 162
Anthropoid spaces, significance of 277
Apex of root 14
Apical foramen 14, 104
Arch curvatures 283
Arch traits 187t, 232, 232t
Armamentarium 297
Lecron carver 297, 298f
wax blocks 297
Articulatory system 273
Auriculotemporal nerve 263
B
Baby teeth 4, 75
Bicuspids 156
Bilophodont molars 69
Block rest, finger on 298, 299f
Bone 265
of neurocranium 252
of viscerocranium 252
Bony fish 60
dermal scales of 58f
Brachydont teeth 69
Bruxing habit 273
Buccal cervical ridge 222
Buccal crest 50
Buccal cusp 93, 161, 284
of premolar teeth, ridges of 11f
tip 159
well-developed 245
Buccal developmental groove 91, 197, 226
Buccal embrasure 49
Buccal lobe 13
Buccal nerve, long 262
Buccal ridge 12f, 159
Buccal surface 157, 201
Buccal triangular ridge 161
Buccolingual location 48f
C
Canine 5, 10f, 31, 48, 103, 140f
and premolars, eruption of 79f
eminence 140, 253
of mandible 256
posterior to 145
eruption 79f
fossa 145, 253
function of 291
guidance 140, 151
primary 36f, 76, 76f
teeth 44, 44f, 140
two-rooted lower 71, 71f
Carabelli trait 69, 70
Carabelli's cusp 69
Carnassial teeth 68, 156
Carnivores 45
Carnivorous mammals
cat 63
dog 62
new world monkey 63
Carotid artery, external 257
Cartilaginous fish 60
placoid scale of 58f
Carving mandibular
first molar, step-by-step procedure for 311f
first premolar, step-by-step procedure for 307f
second premolar, step-by-step procedure for 308f
Carving maxillary
canine, step-by-step procedure for 303f
central incisor, step-by-step procedure for 301f
first molar, step-by-step procedure for 309f
first premolar, step-by-step procedure for 305f
Cementoenamel junction 7, 50
Cementum 64
Central developmental groove 91, 161, 197
Central fossa 14f, 218
Centric holding cusp 283, 284f
Centric occlusal contacts 285
Cervical ridge 12f
flatter 106f
prominent 106f
Cheek 259
blood supply to 259, 259t
Cheiloscopy 65
Cheiloscopy print 65
Chewing 291
gum 64
Cingulum 11, 11f, 114
Clear speech, development of 292
Common carotid artery 257
Condylar guidance 286
Condylar processes 257
Condyle-disk assemblies 285
Conical teeth in snake, small 62f
Cornua 238
Coronoid processes 257
Cortical plates, outer and inner 254
Corydon palmer 23
Craniofacial complex 252
Cranium 252
Cribriform plate 254
Crown 68, 103, 112, 119, 129, 133, 141
and root, size of 44
brachydont 69
bunodont 68
carving 299
cervico-occlusal length of 157, 227
distal aspect 115, 121, 130, 136, 144
divisions of 15
hypsodont 69
incisal aspect 116, 122, 136, 144
labial
aspect 112, 119, 129, 133, 141
surface 129, 133
lingual
aspect 114, 119, 129, 133, 143
convergence of 174
surface 135
lophodont 69
mesial
aspect 115, 121, 130, 135,
surface 130, 135
outlines 163
selenodont 68
tusks 69
Curve of Spee 51, 51f, 283, 287f
anteroposterior curve 51, 286
curve occlusal plane 286
Curve of Wilson 51, 51f, 283, 287, 287f
Cusp 10, 10f, 91, 156, 192
and cusp ridges 93, 197, 225
buccal 173
guiding 284, 284f
intermedium 219
lingual 173
of carabelli 69f, 93, 192f
ridges 85, 91, 145, 215, 218
supporting 283, 284f
teeth 52
tip 11f, 87, 160, 189
types of 283
Cusp-embrasure occlusion 284, 284f
Cusp-fossa occlusion 284, 284f
Cuspids 140
D
Deciduous 75
canines 85
incisors 79
predecessor teeth 36
Deciduous dentition 3f, 27, 31, 73, 75, 291
characteristics of occlusion of 275
deep bite 277
generalized spacing 277
incisor relationship 277
increased overjet 277
interdental spacing 275
molar relationship 278
significance of 77
stage 275, 275f
third molars in 101
Deciduous mandibular
canine 87
central incisor 83
first molar 95
incisors 277
lateral incisor 83
second molar 98
Deciduous maxillary
canine 85
central incisor 79
first molar 89
lateral incisor 81
second molar 93
Deciduous molars 87
