Textbook of Anatomy for BSc Nursing Students PR Ashalatha
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table, respectively.
Abdomen 308f
muscle of 97
quadrants of 293
regions of 292, 292f
vein of 243, 244f
Abdominal ostium 356
Abdominal thrusts 268f
Abdominal wall 90
anterior 245
muscle of
anterior 97
posterior 100
posterior 100f, 297
Acetabulum 40
Acetylcholine 129
Achilles tendon 122
Acidophils, types of 337
Acoustic meatus, internal 56
Acromion 36
Addison's disease 344
Addisonian crisis 344
Adductor canal 233, 233f, 394, 394f
branches in 233
Adenohypophysis 338
Adenoids 288
Adenosine triphosphate 8
Adipocytes 173
Adipose tissue 21f, 22
Aditus 179
Adrenal cortex, control of 344, 346
Adrenaline 129
Adrenocortical insufficiency, primary 344
Adrenogenital syndrome 344
Agonists 90
passages 260f, 261fc
sinuses, sphenoidal 55
Albumin 197
Albumin-globulin ratio 198
Allantoic diverticulum 330
Alveolar nerve
block, inferior 154
inferior 154
Alveoli 276
Amniocentesis 389
advantages of 389
technique of 389f
Ampulla 356
of vas deferens 369f
Amygdaloid body 142
canal 245, 305, 306t
interior of 305, 305f
columns 305
external sphincter 306
fistula 307
internal sphincter 306
opening, absence of 318
sinus 306
sphincters 306
valves 306
Anatomical variations 6
Anatomy, gross 5
Androgens 347
Anemia 205, 205t
classifications of 205
Aneurysms 223
Angina pectoris 214
Ankle 123, 123f
movements at 83f
congenital 248, 280, 318, 324326, 328, 330, 355, 364, 371
skeletal 385
Anopia 192
Anosmia 151, 177
Ansa cervicalis 395, 396f
Antagonists 90
Aorta 217, 217f, 218f
abdominal 227, 228f, 229f
branches of 230f
relations of 229f
arch of 219, 219f, 220f
ascending 219, 274
arch of 220, 220f
ascending 219
course, arch of 219
descending 227
parts 217
Aortic hiatus 97
Aortic knob 219
Aortic knuckle 219
Aortic sinuses 213, 219
Appendicular skeleton 33
Appendix 303f, 304f, 393, 394
arterial supply of 302
Aqueous humor 191
Arachnoid mater 134, 148
Areola 360
Areolar connective tissue, loose 401
compartments of 107f
muscle of 107, 108f
upper 37
Arrector pili muscle 174
of skin 168
Arteria thyroidea ima 340
Arterial arcades 300
Arterial obstruction 236t
Arterial occlusion, effects of 235, 236
Arterial supply 82, 213, 263, 315, 339, 351, 354, 356, 361
Artery 148
arcuate 235
brachiocephalic 220
bronchial 276
conducting 217
deep 363
distributing 217
dorsal 363
dorsalis pedis 234f, 235
elastic 217, 217f
end 139
facial 221, 235
function of large 217
gastroduodenal 230
ileocolic 230
lingual 221
maxillary 222
of foot, dorsal 235
peroneal 234
popliteal 233, 233f, 235, 401
pulsations of 235t
sigmoid 231
structure of large 217
Articular cartilage 27, 72
Aryepiglottic fold 266
Arytenoid cartilages 266
Astrocytes 131
Ataxia 147
Atherosclerotic obstruction 236
Atonia 146
Atresia 318
Atria, development of 247
Atrial septal defect 210, 248
Atrioventricular valves 213
common 248
interior of right 210f
left 212, 212f
right 209, 210f
Atrophy 90
Auditory meatus
external 178
internal 54
Auditory tube 181
Auricular artery, posterior 222
Autonomic nervous system 132, 166
subdivisions of 166
Autosomal dominant
disorders 386
traits 387
Autosomal recessive inheritance 387
Axial skeleton 47
Axilla 395
boundaries 395
apex 395
base 395
walls 395
contents of 395f
Axillary artery 106f, 224, 225f, 361
branches 224, 225f, 225t
parts 225f, 225t
Axillary lymph nodes 251
Axillary tail of spence 360
Axon 129
Barr body 378, 378f
Basal nuclei 142, 142f
functions of 142
Basket cells 17
Basophil 199, 203f, 202
Bell's palsy 93, 156
Belly, frontal 92
Berry aneurysm 140
Biceps brachii 108f
Biceps femoris 118
nerve supply of 118
Bicornuate uterus 371, 371f
Bile duct, common 314
Biliary canaliculi 312
catheterization of 328
interior of 326
mucosa cells 378
trigone of 327f
Blind spot 190
arterial supply 253
cancer 202
cells 197
origin of 198
cellular components of 198, 199f
composition of 197, 197fc
excessive loss of 205t
functions of 196f
leukocytes 22
picture 205
role in 198
supply 30, 32f, 148, 253, 254, 286, 311, 325, 326, 336, 339, 341, 343, 343f, 358, 361
through heart, course of 207
venous drainage 253
vessels 216, 216f
structure of 216
Blood-brain barrier 135, 136f
Blood-microscopic structure 197
B-lymphocytes 22
Bone 33, 115
cells 29f
compact 29, 33
composition of 29fc
formation of 30
forming joint 74, 77, 78, 82
frontal 51, 52f, 138
functions of 30, 33
growth of 32
marrow 30
aspiration 32
transplantation 32
parietal 52
parts of long 30, 32f
sphenoid 52f
spongy 29
structure of 28
long 29f
tail 67
tissue, elements of 28
Bony labyrinth 182, 182f
Bony part 181
Bony pelvis 69
Bowman's capsule 322, 329
Bowman's membrane 189
Brachial artery 225, 235
branches 225
Brachial plexus 158, 160f, 403f
branches of 160
injuries 160
typical plan of 158
Brachioradialis 111
Brain 2, 132, 136, 137f
base of 152f
ventricles of 134, 134f
Brainstem 132, 136, 144, 145f
dorsal aspect of 136f
Breast 360, 360f
cancer 362
Bronchi 271
division of 272
left principal 271
relations of right and left 272f
right principal 271
Bronchioles 277
Bronchogram 279
Bronchopulmonary segments 275, 275t
Buccinator muscle 93
artery of 363
of vestibule 351
Bulbar palsy 157
Bulla ethmoidalis 263
Bypass surgery 214f
Calcaneus 45
Calcarine sulcus 138
Calcitonin 340
Callosity 176
Calot's triangle cystic artery 314
Cancellous bone 29
Canines 283
internal 143, 144f
parts of internal 144, 145f
functions of 9
of cell membrane 9
Carbon dioxide transport 201
anomalies 384
impression 274
muscle 90, 91f
plexus 215
tamponade 215
great 215
middle 215
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 216
Cardiovascular anomalies 384
Carina 270, 271
Carotid artery 220f, 396f
branches of internal 336
common 220
external 220, 221f, 235
internal 139f, 222
Carotid canal 56
Carotid sheath 395
relations of 396f
Carotid sinus 223
Carotid system 139
Carotid triangle 404
Carotid wall 179
Carpal bones 39, 45
Carpal tunnel syndrome 40f, 113, 161, 161f
elastic 27
paired 265
rings 270
structure of 26
types of 28t
unpaired 265
yellow elastic 27, 28f
Cartilaginous ossification 31
Cataract 192
Cauda equina 148, 149f
Cavernous sinus 238, 239, 239f
thrombosis 239
Cecum 302
arterial supply of 302
interior of 302f
Celiac trunk 228, 230f
branches 230f
Cell 6, 26, 28
alveolar 276
bipolar 177
body 128
divisions, types of 375
lines, different 383
membrane 6, 8, 8f, 9f
composition of 6
functions of 9
role of 9
structure of 6
nests 27
of connective tissue 21
of epidermis 175
of leydig, interstitial 347
of lymph node 249
of testes, interstitial 347
organelles 10, 10t, 11f
somatic 378
structure of 6
Cell-adhesion molecules 9
Cell-cell adhesion 9
Cell-matrix adhesion 9
Central nervous system 132, 132fc, 172
Central sulcus 137
Centromere 13, 375
dysfunction 146
nystagmus 147
peduncles 146fc
inferior 146
middle 146
superior 146
Cerebellum 146
functions 146
nuclei of 146f
Cerebral artery
anterior 140
middle 140
posterior 140
Cerebral hemisphere 141f, 142f, 143f
inferior surfaces of 140f
Cerebrospinal fluid 135, 183f
functions of 135
Cerebrum 130f, 136, 137f, 139
arterial supply of 140f
blood supply of 138
functions of 140
white matter of 142, 143f
Cerumen 178
branch 155
enlargement 147
lymph nodes 250, 250f, 396f
deep 250
superficial 250
muscles 94
part 270
pleura 278
plexus 158, 160f
branches of 403f
cutaneous branches of 160f
rib 224
vertebra 65, 65f
classification 65
typical 65
Cervix 352
Cesarean section 355
Cheeks 282
Chemical synapses, types of 130f
Chemotaxis 202
Chest 384
Chief cells 341
Cholecystography 314
Cholecystokini 335
Cholesterol 7
Chondroblasts 26
Chondrocytes 26
Chondroitin sulphate 20
Chordae tendinae 213
Chorion frondosum 389
Chorionic villi 389
sampling 389
advantages of 390
disadvantages of 390
transabdominal 389f
transvaginal 389f
Choroid 189
plexuses 135
aberrations 379
abnormality 379, 384
anomalies 381t
trisomies, types of 380f
Chromosome 14, 374, 376t
classification of 15f, 375, 376f
karyotyping of 377f
structure of 374
Ciliary body 189
Ciliary muscle 168
Circle of Willis 139, 139f, 222f, 223
Circulus arteriosus 139, 139f, 222f, 223
Cisternae 11
Cisternal puncture 134
Claustrum 142
peculiarities of 33
right 35f
Clavipectoral fascia 106
Claw hand 162
Clitoral hood 351
Clitoris 351
Cloaca 330
Cobweb-like mother 134
Coccydynia 69
Coccyx 67
Cochlea 182, 182f, 183f
duct 183
nerve 183
Cock's comb 59
Colic artery
left 231
middle 231
right 231
Collagen fibers 20
distribution of 21t
types of 21
Colles’ fracture 78
Colliculus of midbrain, inferior 183
Colloid in follicles 340
ascending 303
descending 303
sigmoid 304
Columella 262
Compact bone, structure of 30, 31f
Conjunctival sac 185
Conn's syndrome 344
Connective tissue 20, 21f, 277
classification of 20, 20fc
components of 20
functions of 22
types of 22
Conus elasticus 266
Coracobrachialis 108
Cornea 21f, 188, 189, 189f
junction of 188f
Corneal corpuscles 189
Corniculate cartilages 266
Coronary angiography 214
Coronary artery 213f
left 213, 214
right 213
Coronary sinus 215
Coronary sulcus 208f
albicans 358
callosum 143, 143f
major of 144f
minor of 144f
functions 143
parts 143
Corpus luteum 358
formation of 347
Cortex 249, 358
functions of 343
Cortical arches 322
Corticospinal tract 145
Costal cartilages 27
Costal pleura 278
Costodiaphragmatic recess 279
Costomediastinal recess 279
Cranial fossa
anterior 50, 52f
middle 50
posterior 51, 238f
Craniofacial muscles 92
Cremasteric reflex 367
Cricoid cartilage 266, 266f
Cri-du-chat syndrome 381
ampullaris 183
galli 59
terminalis 209
Crura 97
Cryptorchidism 367
Cubital fossa 395, 397f
right 241f
Cubital vein, median 241, 241f
Cuboid bone 45
Cumulus oophorus 358
Cuneiform cartilages 266
primary 63
secondary 63
Cushing's syndrome 344, 345
Cystic artery, triangle of 314
Cystic duct 313
Cytoplasm 10
Cytoskeleton 14
of cell 14t
Cytotoxic T cells 204
Decidua basalis 389
Dendrites 128
Dense connective tissue 401
Denver classification 375, 376t
Deoxyribonucleic acid 375
forensics 390
higher organization of 376f
structure of 375f
Dermatan sulfate 20
Dermis 173
Descemet's membrane 189
Detrusor muscle 326
Dextrocardia 248
Diabetes 346
insipidus 346
mellitus 346
secondary 346
Diapedesis 202
Diaphragm 96, 97f
foramina in 97
Diaphragma sellae 336
Diencephalon 140
muscle 404
triangle 404
Digestion 282
process of 283fc
Digestive system 281, 282, 318
development of 316, 317f
parts of 282, 283f
Diploic bones 33
Diseases, alterations in 32
Dominant inheritance 386
Dorsiflexion 83
Dorsum 260
Down syndrome 381, 383, 383f
Ductus deferens 367
Duodenal cap 300
Duodenal papilla, major 298, 314
Duodenal ulcer 300
Duodenum 297, 298f
extent 297
first part of 298
part of 298
position 297
second part of 298, 299f
structure of 299f
Dura mater 147
Dural venous sinuses, unpaired 238
Dysarthria 147
Dysdiadochokinesia 147
boundaries of middle 179, 180f
cleft, parts of middle 179f
communications, middle 179
external 179
internal 182
middle 179, 181
muscle of middle 181, 181f
ossicles 180, 180f
incus 180
malleus 180
stapes 180
parts of 178f
middle 179, 179f
Ectodermal cells 15
Ectopia cordis 248
Ectopic tubal pregnancy 357
Edward syndrome 381
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 23
Ejaculatory ducts 368, 369, 369f
Elbow joint 75, 75f
relations of 76
Endochondral ossification 31
functions of hypothalamus 346
glands 19, 334, 335f, 335t
functions of 335, 335fc
major 334
pancreas 335
system 333, 334
Endocytosis 10f
Endodermal cells 15
Endolymph 183
Endometrium 352
Endomysium 88
Endoneurium 131
Endoplasmic reticulum 10, 11f
