Donald School Textbook of Human Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology Sonal Panchal, Sanja Kupesic-Plavsic
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abortion
missed 404
spontaneous 132
Academy of Medical Royal Colleges 172
Acanthosis 370
nigricans 49
Acetazolamide 363
Acid
ethanol 303
phosphatase 223
proteinase 236
Acne 14
Acquired anatomical defects 367
Acrosin 237
Acrosomal serine protease 237
Acrosome 230
reaction 237
Acrosomic vesicle formation 229f
Activated protein C resistance 365, 368
Activin 5, 248
Adalimumab 373
Adenomyosis 92, 100, 370
Adenosine, cyclic 4
Adenylate cyclase, activation of 237
Adnexa 402
bilateral 110
removal of 110
Adrenal disorders 240
Adrenal dysfunction 24
Adrenal enzyme defect 9
Adrenal insufficiency
signs of 24
symptoms of 24
Adrenarche 246, 273
Adult respiratory distress syndrome 185
Agenesis 117
Air pollution 342
Albumin
intravenous 61
Alcohol 242, 280
intake, moderate 280
Alkaline phosphatase 285
Alopecia 14
Alpha agonist therapy 361
Amenorrhea 15fc, 392
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists 391
American Fertility Society System 117
American Society of Reproductive Medicine 364
Amino acid peptides 250
Ammonium chloride, saturated 306
Amniocentesis 189
Amniotic sacs, separate 400
Ampulla 292, 359
Anabolic steroids 242, 341
Anamnesis 404
Anastrazole 319
Androgen 238, 277, 320
binding protein 239
excess 278
exogenous 242
insensitivity syndrome 277, 351
levels 14
physiology 240
receptor 247
gene mutation 353
resistant syndromes 277
sources of 9t
Androstenedione 9, 14, 20
Androsterone 247
Anesthesia 328
Angelman syndrome 185
Annexin-V technique 205
Anorchia 274
bilateral 277
Anorgasmic anejaculation 360
Anovulation 15, 49
causes of 14
chronic 11
Antiandrogenic progestins 390
Antibiotic therapy 64
Anticardiolipin antibodies 368
Anticoagulants 65
Anti-inflammatory drugs 321
Anti-Müllerian hormone 5, 9, 10, 18, 21, 27, 28, 30, 59, 111, 152, 166
assays 28
level 10, 28
low levels of 366
physiology of 9
serum 9, 20
Antioxidants 321, 322
list of 322
role of 321
Antipericentrin 382
Antiphospholipid syndrome 368370
Antispasmodic agent 69
Antisperm antibodies 308
Antithrombin deficiency 369
Anti-thyroid antibodies, presence of 22
Antral follicle count 5, 29, 30, 49, 141, 151, 152f, 166
Apgar scores 187
Apocrine 223
Apoptotic death 227
Arcuate uterus 70f, 117, 126, 126f
three D ultrasound acquired volume of 126f
Arginine 322
Aromatase 37
action of 251
enzyme 239, 258
expression of 38, 258
genes 258
inhibitors 37, 103, 112, 321
Aromatization 258
Ascetic fluid
aspiration of 65
autotransfusion of 65
Ascites, B mode image of 64f
Ascorbic acid 322
Aspermia 294
Assisted reproduction pregnancies, perinatal of 187
Assisted reproductive technology 7, 34, 43, 61, 111, 154, 183, 330
Asthenozoospermia 317, 321
Atracurium 80
Atrophy, complications of 328
Autoimmune
disease 15
disorders 368
Autosomal disorder 352
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 351, 353
Azoospermia 243, 277, 302, 326, 328, 331, 333355
nonobstructive 326, 334
obstructive 333
severe 355
Azoospermic factor genes 276
B
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 352
Bariatric surgery 50
Basal body temperature 11
principle of 11
Basal cells 223
Basal estradiol, measurement of 166
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 185
Bicornuate 125
uterus 117, 128, 129, 367
Bifocal tube disease 87
Biopersistent pollutants, wide number of 343
Biopsy, endometrial 12, 13, 19
Birth, preterm 187
Bladder
endometriosis 95f, 98f, 99f, 109f
injury 87
Blastocyst
stage embryo 181
transfer since, proportion of 180f
Blastomeres 188, 190
Blighted ovum 404, 405
Blood
dyscrasias 82
glucose monitoring 372
Body mass index 15, 49, 59, 141, 151
Bologna criteria 31
Bone density 390
Breast cancer, risk of 185
Breastfeeding 395
Bromocriptine 11, 20, 36, 240, 279
therapy 279
Bromodichloromethane 343
Brucella abortus 368
Brucellosis 365
Bulbourethral glands 218, 292f
C
Cabergoline 11, 20, 23, 184, 279
Calcium, intravenous 62
Captopril 319, 321
Carbohydrate digestion 237
Carbon monoxide 342
Carcinoma in situ 283
Cardiac conduction defects 81
Cardiovascular disease 395
Carry-home message 15, 147
Catecholamines 2
Cell
biopsy 189
injury 379
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 395
Ceramic oven operators 241
Cerebellar ataxia 351, 352
Cerebral palsy 179
Certolizumab 373
Cervical
canal 128f
dilatation 371
dysmucorrhea 35
factor subfertility 141
hostility 140
incompetence 134, 365, 367
insufficiency 370
mucus 37, 235
Cervix 234
three D ultrasound acquired volume of 131f
Cetrolizumab 373
Chemical stimulants 202
Chemotherapy 279, 286
medications 242
Chlamydia 319
infection 321, 391
trachomatis 85, 86, 87, 309
antibody test 86
infection 85, 86, 309
Chlorodibromomethane 343
Chocolate cyst 92
Cholesterol 252, 252f
source of 252
Chorionic villi 399
Chorionicity 399, 400
Chromopertubation 69, 72, 74, 75, 77
laparoscopic 82
Cimetidine 242
Cirrhosis 282
Citric acid
measurement of 310
standard 310
Clomiphene 34, 37, 49
citrate 34, 36, 50, 51, 141, 318, 319
challenge test 27, 167
cycle 3, 7
mechanism of action 34
risks of 35
side effects 35
stimulation 29
Cold knife incision 332
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome 353
Complete genomic hybridization 372
Computer-assisted semen analysis 297
Condoms 394, 395