succeed 156
Deciduous teeth 37, 75, 191
common 85
exfoliated 238
roots of 77
Deglutition 291, 292
applied physiology 293
esophageal stage 293
oral stage 293
pharyngeal stage 293
reflex 293
stages of 293f
Dens evaginatus 178, 185f
Dens invaginatus 122
Dental age 40, 42
calculate 40
Dental anatomy 3
basic terminologies in 8
comparative 55, 57, 60
field of 3
forensic application of 57
Dental anthropology 55, 67
Dental arch 21, 46, 214, 229, 281
arrangement in 4
corner stone of 140
perimeter, increase 280f
posteriors of 156f
Dental cast specimen 4f
Dental fluorosis, enamel mottling caused to 32f
Dental formula 6
for deciduous dentition 6
for permanent dentition 6
for primary dentition 6, 75
in humans 6
Dental identification, role of DNA in 64
Dental lamina 31, 31f, 282
Dental papilla 8, 31, 58
Dental practice, occlusion in 273
Dental procedures 273
Dental pulp 238
harbors 238
Dental sac 31
Dental treatment 273
Dentin 58, 64, 105
forming cells 58
secondary 238
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 31, 32f
Dentistry, context of 44
Dentition
in cattle 62f
of cat 63f
of dog 63f
of monkey 63f
primary 3, 3f, 4, 26, 31, 75, 75f, 95, 101, 102, 276, 276f
secondary 3, 4, 4f
Dentition in humans 3
stages of 6
Dentition period
mixed 77
primary 35
transitional 77
Dento-osseous structures 249, 251
anatomy of 251
arterial supply of 258f
lymphatic drainage of 260f
nerve supply of 261f
venous drainage of 259f
Deoxyribonucleic acid 64
Dermal denticles 57
Digastric fossae 257
Digastric muscles, anterior belly of 257
Diphyodont dentition 68
Diphyodonty 3
Distal cusp
ridge 12f, 85
small 214
Distal lobe 13
Distal marginal ridge 177
Distal oblique groove 197
Distal pit 161
Distal root canal 246
Distal step 278
Distal triangular fossa 161
Distobuccal cusp ridge 161
Distobuccal developmental groove 215
Distolingual cusp 91, 93, 97
ridge 161
Distolingual lobe 13
Dog teeth 140
Dynamic occlusion 286
Dyslexia 293
E
Elephant tusks 111
Elevators 267
Embrasures 44, 49
function of 49
spaces 49, 49f
Enamel 58, 105
organ 31, 58
prisms 66f, 105
rod 107f
end 66
surface 66
End of carver, spoon-shaped working 298f
Endochondral ossification 252
Endodontist enigma 173
Erupted teeth
anatomic crown in newly 8f
newly 115, 133
Eruption of teeth, chronologies of 40
Ethmoid bone 252
Extracted teeth 7f
specimen 298
Eye teeth 140
F
Face 252
of skull 251
Facial aesthetics 291
Facial appearance, maintenance of normal 292
Facial bones 252
Facial skeleton 252
Federation Dentaire Internationale 125, 152, 187, 189
notation for permanent dentition 25, 26f
notation for primary dentition 26, 26f
teeth notation system 25b
Fetal skull 251f
Fibrous capsule 265, 266, 266f
Fifth cusp 192
groove 197
Finger rest, finger on 298, 299f
First molar,
primary 89
three-rooted lower 71f
Fluid 265
Fluorosis 31
Fontanelle 251, 251f
Food, mastication of 291
Foramen, apical 240
Foramina, accessory 240
Forensic anthropology 67
Forensic odontology 57, 63
Forensics anthropology 55
Fossa 13, 91, 218
and marginal ridges 197, 218, 225
central 13
lingual 13
major 197
marginal 161
minor 198
triangular 13, 14f
Fundus 254
G
Gastroesophageal reflux disease 293
Genial spines 256
Genioglossus muscle 256
Geniohyoid muscle 256
Gingiva 45f, 261
attached 45, 45f
covers 45
free 45f
marginal 45, 45f
recession of 7
Gingival margin 7
Gingival papilla 45, 49
Gingival recession, anatomic crown due to 8f
Gingival tissue 45, 50
Ginglymoarthrodial joint 265
Ginglymus 265
Glenoid fossa 266f, 286
condyle to 265f
Groove 91, 161, 197, 225
developmental 14
distal developmental 91
marginal developmental 160
transverse 274
Gum 7
Gum pad 274f
in infants, upper and lower 275f
mandibular 274f
maxillary 274f
stage 274