functions of 11
types of 10
Endothelium 15, 189
Eosinophil 22, 199, 202, 203f
Ependyma 134
Ependymal cells 132
Epicondyle, lateral 42
Epicranius 92
Epidermis 172, 173
Epididymis 365f, 367
Epidural anesthesia 147, 149
Epidural block 149
Epiglottis 266
Epineurium 131
Epiphyseal injury 32
Epiphysis cerebri 345
Episiotomy 102f
Epistaxis 262
columnar 16
compound 17
cuboidal 16
multilaminar 17
simple 16f
Epithelium 15
classification of 15, 16t
corneal 188
functions of 15
non-keratinized 17
olfactory 177f
pavement 15
pseudostratified 16
ciliated columnar 17f
transitional 18, 18f
Erb's paralysis 160
Erythrocyte 199, 199f
Erythropoiesis 198
opening 97
varices 245
Esophagus 290, 291f, 292f
constrictions of 291
lower end of 245
Ethmoid 59
air cells 59
anterior groups of 59
Ethmoidal sinuses 264
Eukaryotes 14
Eukaryotic cell 6
Exocytic vesicles 12
Exocytosis 9
stages in 10f
Extensor digitorum
brevis 123
longus 119
Extensor hallucis brevis 123, 119
Extensor muscles
deep 111, 112f
superficial 111, 111f
fluid 6
molecules 10f
hematoma 49, 50f
hemorrhage 222
Extrahepatic biliary apparatus 313, 313f, 317
development of 317f
Extraocular muscles 186
actions of 187
Extrinsic tendons 125
anatomy of 21f
anterior chamber of 188
lesion, right 193
living 184
Eyeball 186f, 187, 188f, 188t
extrinsic muscles of 186f
section of 187f
structure 187
wall of 188fc
Eyebrows 184
Eyelid 184
functions 184
structure of 184, 185f
Fabella 121
Face 153f
dangerous area of 237f
vein of 237f
Facial colliculus 154
Facial expression 92t
muscle of 92
Facial muscles 92f
Facial nerve 92, 150, 154
branches of 153f, 155
course 155
lesions of 155f
Fallopian tubes 355, 356, 370
development of 371f
Falx cerebri 133, 133f
Fascia iliaca 397
Fascia transversalis 397
Fat cells 22
contents in 400f
organs of reproduction 350
pelvis 70f, 71t
reproductive system 350f
urethra 327
Femoral artery 232, 232f, 233f, 235
branches 233f
relations of 233
canal 398
ring 398
septum 398
sheath 246, 246f, 397
right side 397f
triangle 396
branches in 232
right side 397f
Femur 4f, 42
anterior right 42f
posterior right 42f
Fetal blood sampling 390
Fetal skull 59, 59f
Fetoprotein level, alpha 388
Fetoscopy 390
Fetus, anterior fontanelle in 48
Fibers 20, 143, 143f
commissural 143
elastic 21
projection 143
reticular 21
sympathetic preganglionic 167f
Fibrinogen 197, 198
Fibroblasts 21
Fibrocartilage 27
astrocytes 131
capsule 74, 75, 79
coat 187
outermost 291
layer, outer 215
tissue 361
Fibula 44, 122
functions of 44
right 44f
Filum terminale 148
Fissure, oblique 274
Flexor digitorum
profundus 110, 110f
superficialis 109, 109f
Flexor hallucis longus 123
muscles, deep 122
retinaculum 113, 114f, 123, 123f
primary 358
secondary 358
stimulating hormone 335
Follicular cells 340, 358
Fontanelles 59, 71
Foot 123
arches of 47, 47f
of newborn, edema of 385f
skeleton of 45
left 45f
epiploic 308
magnum 56
ovale 56
rotundum 56
spinosum 56
transversarium 65
major 97
minor 97
Forearm 111f, 112f
bone of 38, 38f
muscle of 109
posterior compartment of 110
Foregut, derivatives of 317
inferior 186
superior 186
Foville's syndrome 145
Fracture 32
Fundoscopy 192
Fundus 294, 313, 352
Funduscopy 192
Funiculi 130
Gallbladder 167, 313, 314f
Gallstones 314
Ganglia 130, 142, 142f
Gangrene 236
dry 236
moist 236
Gases, exchange of 260
Gastrectomy 296
canal 296
glands 296
rugae 296
ulcers 296
Gastric artery
left 229, 294
right 230, 294
short 295
Gastroepiploic artery
left 295
right 295
Gaucher's disease 387
Gene 379
expression, regulation of 379
operator 379
regulator 379
structure of 379, 379f
therapy 390
X-linked 387
Y-linked 387
code 379
disorders 388
Genitalia, external 350
Genu 144
Germ line therapy 390
Gigantism 338
Glabrous skin 172
Gland 18, 19f, 168
adrenal 335, 342
Bartholin's 351
classification of 18fc
greater vestibular 351
intestinal 297
lacrimal 185
Meibomian 174
parathyroid 335, 342f
parotid 289, 289f
sebaceous 174
secretory elements of 19f
sublingual 290f
submandibular 289, 290f
thecal 347
unicellular 19f
Glandular tissue 361
Glanzmann thrombasthenia 205
Glenoid cavity 36f
Gliosis 132
Glisson's capsule 312
Globulin 197, 200
Glossopharyngeal nerve 150, 156
functions 156
Glucocorticoids 343
Gluteal region 102f
extent of 114
muscle of 114
surface 40
tuberosity 42
maximus 114, 114f, 115f
medius 115
actions of 115
minimus 114f, 115
Glycolipids 9
Glycoproteins 9
Glycosaminoglycans, types of 20
Goblet cells 304
Goiter 341
Golgi apparatus 11
functions of 12
Golgi complex, structure of 11f
Gomphosis 71
Graafian follicle 358, 358f
Granulosa cells 347
Grave's disease 341
Gray matter, arrangement of 130
Great arteries, transposition of 248
Gums 283
Gyri 136, 137f, 138
Hemoglobin 200
destruction of 201
functions of 201
normal levels 200
structure of 200, 201f
types of 201
Hemorrhoids 245, 306
external 306
internal 306
sites of internal 307f
Hair 174
follicle 174
papilla 174
parts of 174
Hairy skin 172
Hamstrings 118, 118f
Hand 113, 114f
skeleton of 35f, 39
Hard palate 284
Hartmann's pouch 313
Hassall's corpuscle 256f
and neck, arteries supplying 221f
lies, medial 108f
muscle of 91
of femur, ligament of 80
vein of 237
functions, sense of 178
mechanism of 183
sense of 178
Heart 2, 4f, 168, 205, 212f, 214
anatomical position of 207f
apex of 206
base of 206
supply of 213, 213f
through 208f
chambers of 206, 209
conducting system of 216, 216f
coverings of 215
development of 247, 247f
features of 208f
left 209
nerve supply of 215
right 209
sternocostal surface of 207f
valves of 213
vein of 215
venous drainage of 215f
Heimlich maneuver 268
performing 268f
Helicine arteries 363
Helicotrema 182
Helper T cells 204
Hematopoiesis 198
Hemianopia 192
Hemolyticanemia 9
Hemophilia 387
Hemopoiesis 198
Heparan sulphate 20
Hepatic artery 229
fate of 312
Hepatic duct
common 313
left 313
right 313
Hepatomegaly 313
Hepatorenal pouch 309
Hereditary spherocytosis 9
Hernia, types of 399
Herring bodies 337
Hesselbach's triangle 399, 400f
Heteronymous hemianopia 192
Hiatus semilunaris 263
Hilton's law 73
Hilum 252, 274, 358
of lung 275f
artery of 231
derivatives of 317
bone 40, 41f
joint 79, 79f, 80, 81t
anteriorly 80
ligament of 80f
posteriorly 80
superiorly 80
type 79
Homonymous hemianopia 192
right 192
Hormone 334, 337
adrenal 344
adrenocorticotropic 335
antidiuretic 335, 337
corticotropin releasing 338
gastrointestinal 335
general 334
gonadotropin-releasing 336, 338
growth 32, 335
local 334
luteinizing 335
melanocyte stimulating 335
ovarian 347
regulation of secretion of 335
secretion of 338
Horner's syndrome 168
Horseshoe kidney 324, 324f, 330
House-maid's bursa 82
body 1, 2
chorionic gonadotropin 347, 384
genome project 390
Humeroradial part 76
Humeroulnar part 76
Humerus 37
anterior right 37f
posterior right 37f
cartilage 27, 27f
membrane disease 279
Hyaluronic acid 20
Hydrocephalus 135
Hymen 360
Hymenal caruncles 360
Hyperaldosteronism, primary 344
Hypergammaglobulinemia 198
Hyperinsulinism 346
Hyperparathyroidism 342
Hyperploidy 380
Hyperprolactinemia 338
Hyperproteinemia 198
Hyperthyroidism 341
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, congenital 297f
Hypertrophy 90
Hypoglycemia 346
Hypoparathyroidism 342
Hypophysis cerebri 336
Hypoproteinemia 198
Hypospadias 364
Hypothalamus 141, 345
functions 141
gland 345f
nuclei 345
Hypothenar muscles 112
Hypotonia 146
Hystera 352
Ileal diverticulum 318
Ileocecal valve, frenula of 302
Ileum 297, 300, 300t, 301f
arterial supply of 300
mesentery of 300
branches, external 231
common 231
external 231
internal 231
crest 40
fossa 40
anterior superior 40
posterior superior 40
veins, common 244
Ilium 40
Immunoglobulins 198, 204
Imperforate anus 318
Imperforate hymen 360
Incisor tooth 284f
Incisura angularis 294
Infections, acute 290
Infraglottic part 267
Infrahyoid muscles 94, 405
Infranuclear lesions 156
Infraorbital foramen 56
Infundibulum 356
canal 399, 399f, 400f
hernia 399
direct 399
indirect 399
ligament 98, 398, 398f
lymph nodes, superficial 251, 251f
nodes, deep 251
point, mid 399
deep 399, 400f
superficial 98, 399, 400f
Inheritance, X-linked 387
Insulin 346
secrete 316
Intention tremor 147
Interatrial septum 210
development of 248f
Intercalated discs 90
Intercostal muscle
external 96
innermost 96
internal 96
Intercostalis intimus 96
Interlobar fatty tissue 361
Interosseous muscles 113
Interventricular septum 212
absence of 248
development of 248f
Interventricular sulcus 208f
Intervertebral discs 69
structure 69
Intervertebral foramen 65
Intestine 168
blood supply of large 304
large 301, 302, 302t, 303, 304f
small 297, 301, 302t
Intrabulbar fossa 363
Intracellular fluid 6
Intrapulmonary bronchi 277
Intrapulmonary passages 277
Intrinsic muscle 123, 125, 268
of hand 111
Involuntary muscle 90
Iris 168, 189
muscle of 90, 189
Iron deficiency anemia 205
Ischemia 235
Ischemic heart disease 214
Ischioanal fossae 307
Ischiopubic rami, conjoined 41
Ischiorectal fossa 307, 307f
Ischiorectal pad 307
Ischium 41
Isochromosome 382
formation of 383f
Isthmus 339, 352, 356
Jaundice 193f, 201
Jejunum 300, 300t, 301f
arterial supply of 300
mesentery of 300
Joint 70
acromioclavicular 74, 74f
ankle 82
ball and socket 72
bursae around 75
carpometacarpal 78, 78f
cartilaginous 71, 73f
primary 73f
secondary 73f
cavity 72
classification of 70, 71t
condyloid 72
ellipsoid 72
fibrocartilaginous 71
fibrous 71
first carpometacarpal 78f
glenohumeral 74
hinge 72
hip 79, 79f, 80, 81t
hyaline cartilaginous 71
inferior radioulnar 76
knee 80, 81f
left ankle 83f
middle radioulnar 76
movements at subtalar 84f
of lower limb 79
of shoulder girdle 73
of skull 48
of upper limb 73, 74f
pivot 72
plane 73
primary cartilaginous 71
radiocarpal 77
radioulnar 76, 77f
saddle 73
secondary cartilaginous 71
sellar 73
sternoclavicular 74, 74f
structures forming 76
subtalar 83
superior radioulnar 76, 77f
sutural 71
synovial 72, 73f
types of 72f
Jugular foramen 56
Jugular vein 240f, 396f
anterior 240
external 240
internal 240
Jugular wall 179
Jugulodigastric node 251
Jugulo-omohyoid node 251
Juxtaglomerular apparatus 323, 323f
Karyotype, normal 378f
Keratan sulfate 20
Keratin 173
Keratinocytes 173, 175
Keratocytes corpuscles 189
Keratohyalin 173
Kidney 4f, 309, 320
agenesis of 330
bilateral 330
unilateral 330
anterior relations of 322f
blood supply of 324
development of 329, 329f
left 321
right 321
tissue 322
Klinefelter syndrome 381, 385, 386f
Klumpke's paralysis 161
deformity in 161
Knee joint
bursae around 82
ligament of 81
movements at 82t
Kyphosis 69
Labia majora 351
Labia minora 351
Labium majus, singular 351
Labrum acetabulare 79
apparatus 185, 185f
fluid 186
papilla 186
puncta 186
sac 186
Lacuna 26
Lacunar capsule 27
Lamellae 30f
Lamina cribrosa 187
Laparoscopy 355
Laryngopharynx 288
Larynx 265, 267f
cavity of 266, 267, 267f
development of 279f
inlet of 267, 267f
ligament of 266
muscle of 267
skeleton of 265, 265f
subdivisions 267f
ventricle of 267
arteries of 234
inferior extensor retinacula of 120f
movements 247
muscle of 119
anterior compartment of 119, 119f
lateral compartment of 120, 120f
posterior compartment of 121
osteofascial compartments of left 119f
posterior compartment of 122f
skeleton of 43
superior extensor retinacula of 120f
Lens 191
Lentiform nucleus 142
relations of 142f
Lesion, effects of 192, 193f
Lesser omentum 311
Leukemia 202
Leukocytes 201, 202
types of 201
varieties of 203f
Leukopoiesis 202
Levator ani muscles 101
Levator glandulae thyroideae 339
Levator palpebrae superioris 187
Levator prostatae 370
Ligament 72, 76, 78, 79, 115, 353f
