Clinical Decision Making in Glaucoma Shibal Bhartiya, Syril Dorairaj, Colin Clement, Oscar Albis-Donado
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Acetazolamide 101
oral 93
Achondroplasia 152
Advanced glaucomatous defect 33f
Ahmed glaucoma valve 156, 203f
Alcon 202
Allergy 23
Alpha-adrenergic agonist 43
Altitudinal defect 70
Alzheimer's disease 78, 159
American Academy of Ophthalmology 70
Anesthesia 174
eye drops 169
general 174
Angle closure
acute primary 90
chronic 167
glaucoma 121, 174, 199
primary 2, 112, 141, 162
types of 100
primary 11, 12, 86, 112
causes of 86
secondary 97
causes of 95
Angle recession 112, 113
glaucoma 104
Aniridia 148, 152
Anterior chamber 13, 87
angle assessment techniques 12
cells 99
flare 89
paracentesis 92
silicon oil 25f
Antibiotic steroid eye 172
Antiglaucomatous
drugs 119
surgery 139
Anti-herpetic medication 127
Anti-inflammatory
drugs 161
medication therapy 120
treatment 126
Aphakia 167
Arched defect 70
Arrhythmia, cardiac 78
Artery disease, coronary 78
Artificial lens 99
Asthma 90
Asymptomatic field loss 20
Atrophy, peripapillary 13, 15, 16f, 27
Atropine 101, 142
Autoimmunity 77
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly 147, 148, 150, 151f, 152
Axenfeld-Rieger inheritance 150
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome 147, 150, 152
B
Baerveldt tube 181f
Barkan's membrane 148, 155
Bevacizumab 96
Bleb needling 187
Blebitis 169, 189
Blepharospasm 20, 149
Blood
pressure 77, 78, 80t
vessels, abnormal 109, 113
Blunt dissection 170
Blunt ocular trauma 112, 128, 131, 133
Blunt trauma 22, 104, 161
complication of 112
Blurred vision 121
Bradyarrhythmia 90
Brimonidine 23
Bulky lens 89
Buphthalmic eyes 150
C
Canaloplasty 198, 206
Capsular opacities, anterior 89
Carbonic anhydrase 142
inhibitors 101, 119, 123
Cardiovascular disease 72
Carotid-cavernous fistula 20
high flow 106
Cataract 169, 172
extraction 196
formation 22
hypermature 121
interference 127
intumescent 112
surgery 127
complicated 23
Central corneal
opacity 151
thickness 19, 21, 21t, 48, 51, 81, 155
Central Descemet's layer defect 151
Central nervous system 24
abnormalities 151
Central retinal vein occlusion 87, 114
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure 77
Childhood glaucoma 146, 146t, 148, 155, 156f
classification 147
diagnosis of 153, 157
histopathology of 149
nonacquired 147
primary 147
secondary 147
Choroidal effusion 169
Ciliary block 130, 137
Ciliary body 13, 86, 130, 167
inflammation of 121, 130
melanoma 101
rotation 121
Ciliary injection 89
Ciliochoroidal effusion 101
Ciprofloxacin 191
Cirrus high-definition 60f
Cleft lip 151
Cleft palate 151
Closed angle glaucoma 159
Cloudy cornea 149, 149f
Clover leaf 31
Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study 73, 84
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy 2
Congenital Glaucoma Research Network 146, 147t
Conjunctiva 189
dissection of 177
movement of 168
overlying 179
posterior 185
superior 167
Conjunctival
buttonhole formation 187
closure 172, 175
dissection 173f, 177
flap 170, 174
incision 181f, 190f
inflammation, chronic 168
scarring 167, 186f, 190f
Conjunctivitis, allergic 22
Cornea 13, 109
transparent 135
Corneal
assessment 153
bridle suture 173f, 181f, 190f
change 121, 146
clinical characteristics 153
decompensation 169
risk of 99
edema 89, 93, 134, 136
transparency 135
Corticosteroids 120, 123
systemic 132
topical 132
Cup-disk ratio 6
Cyclodestructive procedures 157
Cyclodialysis 155
Cyclodiode 100
Cycloplegia 123, 191
Cycloplegic agent 137
long-acting 142
CyPass 198, 202, 205f
Cystoid macular edema 99, 169
D
Deep sclerectomy 165, 176f
Descemet's membrane 149, 174, 206
detachment of 156
Dexamethasone 172
Dextrocardia 151
Diabetes 78
Diplopia 169
Disk
examination 27, 40
hemorrhages 16
Double hump sign 94f
Down syndrome 147
Drugs Controller General of India 202
Dynamic contour tonometry 10
Dysgenesis 147
E
Ear abnormalities 151
Ectropion uveae 95
congenital 152
Edema 130
Eight-ball hyphema 104
Elevated episcleral venous pressure 20, 160
Endocyclophotocoagulation 182
Endophthalmitis 133, 169, 189, 191
Endothelium 24
Epiphora 149
Episcleral venous pressure 106
Episode, acute 103
Epithelial ingrowth 133, 139
Excimer laser trabeculotomy 196, 206
Exfoliation syndrome 109
Express filtration device 196, 198
Extracapsular surgery technique 127
Eye 116f, 118, 167
blinded 145
disease 33
drops, preoperative 169
lids 167
pain 121
preoperative examination of 167
Eyepass 198, 205
F
Facial dysmorphism 151
Fetal alcohol syndrome 152
Field loss 67, 76
Filtration surgery 144
Fluoroquinolone, oral 191
Four-mirror lens 110
Frequency-doubling technology 30
Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis 118120, 122
Fuchs’ keratic precipitates 120f
Fundus examination 51, 135, 154
G
Ganglion cell
analysis 58
complex 54
layer 58
Genitourinary abnormalities 152
Ghost cell 128, 131
glaucoma 104, 131, 139
Gillespie syndrome 152
Glaucoma 2, 3, 4f, 5, 6, 9, 14, 19, 20, 23, 25, 27, 33, 40, 44, 47, 56, 68f, 71, 102, 110f, 127, 139, 149, 150, 152, 153, 155, 159161, 164, 165
acute 119
advanced 102
angle recession 105
clinical features 105
etiology 105
management 105
blood-induced 132
care 1, 127
ethics of 6
characteristics of 70
congenital 20, 150, 154f
damage 72, 162
evolution of 71f
diagnosis of 2, 6fc
drainage devices 68
drainage implant 165, 175, 181f, 188
anesthesia 177
conjunctival closure 179
devices 178
exposure 177
patch graft coverage 179
plate insertion 178
postoperative management 180
preoperative considerations 175
surgery 169, 179, 188t
tube trimming and insertion 178
type of 175
venting slits 179
early 16
encompasses 47
ethical dilemmas of 6
family history of 72, 163
filtration surgery 97, 102, 105, 183, 191
following cataract surgery 153
hemifield test 34
hemolytic 128, 131, 132, 140, 140f
implants 156
incisional filtering surgeries 165
inflammatory 96, 102, 126
etiology 96
juvenile 20
lens
induced 97
related 103
malignant 100, 130
management 1, 2, 6, 109, 165, 206
pitfalls of 1
primary congenital 155
principles of 1
mechanism of 11
medications 43t
newer classes of 1
mild-moderate 194
moderate-advanced 199
neovascular 95, 104, 113, 133, 167
clinical features 95
etiology 95
management 95
optic nerve, absence of 37
phacoanaphylactic 99, 104
phacogenic 99
phacolytic 99, 104, 121, 122f
phacomorphic 86, 98, 98f, 104
clinical features 98
etiology 98
management 98
pigment 160, 196
preexisting 104, 142
prevalence 21
primary congenital 147, 149
progression 2, 27, 35, 40, 48, 48t
analysis 34
risk of 105, 153
science and art of 1
screening of 5, 6fc
secondary 160, 199
severity of 27
steroid induced 132
surgery 168, 193, 199
newer 196t, 198t
nonpenetrating 172, 206
risks of 169t
surgical management of 165
syndromes 118
therapy 1
traumatic 113
treatment 23, 160
goal of 47, 56
objectives 46
types of 48, 148, 159
uveitic 26, 153, 167
Glaucomatocyclitic crisis 97, 118, 122, 125
Glaucomatous damage 128
Gold microshunt 198, 203
Goldmann applanation tonometer 9, 10t, 71
Goldmann lenses 11
Gonioscopy 11, 25, 26, 51, 79, 89, 95, 110, 113, 135, 154
indentation 110, 115f
Goniotomy 155
H
Haab's striae 149, 150f, 153
Heidelberg retinal tomography 2, 51
Hemifield defect, superior 33f