H
Haplodont animals 59
Haplodont dentition in crocodile 59f
Haplodont teeth 60, 69
Heterodont 57
dentition 3, 68, 68f
Homodont dentition 3, 68
in crocodile 68f
in fish 60f
Horny plates 61f
Human bite mark 65f
Human chin 255
Human dentition 60
development of 33f
Human jaw movements 44
Hypsodont teeth 69
I
Incisal aspect 130
Incisal dominance 111f, 117
Incisal edge 116, 130f
Incisal embrasures 49f
Incisal guidance 286
Incisal liability 280
Incisal ridge 115, 116
Incisive foramen 263
Incisive fossa 253255
Incisive nerve 263
Infraorbital artery 257
Infraorbital foramen 253
Infraorbital margin 253
Infraorbital nerve 262
anastomoses of 262
Intercanine arch width, increase in 280
Interdental gingiva 45f
protection of 45
Interdental papilla 45
Interdental septa 263
International Association for Dental Research 25
Interproximal gingiva 46f
Interproximal gingival tissue 45f, 46f, 52f
Interproximal spaces, triangular-shaped 45f
Intra-arch teeth contacts 282
Intramembranous ossification 252
J
Jaw
bones 45
closers 267
equal-sized 45
margins 57
movements, crocodile limit lateral 45f
openers 267
reflexes 292
size 44
Joint capsule 286
Joint pain, freedom from 273
Joint, muscles of 267
L
Labial gingiva anteriorly 258
Labial lobe 13
Labial ridge 12f, 143
Lamina dura 254, 255f
Lateral pterygoid muscle 268
Leeway space 281
of nance 281
Leong's premolar 178, 184, 185f
Ligament 265
Lingual cusp 156, 161
tip of 159
Lingual developmental groove 215, 222
Lingual embrasures 49
Lingual fossa 12, 14f, 114, 115
Lingual groove 197
Lingual lobe 13
Lingual nerve 262
Lingual surface 159
of maxillary lateral incisor, tubercle on 11f
Lingual triangular ridge 161
Lingula 257
Lip 259, 260, 293
blood supply to 259, 259t
innervation of 263
print 65, 65f
venous drainage of 260fc
Lobe 13
Lophodont molars 69
Lymphatic drainage 260
M
Mamelons 13, 111, 114, 129
absent in primary incisor 106f
on erupting
incisor teeth 114f
mandibular incisors 129f
present in permanent incisor 106f
Mandible 254, 256f, 259
elevation of 269
inferior alveolar vein 259
innervation of 263
nerve 263
Mandibular anterior teeth, labial gingival of 261
Mandibular arches 281
Mandibular articular bone 265
Mandibular body 255
external surface of 255, 256f
internal surface of 256, 257f
Mandibular bone 265
Mandibular canal 257
Mandibular canine 64, 145, 147, 148f, 148t, 149f, 151, 153b, 153fc, 154fc, 245, 245f
carving of 303
description of 147
distal aspect 150f
erupts 280
incisal aspect 151f
labial aspect 150f
lingual aspect 150f
mesial aspect 150f
primary 90f
root 150
specimen carving of 304f
with bifurcated root 151f
Mandibular central incisor 35f, 127, 127f, 128f, 129t, 131, 131b, 132fc, 135, 244, 244f
carving of 300
distal aspect 130f
eruption of 275f
incisal aspect 131f
labial aspect 129f
lingual aspect 129f
mesial aspect 130f
primary 37f, 84f
specimen carving of 301f
Mandibular first molar 214, 214f, 214t, 215f, 216f, 219, 219f, 220, 220b, 220fc, 221fc, 225, 232, 234t, 246, 246f
buccal aspect 216f, 217f
carving of 310
carving steps 310f
crown 214
developmental anomalies 219
distal aspect 216f, 217f
erupt 220
lingual aspect 216f, 217f
mesial aspect 216f, 217f
occlusal aspect 216f, 218f
primary 96f, 102f
root 219
variations 219
Mandibular first premolar 173, 173t, 174f, 175f, 178b, 178f, 179fc, 180fc, 188t, 245f
buccal aspect 175f, 176f
carving of 306
carving steps 306f
clinical considerations 178
crown 174
description of 174
developmental anomalies 178
distal aspect 175f, 177f
identification features of 178
lingual aspect 175f, 176f
mesial aspect 175f, 176f
occlusal aspect 175f
root 177
variations 178
Mandibular foramen, irregular 257
Mandibular growth, differential 282
Mandibular incisors 127