broad 354
capsular 78, 81
coracoclavicular 74
coracohumeral 75
coronary 311
cruciate 81
dorsal 78
falciform 311
fibromuscular 353, 354
fibular collateral 81
glenohumeral 75
iliofemoral 79
intrinsic 266
ischiofemoral 80
lacunar 398
lateral 78
left triangular 311
Mackenrodt's 354
medial 83
palmar 78
pectinate 398
peritoneal 309, 353, 354
phrenicocolic 252
Poupart's 398
pubocervical 354
pubofemoral 80
structures in broad 353
suspensory 357
tibial collateral 81
transverse 79
cervical 354
humeral 75
uterosacral 354
vestibular 266
vocal 266
arteriosum 219, 220f
patellae 81
venosum, fissure for 311
Light, sense of 191
anomalies 384
anterior 144
arteries of
lower 232, 232f, 232fc
upper 223, 226f
bone of upper 34t
lower 245, 246
massage of lower 247
muscle of lower 113
posterior 144
skeleton of lower 40, 41f
upper 33, 103
vein of
lower 245
upper 241, 241f
alba 98
aspera 42
semilunaris 99
Lipid 6, 8f
layer, functions of 7
Lips 282
Liver 2, 167, 309, 311, 312f, 311
anterior 310f
biopsy 313
development of 317, 317f
entering 312
functions of 312
inferior surface of 311
peritoneal folds of 311
physiological lobe of 311f
position of 310f
posterior 310f
Lobe 137f, 138, 274, 310, 369
anterior 336
functional 310
intermediate 337, 338
parietal 138
posterior 337
plexus 162, 163f
puncture 135, 149
subarachnoid block 149
sympathectomy 168
triangle 107
vertebra 66, 67f
Lumbosacral enlargement 147
Lung 2, 21f, 168, 272, 273f, 276f, 277, 278f
blood supply of 276
development of 279f
left 274, 275, 275f, 275t, 276
medial surface 273f
nerve supply of 277
parts of 272
right 274, 274f, 275, 275t, 276
Lymph node 248250, 404f, 405
enlargement 257
functions of 250
structure of 249, 249f
Lymph vessels 248
Lymphatic drainage 255, 277, 286, 295, 295f, 301, 340, 351, 354, 356, 361, 362f, 363, 364, 366
Lymphatic system 248
Lymphatic vessels 249
Lymphocyte 22, 202, 203, 203f
large 199
of thymus 256
small 199
Lyon hypothesis 378
Lysosomal glycogen storage disease 12
Lysosomes 12
body 12f
functions of 12
types of 13fc
Macroglia 131
Macula 183
lutea 190
Male, contents in 400f
Malpighian corpuscle 322
Mammary gland 350, 360
lobes of 361f
Mandible 57f
Mandibular foramen 56
Mandibular nerve 153
block 154
Manubrium 62
Marfan's syndrome 23, 386
Masseter muscle 92f, 94f
Mast cells 22
Mastoid air cells 54
Mastoid wall 179
Maternal serum screening 388
Maxilla 58, 58f
Maxillary sinus 264
McBurney's point 303f
inferior 263
middle 263
superior 263
Meckel's diverticulum 318
pleura 278
structures 270t
syndrome 269
Mediastinum 269
anterior 269
middle 269
posterior 269
subdivisions of 269, 269f
superior 269
Medical genetics 373, 374
Medulla 249, 343, 358
functions of 343
oblongata 146
Megaloblastic anemia 205, 206f
Meiosis, consequences of 375
Melanin 174
Melanoma, malignant 176
Membrane, inner 13
Membrane-bound vesicles 12
Membranous labyrinth 182f, 183
parts 183
Meningeal artery, middle 221f, 222
Meninges 133
folds 133f
functions of 82
medial 82
Merkel cell endings 176
Merocrine 19
Mesenchymal cells 22
Mesenteric artery
inferior 231, 231f
superior 230, 231f
syndrome, superior 300
Mesenteric vein, superior 245
Mesocolon, sigmoid 304
Mesodermal cells 15
Mesogastrium 308
Mesosalpinx 353
Mesothelium 308
Mesovarium 353
Metacarpal bones 39
Metanephros 329
Metatarsal bones 45
Microbial genomics 390
Microglia 132
Midbrain 144
Midgut, derivatives of 317
Millard-Gubler syndrome 145
Mineral salts 29
Mineralocorticoids 343
Mitochondria 13
functions of 13
Mitochondrion, structure of 13f
Mitral cells 177
Molecular medicine 390
Monocyte 199, 202, 203, 203f
Mons pubis 351
Morison's pouch 309
Morris’ parallelogram 321f
Motor changes 113
Motor nerve supply 286
Motor neuron palsy, upper 155f, 156
Motor speech area 138
Mouth 282
Mucosa 270, 296
Mucous membrane 255, 356
Müller's muscle 90, 187
Multipolar neurons 129
Multivesicular body 12f
Muscle 4f, 81t, 90, 92t, 100f, 115, 125
abdominal actions of 100
adductor 116
brevis 116
longus 116
magnus 116
pollicis 111, 113f
aponeurosis of 90
around eyelids 93
around mouth 92
arrangement of 96f
attached to clavicle 33
attaching humerus to scapula 105f
cardiac 91t
classification of 91
coat 325, 356
deep 121
distribution of smooth 90
extensor 116
extrinsic 267
fibers 88
smooth 91f
intercostal 96
lumbrical 112
masticatory 93
oblique 186, 186f
of back, deep 96
of larynx, innervation of 268
of neck, anterolateral 94
of orbit, nerve supply of 187
of posterior compartment, deep 122f
inversion 84
movements 77, 83
skeletal 91t
smooth 90, 91t
superficial 109f, 121, 122f
tone 90
types of 88
artery 217, 218f
branches 165, 166
coat 291, 296
layer 300
support 353
system 87, 88
triangle 405, 405f
Myocardial infarction 214
Myocytes fibers 88
Myoepitheliocytes cells 17
Myofibrils 89
Myometrium 352
Myosin 89
Myxedema 341
Nail 175
function 175
parts of 175, 175f
Nasal cavity 261
boundaries of 261
lateral wall of 263f
subdivision of 261
Nasal meatuses 263t
Nasal septum 261, 261f
arteries supplying 262f
deviated 262
Nasolacrimal duct 186
Nasopharyngeal tonsil 288
Nasopharynx 288
Navicular bone 45
Neck 352, 384
muscle of 95f
nerve point of 158
of humerus, surgical 162
triangles of 402, 402f
vein of 237, 240
Needle vasectomy 368
Nephrogenic cord 329
Nephron 322, 323f
function of 323, 323t
parts of 322
structure of 323
Nerve 115
abducent 150, 154
accessory 150, 157, 403f
axillary 162, 162f, 163f
branches of mandibular 153f
circumflex 162
cranial 132, 150, 150f, 158, 159t, 254
cutaneous longest 164
distribution of median 161
endings, free 176
femoral 163
genitofemoral 163
hypoglossal 150, 158
Laborer's 161
lingual 154
maxillary 153
median 161, 161f
musculocutaneous 161
musician's 113, 161, 162
obturator 164, 164f
olfactory 150, 151, 159
ophthalmic 153
palsy, third 152
phrenic 158
plexuses 158
radial 162, 162f
recurrent laryngeal 268
saphenous 164
sciatic 164, 166f
spinal 132, 148
supply 75, 80, 93, 94, 125, 178, 179, 181, 255, 262, 263, 287f, 295, 301, 315, 324326, 340, 351, 354, 356, 358, 361, 363, 364, 366, 402
sympathetic 166
thickest 164
trigeminal 150, 152
vestibulocochlear 150, 156
Nervi terminalis 158
Nervous coat 190
Nervous system 127, 128, 132, 401
divisions of 132
subdivisions of 133fc
Nervous tissue 128
Nervus intermedius, distribution of 154
Neubauer's counting chamber 200
Neural arch 64
Neuralgia, trigeminal 154
Neurites 128
Neuroglia 131, 131f, 133
classification 131
functions of 132
types of 132fc
Neurohypophysis 337, 338
Neuromuscular junction 90f
Neuron 128, 128f, 132, 133
bipolar 129
classification of 129
first order 191
second order 191
third order 192
types of 129f
unipolar 129
Neurotransmitters 129
Neutrophil 199, 202, 203f
Nipple 360
retraction of 362
Nitrogenous bases 374
Non-insulin 346
basalis 49, 51f
frontalis 49, 49f
lateralis 49
occipitalis 49
verticalis 48, 48f
and nasal cavity 260
external features of 261f
lateral wall of 262
Nuchal cyst 385f
components 14
envelope 15f
membrane 14
Nucleoli 14
Nucleoplasm 14
Nucleotides 374
Nucleus 14
anterior group of 141
caudate 142, 145
functions of 14
medial group of 141
paraventricular 141, 345
pulposus 69
supraoptic 141, 345
ventral group of 141
Nutrition 82
Oblique muscle
external 98
inferior 187
internal 98
Occipital bone 52, 54f
Occipitofrontalis 92
Oculomotor nerve 150, 151
distribution of 153f
palsy 152
Olfaction, sense of 176
Oligodendrocytes 131
Omental bursa 308
Oogenesis 358
Optic canal 56
Optic disc 190
Optic nerve 150, 151, 159
lesion 193
Optic neuritis 151
Optic radiation, lesion of right 193
Optic tract, lesion of right 193
Oral cavity proper 283
Orbicularis oculi 93
Orbicularis oris 92
Orbital fissure 55, 56
Organic constituents 197
accessory 184
essential 184
internal 350, 351f
of digestion, accessory 309
relations of 4f
secondary 350
Oropharynx 288
Osseofibrous ring 77f
Ossicles, position of 181f
Ossification 26
Osteoblasts 29, 29f
Osteoclasts 29, 29f
Osteocytes 29, 29f
Osteogenesis imperfecta 23
Osteogenetic layer 30
Osteology 34t
Osteoporosis 32
Osteoprogenitor cells 28
Osteosarcoma 29
Otitis media, complications of 181
Ovarian fimbria 356
Ovarian follicle, mature 358, 358f
Ovarian fossa, boundaries of 357
Ovary 357, 357f
structure 357f
Oxygen transport 201
Oxygenation reaction 201
Oxyphil cells 341
Oxytocin 337, 338
Pachymeninx 133
Palate 284, 284f
nerve of 285
parts 284
soft 284
Palatine tonsil 253, 254
structure of 255f
Palmar arch 226
deep 226
superficial 226
Palmaris brevis 112
Palpebrae 93, 184
Pampiniform plexus 358
Pancreas 19, 167, 168, 314, 346
annular 316, 318
body of 315
development of 317, 318f
duct system of 317
ducts of 315
parts of 315f, 316f
tail of 315
Pancreaticoduodenal artery, inferior 230
Papillae 177, 285f
Papillary ducts 322
Papillary muscles 211, 213
Papilledema 151
Parafollicular cells 340
Paralysis, signs of 156
Paranasal air sinuses 263
Paranasal sinuses 263f, 264
functions of 264, 264f
Parasympathetic nervous system 166
Parathormone 32
Parathyroid 341, 342f
Parietal bone, right 53f
external surface 53f
internal surface 53f
Parieto-occipital sulcus 137
Parkinsonism 142
anterior 337f
cystica 317
hepatica 317
intermedia 336338
Patau syndrome 381
Patella 44
functions of 44
Patent ductus arteriosus 219
Peau D'orange 362
major 105, 106f
minor 106, 106f
diaphragm 101f, 353
inlet, boundaries of 70
outlet, boundaries of 70
part of ureter 324
splanchnic nerves 167f
female 327f
male 70f, 71t, 327f
muscle of 101
of ureter 324
types of 70
Penile part 328
Penis 362
arteries of 363
components of 362f
Pericardial cavity 215
Pericarditis 215
Pericardium, nerve supply of 215
Pericariocentesis 215
Pericranium 402
Perilymph 182
Perimetrium 352
Perimysium 88
Perineal body 307, 307f, 354
boundaries of 307f
subdivisions of 308
Perineurium 131
Peripheral blood 206f
Peripheral heart 121
Peripheral membrane proteins 8
Peripheral nerve 130
structure of 130, 131f
Peripheral nervous system 132, 132fc
Peripheral proteins 8
Peritoneal relations 298, 305
anatomy of 309
lesser sac of 308
parietal 308
Peritonitis 357
Pernicious anemia 205
Peroneal muscles 121f
Peroneal retinacula 121f
Peroneus brevis 121
actions 121
insertion 121
Peroneus longus 120
Peroneus tertius 119
Peroxisomes 13
Perthes’ disease 80
Peyer's patches 301
Phagocytosis, process of 203fc
Phagolysosomes body 12f
Phagosomes 12
Phalangeal bones 40
Phalanges 40
Phalanx, singular 40
Pharyngeal artery, ascending 222
Pharyngeal recess 288
Pharyngeal tonsil 288
Pharynx 265, 287
muscle of 288
nerve supply of 288
parts of 287
Phenotypic anomalies 383
Pheochromocytoma 345
Phlebothrombosis 247
Phospholipid 7
molecule 8f
Pia mater 134, 148
Piercers 283
Pigment cells 22
Piles 245, 306
Pineal gland 345, 345f
functions 345
Pinocytosis, reverse 9
Pinocytotic vesicles 12
Piriform fossa 288
Piriformis 102
lower border of 102
origin of 102f
upper border of 102
Pituitary 337f
cells, parts of 338t
control of anterior 346
dwarfism 338
gland 335, 336
parts of 336f
relations of 337f
parts of 338t
secretion of posterior 346
tumor 193
Placenta 347
Plantar artery
lateral 235, 235f
medial 235, 235f
Plantar flexion 83
Plantar muscles 123
Plasma 197
membrane 6
proteins 197, 198
functions of 198, 198f
Platelet 199, 204, 204f
disorders 205
fate of 204
formation of 204
functions of 204, 204f
Platysma 95
Pleura 278, 278f
diaphragmatic 278
nerve supply of 279
parietal 278
pleura 278
visceral layer 278
Pleural recesses 278, 278f
Plexus, reticular 175
Plural-epithelia 15
Pluripotent stem cell 198
Podocytes 322
Pole, upper 357
Poliomyelitis 150
Pons 145
Pontine hemorrhage 145
Popliteal fossa 233f, 399