Conservative surgery 104
Contraception, lack of 90
Contraceptives
hormonal 102
progestin implant 393
Conventional inguinal technique 327
Copper intrauterine device 395
Cord, dissection of 328
Corpus luteal flow, normal 159f
Corpus luteum 2, 13f, 59, 61
activity of 4
formation, absence of 371
low resistance blood flow of 160f
Cowper's gland 218, 359
Crown-to-rump length 400
Cryoinjury, degree of 379
Cryopreservation 142, 182, 379
concept of 377
discovery of 377
impact of 379, 380
storing cells 377
Cryoprotectants, concentrations of 380
Cryptorchidism 240, 274, 278, 341
Cryptozoospermia 285, 302
Cul-de-sac, posterior 107
Cumulus oophorus 237
presence of 143
Cusco's speculum 146
Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 200
Cyproterone acetate 390
Cyst 95, 353
drainage of 106
fluid, ground glass appearance of 95
prostatic 334
ruptured 66
wall
bulging of 107f
enucleation of 106f
Cystic fibrosis 168, 351
transmembrane 60
Cystoscopy 95f, 99f
Cytochrome 37, 252
Cytomegalovirus 164, 372
Cytoplasm 308f
amount of 200
Cytoplasmic maturation 199, 200
D
Danazol 12, 103
Dandy-Walker malformation 274
Dapoxetine 360
D-chiroinositol 51
Decidual reaction 399, 401, 402
Deep infiltrating endometriosis, management of 112
Deep vein thrombosis 391
Dehydroepiandrosterone 3, 4, 6, 9, 273
sulfate 8, 36
Dehydrotestosterone 255
Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate 390, 393
Desogestrel 390, 391
Dexamethosone 51
Dextrans 378
Diabetes mellitus 361, 366
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy 361
Diacylglycerate 237
Diaphragm, endometriotic implants on 95f
Dibromochloropropane 343
Dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy 401f
Didelphic uterus 130, 131f, 367
classic 129
Dienogest 102
Dietary deficiencies 241
Diethylstilbestrol 132
Dihydroepiandrosterone 251
Dihydrotestosterone 238, 247, 273, 354
Dimethyl acetaldehyde 378
Dimethyl sulfoxide 378
Dioxins 342
Direct immunobead test 308
Disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid 306
Distal hydrosalpinx, bilateral 71f
Distal tubal disease 88, 89
Docosahexaenoic acid 9
Donor, artificial insemination of 12
Dopamine 64
agonist 62, 240
Double-ring sign 402
Down's syndrome 355
Drospirenone 390
Ductuli efferentes 222
Ductus deferens 222
Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline 294
Dye test 69
Dynein axoneme chain 353
Dyschezia 165
Dysmenorrhea, primary 102
Dyspareunia 92, 102
Dyspnea, severity of 59
Dysuria 165
E
Echogenic trophoblast ring 405
Ectopic ovaries 132
Ectopic pregnancy 66, 82, 132, 183, 400402, 403f, 406
rate of 174
Egg yolk citrate 378
Ejaculation 359
disorders of 319, 360
neurophysiology of 360f
physiology of 359
premature 360
process of 359
retrograde 241, 359, 362
Ejaculatory center, control of 360
Ejaculatory duct 331, 334, 353
obstruction 331
transurethral resection of 331
Ejaculatory dysfunctions
anatomy 359
causes 360
diagnosis 359
management 359
treatment 360
Ejaculatory failure 140, 360, 363
Electroejaculation, rectal probe 361
Electron microscope 222
Embolization, retrograde 331
Embryo 189
absence of 405
ascertain number of 399
cryopreservation 180, 181, 187
development 188
implantation rates 176
reproductive medicine 377
transfer 163, 173, 181f
catheters 174f
Embryogenesis 372
Embryolysis 369
Empiric therapy 319
Enclomiphene 34
Endocrine
abnormalities 243
aspects 285
disorders 240
disrupting
chemicals 92
factors 280
disruptor compounds 340
dynamic tests 29
hormones, replacement of 254
Endocrinological disorder 370
Endometrial
cancer 185
cavity 72, 122f, 126f, 129f, 130f, 133f
normal 70f
T-shaped 132f
hyperplasia 370
implants
ablation of 104f
coagulation of 105f
destruction of 104
excision of 104f
polyps 164
thickness 179
tissue, spread of 92
Endometrioma 92, 96f, 97f, 104, 105f, 106f
appearances of 95
bilateral 94f, 105f
extraovarian 105
management of 105
multiloculated 96f, 106
surgical management of 104, 111
unilocular 96f
Endometrio-myometrial junction 156
Endometriosis 66, 82, 93f, 102, 110, 121, 132, 164
biomarkers of 99
deep infiltrating 92, 94f, 107
detection of 99
diagnosis of 91, 93, 95
etiopathogenesis of 91
externa 92, 100
interna 92, 100
management of 102, 110
mild to moderate 140
pathogenesis of 91
peritoneal 92
rectovaginal 111
recurrent 111
residual 110
severe 94f
stage of 92
surgical treatment of 103
symptoms of 92, 102
treatment of 102, 103
types of 100
visual diagnosis of 94
Endometriotic
implants over appendix 95f
nodule 96, 107
tissue 38
Endometrium 4, 7, 12, 20, 40, 131f, 156f, 157f, 159t, 160, 160f, 392
B mode features of 156
Doppler features of 157
multilayered 156, 160f
preparation of 6
Endoplasmic reticulum 199, 382
Endosalpingeal epithelium 235
Endoscopic
surgery 134
techniques 86
Endotracheal intubation 80
Endovaginal transducers 172
Enflurane 80
Epididymal
anastomosis 333
obstruction 332
sperm aspiration
microsurgical 333335
percutaneous 173, 333335
Epididymis 178, 292, 310, 353
anatomy of 219f
reconstructive surgery of 332
Epithelial cell 296f, 302
Epithelial growth factor 5
Epithelium, seminiferous 241
Escherichia coli 309
Estradiol 61, 239, 247
level 28, 60
Estrogen 4, 12
biosynthesis of 91
dependent disease 91
excess 278
production of 258
role of 38, 258, 259
secretion of 241
supplementation 390
synthesis 44
ultra-low dose 390
Etanercept 373
Ethinyl estradiol 102, 389
Ethylene 378
glycol 380
Ethylenedibromide 343, 345