Mandibular jaw 62f
bone 265
Mandibular lateral incisor 133, 133f, 133t, 134f, 137fc, 138, 138b, 138t, 148, 244f
carving of 302
description of 133
distal aspect 136f
incisal aspect 136f
labial aspect 135f
lingual aspect 135f
mesial aspect 135f
primary 86f
specimen carving of 302f
Mandibular molar 14, 214, 239
mesiodistal section of 239f
Mandibular movements 269
and muscle activity 269
projected on sagittal plane 285f, 286f
Mandibular nerve 262
divisions of 263fc
Mandibular notch 257
Mandibular permanent
canine 151, 151t
central incisors 138t
incisors 280
second premolar 185b
Mandibular posterior teeth 176
proximal aspects of 52
Mandibular premolar 173, 173f
crowns of 173
type traits 188t
Mandibular ramus 257, 257f
Mandibular right first premolar 174f
Mandibular right second premolar 181f
Mandibular second molar 42, 221, 221t, 222f, 223f, 225, 226, 226b, 226fc, 227fc, 232, 234t, 246, 246f
buccal aspect 223f, 224f
carving of 310
crown 221
developmental anomalies 225
distal aspect 223f, 224f
identification features of 226
lingual aspect 223f, 224f
mesial aspect 223f, 224f
occlusal aspect 223f, 225f
primary 99f
protostylid in 70f
root 225
side identification 226
specimen carving of 311f
variations 225
Mandibular second premolar 156, 178, 179f, 182f, 184f, 185, 185fc, 186fc, 188t, 246f
anatomy 185
buccal aspect 182f, 183f
carving of 306
chronology 179
and measurements 179t
crown 178
developmental anomalies 184
distal aspect 182f, 183f
from all aspects 178
lingual aspect 182f, 183f
measurements 179
mesial aspect 182f, 183f
occlusal aspect 182f, 183f
occlusal morphology varies in 183
root 184
side identification 178
variations 184
Mandibular teeth 4, 10f, 27, 35, 77, 130, 244, 282
alveoli of 257, 257f
and periodontium, blood supply to 258, 258t
lingual inclination of 53f
opening for 240
Mandibular third molar 226, 227t, 228f230f, 231fc, 232, 232b, 232fc, 234t
anatomy of 227f
buccal aspect 228f, 229f
clinical considerations 230
crown 226
developmental anomalies 230
distal aspect 228f
identification features of 232
impacted 231f
permanent 225, 247
root 230
variations 230
Marginal ridge 12f, 161, 198, 219
Masseter muscle 257, 267, 267f
Mastication 291, 292
Masticatory cycle 292fc
Masticatory system 273f
Maxilla 252, 259
alveolar process 254
body of 253, 253f
frontal process 253
houses maxillary sinus, body of 253f
innervation of 263
palatine process 254, 254f
parts of 252f
process of each 253
zygomatic process 253
Maxillary and mandibular
anterior teeth 48f
canines 140
central incisors 9f, 46f
dental arches 4
first molars 220
first premolars 162
molars 44, 232, 232t
permanent canines 140
posterior teeth 48f
premolars 187t
second molars 199
teeth 261, 273
third molars 206
Maxillary anterior region, crowding in 79f
Maxillary arch 111, 145, 282, 283
Maxillary artery 257, 258
branches of 258fc
Maxillary canine 42, 11f, 142f, 145, 145f, 146f, 146fc, 147b, 147fc, 148, 150, 151, 157, 159f, 242f, 245
and first premolar, transposition of 145f
buccal eruption of 39f
carving of 302
carving steps 302f
chronology and dimensions 141t
description of 141
distal aspect 142f, 144f
erupts after eruption of premolars 39f
incisal aspect 142f, 144f
labial aspect 142f, 143f
lingual aspect 142f, 143f
mesial aspect 142f, 144f
palatal eruption of 39f
primary 88f
Maxillary central incisor 11f, 111, 111f, 112f115f, 116, 116f, 117, 117b, 117f, 118fc, 241f
carving of 299
carving steps 300f
chronology and dimensions 112t
description of 112
distal aspect 113f
gemination of 117f
incisal aspect 113f, 116f
labial aspect 113f
lingual aspect 113f
mesial aspect 113f
primary 80f
Maxillary first molar 192t, 193f, 194f, 199b, 200fc, 201fc, 211t, 214, 214f, 243f, 309