right side 400f
Popliteal ligament, oblique 81
Popliteus muscle 400
Portacaval anastomosis 306
Portosystemic anastomoses 245
Pouch of Douglas 309, 309f
Primordial follicle 358
Pringle's maneuver 311
Processus cochleariformis 181
Progesterone 347
Prokaryotes 14
Pronator teres 109
Pronephros 329
Prostate 369
gland 370f
lobes of 370f
Prostatic urethra 328f, 369f, 370
Prostatic utricle 370
Protein 8, 8f
integral 8
layer, functions of 8
Protoplasmic astrocytes 131
Protoporphyrins 200
Pseudounipolar neurons 129
Psoas major muscle 101f, 163f
medial 94
muscle, lateral 94
Pubic crest 42
Pubis, body of 42
Pubococcygeus muscle 101
Puborectalis 101
Pubovaginalis 101
Pudendal nerve 165, 307
block 166
branches 165
Pudendum 350
artery 276
bronchus, division of 272fc
circulation 209
embolus 247
ligament 278
surfactant 277
unit, parts of 272f
veins 276
Pulp, white 253
Pulsating exophthalmos 239
Purkinje fibers 216
Putamen 145
Pylorus 294
Pyramidal lobe 339
Quadriceps femoris 116
Radial artery 225, 235
branches 226
Radius 38
Recessive disorders, X-linked 387
Reciprocal translocation 381, 381f
Rectal artery
middle 305
superior 231, 305
Rectouterine pouch 309
Rectovaginal fistula 359
Rectum 304, 305
flexures of 304
shape of 304
Rectus abdominis 98
Rectus muscles 186
Rectus sheath 99, 99f
contents of 100
Red blood cell 199
count, normal value of 199
fate of 200, 200fc
functions of 200, 201f
graveyard of 200
lifespan of 200
production of 205t
Red pulp 253
columns 322
corpuscle 322
cortex, parts of 322
pelvis 322
pyramids 322
sinus 322
transplantation 324
tubule 322
Reproductive system 349, 350, 385
male 362
external 260
internal 260
bronchioles 272
distress syndrome 279
paralysis 271
region 261
system 259, 260
development of 279
Retina 187, 190
cones of 191t
parts of 190
structure of 190f
Retinacula, extensor 120
Retinal detachment 191
Rib 60
classification 60
false 60
first 61, 62f
floating 60
right to left 61f
second 61
tenth 61
true 60
typical 60, 61f
vertebral 60
vertebrochondral 60
vertebrosternal 60
Ribbon muscles 405
Rickets 32
Rima glottis 267
Rima vestibuli 266
Ring chromosome 382
formation of 382f
Robertsonian translocation 381, 381f
Rosenmuller, fossa of 288
Rotator cuff 75
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 10
Sacral artery, median 305
Sacral canal 67
Sacral plexus 164
branches of 165f
position of 165f
Sacred bone 66
Sacrum 66, 68f
Sacrum-sex differences 69t
Salivary calculi 290
Salivary gland 288
classification 289
major 289
minor 289
sublingual 290
Salpingitis 357
Saphenous vein
great 245, 246f
long 245
small 246, 246f
Sarcolemma 88
Sarcomere 89
Sarcoplasm 88
Sarcoplasmic reticulum 11
Sartorius 116
Satellite cells 132
Saturday night palsy 162
Scalp 401, 401f
bandage 402f
blood supply of 402
dangerous layer of 401, 402
Scalpel vasectomy 368
Scapula 35
right 36f
Schlemm's canal 187
Schwann cell 129, 129f, 131
Sclera 187, 193f
junction of 188f
Scrotum 364
layers of 364
Sebum 174
functions of 174
Semimembranosus 118
Seminal vesicles 368, 369f
Sensations, classification of 172
somatic 172
special 172, 176
area 138
branches 165
changes 113
end organs 176f
epithelia 17
general 262
nerve 177
organs 171, 172
special 262
supply 268
Sentinel nodes 251
Septal cartilage 27
Septomarginal trabecula 211
Septum 371
blood supply of 262
in uterus 371f
nerve supply of 262f
Serosa 296
outer 301
Serous layer, inner 215
Serratus anterior 103
muscle 104f
Sesamoid bones, peculiarities of 33
chromatin 378
chromosomes 378
hormones 32
Sex-linked inheritance 387
joint 74, 74f, 75, 75t
region 33
Shoulder girdle
movements of 74
muscle of 103
Sialogram 290
Sialography 290
Sinus 59, 215, 250, 267
confluence of 53, 239, 240
frontal 51, 264
inferior sagittal 239
lateral 240
paired dural 238
sigmoid 240
sphenoid 264, 265f
straight 239
superior sagittal 239
venarum 209
venosus 187
Skeletal muscle 8890
fiber 89f
functions of 88
pump 236
structure of 88, 89f
Skeletal system 25, 26
Skin 172, 176f, 401
appendages of 174
blood supply of 175
color of 175
functions of 174
grafting 176
infections of 176
malignant disease of 176
structure of thin 173f
thick 172, 173f
types of 172
Skull 47, 48, 50
bone 48
individual 51
exterior of 48
fissure of 56t
functions of 48
interior of 49
Sleeping foot 165
Smell, sense of 176
Smith's fracture 78
Soft palate
functions of 285
muscle of 284
muscle of 125t
first layer of 124f
fourth layer of 124f
second layer of 124f
third layer of 124f
Solitary lymphoid follicle 304
Somatic therapy 390
Sperm 366
Spermatic cord 367
coverings of 367
Spermatogenesis 366
Spermatozoon, structure of 365f, 366
Spermiogenesis 366
Sphincter 306f
external 328
internal 328
pupillae 189
Spinal cord 130f, 147, 148f, 150
coverings of 147
injuries 150
relation to 147f
Spinal segment 148, 148f
Spine 36
Spiral organ of corti 183
Spleen 252, 309
functions of 253
relation of 252f
structure of 253f
Splenic artery 230
branches 230
Splenic notch 252
Squamous cell carcinoma 176
Squamous epithelium
simple 15
stratified 17, 17f, 173
Stapedius muscle, paralysis of 156
Sternocleidomastoid muscle 95
Sternum 61, 62f
body of 63
Steroids 343
Stomach 168, 293, 295f
arterial supply 295f
bed 294, 295f
blood supply of 294
body 296f
carcinoma of 296
functions of 293
interior of 296
parts of 293, 293f
position 293
posterior relations of 295f
shape 293
structure of body of 296f
Strap muscles 405
basale 173
corneum 173
granulosum 173
lucidum 173
spinosum 173
Stylomastoid foramen 56
Subarachnoid space 149f
Subcapital fracture 80
Subclavian artery 223, 223f, 403, 403f
branches 223f
infrapatellar bursa 82
prepatellar bursa 82
Submandibular triangle 404
Submental triangle 404f
Submucosa 270, 291, 296, 299, 301
Submucous venous plexus 245
Subscapular fossa 35
Substantia propria 189
Sulcus 137, 137f
lateral 137
Supraclavicular nodes 251
Suprahyoid muscles 94
Suprarenal gland 342, 342f344f
subdivisions of 343f
Sweat glands 173175
atypical 174, 175
Sympathetic system 166
Symphyses 71
pubis 71
Synapses 129
Synaptic gutter 90
Synchondroses 71
Syndesmosis 71
Synovial fluid 72
Synthesis proteins 198
Systemic anatomy 5
T cells, suppressor 204
T lymphocytes, types of 204
Tactile menisci 176
Talus, right 46f
Tarsal bones 45
Tarsal muscle, superior 187
Tarsal plates 185f
Taste bud 177, 177f, 287, 287f
structure of 177
Taste pore, inner 287
Taste, sense of 177
Tay-Sach's disease 12
Tears 186
Tectum 144
Teeth 283
nerve of 284
parts of 283
structure of 283
type of 283
vessels of 284
Tegmental wall 179
Temporal artery, superficial 222, 235
Temporal bone 54
left 55f
Temporal vein, superficial 237
Temporalis muscle 94, 94f
Tendinous arch 122
Tendon 90, 121f
Tensor fasciae latae 115
Tensor tympani 181
Tentorium cerebelli 133f, 134
Terminal bronchioles 272
Testis 364
arterial supply of 366
coverings of 365
descent of 366
singular 364
structure of 365, 365f
undescended 367
Tetralogy of Fallot 248
Thalamic nuclei, subdivisions of 141f
Thalamus 141, 141f
Theca interna 347
formation of 347
Thenar muscles 111
adductors of 118f
muscle of 115
front of 117f
right 116f
subdivisions of 115
aorta 228f
relations of 229f
cage 60
duct 256, 257f
part 270
pump 236
vertebra 66, 66f
parts of 64f
wall, vein of 243f
bone of 60
inlet of 60
muscle of 96
skeleton of 60
vein of 242
Thrombocytes 204
Thrombocytopenia 205
Thrombocytosis 205
Thrombophlebitis 247
Thumb 78, 78f
movements of 78f
Thymocytes 256
Thymus 255, 255f
functions of 256
structure of 256f
arterial supply of 340f
pair of inferior 339
pair of superior 339
superior 221
cartilage 265, 266f
gland 270f, 335, 339, 339f, 405
capsules 339
parts 339
position 339
lobe 342f
stimulating hormone 335, 338
structure of 340f
superior 404
Thyrotoxicosis 341
Tibia 43, 43f, 122
upper end of right 44f
Tibial artery
anterior 234, 234f, 235
branches 234
posterior 234, 234f, 235
Tibialis anterior 119
Tibialis posterior 123
Tibital artery branches, posterior 234
Tic douloureux 154
Tissue 168
constituting nervous system 132
primary 15
reticular 22
Tissue-elastic fibers, yellow elastic 21f
T-lymphocytes 22
Tongue 177, 285, 286, 287f
dorsum of 285f
functions 285
muscle of 286
extrinsic 286f
intrinsic 286f
parts 285
Tonsil 253
arteries supplying 255f
bed of 254f
lingual 285
position of 254f
Tonsillar fossa 254
Tonsils 254
Trachea 17f, 270, 270f
development of 279f
structure of 271f
Tracheo-esophageal fistula 280
Tracheostomy 271
Transtubercular plane 292
Transverse colon 303
Transverse section of thorax 278f
Transverse sinuses 239
Transversus abdominis 98
Trapezius 103
muscles 104f
Triceps brachii 108, 108f
Trochlear nerve 150, 152
lesions of 152
Troisier's sign 251
Trophic changes 113
Truncal vagotomy 297f
Truncus arteriosus, fate of 248
Trunk 220
brachiocephalic 220
muscle of 96
Tubal insufflation test 356
Tubal tonsil 288
Tuber omentale 315
Tuberosity, parietal 52
Tumor 32
cells, malignant 257
of pancreas 314
adventitia 216
albuginea 365
intima 216
media 216
vaginalis 365
vasculosa 365
Turner's syndrome 381, 385
Tympanic cavity 179
Tympanic membrane 178, 178f
Ulcer, chronic 296
Ulna 39
Ulnar artery 226
branches 226
Ulnar nerve 161
branches of 162
Unmyelinated axons 129f
Urachus 326
Ureter 320, 324, 325f
development of 329
in females 325f
upper portions of 167
Ureteric calculi 325
Urethra 320, 327
male 327, 328f, 370
parts of male 328f
Urethral crest 370
Urethral orifice, external 363
Urinary bladder 320, 326, 327f
capacity 326
development of 329, 330, 330f
male 326f
position 326
shape 326
Urinary catheterization
in female 330
in male 330
Urinary system 319, 320, 328
components of 320
parts of 320f
Urogenital diaphragm 354
Urothelium 18
Uterine 356
artery 355
end 357
tube 355, 355f, 356
functions 355
ligation of 356
parts 356
structure of 357f
wall 352
Uterus 352, 353f, 354
angulation of 352f
blood supply of 354
development of 370, 371f
didelphys 371, 371f
duplication of 371f
parts of 352
prolapse of 355
round ligaments of 354
structure of 355f
supports of 353, 353f
wall of 352
Utricle 183
Uveitis 189
Vagal trunks
anterior 157
posterior 157
Vagina 359
angulation of 352f
duplication of 371f
vestibule of 351
wall of 359
Vagotomy 296
Vagus nerve 150, 157, 404f
functions 157
lesions of 157
Valves, parts of atrioventricular 213
Varicocele 367
Varicosity, causes of 246
Vas deferens 365f, 367
cutting 368
structure of 368f
Vascular coat 189
Vasectomy 368
Vasomotor changes 113
Vein 215, 217, 236, 363, 404f
angular 237
azygos 242
basilic 241
brachiocephalic 242
cephalic 241
classification of 236
coronary 215
deep 242, 245, 246
draining 209
facial 237
femoral 246
hemiazygos 243
intercostal 243
large 218f
paratonsillar 254
paraumbilical 244
perforating 245
popliteal 246, 401
portal 244, 244f, 245, 312
small 214
splenic 245
structure of large 217
subclavian 241
superficial 241, 245
supraorbital 237
supratrochlear 237
systemic 245
thrombosis 247
deep 247
of portal 245
superficial 247
varicose 367
Vena cava
foramen for inferior 97
inferior 243, 244f, 274
superior 242, 242f, 274
drainage 139, 214, 262, 295, 295f, 305, 340, 351, 354, 356, 366
sinuses, dural 237, 238f
thrombosis 246
development of 247
floor of fourth 136f
fourth 135, 135f
interior of right 210, 211f
lateral 134
left 211, 211t, 212, 212f
right 210, 211, 211t
third 134
Ventricular septal defect 248
Ventriculography 135
Vermiform appendix 302, 303
Vertebra 69t
atypical 65
coccygeal 67
parts of 64
prominens 66
Vertebral arch 64
Vertebral artery 139, 224, 224f
branches 224
internal 139f
parts 224
Vertebral column 4f, 63, 63f
curvatures of 63
functions 63