Etonogestrel implant 396
Euploid 189
European Male Aging Study 261f
European Medicines Agency 390
European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy 117
European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology 86, 117
Exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone ovarian reserve test 29
Extensive intra-ampullar adhesions 87
F
Fallopian tube 69, 81f, 235, 276, 392
Female pronucleus, formation of 238
Feminizing adrenocortical tumor 282
Fenvalerate 343
Fertile eunuch syndrome 275
Fertility 279
impairment of 327
preservation 164
Fertilization 168, 198, 238
failure 201
rate 380
Fetal
allograft 369
bradycardia 374
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 350
Fibroid 130f, 164, 404
classification of 165
Fimbria 74
Fimbrioplasty 88
Fine-tuning system 5
Fistula, risk of 109
Fixatives deuterium oxide 382
Flow index 152
Fluid accumulation 13
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 188, 200
Fluorochromes 382
Foley catheter 72
Folic acid 322
Follicle 1
aspiration equipment 172f
number per ovary 164
parallel 154
stimulating hormone 2, 4, 5, 15, 18, 23, 34, 39, 44, 103, 166, 219, 238, 246, 247, 273, 318, 344, 352
analysis of 326
late low dose 141
low 318
serum 7, 18
Follicular
aspiration 62
circumference 12, 154
diameter 154
maturity 7
phase 12
normal range of 102
Folliculogenesis 10, 37
normal 168
Follistatin 5, 249
levels of 249
Follitropin alpha 170
Framingham heart study 261f
Free fluid, B mode image of 64f
G
Galactorrhea 11, 19, 36, 242
actual 19
Gametes
banking 377
types of 377
intrafallopian transfer 163
micromanipulation of 197
Genital
bacterial vaginosis 365
cancer, risk of 185
infections 368
tract
infections 319
Genitalia, external 247
Genitourinary system, disorders of 240
Germ cell 226f, 302
development 256
failure 23, 242
survival 258
tumors, extragonadal 286
Germinal
cells, developmental 340
epithelium 239, 279
vesicle 199
Gestation amnion 400
Gestational sac 126f, 399, 405, 406
Gestodene 390
Giemsa karyotyping 327
Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome 353
Glandular atrophy 392
Globozoospermia 202
Glucocorticoids 36, 51, 55, 62
Glucose
metabolism, abnormal 372
tolerance test, impaired 366
Glutathione 322
Glycerol 378, 380
Glycol 378
Golgi phase 229f
Gonadal sex steroids influence 239
Gonadarche 246
Gonadotoxic agents 242, 279
Gonadotrophs 239
Gonadotropic hormones, secretion of 241
Gonadotropin 14, 37, 38, 41t, 43, 51, 141, 142, 154t, 240, 318
conventional protocol of 40f
deficiency 241
feedback
control of 239
regulation of 258
high-dose requirement of 153t
low-dose requirement of 153t
physiology of 38
pituitary 6
releasing hormone 2, 3, 5, 19, 23, 34, 152, 167, 238, 246, 247, 273, 318
agonist 2, 52, 61, 102, 103, 167, 170
analog stimulation test 27, 29
antagonist 10, 52, 60, 65
secretion 259f, 262
serum 243
stimulation, absence of 255
suppression 255
therapy 39
indications of 39
principle of 39, 141
regimes of 141
Gozoospermia 320
Granules, cortical 237
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor 373
Granulosa cell 3, 175
luteinized 5
tumors 22
Ground glass echogenicity 94, 96f
Growth factor, insulin like 5
Guanosine monophosphate, cyclic 237
Guanylate cycle, activation of 237
Gynecomastia 243, 281
causes of 282t
idiopathic 282
H
Haematococcus pluvialis 322
Haloacetic acids 343
Head, swinging movements of 235
Heart
disease, ischemic 82
rate, low embryonic 406
Hematoma, crescent-shaped 404f
Hematoxylin 303
Hematuria 165
Hemochromatosis 351
hereditary 352
Hemoglobin 352
Hemorrhage
antepartum 134
postpartum 134
subchorionic 374
Hepatitis
B 164
C 164
Hiatus hernia 82
High resistance corpus luteal flow 160
Hip flexor reflex 361
Hirsutism 370
Hodgkin lymphoma 241
Hormone
adrenocorticotropic 278, 352
gonadal 238
pituitary 243
primary pituitary 239
reproductive 247t, 260
synthesis 343
Human
capacitation, current model of 236, 236f
chorionic gonadotropin 2, 19, 58, 142, 239, 246, 274, 318, 320
fertilization 238f
and Embryology Authority 163, 203
folliculogenesis 20
genome project 350
immunodeficiency virus 164
menopausal gonadotropin 12, 23, 34, 42, 170
oocytes
noncryopreserved 383f
progressively develop 199
pituitary gonadotropin 38
semen
cryobanking 377
samples 303
seminiferous epithelium 220
sperm
cells 228
morphology, abnormal 305
Hyaluronidase 230
Hydrogen peroxide 306
Hydrolytic enzymes 230
Hydrosalpinx 71f, 88, 89, 165f
presence of 165
Hydroxyethyl 378
starch solution 62
Hydroxylprogesterone acetate 14
Hypeinsulinemia 50
Hyperaminoacidemia 279
Hyperandrogenism 50, 366
biochemical 14
clinical 14
Hyperhomocysteinemia 368, 369
Hyperinsulinemia 366
Hyperlipidemia 49
Hyperplasia, congenital adrenal 319, 350, 351, 366
Hyperprolactinemia 14, 15, 20, 23, 240, 243, 276, 279, 318, 366, 370
pituitary 239
transient 20
Hyperspermia 294
Hyperstimulation, risk of 19
Hypertension 179
gestational 134
Hyperthyroidism 282
Hypoglycemia 279
Hypogonadism 282, 352
causes of 274t
hypergonadotropic 243
hypogonadotropic 4, 23, 39, 243, 273, 318, 352
idiopathic hypogonadotropic 352
Hypomenorrhea 392
Hypo-osmotic swelling test 203
Hypospadias 341
Hypospermatogenesis 336
Hypospermia 294
Hypothalamic diseases
acquired 275
congenital 273
Hypothalamopituitary
dysfunction 14, 39
diagnosis of 15
failure 14
gonadal axis 27
ovarian axis 1, 2f, 18
Hypothalamus 238
Hysterectomy 110
Hysterocontrast-sonosalpingography 69, 77