buccal aspect 194f, 195f
carving of 307
carving steps 308f
clinical considerations 198
crown 192
primary 102f
description of 192
developmental anomalies 198, 198f
distal aspect 194f, 196f
lingual aspect 194f, 195f
mesial aspect 194f, 195f
occlusal aspect 194f, 196f
occlusal surface of 197
primary 89, 91, 92f
root 198, 255f
variations 198
Maxillary first premolar 156, 157, 157t, 158f, 159f, 162f, 163, 163b, 163fc, 164fc, 165f, 167, 170t, 242f, 303
anatomy of 162
buccal aspect 158f, 159f
carving of 303
carving steps 304f
distal aspect 158f, 160f
lingual aspect 158f, 159f
mesial aspect 158f, 160f
occlusal aspect 158f, 161f
Maxillary incisors 111, 131
Maxillary lateral incisor 51f, 119, 119f121f, 123fc, 124b, 124fc, 241f
carving of 300
chronology and dimension 119t
distal aspect 120f, 121f
incisal aspect 120f, 122f
labial aspect 120f
lingual aspect 120f, 121f
mesial aspect 120f, 121f
primary 82f
shoveling in 70f
specimen carving of 301f
variations 122f
Maxillary molar 257
primary cusp triangle 196, 196f, 197
Maxillary nerve 262, 263
divisions of 262fc
pterygopalatine branch of 262
Maxillary permanent
canine 140, 143, 145, 151, 151t
central incisor 124, 124t, 143
incisors 280
lateral incisor 124, 124t
second molar, crown of 198
Maxillary posterior teeth 263, 283, 284
proximal aspects of 52
Maxillary premolar type traits 170t
Maxillary right
canine 141f
first premolar 157f
Maxillary second molar 199, 200f, 200t, 202f, 205, 205b, 205fc, 206fc, 207, 211t, 244f
buccal aspect 202f, 203f
carving of 309
crown 201
description of 201
developmental anomalies 204
distal aspect 202f, 204f
lingual aspect 202f, 203f
mesial aspect 202f, 203f
occlusal aspect 202f, 204f
primary 94f
root 204, 255f
specimen carving of 309f
supernumerary root 205f
variations 204
Maxillary second premolar 162, 163t, 165f, 166f, 167, 168fc, 169b, 169fc, 170t, 243f
anatomy of 168
buccal aspect 166f
carving of 305
clinical considerations 167
crown 162
developmental anomalies 167
distal aspect 166f, 167f
lingual aspect 166f
mesial aspect 166f, 167f
occlusal aspect 166f, 167f
root 167
specimen of carving of 305f
variations 167
Maxillary sinus 254, 255f
Maxillary teeth 4, 10f, 27, 35, 77, 173, 241, 244
alveoli of 255f
and periodontium, blood supply to 257, 258t
opening for 240
overlap 282
mandibular teeth 282f
Maxillary third molar 206, 207f, 207t, 208f, 210b, 210fc, 211fc, 211t, 244, 244f
buccal aspect 208f, 209f
clinical considerations 208
crown 206
distal aspect 208f, 209f
identification features of 210
lingual aspect 208f, 209f
mesial aspect 208f, 209f
occlusal aspect 208f, 209f
root 208
variations 208, 209f
Maxillary tuberosity 253
Maximum intercuspation 284
Medial pterygoid muscle 268
action 268
insertion 268
nerve supply 268
origin 268
Mental foramen 256
Mental nerve 263
Mental protuberance 255
Mental tubercles 255
Mesial and distal
cusp ridges 143
lingual fossae 143
occlusal fossae 184
pits 218
triangular fossae 197, 218
Mesial contact area 135, 141, 147, 150, 157, 160, 174, 201, 214
Mesial cusp 97
ridge 12f, 85, 87
slope 141, 157
Mesial developmental depression 160, 170
Mesial lobe 13
Mesial marginal
developmental groove 160, 161
ridge 177
Mesial pit 161
Mesial root 239
Mesial shift 279, 279f
Mesial step 278
Mesial surface 160
Mesial triangular fossa 161
Mesiobuccal and distobuccal developmental grooves 161
Mesiobuccal cusp 89, 91, 97, 225
of molar teeth 239
ridge of 161, 197
tip 215
Mesiobuccal developmental groove 215
Mesiodens 116, 117f
Mesiodistal dimensions of crown 106f
Mesiolingual cusp 89, 91, 93, 191
ridge of 161, 197
Mesiolingual developmental groove 175
Mesiolingual lobe 13
Midpalatine raphe 254
Milk teeth 4, 75
Mixed and permanent dentition stages 34f