movements of 69
Vertebral muscles
anterior 95
lateral 95
Vertebral notches
inferior 64
superior 64
Verumontanum 328, 370
Vesicovaginal fistula 359
Vessels 115
Vestibular fold 267
Virchow's nodes 251
peritoneum 308
referred pain 168
relations 305
Vision, sense of 184
area 138
pathway 191, 192, 192f, 192fc, 193f
receptors 191
A 32
C 32
D 32
Vitellointestinal duct 317
Vitreous body 191
Vocal cord 266, 267, 267f
true 267
Vocal fold 267, 267t
Volkmann's canals 30
Volkmann's ischemic contracture 225
von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis 386
Vulva 350
Waldeyer's ring 253, 254f, 288, 288f
Wallenberg syndrome 146
Water balance, regulation of 346
Webbed neck 385f
Weber's syndrome 145
White blood cell
count, total 202
formation of 202
lifespan of 202
White blood corpuscles, classification of 201fc
White fibrocartilage 27, 28f
White fibrous tissue-collagen fibers 21f
White matter, arrangement of 130
Womb 352
drop 162
joint 77, 77f
Wry neck 158
X chromosome 378
Xiphoid process 63
fasciculate, middle 343
glomerulosa 343
orbicularis 79
reticularis, inner 343
Zygomatic branch 155
Chapter Notes

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Introduction to Anatomical Terms and Organization of the Human BodyCHAPTER 1

Anatomy is the study of structure and function of the body. Aristotle (384–322 BC) was the first person to use the term ‘anatome’, a Greek word meaning ‘cutting up or taking apart’. The Latin word ‘dissecare’ has a similar meaning.
Anatomy is one of the oldest basic medical sciences; it was first studied formally in Egypt. Human Anatomy was taught in Greece by Hippocrates (460–377 BC) who is regarded as the ‘Father of Medicine’. He has written several books on Anatomy.
Although students entering the new world of Medicine are familiar with the common terms for many parts and regions of the body (e.g. heart, brain, liver, lung), they should learn to use the internationally adopted nomenclature, the Nomina Anatomica.
Anatomical terminology is important because it introduces the student to a large part of Medical Terminology. Since most terms are derived from Latin and Greek, medical language can be difficult at first, but as the student learns the origin of medical terms, the words make sense.
Example: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle (the muscle which elevates the upper eyelid).
  • Levator = one which elevates
  • Palpebrae = eyelid
  • Superioris = superior or upper.
Clear communication is fundamental in Clinical Medicine. To describe the body clearly and to indicate the position of its parts and organs relative to each other, anatomists and clinicians use the same descriptive terms of position and direction.
The Anatomical Position (Fig. 1.1)
All descriptions in Human Anatomy and Clinical Medicine are expressed in relation to ‘anatomical position’.
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Fig. 1.1: Anatomical position
3A person in the anatomical position is standing erect (or lying supine) with the head, eyes and toes directed forward, the upper limbs by the sides with the palms facing anteriorly. The student must always visualize the anatomical position in his ‘mind's eye’ when describing patients lying on their backs, sides or fronts. Always describe the body as if it were in the anatomical position.
The Anatomical Planes
Anatomical descriptions are also based on four imaginary planes that pass through the body in the anatomical position. They are as follows:
  1. Median
  2. Sagittal
  3. Coronal
  4. Horizontal.
Median Plane (Fig. 1.2)
This is the imaginary vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
Sagittal Planes
These are parallel to the median plane. They are named after the sagittal suture of the skull (Fig. 1.3). The sagittal plane that passes through the median plane can be called the midsagittal plane; those passing parallel to the midsagittal plane and away from the median plane may be called the parasagittal planes.
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Fig. 1.2: Median plane
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Fig. 1.3: Skull—viewed from above, showing sagittal and coronal sutures
Coronal Planes
These are imaginary vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. These planes are named after the coronal suture of the skull, which is in a coronal plane (Fig. 1.3).
Horizontal Planes
These are imaginary planes passing through the body at right angles to both the median and coronal planes (they are parallel to the ‘horizon’). A horizontal plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. A horizontal plane is also referred to as the transverse plane (Fig. 1.4).
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Fig. 1.4: Horizontal or transverse plane
Terms of Relationship (Table 1.1)
Various terms (adjectives) are used to describe the relationship of parts of the body in the anatomical position.
Terms of Movement (Fig. 1.6, Table 1.2)
Various terms are used to describe the different movements of the limbs and other parts of the body. Movements take place at joints where two or more bones meet or articulate with one another.
Table 1.1   Commonly used terms of relationship and comparision (Fig. 1.5)
Superior (cranial)
Nearer to the head
The lung is superior to the diaphragm
Inferior (caudal)
Nearer to the feet (tail)
The stomach is inferior to the heart
Anterior (ventral)
Nearer to the front
Cornea is anterior to the lens
Posterior (dorsal)
Nearer to the back
Lens is posterior to the cornea
Nearer to the median plane
Heart is medial to the lung
Away from the median plane
Kidney is lateral to the vertebral column
Nearer to the trunk or point of origin
The knee is proximal to the ankle
Farther from the trunk or away from the origin
The wrist is distal to the elbow
Nearer to the surface
Muscles of the thigh are superficial to the bone femur
Farther from the surface
The femur is deep to the muscles of thigh
External (outer)
Towards the exterior
The sclera is the external coat of the eyeball
Internal (inner)
Towards or in the interior
Retina is internal to the sclera and choroid
Nearer or toward the center
Brain is a part of the central nervous system
Farther or away from the center
The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system
Pertaining to the external wall of body cavity
Parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall
Pertaining to the covering of an organ
Visceral pleura covers the external surface of lung
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Figs 1.5A to D: Relations of organs. A. Heart and lungs; B. Gross anatomy of eye and histology of cornea; C. Transverse section of thigh, showing femur and muscles; D. Kidneys and vertebral column
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Fig. 1.6: Movements
The Meaning of Terms
Most of the anatomical terms are derived from Greek and Latin. Some of them are translated to English (e.g. musculus = muscle). Many anatomical terms indicate the shape, size, location and function or resemblance of a structure to something.
  1. According to shape
    • Deltoid—delta or triangular
    • Sphenoid—wedge-shaped
    • Styloid—Pillar-shaped
    • Uvula—Grape-like
    • Pisiform—Pea-shaped
  2. According to the number of heads of origin
    • Biceps—2 heads
    • Triceps—3 heads
    • Quadriceps—4 heads
  3. According to function
    • Depressor anguli oris—muscle which depresses the angle of mouth
    • Tensor tympani—muscle which tenses the tympanic membrane
  4. According to size
    • Gluteus maximus—largest among the gluteus muscles
    • Gluteus minimus—smallest among the gluteus muscles
  5. According to length
    • Abductor pollicis longus—long abductor of thumb
    • Abductor pollicis brevis—short abductor of thumb
  6. According to consistency
    • Pancreas—pan = throughout, kreas = flesh, fleshy throughout
    • Dura mater—dura = tough, mater = mother, tough mother
  7. According to location
    • Biceps brachii—biceps muscle of arm
    • Biceps femoris—biceps muscle of thigh
    • Triceps brachii—triceps muscle of arm
  8. According to sites of attachment
    • Sternocleidomastoid muscle—attached to sternum, clavicle and mastoid
    • Omohyoid—muscle extending from scapula (shoulder blade) to hyoid (omos = shoulder).
Some of the commonly used anatomical and clinical abbreviations are given in Table 1.3.
The three main approaches are as follows:
  1. Regional anatomy
  2. Systemic anatomy
  3. Clinical anatomy
Regional Anatomy or Topographical Anatomy
It is the study of the body by regions such as head, neck, thorax, abdomen and limbs.
Systemic Anatomy (Table 1.4)
It is the study of the body systems, e.g. digestive system, cardiovascular system, nervous system.
Clinical Anatomy
Correlation of anatomy with clinical signs and symptoms to arrive at a diagnosis.
Gross Anatomy and Histology
Gross Anatomy
It is the examination of body structures that can be seen without a microscope.6
Table 1.2   Commonly used terms of movement
Bending or decreasing the angle between body parts
Flexing the elbow joint
Straightening or increasing the angle between body parts
Extending the knee joint
Moving away from the median plane
Abducting the upper limb
Moving toward the median plane
Adducting the lower limb
Moving around the long axis
Medial and lateral rotation of UL
Circular movement combining flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
Circumduction of upper limb, e.g. bowling
Moving the sole of the foot away from the median plane
Moving the sole of the foot toward the median plane
e.g. as if to remove the thorn
Rotating the forearm and hand laterally, palm faces anteriorly. Radius lies parallel to ulna
e.g. when a person extends a hand to beg
Rotating the forearm and hand medially so that palm faces posteriorly. Radius crosses ulna diagonally
e.g. patting a child on the head
Moving anteriorly
Sticking the chin out
Retrusion or retraction
Moving posteriorly
Tucking the chin
To lift
Elevation of eyeball to look upwards
To lower
Depression of eyeball to look at the feet
Microscopic study of a tissue.
Anatomical Variations
Individuals differ in physical appearance. Similarly variations can be seen in the size, shape, weight of organs; origin, course and termination of arteries, nerves and veins. So, individual variation must be considered while examining a patient and in the diagnosis and treatment of that patient.
The smallest functional unit of our body is the cell. It was Robert Hook who first coined the term ‘cell’ in 1665. The size of a cell can vary from a minimum of 6 μm (that of a resting lymphocyte) to a maximum of 80 μm (that of a mature ovum).
Definition: The study of cells is called ‘Cytology’ and the study of tissues is called ‘Histology’.
Structure of a Cell
A eukaryotic cell consists of the following structures:
  • A cell membrane or plasma membrane, which is impermeable to large molecules like proteins, and selectively permeable to small molecules like ions and metabolites.
  • A nucleus, which contains the genetic machinery.
  • Cytoplasm and the organelles.
Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)
The cell membrane is a protective sheath that envelops the cell body. It separates the fluid outside the cell called extracellular fluid (ECF) and the fluid inside the cell called intracellular fluid (ICF). It is a semipermeable membrane and allows free exchange of certain substances between ECF and ICF.