Hemorrhage 16f
choroidal 191
flame-shaped 13
fresh 139
inferotemporal splinter 81f
retrobulbar 104
splinter 17f
suprachoroidal 104, 130, 133, 137, 169, 184
vitreous 169
Hemostasis 173f
Herpes simplex keratitis 120
Herpes zoster 118, 120
Herpetic disease 96, 97
High intraocular pressure, causes of 104t
Hoskins classification 147, 147t
Human vision, binocularity of 19
Humphrey field analyzer 32f, 34, 54
Humphrey visual field 63f, 72
Hyaloid, anterior 191
Hydrus microstent 198, 203
Hypermetropia 2
Hyperopia 88
Hyperosmotic agents 43, 104
Hyperpigmentation, homogeneous 103
Hypertension 41
ocular 50
systemic 72
Hyphema 95, 104, 130, 132, 134, 141, 169
clinical features 104
etiology 104
management 104
postoperative 197f
traumatic 104
Hypoperfusion 77
Hypotension 78
nocturnal 78
Hypotensive eyedrops, topical 162
Hypotony 166, 169, 184
after glaucoma drainage implant 185
chronic 169
following trabeculectomy, causes of 188t
postoperative 103, 183
I
Incisional surgery, role of 44
Infection
acute 129
chronic 131
subacute 131
Inflammation 129
intraocular 135
lens related 139
raises eye pressure 129
Inflammatory reaction, low grade 120
Intraocular lens 25
implant 196
optic dislocation 25f
Intraocular pressure 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 19, 21t, 40, 41, 43t, 50, 72, 73f, 79, 80, 80t, 86, 87, 110, 118, 132f, 145f, 146, 159, 165, 193, 196
acute 87fc
symptomatic elevated 86
cells, later elevated 138
early elevated 135
elevated 21, 23, 70, 76, 118, 128, 135, 137, 141, 143, 143f
high 70
setting initial target 41t
Intraocular procedure 180
Intraocular structures 131
Intraocular surgery 100
high pressure after 143
Intrascleral lake formation 175
Intrastromal ring implantation 132f
Iridectomy 141, 171
peripheral 143, 144
second 136
Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome 20, 25, 112, 162
treatment of 162
Iridodialysis 155, 156
Iridoretraction 144
Iridotomy, peripheral 100, 115f
Iridotrabecular contact 86
Iris 13, 24, 86, 91, 109, 1110f, 112, 113, 144f
atrophy, segmental 24, 89
bombe 88f, 112
change 121
convexity 13f
irregularities 25, 135
lens diaphragm 130
neovascularization 25f
normal 152
peripheral 86, 191
posterior 130f
processes 111
abundant 111f
prominent 111f
pushing of 112
transillumination defects 96, 120
Iritis, traumatic 104
Ischemia, retinal 95
Istent trabecular micro-bypass stent 201
K
Kahook dual blade 202
Kelly-Descemet punch 171
Keratic precipitate 25f, 99, 119
Keratoconus, posterior 151
Keratoplasty, penetrating 143, 143f
Khaw transconjunctival adjustable suture control forceps 171
Kissing-choroidals 184
Krukenberg spindle 24, 103
L
Lamina cribrosa 77
weakness of 77
Laryngomalacia 151
Laser
assisted deep sclerectomy 206
ciliary ablation 169, 180, 189
iridectomy 91, 92f, 141, 144
iridoplasty treatment 92f
iridotomy 91f
peripheral iridotomy 112
therapy 91
trabeculoplasty 162
role of 44
selective 44
transscleral cyclophotocoagulation 165
treatments 100
Leaking bleb, revision of 186f
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy 28
Lens 13, 86, 129, 134
age-related 22
capsule, anterior 102
capsulorhexis, anterior 130f
cataractous 89
implant 129
proteins, sign of 134
subluxation 99, 104, 112
vault, anterior 13f
Limbal iris 92f
Limbal peritomy 173f
M
Mackay-Marg tonometry 10
Macroglossia 151
Marcus Gunn sign 134
Marfan syndrome 147
Mental retardation 152
Methanol toxicity 28
Microcornea 152
Migraine 72, 78
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery 1, 24, 106, 193, 194f, 196, 199, 206
advantages of 194
classification of 199
contraindications of 199
disadvantages of 194
indications of 194
Mitomycin C
application 170, 173f, 174, 177, 181f
use of 156
Myopia 72
high 2, 53f, 167
Myotonic dystrophy 152
N
Nanophthalmos 88
Nasal defect 33f
Neurofibromatosis type 152
Neuroretinal rim 13, 47
Nickel and titanium, alloy of 203
Nonsurgical therapy 143
Normal-tension glaucoma 6, 76, 78, 80t, 82
O
Obstructive airways disease, chronic 90
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 79
Ocular
anomalies, nonacquired 150
disease, preexisting 133
hyperemia 119
hypertension 6, 19, 20, 39, 45, 49, 49fc, 73f, 84, 112, 138
inflammation 23, 169
ischemia 95
ischemic syndrome 95, 114
perfusion pressure 78, 80t
pulse amplitude 72
surgery, complication of 137
syndrome 153
trauma 128
Open angle glaucoma 47, 48, 77, 104, 116f, 196
chronic 48, 49, 49fc, 50102
juvenile 114, 147, 150
primary 2, 39, 41, 45, 48, 70, 159, 194
secondary 98, 99, 101, 103
Optic atrophy 104
Optic disk 28, 52f, 56, 59f, 79, 89, 163
assessment, structural 51
evaluation 12
examination 26
hemorrhage 72f
large 14f
normal 15
outer limits of 27
pallor 82
Optic nerve 12, 17f, 21, 22, 51, 56, 70, 83f, 145
cupping 146
damage 86
excavation 72
functional assessment of 54
glaucomatous 164
head 2, 47, 57, 57f, 60f, 79
left 83f
non-glaucomatous 82
Optic neuropathy
glaucomatous 12, 16f, 53f, 56
non-glaucomatous 67
Optical coherence tomography 54, 54t, 57f, 61f, 79, 82, 111
Oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 119
Overfiltering bleb, revision of 185f
Overfiltering tube, revision of 188f
P
Pachymetry 79, 81
Pain 119
Palpebral fissure 184
Panretinal photocoagulation 96
Paracentral scotoma 70
Pars plana vitrectomy 144
Pars plicata 113
Pascal dynamic contour tonometer 10
Patent laser iridotomy 138f
Peripapillary atrophy, moderate 29f
Peripheral iris, superior 91
Person's visual field 31
Peters anomaly 150
Peters plus syndrome 150, 151
Phacoemulsification 102
Phacomatoses 20
Photophobia 121, 149
Pigment dispersion 20, 26, 103
clinical features 103
etiology 103
glaucoma 194
management 103
syndrome 87, 103, 109
signs of 103
Plateau iris 86, 94, 94f, 111
clinical features 94
configuration 94, 94f, 111
etiology 94
management 94
syndrome 94, 100
diagnosis of 94
Plexiform layer, inner 58
Polygalactin 177
Posner-Schlossman syndrome 97, 118, 119
Post-traumatic angle recession 11
Pressure elevation
corticosteroid induced 132
early mechanisms of 129
steroid induced 118, 161
Pressure, low perfusion 2
Primary congenital glaucoma, epidemiology of 148
Prolene intraluminal stent 181f
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy 87
Prophylactic cycloplegic medications 167
Propionibacterium acnes 131
infection 138
Prostaglandin analogs 119, 142
Pseudoexfoliation 99, 134
glaucoma 159, 194
observation of 109
presence of 110
syndrome 26, 99, 102
Pseudophakic eyes 153
Pseudopolycoria 110f
Pupil
block 86, 87, 88f
element of 98
constriction 26, 169
dilation 103
margin 102
Pupillary block 129, 130, 130f, 136, 144
active 141
management 136fc
prevention of 122
relief of 122
treatment 138f
Pupillary inflammatory membrane after phacoemulsification 129f
R
Rectus muscle, inferior 23
Recurrent episodes, management of 125
Red blood cells 141
Refractive errors, assessment of 154
Reichert ophthalmic instruments 10
Retina 22
Retinal detachment, chronic 105
Retinal nerve fiber layer 2, 27, 44, 47, 54, 56, 57f, 60f, 71
defect 70
Retinal pigment epithelium 15, 16f
Retinal sensitivities, displays of 33
Retinopathy of prematurity, causes of 153
Rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile 127
Rubella
congenital 152
virus 119
S
Sampaolesi's line 109, 116f
Scanning laser polarimetry 51