Mixed dentition
period 7, 40
stage 38, 278
Modern mammals 61
carnivorous mammals 62
herbivorous mammals 62
rodents 62
Molar
anterior to 156f
common characteristics of 191
function of 191, 291
primary 7, 36f, 76f, 106f
protostylid of 70
second 42
six 191
Molar relationship
in permanent dentition, type of 279
normal 283f
primary 278
Molar teeth 12, 191
second 218
Monophyodont dentition 68
Motor fibers 261, 262
Mucogingival junction 45f
Multirooted teeth 14, 239
Muscles of mastication, accessory 269
Mylohyoid groove 257
Mylohyoid nerve 263
N
Nasal spine, posterior 254
Nasopalatine nerve 254, 262
Natal teeth 32, 275
in newborn child 275f
Neonatal teeth 275
Neurocranium 251f, 252
Nonsupporting cusp 284, 284f
O
Occipital bone 252
Occlusal contacts 285f
Occlusal embrasures 49f
Occlusal groove configuration 70
Occlusal stability 288
Occlusal surface, boundaries of 197
Occlusal wear 130
Occlusion 271, 273
balanced 274
centric relation 274
dental 274
development of 274
functional 274
ideal 273
normal 273
physiological 273
therapeutic 274
trauma from 274
traumatic 274
Odontoblasts 58
Odontodes 57, 57f
Ophthalmic nerve 261
Oral cavity, emergence status into 40
Oral physiology 289, 291
Orodental tissues
lymphatic drainage of 260, 260t
nerve supply to 261
venous drainage of 259
Orofacial complex, form and function of 44
Orthopantomogram 76f
portion of 79f
Overbite 283
P
Palatal rugoscopy 65
Palate 259, 260
blood supply to 259, 259t
innervation of 263
venous drainage of 260fc
Palatine nerve 262
Paleoanthropology 67
Paleontology 67
Palm and thumb grasp 298
Papilla 45f
Parapremolar 178f
Parietal bone 252
Pen grasp, modified 299f
Pericoronitis 230
Periodontal disease 123
Periodontal ligament 64, 261
Periodontal tissues 263
Permanent and primary dentitions, palmer system for 24t
Permanent anteriors 37f
Permanent canines 76f, 140
common characteristics of 140
eruption of 280
functions 140
Permanent dentition 3, 4, 4f, 12, 26, 27, 95, 101, 102, 109, 278, 279f, 282
characteristics of occlusion in 282
chronology of 38, 39t
crowding of 276
eruption of 282
occlusion of 291
period 7
stage 38, 282
Permanent first molar 102f
erupting lower 279f
Permanent incisor 31, 76f, 280f
eruption of 280
teeth, erupting 13f
Permanent mandibular
canine 145, 245
central incisor 127, 244
first molar 214, 246
first premolar 245
incisors 127
lateral incisor 131, 244
molars 214
premolars 173
second molar 220, 246
second premolar 245
Permanent maxillary
canine 141, 242
central incisor 111, 241, 299
first
molar 93, 191, 192f, 199f, 243
premolar 242
incisors 111, 141
lateral incisor 117, 241
molars 191
premolar 101, 156
functions 156
right central incisor 25
second
molar 198, 243
premolar 243
third molar 205, 244
Permanent molar 91, 191f
emergence of first 278
movement of 281
teeth 31
Permanent premolars 7, 76
Permanent pulp cavity 107f
Permanent second
molars, eruption of 282
premolar, congenital absence of 36f
Permanent successor teeth 77, 77f, 89
eruption of 38f
germs 89
space for eruption of 292
Permanent teeth 4, 26, 36, 40, 42, 77, 78, 101, 101f, 102t, 127, 196
chances of crowding of 276
eruption sequence of 39f
first 32, 214, 214f, 278
formation, stages of 42f
germ 36, 78
human extracted 4f
probability of crowding of 276t
pulp
anatomy of 241
horns 239
stages of 42
successor 278
universal notation for 22, 22f
Pharyngeal venous plexus 260
Phonetics 291
Phylogenetic classes of teeth forms 59f
Pit 14, 91, 161, 197, 225
buccal 14
central 14
lingual 14
Placoid scales 57
development of 58f
Polyphyodont dentition 3, 68
Postmortem dental profiling 64
Premolar 5, 31, 156, 156f
common characteristics of 156
develop 37f
eruption of 281
first 173f
function of 291
in deciduous dentition 156
in primary dentition 75
second 173f
supernumerary 178f
teeth in carnivorous animals 156
Primary dentition, chronology of 32, 35t
Primary incisors, replacement of 278
Primary molars, roots of 37f
Primary second molar 89, 102f
root 36f
Primary teeth
chronology of 32, 76f, 77t
development of 32, 76
emergence of 35
eruption 77f, 275
chronology of 275
exfoliation of 36
functional occlusion of 291
last 278
loss of 78
precocious eruption of 275
replacement of 76f
roots of 77
shedding of 36
space in 276
universal notation for 22, 23f
well-cared 291
Primatology 67
Proximal caries 47
Proximal contact areas 46
Proximal contacts, location of 48
Pterygoid muscles
lateral 268f
medial 268f
Pterygoid plexus 259
Pterygopalatine nerve 262
Pulp 8, 105
blood supply 105
canals 138
cementum 105
horn 104, 238
involved teeth of children 240
mineral content 105
neonatal line 105
nerve supply 105
stones 240f
tissue 64, 238
Pulp cavity 57, 238
of mandibular lateral incisor 244
primary 107f
Pulp chamber 8, 104, 238, 239, 246
buccal wall of 239
gradually merges 239
lingual wall of 239
Pulp morphology 238
age-related changes in 240
clinical applications 240
terminology 238
Pulpal outline 104
Q
Quadrant system 22
Quadritubercular class 59
Quadritubercular molar 59f
Quijada 251
R
Retrusion 269
Rhomboidal occlusal design, four cusp type with 199
Rhythmical activity, complex 292
Ridge 12
buccal cusp 12
cervical 12
distal cusp 12
lingual cusp 12
marginal 12
mesial cusp 12
oblique 12
transverse 12, 12f, 69
triangular 12, 12f
Root 116, 131, 136, 138, 145
and crown, surface of 15f
carving 300
divisions of 15
morphology, variation in 71
resorption in primary molars 37f
surface, landmarks on 14f
trunk 14
Root canal 8, 104, 239
anatomy 240
and pulp canal 239
classification of 239
single 239
system 238, 239
therapy, failed 238f
Rugoscopy 65f
S
Sacred teeth, temple of 67
Second molar occlusally, heart-shaped 207f
Secreted protein, acidic, rich in cysteine 57
Secretory fibers 261
Sensory fibers 261, 262
Shallow fossae 257
Sharpest cusp 89
Sharpey's fibers 254
Shear cusp 284, 284f
Sigmoid notch 257
Single-rooted upper first premolar 71, 71f
Sixth cusp on lower molar 71, 71f
Skull and jaws at birth 251
Skull, development of 252
Soft tissue
injury 60f
structures, supporting 257
Sounds, classification of 294
Speech 291, 293
motor aspect 294
sensory aspect 293
Sphenoid bone 252
Sphenomandibular ligament 257, 267
Spillway 44, 49
spaces 49, 49f
Splanchnocranium 251
Stamp cusp 283, 284f
Stem cells, source of 238
Stylomandibular ligament 267
Sublingual fossa 257
Submandibular fossa 257
Submandibular lymph nodes 260
Submandibular salivary gland 257
Submental lymph nodes 260
Succedaneous dentition 4
Succedaneous teeth 4, 191
Sulcus 13
Supplemental grooves, multiple 197
Symbolic system 22
Symphysis 255
Synovial joints 265
Synovial membrane 265
T
Talon's cusp 117, 117f, 122, 131
Taste 291
Taurodontism 71
Teeth 13, 44, 49, 57, 293
accessional 4
anatomic landmarks of 10fc
anatomy of 5, 205, 238, 5
ancestors of 57f
and periodontium 259
anterior 9, 9f, 48, 49, 50, 156, 239
arch traits 6
at birth 274
beauty 140
bud 31
by generation, categories of 68
by shape, categories of 68
calcification 42
caries of 230
class traits 6
classes of 4
coding systems 21
colored material 297
common 226
complexity, increase in 58
components of 8f
corner 140, 140f
corresponding 140
course of evolution of 58
crooked 273
crowns of 9f
developing 240f
development of 31
development, chronology of 29, 31, 32
developmental period of 238
efficient grinding 214
emergence of 32
encoding 21
eruption of 32
etymology of names of 5b
evolution of 55, 57, 58
facial and lingual
aspects of 52
contours of 50f
physiologic contours of 50
form and jaw movements 44
forms, classes of 59
function of 44, 291
geometric crown outlines of 53b
guidance 286
impacted 210f
in jaw of shark 60f
in maxillary and mandibular dental arches 5f
in permanent dentition, classes of 5
in study of human variation 69
interlocking conical shaped 45f, 61f
into oral cavity 32
lacteal 4, 75
largest 191
last 229
line angles
in anterior 15, 16f
in posterior 15, 16, 16f
location of contact areas of 48b
long axis of 176
loose 273
loss of 47
lower 4
malocclusion of 198
measurements of 16, 19t
methods of measuring anterior 17b
metric variation in 69
model, transparent 238
morphology 178, 297
multicusped 69
neck of 112
nomenclature of 6, 124, 138, 151, 170, 187
nonmetric variations in 69
notation systems 6, 21
numbering systems 21
occlusal surface of 14f
occlusion of 265
organogenesis of 57
parts of 7
pit on occlusal surface of 14f
point angles
in anterior 16, 16f
in posterior 16f
position, maintenance of 288
posterior 9, 10f, 48, 49, 156
predecessor 31f, 78
premature eruption of 275
present 32
primary 4, 26, 37, 37f, 78, 78f, 79, 101, 102t, 220, 238, 291
function of 44
proportions, certain 72
proximal aspects of anterior 52
restoration of 239
ridges on 12f
secondary 4
sectioning of 238
set traits 6
sexual dimorphism of 71
sexually dimorphic 140
shapes 69
smallest 83
soft tissue component of 238
specific 21
strongest 191
structural defects in 31
structure of 8
successor 78
supernumerary 178
surfaces of 8, 9t
three components of 238
tissues of 46f
trait categories of 5
transparent 238f
transposition of 162
triconodont 60f
two generations of 3
type 5, 6, 11
upper 4
variety of 60
Teeth carving 295
armamentarium 297
display of 312f
materials required for 297f
preliminary steps 298
rationale of 297
Teeth crowns
form of 52
height of 51
Teeth eruption
based on 40
status 40
Teeth formation 40, 42, 64
stages of 42
Teeth germ 31, 99
developing 31
successional 36
Teeth identification
features 131
systems 27t
Teeth in human
dentitions 4
classes of 4t
types of 6t
permanent dentition, types of 5f
Teeth specimen
of primary maxillary second molar 102f
typical 149f
Teeth surface
anatomic landmarks on 10
depressions on 13
Temporal bone 252, 265, 267
Temporalis muscle 257, 267, 267f
action 268
insertion 268
nerve supply 268
origin 267
Temporary teeth 75
Temporomandibular joint 45, 249, 254, 256f, 257, 265, 265f, 266, 269f, 273, 286
articular surfaces of 266f
blood and nerve supply to 267
functions of 265
ligaments of 266, 266f
Temporomandibular ligament 267
Third molar 191, 210f
teeth, non-development of 214
Tongue 259, 260, 293
blood supply to 259, 259t
venous drainage of 260fc
Tooth-coding, universal system for 21
Tooth-to-tooth
arrangement 284
occlusion 284
Trapezoid crown 52
Trapezoid outline 159
Trigeminal nerve 261
divisions of 261fc
Tritubercular molar 59, 59f
evolution of 60f
Turner's hypoplasia 89
U
Ugly duckling stage 280
development of 281fc
Universal notation system 21
Universal numbering system, advantages of 22
Universal tooth notation system 22b
V
Viscerocranium 251, 251f, 252
Vocal cords 293
W
Wax block, preliminary markings on 300f
Weine's classification of root canal 239, 239f
Wisdom teeth 191, 206
World Health Organization 25
Z
Zsigmondy system 23
Zsigmondy-Palmer notation 21
advantage of 25
for permanent teeth 23
for primary teeth 24
system 22
Zsigmondy-Palmer system 22, 138, 151
advantage of 25f
for permanent dentition 24f
for primary dentition 24f
Zsigmondy-Palmer teeth notation system 23b
Zygomatic nerve 262
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Chapter Notes

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