Composition of Cell Membrane
The cell membrane is composed of three types of substances:
  1. Proteins (55%)
  2. Lipids (40%)
  3. Carbohydrates (5%).
Structure of Cell Membrane
When examined by electron microscope (EM) the average cell membrane is seen to be about 7.5 nm thick. It consists of two densely stained layers separated by a lighter zone, thus creating a trilaminar appearance (Fig. 1.7A).
Lipids in Cell Membranes
The major lipids in cell membrane are (Fig. 1.7B):
  • Phospholipid
  • Cholesterol.
It is now known that the trilaminar structure of membranes is produced by the arrangement of lipid molecules (predominantly phospholipids) that constitute the basic framework of the membrane.7
Table 1.3   Commonly used anatomical and clinical abbreviations
a, aa
Artery, arteries
Autonomic nervous system
C1-C7 (C8)
1st to 7th cervical vertebrae or 1st to 8th spinal nerves
Cancer, carcinoma
Coronary artery disease
Computerized axial tomography
Cranial nerve
Central nervous system
Cerebrospinal fluid
Gastrointestinal/gastrointestinal tract
Interventricular or intervertebral
Inferior vena cava
In vitro fertilization
L1– L5
1st to 5th lumbar nerves/vertebrae
Left atrium
Left Intercostal space
Lumbar puncture
Left ventricle
m, mm
Muscle, muscles
Myocardial infarction
Magnetic resonance imaging
Medical termination of pregnancy
Mitral valve
n, nn
Nerve, nerves
Peripheral nervous system, Paranasal sinuses
Right atrium
Right ventricle
First to fifth sacral vertebrae/nerves
Superior vena cava
1st to 12th thoracic vertebrae/nerves
Transient ischemic attack
Temporomandibular joint
Table 1.4   Systems and their branches of study
Organ/Organs studied
Branch of study
Integumentary system
The skeletal system
Bones and cartilages
The articular system
Joints and ligaments
The muscular system
The nervous system
Central and peripheral nervous system
The circulatory system/cardiovascular system
Heart, blood vessels and lymphatics
The digestive system
Digestive tract and glands assisting digestion
The respiratory system
Air passages and lungs
The urinary system
Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
The reproductive or genital system
Genital organs—male or female
The endocrine system
Ductless glands, e.g. thyroid, pituitary
The phospholipid molecules are formed by phosphorus and fatty acids. Each phospholipid molecule resembles the headed pin in shape. The outer part of the phospholipid molecule is the head portion which is water-soluble (hydrophilic) and the inner part is the tail portion that is not soluble in water (hydrophobic) (Fig. 1.7B). The hydrophobic tail portions meet in the center of the membrane). The hydrophilic head portions of outer layer face the ECF and those of the inner layer face the cytoplasm.
The cholesterol molecules are arranged in between the phospholipid molecules. As phospholipids are soft and oily in nature cholesterol helps to pack the phospholipids in the membrane and maintain the structural integrity of cell membrane (Fig. 1.7C).
Functions of Lipid Layer
The lipid layer is semipermeable in nature and allows only the fat-soluble substances like oxygen, carbon dioxide and alcohol to pass through it. It does not allow the water-soluble materials like glucose, urea and electrolytes to pass through it.8
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Figs 1.7A to C: A. Diagram showing the fluid mosaic model of membrane; B. Phospholipid molecule (schematic representation); C. Arrangement of lipids and proteins in cell membrane (schematic representation)
Protein in Cell Membrane
The protein layers of the cell membrane are the electron dense layers situated on either side of the central lipid layer. The protein substances present in these layers are mostly glycoproteins. These protein molecules are classified into two categories (Fig. 1.7C).
  1. Integral proteins
  2. Peripheral proteins.
Integral Proteins
The integral proteins are also known as transmembrane proteins, are tightly bound with the cell membrane. These protein molecules pass through the entire thickness of the cell membrane from one side to the other side.
Peripheral Proteins
The peripheral proteins are also known as peripheral membrane proteins do not penetrate the cell membrane but are embedded partially in the outer and inner surfaces of the cell membrane. These protein molecules are loosely bound with the cell membrane and so dissociate readily from the cell membrane.
Functions of Protein Layer
  • Integral proteins serve as receptors which bind with various hormones. The interaction of a hormone with the extracellular protein receptor produce certain conformational changes within the receptor protein. As a result, the intracellular part of the integral protein becomes enzymatically active and initiate a number of reactions inside the cell.
  • Integral proteins help in the transport of substances across the cell membrane. They serve as pores and channels through which water and water-soluble ions can diffuse freely.
  • Some of the integral proteins serve as carrier proteins which can facilitate transport of certain molecules across the membrane.
  • Some of them act as pumps which can actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, e.g. Na+K+ATPase pump, Ca++ATPase pump. Pumps are actually enzymes which can hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for the release of energy. This energy can be utilized by the cell for various purposes 9like active transport. These membrane bound enzymes are richly seen in intestine.
  • Integral proteins can act as cell-adhesion molecules which are responsible for the particular shape, growth and differentiation of cells, e.g. integrins, cadherins, etc. They help to attach the cell with the surrounding extracellular matrix (cell-matrix adhesion) and also with the neighboring cells (cell-cell adhesion). In metastatic tumor cells, there is loss of cell-matrix as well as cell-cell adhesion.
  • Peripheral proteins are seen on the inner part of cell membrane, attached to one of the integral proteins. They attach loosely to the lipid bilayer, but not embedded in it. Some of them act as enzymes, which can control intracellular functions.
Clinical Correlation
One most important peripheral protein is spectrin that gives some peripheral proteins, along with integral proteins, form a part of cytoskeleton which give strength and structural integrity to the cell, e.g. spectrin, ankyrin, actin, etc. which are seen on red blood cell (RBC) membrane. The spectrin gives the biconcave shape and strength to the RBC. In persons with hereditary spherocytosis, there is mutation of genes coding for spectrin. As a result, their RBCs become extremely fragile and spherical in shape. These RBCs are unable to withstand stress, which leads to hemolyticanemia.
Carbohydrates of the Cell Membrane
Carbohydrate molecules form a thin loose covering over the entire surface of the cell membrane called glycocalyx. Some carbohydrate molecules are attached with proteins and form glycoproteins and some are attached with lipids and form glycolipids (Fig. 1.8).
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Fig. 1.8: Glycolipid and glycoprotein molecules attached to the outer aspect of cell membrane (schematic representation)
Functions of Carbohydrates
  • The carbohydrate molecules are negatively charged and do not permit the negatively charged substances to move in and out of the cell.
  • The glycocalyx from the neighboring cells helps in the tight fixation of cells with one another.
  • Some of the carbohydrate molecules form the receptors for some hormones.
Functions of Cell Membrane
  • Protective function: Cell membrane protects the cytoplasm and the organelles present in the cytoplasm.
  • Selective permeability: Cell membrane acts as a semipermeable membrane which allows only some substances to pass through it and acts as a barrier for other substances.
  • Absorptive function: Nutrients are absorbed into the cell through the cell membrane.
  • Excretory function: Metabolites and other waste products from the cell are excreted out through the cell membrane.
  • Exchange of gases: Oxygen enters the cell from the blood and carbon dioxide leaves the cell and enters the blood through the cell membrane.
  • Maintenance of shape and size of the cell: Cell membrane is responsible for the maintenance of shape and size of the cell.
Role of Cell Membrane in Transport of Material into or out of the Cell
Some molecules can enter cells by passing through passive channels in the cell membrane. Large molecules enter the cell by the process of endocytosis (Fig. 1.9). In this process the molecule invaginates a part of the cell membrane, which first surrounds the molecule, and then separates (from the rest of the cell membrane) to form an endocytic vesicle. This vesicle can move through the cytosol to other parts of the cell.
The term pinocytosis is applied to a process similar to endocytosis when the vesicles (then called pinocytotic vesicles) formed are used for absorption of fluids (or other small molecules) into the cell.
Some cells use the process of endocytosis to engulf foreign matter (e.g. bacteria). The process is then referred to as phagocytosis.
Molecules produced within the cytoplasm (e.g. secretions) may be enclosed in membranes to form vesicles that approach the cell membrane and fuse with its internal surface. The vesicle then ruptures releasing the molecule to the exterior. The vesicles in question are called exocytic vesicles, and the process is called exocytosis or reverse pinocytosis (Fig. 1.10).10
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Fig. 1.9: Three stages in the absorption of extracellular molecules by endocytosis (schematic representation)
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Fig. 1.10: Three stages in exocytosis (schematic representation)
The cytoplasm is the fluid present inside the cell. It contains a clear liquid portion called cytosol which contains various substances like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and electrolytes. Apart from these substances, many organelles are also present in cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is distributed as peripheral ectoplasm just beneath the cell membrane and inner endoplasm between the ectoplasm and the nucleus.
Cell Organelles
We have seen that (apart from the nucleus) the cytoplasm of a typical cell contains various structures that are referred to as organelles (Table 1.5). They include the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ribosomes, mitochondria, the Golgi complex, and various types of vesicles (Fig. 1.11). The cytosol also contains a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum is made up of tubules and microsomal vesicles. These structures form an interconnected network which acts as the link between the organelles and cell membrane.
Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum is of two types, namely rough ER and smooth ER.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER is the one to which the granular ribosome is attached. This gives the rough appearance and so, it is called the rough ER. Attachment of the granular ribosome also gives the beaded or granular appearance and so it is also called granular ER (Fig. 1.12).
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER is also called as agranular ER because of its smooth appearance without the attachment of ribosome. It is formed by many interconnected tubules. So, it is also called tubular ER.
Table 1.5   Cell organelles
Membrane-bound cell organelles
Non-membranous cell organelles
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  • Golgi complex
  • Mitochondria
  • Membrane-bound vesicles, including
    • Phagosomes
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
    • Exocytic vesicles
Cytoskeleton, including
  • Microfilaments
  • Microtubules
  • Intermediate filaments
  • Ribosomes
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Fig. 1.11: Cell organelles (schematic representation)Abbreviations: TS = Transverse section; LS = Longitudinal section
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Fig. 1.12: Endoplasmic reticulum (schematic representation)
Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Rough (granular) ER is concerned with synthesis of proteins.
  • Smooth (agranular) ER lacks ribosomes and is concerned with the synthesis of lipids, steroids, cholesterol and carbohydrates. It acts as a surface for the attachment of many enzyme systems and helps in detoxifying drugs, alcohol, metabolic by-product, etc.
  • Highly specialized ER is present in some cells. In striated muscle cells, where it is called sarcoplasmic reticulum, it is involved in the storage and release of Ca2+ to initiate muscle contraction.
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi apparatus (Golgi body or Golgi complex) is present in all the cells except RBCs. It consists of 5–8 flattened membranous sacs called cisternae (Fig. 1.13).
The Golgi apparatus is situated near the nucleus. It has two ends or faces namely, cis face and trans face. The cis face is positioned near the ER. The reticular vesicles from ER enter the Golgi apparatus through cis face. The trans face is situated near the cell membrane. The processed substances make their exit from Golgi apparatus through transface.
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Fig. 1.13: Structure of the Golgi complex (schematic representation)
Functions of Golgi Apparatus
  • It is concerned with the processing and delivery of substances like proteins and lipids to different parts of the cell.
  • It functions like a post office because, it packs the processed materials into the secretory granules, secretory vesicles, and lysosomes and dispatch them either out of the cell or to another part of the cell.
  • It also functions like a shipping department of the cell because it sorts out and labels the materials for distribution to their proper destinations.
Membrane-bound Vesicles
The cytoplasm of a cell may contain several types of vesicles (Fig. 1.14). The contents of any such vesicle are separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by a membrane which forms the wall of the vesicle.
Vesicles are formed by budding off from existing areas of membrane. Some vesicles serve to store material. Others transport material into or out of the cell, or from one part of a cell to another. Vesicles also allow exchange of membrane between different parts of the cell.
Details of the appearances of various types of vesicles will not be considered here. However, the student must be familiar with their terminology given below.
Phagosomes: Solid ‘foreign’ materials, including bacteria, may be engulfed by a cell by the process of phagocytosis. In this process the material is surrounded by a part of the cell membrane. This part of the cell membrane then separates from the rest of the plasma membrane and forms a free floating vesicle within the cytoplasm. Such membrane bound vesicles, containing solid ingested material are called phagosomes (also see lysosomes).
Pinocytotic vesicles: Some fluid may also be taken into the cytoplasm by a process similar to phagocytosis. In the case of fluids the process is called pinocytosis and the vesicles formed are called pinocytotic vesicles.
Exocytic vesicles: Just as material from outside the cell can be brought into the cytoplasm by phagocytosis or pinocytosis, materials from different parts of the cell can be transported to the outside by vesicles. Such vesicles are called exocytic vesicles, and the process of discharge of cell products in this way is referred to as exocytosis (or reverse pinocytosis).
Lysosomes are membrane bound spheroidal bodies containing hydrolase enzymes capable of degrading a wide variety of substances. They are present in all cells except mature RBC. They are dominant in neutrophils. The different types of lysosomes are given in Flowchart 1.1.
Functions of Lysosomes
  • Digestion of unwanted substances
  • Removal of excess secretory products in cells
  • Secretory function: Recently, lysosomes having secretory function called secretory lysosomes are found in some cells, e.g. melanocytes, mast cell, etc.