Scheie stripe 103
Schlemm's canal 106, 113, 148, 155, 156, 174, 193, 197f, 201f
unroofing of 174
Schwalbe's line 109, 112, 116f, 150
Sclera 13
Scleral buckling procedures 144
Scleral canal 27
Scleral flap 170, 174
closure 171, 175
formation 173f
Scleral thickness 174
Sclerocornea 152
Sclerostomy 171
Segment neovascularization, anterior 113
Segment optical coherence tomography, anterior 12
Shaffer's system of gonioscopy angle 26f
Sickle cell
disease 104, 105, 133
trait 133
Silicone oil tamponade 144
Sleep apnea syndrome 79
Slit-lamp anterior segment examination 24
Small palpebral fissures 20
Solx gold shunt 203
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 51, 56, 58
Standard automated perimetry 54, 62, 81
Standard glaucoma procedures 169
Steroid
incidence of 22
response 20, 96, 97
use 22
Sturge-Weber syndrome 106
Subconjunctival
fibrosis, risk of 170
filtration strategy 199
pocket 170
space 204f
Sub-Tenon's anesthesia 180
Sub-Tenon's pocket 170
Sub-Tenon's space 170, 189
Sulfa medications 23
Superficial scleral flap 175
Superior arcuate defect 33f
Superior vena cava syndrome 106
Superotemporal disk margin 16f
Suprachoroidal filtration strategy 201
Swedish interactive threshold algorithm 30
Synechia
formation, posterior 122
peripheral anterior 11, 26, 87, 89, 94, 109, 110, 112, 118, 128, 133
posterior 25
Systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitor 96, 98
T
Tenon's fascia, insertion of 170
Tension glaucoma, low 76
Tetracycline 101
Thick central cornea 20
Thick lens 98f
Thyroid eye disease 20, 106
Tight eyelids 20
Time-domain optical coherence tomography 54t
Tonometry 9, 154
Topical beta blocker 104, 119
Topiramate 101
Torn iris processes 113
Trabectome 198, 201
Trabecular meshwork 109, 131
blockage 118
damage 133
inflammation 118
Trabecular microbypass istent 198
Trabeculectomy 93, 100, 139, 140f, 156, 165, 169,173f, 184, 188, 189
early hypotony after 184
failure 187
higher risk of 167
late hypotony after 184
ostium, internal obstruction of 144f
surgery 172
Trabeculitis 96, 118
Trabeculo-Descemet's membrane 174
Trabeculotomy 155, 156
Translaminar pressure 77
Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation laser 180
Trauma 22, 103, 167
accidental 135
etiology 103
nonpenetrating 128
recent history of 104
Traumatic glaucoma
development of 112
management of 103
Triamcinolone 97
Tube
erosion 169
failure 189
shunt, preparation of 177
U
Ultrasound biomicroscopy 12, 137
Urinary tract, agenesis of 151
Uveitis 20, 23, 118, 122, 167
anterior 139
care of 127
chronic 125, 127
exacerbates 122
glaucoma-hyphema 20
syndrome 103
granulomatous anterior 99
herpetic 24
hypertensive 25f, 96
herpetic 120
recurrent anterior 125
simplex 120
V
Van-Herick method 111
Vascular diseases, systemic 78
Vascular endothelial growth factor 95
Vascular theory 77
Vasospastic disorders 78
Viral reactivation 127
Vision 50
loss 169
hill of 30
Visual acuity 134
Visual disability 6
Visual field 2, 34, 3941, 55fc, 71, 68f, 155, 159
abnormal 34
assessment 29
baseline 37, 123
defect 19, 146
glaucomatous 33f
display 33
index 66f
loss 82
progression 55, 62
testing 52
Visual impairment 138
prevention of 42f
Visual loss, optic nerve related 47
Visual potential 165
Vitreous 23, 167
cavity 132
face 129
W
WAGR syndrome 152
White cells 138
infection 138
Wilms tumor 152
World Glaucoma Association 4, 146
X
XEN glaucoma
implant 204f
treatment 203f
system 202
Y
Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser 136, 137
Z
Zonula 160
Zonular weakness 99
Zonule 191
posterior capsule diaphragm 132
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