modifications of 77
Hysterolaparoscopy 82
Hysterosalpingogram 69, 70, 70f, 71f
Hysterosalpingography 69, 82, 85, 86, 116
Hysterosalpingosonography 85, 86
Hysteroscopic metroplasty 126, 135, 136
benefits of 134
Hysteroscopy 80
I
Immature germ cells 307f
assessment of 307
Immature oocyte, in vitro maturation of 60
Immotile cilia syndrome 351, 353
Immunotech-Beckman assay 167
In vitro fertilization 2, 10, 18, 28, 49, 85, 89, 151, 163, 197, 317, 326, 334
embryo transfer 111
laboratory aspects of 197
In vitro maturation 54, 198
role of 199
In vitro procedures 199
In vivo maturation 199
Indomethacin 319, 321
Infertility 102, 110, 279, 326
causes of 66, 177
duration of 179
dysovulatory 34, 140, 147
idiopathic 147
immunological 140
incidence of 217
management of 140
Inflammation, intraperitoneal 110
Infliximab 373
Infundibulopelvic ligaments 110
Inguinal technique, microscopic 327
Inhibin 5, 239, 248
A 9, 20
B 9, 20, 27, 28, 166
estimation, use of 20
production 243
Insemination 198
motile count 147
timing of 145
Insulin 59
resistance 10, 22
severe 22
sensitizers 51
Intact bulbocavernosus reflex 361
Interstitial tissue 221
histology of 222f
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection 111, 152, 197, 199201, 326, 333, 334, 380, 381
Intratesticular testosterone 320
levels of 250
Intratubular germ cell 341
neoplasma 334
Intrauterine
contraceptive device 90
device 391
fluid collection 402
gestational sac 407
growth
restriction 134
retardation 367
hematomas 405
insemination 2, 35, 69, 140, 145, 146, 326
indications of 140
time of 148
medium 75
pregnancy 401, 402f, 407
Isoflurane 80
J
Jewish population 183
K
Kallikrein 319
Kallmann syndrome 14, 23, 273, 274, 275, 318, 350, 351
Ketoconazole 242
Ketotifen 319, 321
Kidney disease, chronic 282, 283
Kissing ovaries 95, 97f
Kisspeptin-1 receptor 250
Klinefelter's syndrome 274, 276, 277, 326, 355
L
Lactate dehydrogenase 285
Langerhan histiocytosis 186
Laparoscopic varicocelectomy, complications of 328
Laparoscopy 86, 87, 93, 93f, 94f, 97f
Laser vaporization 60
Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome 275
L-carnitine 322, 323
Letrozole 4, 37, 38, 49, 50, 55, 142, 147, 258
advantages of 38
indications 38
inhibits aromatase enzyme 37
regimes 38
side effects 38
Leukemia inhibiting factor 369
Leukocyte 302
assessment of 305
Leukocytospermia 307
Levonorgestrel 390, 395
intrauterine system 103
releasing intrauterine devices 391, 396
Levothyroxine 372
Leydig cell 221, 222, 247, 250, 252, 254, 255, 283, 284
aggregation 254
aplasia 274
function 343
control of 254
hyperplasia and tumors 284
hypoplasia 275
population 256
refractoriness 253
tumors 285
Ligase-promoting complex 200
Limulus amebocyte lysate 206
Liquefaction 293
Liquid
nitrogen 380
paraffin 198
Listeria infections 372
Litter's glands 359
Live birth 176
rates 175f, 177f
Liver disease 395
Loupe-assisted anastomoses 333
Lub's syndrome 353
Lupus anticoagulant 368
Luteal phase 12
action 2
defect 4, 35, 160t
deficiency 371
Luteal serum progesterone levels 12
Luteinizing hormone 13, 3f, 4, 6f, 18, 23, 34, 49, 61, 69, 103, 168, 219, 238, 246, 247, 318, 352
ceiling effect 44
enhances 253
lower 343
pulses of 273
serum 7, 18
supplementation 44
Lyme's disease 365
Lymphocyte immune therapy 373
M
Macroadenoma 23, 279
Macrosomia 187
Makler chamber 301, 301f
Male accessory reproductive glands 222
Male endocrine disorders 273
Male fertility 242
Male genital tract, anatomy of 217
Male infertility 164, 231f, 244fc, 317, 318, 350, 351t, 354
surgical management of 326
Male pronucleus, formation of 238
Male pseudohermaphroditism 353
Male reproductive
endocrinology 246
function 340
tract 217f
Male sexual dysfunction 273
Male subfertility 140, 322
etiology of 167
mild 140, 147
Malignancy, risk of 186
Malleable catheter, Stylet of 174f
Mammalian spermatogenesis 226f
Maternal thyroid functions, abnormal 366
Maturation 225
process of 199, 225
Mature follicle 5f, 12, 154f
B mode features of 154
Mature sperm 232f, 323
peculiarities of 230
structure of 228
May-Grünwald-giemsa staining 307f
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency 197
Medroxy progesterone acetate and dihydrogesterone 147
Meiosis 228f, 244
Meiotic
division 307f
spindle 382, 383f
stage 224
Menarche, early age 91
Menotropins 39
Menstrual
cycle 1f
irregularity 8
pattern 392
Menstruation, retrograde 91
Merocrine 223
Metaplasia 91
Metastatic germ cell tumors 285
Metformin 50, 51, 60, 184, 372
administration 21
after conception 51
Methanol 378
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 368
Methylxanthines 322
Metoclopramide 80
Metroplasty, abdominal ultrasound-guided 136
Microadenoma 11, 19
Microtubule polymerization 382
Midluteal phase progesterone assay 164
Mifepristone 395
Migraine 395
Miscarriage 165, 403, 406
diagnosis of 404
episodes, threatened 403
first trimester 403
incomplete 403
majority of 374
prediction of 404
rates 176
recurrent 364, 365t, 366f, 371fc, 373
risk of 364t
sporadic 364
types of 403
Mixed antiglobulin reaction test 308
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis 351, 354
Mocriptine 23
Mom's syndrome 353
Monoamniotic multiple gestations 187
Monobenzyl phthalate 344
Monobutyl phthalate 344
Monoclonal antibodies 39
Monoethyl phthalate 345
Monofollicular development 4, 37, 38, 40, 50
Monophosphate 4
Motile spermatozoa 295, 308
Mouse oocyte-activation test 201
Mucosa, lamina propria of 223
Müllerian abnormalities 70, 370
Müllerian anomalies, obstructive type of 91
Müllerian duct 117, 128
inhibitor 273
syndrome, persistent 351
Müllerian fusion, defects of 367
Multifollicular development 29, 34, 60
Multilayered endometrium, margin of 160
Multiple pregnancy 35, 37, 66, 190
elimination of 187
rates 182f
Mumps
orchitis 240
postpubertal 280
Muscle relaxant 80
Mycoplasma 86, 309
Myomas, submucous 370
Myometrium 131f
central 129
Myotonic dystrophy 274, 278, 351
N
Nagori's scoring system 154t
Narcotics 242
National Institute for Clinical Excellence 86
Natural killer cells 91
Negative predictive value 120
Neisseria gonorrhea 85, 309
Nematocide dibromochloropropane 340
Neosalpingostomy 88
Neubauer hemacytometer 299, 300f
Neuroendocrine complex system 1
Neuropeptides 2
Next generation sequencing 373
Nitrogen
dioxide 342
oxides 342
Nitrous oxide 80
Noncontact laser 204
Nonergot derived dopamine agonist quinagolide 62
Nonseminoma 285
Nonsperm cells 294, 302
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 102
Noonan's syndrome 274, 277, 355
Normal uterus, three D ultrasound acquired volume of 122f
Nucleus 231, 233f
O
Obesity 177, 370, 391
Oligo-anovulation 34
Oligoasthenozoospermia 355
Oligohydramnios, early 406
Oligospermia 23, 280
severe 243
Oligozoospermia 317
mild 318t
moderate 318t
severe 285, 318t
Oocyte 42
activation, artificial 202
banking 377, 380
collection 198
cryobiology 381
cryopreservation 380, 381, 383f
success of 381
cryopreserve 191, 385
cumulus complex 198
degeneration of 200
donation 182
donors 183
fertilization of 188
fertilized 198, 227
higher number of 142
large size of 381
number of 183
retrieval 172, 199
Opiates 242
Oral contraceptive 389
pills 7
combined 102
Oral sympathomimetic drugs 361
Organochlorine
compounds 340
contaminants 342
Organochlorines, persistent 342
Organophosphates 345
Ovarian
abscess 97f
mimicking endometrioma 97f
artery 159
blood flow 30, 153
cancer 66
cryopreservation 191
diathermy 60
drilling 4, 53, 55
advantages of 53
disadvantages of 54
laparoscopic 60
method of 54
edges, trimming of 106
endometriosis 111
failure 14, 15
causes of 15
hyperstimulation
controlled 39
mild 140
risk of 37, 170, 171
hyperstimulation syndrome 19, 22, 28, 40, 49, 58, 141, 153, 163, 183
fear of 147
management of 184
treatment of 63
reserve 26
assessment of 166
low 166
marker of 167
tests 26, 31t
response 171
prediction of 21, 43
steroids genesis 6fc
stimulation 29, 66
complication of 66
controlled 170
mild 147
stromal flow 153f
index 30
suppression 62
Syndrome Society Task Force 164
tissue, loss of 106
torsion 65
volume 14, 2931, 164
Ovary 151
three D ultrasound image of 152f
Ovulation 1, 5, 38
clinicopathology of 6
diagnosis of 11
gonadotropin induced 38
induction 2, 30t, 31t, 34, 37, 38, 49, 140, 153t, 154t
complication of 58
failed 164
protocol 140
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 58
physiology of 1
summarizing diagnosis of 13
trigger 144
timing of 142
Ovulatory dysfunction, diagnosis of 6
Ovum pick-up 30
Oxyradical scavenging capacity 323
Ozone 342
P
Pain 102
abdominal 58, 402
chronic abdominal 132
endometriosis related 102
killers 280
shoulder 165
symptoms, endometriosis associated 103
Papanicolaou staining 302, 304f
Papillations, absence of 95
Paracentesis, abdominal 65
Paramesonephric ducts 117, 128, 130
Paroxetine 360
Peak systolic velocity 5
Pelvic
adhesions 94f, 121
disease, inflammatory 85
inflammatory disease 90, 391
pain 102
chronic 91, 102, 132
structures 107
Pelvis 64f
evaluation of 164
transverse scan of 130f
Penile vibratory stimulation 361
Pentoxifylline 203, 322
Pericorpus luteal flow, low resistance 13f
Perifollicular
flow, low resistance 155f
resistance index 143
vascularity 155f
Periovulatory period 2
Peritoneal inflammatory 86
Peritoneum, uterovesical fold of 110
Peritonitis 328
Peritubular myoid cells 255, 256
Peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma 103
Persistent organic pollutants 281
Pesticides 340, 343
organophosphorous 344
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 285
Phimosis 88
Phosphate, cyclic 237
Phospholipase C, activation of 237
Phthalate 344
esters 340
Phytoestrogens 341
Plasma membranes, fusion of 238
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 365
Pleurocentesis 65
Polychlorinated biphenyls 340, 342, 343
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 340
Polycystic ovarian
morphology 9
syndrome 28, 49, 59, 164, 366
diagnosis of 7
Polycystic ovary 3, 9, 14, 22, 49
syndrome 3, 15
Polyethylene glycols 378
Polymerase chain reaction 188
Polymorphism 31, 354
Polyps 86, 87, 165, 365
Polyvinylpyrrolidone 378
amount of 200
Positive predictive value 120
Postpartum hemorrhage, severe 14
Potent androgen dihydrotestosterone 239
Potentiated normal motile sperms, bolus of 140
Pouch of Douglas 72f, 92, 107
obliteration of 108f
Powder-burn lesion 93f
Prader-Willi syndrome 274, 275, 351, 352
Pre-eclampsia 134, 179
Pregnancy 178
abnormal early 402, 406
anembryonic 404, 405
biochemical 182
complications 179
context of 186
failure 401
loss
early 405, 406t
mechanism of 365
recurrent 364
molar 403, 403f
normal early 407
of unknown location 400, 401, 401f, 407
rates 142, 178, 199, 262, 381t
termination 66
transvaginal scan, early 374
Pregnenolone 253
Preimplantation genetic
diagnosis 164, 188
screening 188, 189
Prepuberty 283
Presacral neurectomy 109, 110f
Prevasectomy 377
Progesterone 5, 14
micronized 37
natural 147
production 6
serum 8, 13, 19
Progestins 102, 112, 391
antiproliferative action of 102
efficacy of 102
Progestogens 102
Proglitazone 51
Prolactin 18, 238, 240
excess 279
level of 19
serum 119
Prolactinoma 23
Pronuclei
fusion of 238
oocytes 179
Propanediol 380
Propofol 80
Prorenin 59
Prostaglandins 59, 321
Prostate 218, 223, 292, 310
gland, histology of 224f
specific antigen 343
transurethral resection of 241
vesiculo-epididymitis 322
Protein
C, deficiency of 365
digestion 236
kinase pathway 237
S, deficiency of 365
Prothrombin gene mutation 365
Proximal tubal disease 88
Pseudogynecomastia 281
Pseudoperitonealization 111
Pseudosac 402
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium 222
Puberty 8, 242, 273, 273f
Purified human menopausal gonadotropin 42
Pyospermia 307, 309
Q
Quantitative seminal fructose 313
R
Radiation therapy 377
Radiotherapy, low-dose 286
Randomized controlled trial 102
Reactive oxygen species 345
Recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone 41, 42, 151
Reconstructive tubal surgery 89
Rectal endometriosis 98
diagnosis of 98
symptoms of 98
Rectal endoscopic ultrasonography 96
Rectovaginal endometriosis
excision of 111
extension of 109
Rectovaginal septum 94, 107
Red blood cell 352
Reductase deficiency 351, 354
Refenstein's syndrome 353
Respiratory distress syndrome, acute 65
Retinoblastoma, prevalence of 186
Retroperitoneal technique 327
Rhesus sensitization, severe 365
Robertsonian translocation 355
Rosiglitazone 51
Round cells 302
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 364
Rubella 372
status 164
S
Saline infusion
hysterosalpingography 75f
salpingography 82
sonography 71, 115, 124
sonohysterography 165
Salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral 104
Salpingo-ovariolysis 105
Salpingoscopy 82, 87
Scar endometriosis 99f
Scarpa and Camper fasciae 329
Sclerotherapy
antegrade 331
retrograde 331
Scott's solution 303
Scottish unexplained infertility trial 141
Scrotal
temperature 244
ultrasonography 285
Scrotum, structures of 218f
Secretory endometrium
blood flow in 160f
ring sign of 13f
Segmental uterine 159
artery 157
Selective estrogen receptor modulators 34
Selenium 322
Semen 223, 300
analysis 243, 285, 292, 293, 313, 330
abnormal 326
manual 297
banking 377
cryopreservation 285, 377
ejaculate 293
factors 365
freezing
protocols 378
techniques 378
microbiology 309
parameters, normal 317
Ph of 294
preparation 145
quality 262t
smearing methods 302
virology 309
viscosity 294
volume 262, 294, 299
Seminal fluid, expulsion of 360
Seminal plasma 310, 311
concentrations of cadmium 341
contains 311
levels 341
Seminal vesicle 218, 223, 224, 292, 310, 331, 353
histology of 225f
Seminiferous tubules, histology of 221f
Seminoma 285
Septate uterus 70f, 71f, 117, 126, 128f, 367
three D ultrasound acquired volume of 136f
Septate, diagnosis of 125
Septum 121
Sertoli cell 221, 224, 226, 236f, 239, 247, 248, 249, 255257, 277, 278, 341, 343, 355
functions of 256
morphology 258
only syndrome 278, 352
population 256, 257
receptors of 241
tumors 284286
Sex hormone binding globulin 20, 240, 273, 281
Sex reversal syndrome 277, 352
Sexual dysfunction 108
Sexually transmitted
disease 85
infections 392
Sheehan syndrome 14
Shorr stain 302
Sickle cell
anemia 351, 354
screening 183
Sildenafil 322
Sim's speculum 146
Single embryo transfer 187
policy 67
Small tubular uterine cavity 367
Snowstorm pattern 403f
Sonohysterosalpingography 71
Spackman cannula 105
Speculum 72
Sperm 249
antibodies 308
apoptosis 227
aster defects 201
banking 378
capacitation 235
cell 205, 305, 322
diminution of 342
membrane 235
chromatin structure assay 342
coagulum, formation of 223
components 304f
concentration 262, 299, 343
immature 342
types of 299
count 299, 343
defects, common 234f
determining concentration of 300f
DNA haploids 342
flagellum 233, 234f
function 308, 320
head defects of 232f
hyaluronan selected 205
morphology 302
abnormal 262, 303
determination of 302
normal 145, 303
motility 235, 296
regulation of 223
numbers, low 302
preparation 204
presence of 198, 332
preventing access of 234
production 168, 241
quality 333, 343
recovery 168, 363
retrieval 335f
rates 337
technique 333, 361
selection, advance 202
suspension 300
swollen 201
tail flexible test 203
transport 234
through uterus 235
vitality 297
Spermatic cord 337
anatomy of 219f
Spermatid 307, 307f
differentiation, Golgi phase of 229f
formation of 221
nucleus 229f, 230
Spermatocytes 219, 307
primary 221, 307f
Spermatogenesis 217, 219, 226f, 227f, 240242, 244, 250, 251f, 254f, 257f, 259, 260f, 326
abnormalities of 240
causes of impaired 240t, 241
different stages of 255f
generations, three waves of 231f
hormonal control of 254
impairment of 240, 327
individual phases of 227f
neuroendocrinology of 238
process of 244
stages of 224
waves 226
Spermatogenic
cells 220
cycle 226
defects, primary 243
failure, primary 167
Spermatogonia 307f
arrest 23
type B 220
Spermatogonial stage 224
Spermatogonium 244
Spermatoxicity, acute 343
Spermatozoa 221, 222, 244, 277, 292, 296f, 298f, 299, 302, 304, 306f, 333, 379
absence of 333
agglutination of 295
aggregation of 295
calculation of total number of 301
demonstrate agglutination 308
immotile 297
movement of 295
number of 294, 299
pass 222
per ejaculate 302
swollen 299
tail defects of 234f
Spermatozoon
abnormal 308f
hyperactivity of 235
Spermiation 225
Spermicides 394
Spermiogenesis
developmental stages of 231f
different stages of 256f
four phases of 229f
stage 224, 225
transforms early spermatids 249
Spill, absence of 72
Spinal
cord 359, 361
ejaculation generator 359
Spindle
defects 201
microtubules 382
Spiral artery flow 160t
Spironolactone 242
Start-stop technique 360
Stem cells remain 279
Stenosis 86, 87
Sterile inflammatory response 371
Sterilization
hysteroscopic 165
reversal 89
Steroid hormones 247
Steroidogenesis game 253
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 253
Stimulation
duration of 42
protocol 60, 200
selection of 140
Strassman operation 370
Streptococcus faecalis 309
Stress, hypo-osmotic 304f
Stromal blood flow 152
index 156
Stromal flow 31
Strontium chloride 202
Subendometrial blood flow 12, 157
Subfertility, causes of 69
Subinguinal technique, microscopic 327
Sucrose 378
Sulfur dioxide 342
Surgical testicular biopsy 285
Swimup 379
Swyer syndrome 276
Synchrony, disruption of 262
T
Tamoxifen 283, 319, 320
citrate 320
Taxol 382
Tay-Sachs disease 183
Testes 220, 239
structures of 218f
Testicular
atrophy 240, 283
cancer 283, 340
disorders, primary 276
dysfunction 285
dysgenesis syndrome 284, 284f, 340
endocrine disorders 273
extraction 178
feminization syndrome 353
function, endocrine control of 250
germ cell
cancer 280
tumors 283
malignancy 285
Sertoli cell tumors 279
somatic cells 284
sperm 359
sperm aspiration 173, 334336
indications 336
technique 336
sperm extraction 173, 285, 333335
conventional 337
microsurgical 337
tumors 282, 284
Testis 178, 219f, 328
anatomy of 219f
determining factor 276
ducts of 222
histology of 220f
seminiferous tubules of 226f
Testosterone 9, 18, 20, 238, 241, 242, 247, 248, 252f, 273, 354
administration of 248
concentration of 255, 262
deficiency, isolated 319
production, control of 250
role of 255
secretion of 253, 260f
serum 8
synthesis 274
Thawing 378
Theca cells 3
Theophylline 203
Thick wall hydrosalpinx 87
Thromboembolism 390
Thrombophilias 368, 369t
Thrombophilic disorders 395
Thymidines 353
Thyroid 18
disease 242
dysfunction 23, 370, 372
enlargement 370
function tests 22
stimulating hormone 15, 239
serum 372
Thyroiditis, autoimmune 23
Tissue hormones 321
Tocopherol 322
Torsion ovary 65
Total sperm number 299
Toxoplasmosis 365, 372
Trachomonas vaginalis 309
Transabdominal sonography 99f
Transcervical embryo
replacement 173
transfer 173f
Transcervical injection 71
Transdermal contraceptive patch 391
Transvaginal
aspiration 65
hydrolaparoscopy 86, 87
salpingosonography 73
scan 12
sonography 12, 96f98f, 156, 165
ultrasonography 94
Traumatic spinal cord injury 361
Trichloroacetic acid 310
Triethanolamines buffer 310
Trihalomethanes 343
Trophoblast 405
cells biopsied 188
disease 406
membrane 373
reaction 399
Trophoblastic disease 403
Tubal
assessment 80
block, management of 85
disease 164
evaluation 69, 82
factor infertility 85
infertility 85
patency 74f
pathology, causes of 85
status, assessment of 69
surgery 87
transport, abnormal 110
Tuberculosis
endometrial 132
genitourinary 368
Tubule, seminiferous 220, 230, 244, 254
Tubuli recti 222
Tubuloalveolar glands 223
Tumors
necrosis factor 59, 103
pituitary 14
Turner's syndrome 15, 182, 277
risk of 344
Twin pregnancy 136f, 401f
early 401f
Two-bubble sign 405, 406f
Two-cell two-gonadotropins theory 4f, 44
Tyrosine hydroxylate 62
U
Ulipristal acetate 395
Unicornuate uterus 117, 131, 367
three D ultrasound acquired volume of 132f
Ureaplasma 309
Uremia 280
Ureterolysis 109f
Urinary
follicle-stimulating hormone 41
pregnanetriol 244
products 39
retention 108
tract endometriosis 108
Urologists offices 326
Usher's syndrome 352, 354
Uterine
anomalies 367
classification of 117
congenital 115, 121, 124, 126, 133, 135
bleeding, abnormal 115
cavity 127
fibroids, oresence of 129
hypoplasia 116
malformations 404
perforation 392
septum
midline 117
partial 135
synechiae 365
tubes 235
Uterosacral
disease, bilateral 108
endometriosis, extension of 109
lesions, isolated 107
ligament 93f, 96, 108f
Uterus 151
anatomical abnormalities of 367
B mode ultrasound image of 126f
blanching of 106f
cervix 129
coronal image of 122f
didelphys 117
embryology of 116
hypoplastic 133
retroverted 132f
three D ultrasound acquired volume of 122f, 123f, 127f129f, 133f
transverse section of 127f
T-shaped 132, 367
V
Vaginal
aplasia 121
bleeding 402, 404
contraceptive ring 393
cream 147
egg recovery 172f
insemination 234
micronized progesterone 147
nodule, excision of 108f
pessaries 147
routes 147
ultrasound
appearance 184f
transducer 172f
Vaginosis, bacterial 369, 371
Vanishing testis syndrome 277
Varicocele 240, 329
repair 326
inguinal of 327f
subinguinal of 327f
retroperitoneal repair of 327
surgical treatment of 329
treatments for 331t
Varicocelectomy 330
technique of 327t
Vas deferens 222
absence of 334
congenital bilateral absence of 168, 294, 353
histology of 223f
reconstructive surgery of 332
Vascular endothelial growth factor 21, 66
overexpression of 9
secretion of 59
Vascularity flow index 152
Vascularization index 152
Vasoepididymostomy 332
Vasopressin injection 106f, 107f
Vasovasostomy 332
Venereal disease research laboratory 183
Vesicouterine pouch 107
Vessels 328
Viruses 310
Viscera 328
Vitality test 298f
Vitamin 323
B12 322
C 322
D 323
E 322
Vitrification 380, 385
W
Whirlpool sign 66f
Wilson's disease 392
World Health Organization 317, 392
X
XX disorder 277
XX syndrome 277
XXY syndrome 276, 355
XYY syndrome 277
Y
Y chromosome 273, 354, 355
Yolk sac 374, 399, 405, 406
Young's syndrome 334
Z
Zinc 319321
measurement of 310
Zona dissection, partial 178
Zona pellucida 197, 198, 204, 237, 382
leading 191
penetration of 238
Zuclomiphene 34
Zygote
formation of 238
intrafallopian transfer 163
×
Chapter Notes

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Donald School Textbook of HUMAN REPRODUCTION AND GYNECOLOGICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
Donald School Textbook of HUMAN REPRODUCTION AND GYNECOLOGICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
Editor Sonal Panchal MD Consultant, Dr Nagori's Institute for Infertility and IVF Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Professor, Dubrovnik International University Croatia National Academic Director Ian Donald School, India Co-Editor Sanja Kupesic-Plavsic MD PhD Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Associate Academic Dean for Faculty Development Director of Center for Advanced Teaching and Assessment in Clinical Simulation (ATACS) Paul L Foster School of Medicine Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso El Paso, Texas, USA Foreword Asim Kurjak MD PhD
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Donald School Textbook of Human Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology
First Edition: 2019
9789352702008
Printed at:
Prof Asim Kurjak and Prof Frank Chervenak for their dedication and passion to spread knowledge through Ian Donald Inter-University School of Medical Ultrasound.
Contributors Foreword
Human reproduction is one of the fastest growing fields of clinical medicine. There are thousands of papers and chapters describing impressive development of this relatively new field. We in the largest education system in the world—Ian Donald School of Ultrasound—have been following this explosive development virtually from its conception. As a final result, we did introduce a specialist postgraduate course for master degree in human reproduction. Soon it became very popular and much wished type of specialized education. We developed several training centers with top world speakers. The most active in the specialized education is center in Ahmedabad with Professor Sonal Panchal as Head. Sonal proved to be not only very good research worker, but also extremely successful teacher. Her own work with students truly proved known sentence that teaching is transmission of enthusiasm. We have recently asked Sonal and her team to edit Textbook on Human Reproduction, which will be used as an official textbook for Ian Donald specialist course Human Reproduction, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility.
After more than one year of hard work, she collected an impressive list of co-authors; among them, one of the pioneers in this field professor Sanja Kupesic-Plavsic, leading person in Ian Donald School settlements. Together with other distinguished authors, Sonal and Dr Chaitanya Nagori described precisely and extensively what are the facts and what are the future challenges in this exciting field.
I am sure, the readers of this most useful book will truly enjoy reading it and will definitely find the book both informative and stimulating. I wish the book very good acceptance by the readers and do congratulate the editors and contributors for an excellent piece of work.
Asim Kurjak MD PhD
Founder and Director of Ian Donald School
Preface
It indeed gives me a pleasure to contribute to the extensive Donald school library in the form of this book “Donald School Textbook of Human Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology”. It is designed to cover the vast subject of human reproduction—its physiology, related pathologies, treatment options and the newest advances in the field—in a most concise manner. The book includes majority of the aspects of infertility—female factor of infertility, male factor of infertility, embryology and laboratory aspects of assisted reproductive technology. Having included the very basics of the subject and also the recent advances, it is a book that will be useful and will be appreciated by students as well as practitioners in the field. The contributions from the experts with rich experience in the field and the practical tips given by them will surely be of great help for the busy practitioners.
I sincerely thank the expert contributors for their sincere efforts and valuable contributions that have brought the worth to this book.
Sonal Panchal
Acknowledgments
I am indebted to Prof Asim Kurjak for his confidence and trust in me for this project. It was his persistent support and encouragement that has resulted in the form of this book finally. My sincere thanks to Prof Kupesic for her valuable guidance, help and support for the project.
I am thankful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Group Chairman), Mr Ankit Vij (Group President), Ms Chetna Malhotra Vohra (Associate Director—Content Strategy), and Ms Nikita Chauhan (Development Editor) of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, for giving a go-ahead at the very beginning and helping me in every way possible to bring out this book.