Genetic defects can lead to absence of specific acid hydrolases that are normally present in lysosomes. As a result some molecules cannot be degraded, and accumulate in lysosomes.
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Fig. 1.14: Scheme to show how lysosomes, phagolysosomes and multivesicular bodies are formed
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Flowchart 1.1: Types of lysosomes
Examples of such disorders are lysosomal glycogen storage disease, in which there is abnormal accumulation of glycogen, and Tay-Sach's disease, in which lipids accumulate in lysosomes and lead to neuronal degeneration resulting in seizures, muscle rigidity and blindness.
Peroxisomes are small, spherical, membrane bound organelle that closely resemble lysosomes. However, they contain entirely different set of enzymes—oxidases and catalases. Large peroxisomes are found in liver and kidney cells.
They help in the detoxification and oxidation of a wide variety of compounds.
The centrosome is situated near the center of the cell close to the nucleus. It consists of two cylindrical structures called centrioles which are responsible for the movement of chromosomes during cell division.
Mitochondria are membrane bound organelles and are called the power-generating units of the cell. Each mitochondrion consists of two layers of membrane:
  1. An outer smooth membrane, which contains many pores, allowing free passage of small molecules.
  2. An inner membrane, which is thrown into folds that increase the surface area. The folds or cristae project into the inner cavity, which is filled with an amorphous matrix. Amount of cristae is proportional to the metabolic activity of the cell (they are more in cardiac muscle) (Fig. 1.15).
Matrix contains enzymes, Ca2+, glycogen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), etc. Mitochondria have several unique features among other cell organelles—they can move, change their size and shape and divide within the cells. Also they synthesize 37 of their own constituent proteins.
Functions of Mitochondria
  • It is the chief site of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain and fatty acid metabolism.
  • Release of energy from ATP and guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
  • It concentrates Ca2+.
Sperms do not contribute mitochondria to the zygote. Therefore it comes from the ovum and is completely maternal in origin.
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Fig. 1.15: Structure of a mitochondrion (schematic representation)
The cytoskeleton of the cell is a complex network that gives shape, support and stability to the cell. It is also essential for the cellular movements and the response of the cell to external stimuli. The cytoskeleton consists of three major protein components (Table 1.6).
  1. Microtubules
  2. Intermediate filaments
  3. Microfilaments.
Nucleus is present in those cells which divide and produce enzymes. The cells with nucleus are called eukaryotes and those without nucleus are known as prokaryotes (e.g. RBCs). Prokaryotes do not divide or synthesize the enzymes.
Most of the cells have only one nucleus (uninucleated). Few types of cells like skeletal muscle cells have many nuclei (multinucleated). Generally the nucleus is located near the center of the cell. It is mostly spherical in shape. However, the shape and situation of nucleus vary in different cells.
Nuclear Components
  • Nuclear membrane
  • Nucleoplasm
  • Nucleolus
Nuclear Membrane
The nucleus is covered by a double-layered membrane called nuclear membrane. It encloses the fluid called nucleoplasm. Nuclear membrane is porous and permeable in nature and it allows nucleoplasm to communicate with the cytoplasm (Fig. 1.16).
It is a gel-like ground substance and contains large quantities of the genetic material in the form of DNA. The DNA is made up of chromatin threads. These chromatin threads become the rod-shaped chromosomes just before the cell division.
One or more nucleoli are present in each nucleus. The nucleolus contains RNA and some proteins, which are similar to those found in ribosomes. The RNA is synthesized by chromosomes and stored in the nucleolus.
Functions of Nucleus
  • Controls all the activities of the cell
  • Synthesizes RNA
  • Forms subunits of ribosomes
  • Sends genetic instruction to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis through messenger RNA
  • Controls the cell division through genes
  • Stores the hereditary information in chromosomes (and genes) and transforms this information from one generation to the next.
Chromosomes form the physical basis of inheritance. They are located in the nucleus. Chromosomes are made up of genes. They become visible during cell division. Number of chromosomes is species-specific.
Normal human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, i.e. the total being 46. One member of each pair is inherited from each parent.
Body characters and functions are regulated by genes on 22 pairs of chromosomes known as autosomes.
Table 1.6   Cytoskeleton of cell
Intermediates filaments
Large contractile protein fibers
Smallest protein fibers
Thicker than microfilament
Made up of tubulin
(α-tubulin and β-tubulin subunits)
Made up of two actin strands coiled on each other
Made of fibrous proteins
Involved in movement of
  • Organelles within the cell
  • Chromosomes during cell division
  • Cell extensions (cilia, flagella, microvilli)
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Provide structural support
Maintains shape of cell
Helps in muscle contraction
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Help maintain shape of cell
Stabilize the position of organelles like nucleus
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Fig. 1.16: Nuclear envelope (schematic representation)
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Fig. 1.17: Classification of chromosomes
The 23rd pair consists of sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are of two types, namely X and Y, based on their role in sex determination. Females have 22 pairs of autosomes and XX chromosomes, while in males, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and XY chromosomes (Fig. 1.17).
The body is composed of only 3 basic elements, i.e. cells, intercellular substances and body fluids. The cells are derived from the 3 cellular layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm) of the embryo. These cells continue to divide and gradually specialize structurally and functionally.
  • A primary or basic tissue may be defined as a collection of cells and associated intercellular materials specialized for a particular function or functions.
  • Organs are formed from these tissues, and usually, all four basic tissue types are present in a single organ.
There are 4 primary or basic tissues in the body. They are:
  1. Epithelium
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Muscle (described in Chapter 3 The Muscular System)
  4. Nervous tissue (described in Chapter 4 The Nervous System).
Epithelium is one of the 4 primary tissues of our body.
Definition: It is a layer or layers of cells covering body surfaces and all the body cavities opening onto it.
  • Epi = above; Thelos = nipple
  • Epithelium = covering of nipple
  • This term originally referred to the cellular covering of the nipple.
The cells of the epithelium are derived from the 3 germ layers of the embryo—the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.
  • Ectodermal cells give rise to epidermis, glandular tissue of breast, cornea, junctional zones of buccal cavity and anal canal.
  • Endodermal cells give rise to the inner lining of alimentary canal and its glands, most of the respiratory tract and distal urogenital tract.
  • Mesodermal cells gives rise to the lining of internal cavities (pleura, peritoneum and pericardium) and a part of the urogenital tract.
It is the lining of blood vessels and lymphatics.
Functions of Epithelium
  • Form selective barriers
  • Protection from dehydration, chemical and mechanical damage
  • Secretion
  • Sensory function, e.g. smell, touch, taste, etc.
  • Absorption.
Classification of Epithelium
For classification of epithelium (Table 1.7).
Unilaminar or Simple
Simple Squamous Epithelium (Pavement Epithelium)
It is composed of a single layer of flattened interlocking, polygonal cells or squames (resembling the scales of fish). Nucleus usually bulges into the overlying space (Fig. 1.18).
Sites of occurrence: Cells lining the alveoli, Bowman's capsule of kidney.16
  • Because it is so thin, the squamous epithelium allows rapid diffusion of gases and water.
  • Active transport of molecules.
Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelia
They are found at sites where there is a high metabolic activity. These types consist of single, regular rows of cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells.
The cells are square in vertical section. Commonly, microvilli are present on their free surfaces, providing a large absorptive area.
Table 1.7   Classification of epithelium
Unilaminar or simple
Multilaminar or compound or stratified
Simple squamous
Stratified squamous keratinizing
Simple cuboidal
Stratified squamous non-keratinizing
Simple columnar
  • Ciliated
  • Non-ciliated
Transitional or urothelium
Stratified cuboidal
Sensory epithelium
Stratified columnar
Sites of occurrence: Proximal and distal convoluted tubules, thyroid follicles.
The cells are taller than their diameter. Commonly microvilli are present. The cells may be ciliated or non-ciliated.
Sites of occurrence:
  • Most of the respiratory tract. Here the cells are ciliated.
  • Uterine tubes—ciliated columnar cells
  • Gastrointestinal tract.
Some columnar cells are glandular, their apices are filled with mucus, giving a characteristic appearance. They are called goblet cells (shaped like a wine-glass, e.g. large intestine (Fig. 1.18D).
Pseudostratified Epithelium
Pseudostratified epithelium (Figs 1.19A and B) is a simple columnar epithelium in which nuclei lie at different levels, giving a false impression that it is a stratified epithelium. Not all cells extend through the whole thickness of the epithelium. Some cells constitute a basal layer. They are able to replace damaged mature cells.
  • Much of the ciliated lining of respiratory tract is of pseudostratified type.
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Figs 1.18A to D: Simple epithelia
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Figs 1.19A and B: A. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (trachea)—schematic; B. Photomicrograph—pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (trachea)
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Fig. 1.20: Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Sensory epithelium of olfactory area.
  • Parts of male urethra.
Sensory Epithelia
Sensory epithelia are seen in olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste) and vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance) receptor systems. They are highly specialized cells.
Myoepitheliocytes or Basket Cells
  • Myoepitheliocytes or basket cells are specialized simple epithelial cells.
  • They are star-shaped, containing actin and myosin filaments.
  • They surround glands and ducts of the glands, squeezing out their contents.
  • They are seen in mammary, salivary and sweat glands.
Compound or Multilaminar Epithelia
They are found at surfaces subject to mechanical wear and tear or other potentially harmful conditions.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium (Fig. 1.20)
These are multilayered epithelia in which there is a constant formation, maturation and loss of cells. This type of epithelium is found in sites which are subject to wear and tear.
The cells are formed at the innermost or basal layer; gradually move superficially and eventually shed from the surface. The basal cells are columnar; intermediate cells are cuboidal or polygonal; superficial cells are flattened. The 2 major types of stratified squamous epithelia are:
  1. Keratinizing or keratinized
  2. Non-keratinizing or non-keratinized.
Keratinized Epithelium
Found at sites which are subject to drying, mechanical stresses and high levels of abrasions.
Sites: Skin, mucocutaneous junctions of lips, nostrils, distal anal canal, outer surface of tympanic membrane, parts of gums, hard palate, etc.
Important Features
  • The superficial cells of the epithelium are flattened; they synthesize a protein, keratohyaline.
  • Most superficial cells lose their nuclei; the cells are dead and flattened (squames).
  • The keratin filaments form a coat on the cells surface.
  • This arrangement makes this type of epithelium an excellent barrier against different types of injury and water loss.
Non-keratinized Epithelium
It is present at surfaces subject to stress, but protected from drying; includes the buccal cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, part of the anal canal, vagina, distal part of uterine cervix, cornea, conjunctiva and inner surfaces of eyelids.
Important Features
  • There are 6–10 layers of cells.
  • Basal cells are columnar.
  • Surface cells are flattened, resembling simple squamous cells.
  • In between, the cells are polygonal.
  • Except in cornea, the underlying connective tissue is raised into ridges and folds that appear like finger-like processes.
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Figs 1.21A and B: A. Transitional epithelium (schematic); B. Photomicrograph
Stratified Cuboidal
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is seen in the ducts of sweat glands.
Stratified Columnar
Stratified columnar epithelium is rare. May be seen in some parts of male urethra.
Transitional Epithelium or Urothelium (Figs 1.21A and B)
Transitional epithelium or urothelium is so called, because originally it was believed to represent a transition between the stratified squamous and stratified columnar types. This type of epithelium exclusively lines the urinary tract (from renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and part of the urethra). It is exposed to internal pressure and capacity. Its appearance varies with the degree of distension.
Important Features
  • There are 4–6 layers of cells.
  • Basal layer of cells is cuboidal or columnar.
  • Intermediate layers are polyhedral or piriform.
  • Superficial cells are cuboidal, when relaxed and squamous, when distended.
  • Cells of the superficial layers are often binucleate. The superficial cells are sometimes known as ‘umbrella cells’.
  • Cell membrane of superficial cells are protected by a glycoprotein—lipid complex. The adjacent cells are held together by tight junctions. So, the urothelium forms an effective barrier, preventing urine and toxic substances present in it from passing into the epithelium or the underlying tissues.
In addition to protection and absorption, many cells of the epithelium secrete materials. Such cells, present singly or in groups are called glands (Flowchart 1.2).
  • Endocrine glands discharge their secretions directly into the bloodstream, i.e. they are ductless glands. There are some unicellular endocrine cells, e.g. The enteroendocrine cells in the mucosa of GIT.
  • Exocrine glands discharge their secretions via a duct. They may be mucous or serous glands.
  • Unicellular glands lie among other cells of columnar or pseudostratified epithelium. For example—goblet cells, which secrete mucus, are situated between non-secretory epithelial cells.
  • Simple glands—when all the secretory cells of an exocrine gland discharge into one duct, the gland is called a simple gland.
  • Compound glands have a branching duct system. A group of secretory cells open into a small duct. These ducts unite to form larger ducts, which ultimately open on an epithelial surface.
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Flowchart 1.2: Classification of glands
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Figs 1.22A to J: Scheme to show various ways in which the secretory elements of a gland may be organized. A and B are examples of unicellular glands. All others are multicellular. Glands with a single duct are simple glands, while those with a branching duct system are compound glands
Based on the arrangement of secretory cells, the glands can be classified into different types:
  1. Secretory unit may be tubular. The tube may be straight, coiled or branched.
  2. The cells may form rounded sacs or acini.
  3. They may form flask-shaped structures called alveoli.
  4. Glands which have greatly distended secretory elements are called saccular glands.
Combinations of the above four types may be present in a single exocrine gland. Thus, the glands may be (Fig. 1.22):
  • Unicellular
  • Simple tubular
  • Simple alveolar/simple acinar
  • Compound alveolar
  • Compound tubuloalveolar or racemose.
Endocrine Glands
Two types of arrangement of cells are seen. In some glands, the cells are arranged in cords or clumps. There are large numbers of capillaries or sinusoids which come in contact with these cells, so that, their secretions are discharged directly into the bloodstream.
In some endocrine glands, as in thyroid gland, the cells form a rounded vesicle or follicle having a cavity. The secretions are stored in this cavity; when required, they are released into the bloodstream.
There are some glands having both exocrine and endocrine functions, e.g. pancreas.
Classification of glands based on the manner in which the secretions are poured out of the cells.
  • Merocrine: The secretions are thrown out of the cells by a process of exocytosis. The cell remains intact.20
  • Apocrine: Apical parts of the cells are shed off to discharge the secretions.
  • Holocrine: The entire cell disintegrates to release the secretions.
(Merely releases - merocrine; Apex gone - apocrine; whole cell disintegrates - holocrine).
The connective tissue (CT), one of the four primary tissues of the body, connects various structures of our body with each other. It is also called the supporting tissue or communicative tissue. It is derived from the mesodermal layer of the embryo.
Classification of connective tissue is shown in Flowchart 1.3.
Components of Connective Tissue
Any CT is made up of 3 basic elements. They are:
  1. An amorphous ground substance or intercellular substance. It can be compared to cement.
  2. Fibers (can be compared to metal or iron rods).
  3. Cells (can be compared to bricks or granite).
These 3 elements are bathed in tissue fluid or extracellular fluids.
Intercellular Substances
  • Intercellular substances are non-living, in which the cells live.
  • They provide strength and support to the tissues.
  • They act as a medium for diffusion of tissue fluid between blood capillaries and cells.
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Flowchart 1.3: Classification of connective tissue
  • Transparent
  • Colorless
  • Homogeneous.
Composition: Composed of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins.
Types of Glycosaminoglycans
The different types of glycosaminoglycans are:
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Chondroitin sulfate
  • Dermatan sulfate
  • Keratan sulfate
  • Heparan sulfate.
Hyaluronic acid
  • Largest glycosaminoglycan.
  • Present in nearly all types of connective tissues.
  • Important sites of occurrence: Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, synovial fluid and vitreous body of eye.
Chondroitin sulphate is abundant in cartilage, bone and intervertebral disc.
Dermatan sulfate is abundant in skin, tendons and valves of heart.
Keratan sulfate: There are 2 types—I and II. Type I is exclusively present in cornea. Type II is a component of cartilage and intervertebral disc.
Heparan sulphate is found in relation to cell surfaces.
Glycoproteins are compound molecules of proteins and polysaccharides.
Fibers of Connective Tissue (Figs 1.23A to C)
Function: To provide tensile strength and support for the tissues. There are 3 types of fibers:
  1. Collagenous
  2. Reticular
  3. Elastic.
All are complex proteins, insoluble in water or neutral solvents.
Collagen Fibers (One which yields jelly or glue)
Characteristic Features
  • Found in all connective tissues
  • Made up of a polypeptide, collagen
  • Extremely tough
  • In the fresh state, white in color; so, they are also called ‘white fibers’.
  • Fibers are transparent, wavy, soft and flexible.
  • On boiling, collagen fibers are denatured, become soft and become ‘gelatin’.21
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Figs 1.23A to C: Connective tissue. A. White fibrous tissue-collagen fibers; B. Yellow elastic tissue-elastic fibers; C. Adipose tissue
Table 1.8   Distribution of collagen fibers
Sites of occurrence
90% of all collagen in the body. Abundant in bones, tendons, dermis of skin, teeth and practically all other connective tissue
Mainly cartilage
Blood vessels, uterus, GIT, skin
Basal laminae
Blood vessels, fetal membranes
Types of collagen fibersmainly types I, II, III, IV and V. See Table 1.8 for the distribution of different types of collagen fibers.
Reticular Fibers
Reticular fibers are very fine collagen fibers, arranged to form a net-like supporting framework or reticulum.
Sites of occurrence: Occur as fine network around muscle fibers, nerve fibers and fat cells, in the fine partitions of lung and lymphoid tissues.
Elastic Fibers
Elastic fibers are long, thin, highly refractile cylindrical threads or flat ribbons. Tissues rich in elastic fibers appear yellow in the fresh state. So they are also called yellow elastic fibers. Composed of elastin.
Sites of occurrence: Walls of major blood vessels (e.g. aorta), elastic cartilage (pinna, epiglottis).
Cells of Connective Tissue (Fig. 1.24)
  • Fibroblasts—most numerous cells of connective tissue
  • Macrophages
  • Mast cells
  • Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
  • Fat cells
  • Blood leukocytes
  • Pigment cells
Fibroblasts (Fig. 1.24)
They occur in large numbers in the connective tissue. They are responsible for the production of fibers and ground substances. They are large, flat, branching cells (when viewed from the surface) or spindle-shaped when viewed from a side (profile).
Macrophages (Fig. 1.24)
They are also called histiocytes, seen in highly vascular areas. Two types—fixed or wandering (free) macrophages. These are the 2 functional phases of the cells of same origin. When stimulated, the fixed cells become free cells. Example of fixed macrophages and Kupffer cells of liver. Wandering macrophages are found in blood. Macrophages are irregularly shaped, capable of free amoeboid movement and phagocytosis.
  • Macrophages are important agents of defence. They act as scavengers. Several macrophages fuse together to form a multinucleated, foreign body giant cell to attack a large ‘foreign body’.
  • Contribute to immunological reaction of the body.
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Fig. 1.24: Cells of connective tissue
  • 22Secrete important substances, enzymes such as lysozymes, elastase and collagenase.
Mast Cells (Fig. 1.24)
These cells occur in groups in relation to blood vessels. They are irregularly oval, with cytoplasmic granules. These granules secrete heparin, histamine and serotonin. These chemical mediators promote allergic reactions (immediate hypersensitivity reaction).
Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Cells
They are developed from mesoderm. They are pluripotent cells (capable of developing into different types of cells, when required). They are seen around blood vessels.
Fat Cells (Fig. 1.24)
They are large cells seen in groups. When seen in large groups, the tissue is called an adipose tissue. Each cell has a large glistening droplet of fat, surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. Nucleus is pushed to one side and it is flattened.
Blood Leukocytes
Although leukocytes are transported by the bloodstream, they perform their functions outside the blood vessels. That is why they are encountered within connective tissue. The two most frequently seen cells are lymphocytes and eosinophils.
  1. Lymphocytes are the smallest of the free cells of connective tissue. They possess a spherical, dark staining nucleus that occupies most of the cell, surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. Two types of lymphocytes are seen in connective tissue; one population with brief life span; the other living for months or years. Functionally there are 2 types:
    1. T-lymphocytes are long-lived, concerned with cell-mediated immunity.
    2. B-lymphocytes are short-lived cells, which when stimulated by an antigen, are capable of active division and differentiation into plasma cells that synthesize antibodies against the antigen.
  2. Eosinophils also migrate from the bloodstream into the connective tissue. They are abundantly seen in the connective tissue of lactating breast, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Nucleus is bilobed or kidney-shaped. Cytoplasm contains spherical granules. Eosinophils accumulate in blood and tissues in allergic and inflammatory conditions resulting from parasitic diseases.
Pigment Cells (Fig. 1.24)
Pigment cells are seen in the skin, the choroid coat of the eye and pia mater. The main pigment found in these cells is melanin.
  • Protection of deeper tissues from ultraviolet radiation (e.g. skin).
  • Prevention of light from reaching deeper tissues, e.g. choroid of eye.
Types of Connective Tissue
Depending on the proportion of cells, ground substance and fibers, different types of connective tissues are formed.
  • The loose connective tissue has few fibers and more cells.
  • The dense connective tissue has abundant, densely packed fibers.
Adipose Tissue
Adipose tissue is made up of fat cells, reticular fibers and large number of blood vessels.
  • In the subcutaneous tissue all over the body, except eyelids, scrotum and penis
  • Hollow spaces like orbit, axilla (armpit)
  • Bone marrow cavities of long bones
  • Around abdominal organs, e.g. perinephric fat
  • Peritoneal folds, mesentery.
  • Store house of energy
  • Mechanical support for organs. It also acts as a shock absorber.
  • Insulation.
Reticular Tissue
Reticular tissue forms a framework for lymphoid organs, bone marrow and liver.
  • Dense irregular connective tissue is found in fasciae, periosteum, dermis of skin and capsule of organs.
  • Dense regular connective tissue is found in tendons and ligaments. Fibers are dense and parallel.
Functions of Connective Tissue
  • The loose connective tissue holds together structures like skin, muscles and vessels. It binds together different layers of hollow organs. It forms the capsule for some organs.
  • In the limbs the connective tissue of deep fascia provides a tight covering for deeper structures and helps to maintain the shape of the limbs.
  • The ligaments hold the bone ends together at joints and prevent excess movements in unwanted direction.
  • Deep fascia form retinacula that hold the tendons in place at the wrist and ankle.23
  • The tough dura mater provides support to the brain and spinal cord.
  • Macrophages and plasma cells help the body fight against microorganisms.
  • Fibroblasts help in repair of wounds by laying down collagen fibers and ground substance.
  • Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells helps in the regeneration of tissues like cartilage and bone by providing cells.
  • Deep fascia facilitates venous return from limbs by enabling muscles to act as pumps.
Multiple Choice Questions
  1. Simple squamous epithelium is seen lining the:
    1. Bowman's capsule
    2. Buccal mucosa
    3. Esophagus
    4. Stomach
  1. Ciliated columnar epithelium forms the lining of:
    1. Epididymis
    2. Fallopian tube
    3. Parotid duct
    4. Ureter
  1. The urinary bladder is lined by _____________ epithelium:
    1. Stratified squamous non-keratinized
    2. Stratified squamous keratinized
    3. Stratified cuboidal
    4. Transitional
  1. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines the:
    1. Alveoli of lung
    2. Bowman's capsule
    3. Follicle of thyroid
    4. Trachea
  1. Esophagus is lined by _____________ epithelium:
    1. Simple squamous
    2. Stratified columnar
    3. Stratified squamous non-keratinized
    4. Transitional
  1. Myoepitheliocytes are associated with:
    1. Muscles
    2. Blood vessels
    3. Glands
    4. Uterus
  1. Most numerous cells in connective tissue are:
    1. Fat cells
    2. Fibroblasts
    3. Mast cells
    4. Pigment cells
  1. Kupffer cells are seen in:
    1. Brain
    2. Heart
    3. Kidney
    4. Liver
  1. Type II collagen fibers are abundant in:
    1. Bone
    2. Cartilage
    3. Skin
    4. Tooth
  1. Elastic fibers are abundant in:
    1. Wall of aorta
    2. Hyaline cartilage
    3. Intervertebral disc
    4. Lymphoid tissue
  1. Name the basic tissues. Classify epithelium and give one site of occurrence of each.
  2. Describe the components of connective tissue.
  3. Classify connective tissue. With the help of diagrams describe the cells of connective tissue.
Short Notes
  1. Plasma membrane
  2. Endoplasmic reticulum
  3. Simple epithelia
  4. Stratified epithelia
  5. Glandular epithelium
  6. Fibers of connective tissue
Define the Following
  1. Anatomical position
  2. Sagittal plane
  3. Median plane
  4. Coronal plane
  5. Tissue
  6. Organ
  7. Pseudostratified epithelium
  8. Endocrine glands
Fill in the Blanks
  1. The epithelial lining of trachea is ___________________
  2. Transitional epithelium is also known as ___________________
  3. Umbrella cells are seen in ___________ epithelium
  4. The alveoli of lung are lined by ___________ epithelium
  5. Fallopian tube is lined by ___________ epithelium
  6. ___________ cells are the contractile cells found in glands which squeeze out their secretions
  7. ___________ cells of connective tissue secrete histamine in allergic reactions
  8. Macrophages can be of two types ___________________ and ___________________24
I. Match the Following
a. Unicellular glands
1. Umbrella cells
b. Simple squamous epithelium
2. Esophagus
c. Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
3. Goblet cells
d. Ciliated columnar epithetium
4. Alveoli of lung
e. Transitional epithelium
5. Fallopian tube
6. Thick skin
II. Match the Following
a. Kupffer cells
1. Histamine
b. Mast cells
2. Signet ring appearance
c. Adipocyte
3. Tendon
d. Elastic fibers
4. Melanin
e. Collagen fibers
5. Liver
f. Pigment cells
6. Aorta
III. Match the Following
a. Mucoid connective tissue
1. Kidney-shaped nucleus
b. Eosinophil
2. Hyaline cartilage
c. Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
3. Wharton's jelly
d. Collagen fibers
4. Buccal mucosa
Draw Neat Labelled Diagrams
  1. Cell and organelle
  2. Transitional epithelium
  3. Cells of connective tissue
  4. Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium