Paparella’s Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery Michael M Paparella, Sady Selaimen da Costa, Johannes Jacobus Fagan
INDEX
Page numbers followed by b refer to box, f refer to figure, fc refer to flowchart, and t refer to table.
A
Abbe flap 1973, 1974
Abducens nerve 535
Abducens paralysis 211
Abductor spasmodic dysphonia 862, 943
Aberrant fusion 58
Aberrant innominate artery 1302
Aberrant scar tissue, creation of 1493
Abnormal head impulse test 468f
Abrasions 1787
Abscess despite antibiotic therapy 1818
Absorbable anterior nasal packing 719
Abundant facial hair 1616
Abundant organelles 483
Accessory auricles 32
Accessory nerve 1158
conservation of 1230
Accessory nostril 1396
Accidental trauma 702
Accumulate keratin debris 127
Acellular dermal matrix 1937
Acellular porcine dermal matrix 1696
Acetabulum 163
Acetaldehyde 1048, 1085
Acetaminophen 354, 1352
Acetic acid 488
Acetylcholine, release of 1664
Achalasia 769, 774
congenital cricopharyngeal 1542, 1548
Achondroplasia 1302
Acid-fast bacilli 872, 1565f
Acidophilic deposits 304
Acid-Schiff stain 1197f, 1199f
Acinic cell carcinoma 1188, 1189, 1197, 1202, 1221
Acne scars, correction of 1676
Acoustic canal, internal 422
Acoustic meatus, external 3, 4, 5
Acoustic nerve action potentials 10
Acoustic neuroma 18, 354, 523, 708f
surgery 169
Acoustic reflexes 205
Acoustic rhinometry 628, 630, 1772
Acoustic trauma 339, 354, 427, 431
Acousticofacial bundle 536
Acquired cholesteatoma 63, 66, 73, 96, 169, 172f, 180, 184, 185, 1371, 1372f, 1373
clinical presentation 172
epidemiology 169
evaluation 172
growth patterns 171
pathogenesis of 169, 170f
pathology 170
primary 169
secondary 170
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 1270, 1564
Acquired laryngotracheal lesions 1493, 1496t
causes of 1492
Acquired neck masses, causes of 1560
Actinic cheilitis 1089f, 1090f
Actinic keratosis 1088
Active infection 117, 144
Acute cough 790
causes of 791
Acute invasive fungal
rhinosinusitis 646
sinusitis 740, 740f
Acute otitis media 80, 103, 109, 1305, 1348, 1351f, 1370
complications of 207
diagnosis of 111, 1349, 1350fc, 1351
differential diagnosis of 1349
episode of 1358
management of 111, 1348, 1350fc
microbiologic causes of 1348
persistent 1353
symptomatic 1354
pneumococcal 1348
recurrent 110
resistant cases of 1352
risk of 1348
signs of 1349
symptoms of 1349
treatment studies, meta-analysis of 1352
Acute phonotraumatic
injury 883
setting 927
Acute rhinosinusitis 616, 724, 1403
progression of 604
Acute upper airway obstruction 1393
emergency management of 832
Addison's disease 1390
Adductor spasmodic dysphonia 915
Adenitis 1308
Adenocarcinoma 664, 695, 1206, 1221
intestinal type 696
low-grade polymorphic 1199f
mucinous 1188
nonintestinal 688f, 696
polymorphous low-grade 1091, 1188, 1195, 1199
Adenoid 1319, 1456
cystic carcinoma 687, 695, 1091, 1188, 1189, 1192f, 1197, 1198f, 1202, 1209f, 1221
nasopharyngeal 1193f, 1209f
diseases of 1455
hypertrophy 70, 85, 1362, 1374, 1476
immunology of 1456
neoplastic disease of 1462
surgery 91, 733
tissue 1462
Adenoidectomy 71, 93, 199, 490, 1364
combination of 1408
pediatric 1307
Adenoiditis 624, 1409
recurrent 1462
Adenoma 664
canalicular 1187
sebaceous 1187
single gland 1179
Adenopathy, hilar 1567
Adenosine triphosphate 627
Adenotonsillectomy 1465
Adenovirus 1563
Adipose tissue 1557
Aditus ad antrum 5, 157
Aditus block syndrome 514, 515
Adjunctive therapies 2006
Adrenal suppression 614
Adrenaline 397, 399, 499
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 664
Adult larynx 998, 1510
Adult sleep-disordered breathing 730
Adult subglottic stenosis, pathogenesis of 823
Advanced injection technique 1674
Advanced trauma life support 1783
Adverse drug reactions 32
Aerodigestive tract 1137, 1539
foreign body of 1530, 1533
Aerosolized bacilli, laryngeal seeding of 872
Agger nasi cell 577, 593, 594, 594f
Aggressive skin-muscle flap resection 1651
Air conduction 10, 1330
pure tone average 1342
Airborne irritants 603
Airflow, physiology of 1770
Airway
chronic inflammatory process of 794
disease
hyperreactive 1302
reactive 1475
restrictive 917
foreign body 1539
hemangiomas 1924
inflammatory disease, nonasthmatic 794, 794t
lumen of 834
management 840, 842, 894, 1522
goal of 840
invasive 844
noninvasive 843
nasopharyngeal 1863
obstruction 812, 1005, 1302, 1318, 1474t, 1722
level of 800f
management of 832
sudden total 832
protection 778, 780
procedures 783
reconstruction, previous attempts of 1495
scar, excision of 970
sounds 1474
stenosis 835
treatment of 968
surface liquid 600, 603
surgery, endoscopic 1302
symptoms 1534
venous malformation 1928f
Alar batten graft 1735, 1774, 1775f
Alar cartilage
graft, placement of 1764
malposition 1758
Alar collapse 1758
Alar facial junction 1606
Alar groove, anterior 1950f
Alar hooding 1764
Alar lobule skin 1715
Alar notch 1720
Alar retraction 1757, 1758, 1764, 1937f
bilateral 1766f
Alar rim graft 1735, 1736f
placement of 1736f
Alar weakness 1763
Albinism, oculocutaneous 1238, 1239, 1243
Albino guinea 321f
Alcohol 313, 1025, 1042
consumption 1084
dehydrogenase 1084
activity of 1085
intake 1664
pad test 749
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1060, 1084, 1085
Alendronate 230
Alexandrite laser 1929
Allen's test 1980
preoperative 1984
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis 605, 625, 646, 646b, 647, 648f, 650
diagnosis 646
disease, bilateral 649f
epidemiology 647
management 649
orbital changes 649
radiological findings 648
Allergic fungal sinusitis 625f, 625t, 626, 632f, 1417
Allergic hyposensitization 90
Allergic maxillary sinus disease 1417
Allergic mucin 648
Allergic rhinitis 89, 1406, 1771
history of 1761
presence of 70
symptoms of 1423
Allergic rhinosinusitis 1417
Allergic sinusitis 89
Allergic testing 89
Allergy 82fc, 86, 89, 624
environmental 1512
reactions 32
severe 93f
systemic 1636
testing 647
Alligator forceps 246f, 926f
Alloplastic implantation 1655
Alloplastic soft tissue 708
Alopecia 1623, 1634, 1794
Alpha hydroxyl acid 1688
Alport syndrome 276, 295, 309
Alternative tumor staging system 1242
Alveolar canal invasion 1093
Alveolar mucosa 1855
Alveolar nerve dysesthesia, inferior 1809
Alveolar ridge fractures 1819
Alveolus, maxillary 1808, 1849
Alzheimer's disease 433, 955
Amalgam tattoo 1078
Ameloblastoma 1074, 1075f
multicystic intraosseous 1074
solid 1075f
American Academy Guidelines 410
American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 911
American Academy of Otolaryngology Hearing Classification 529t
American Academy of Pediatrics 1349, 1404
American College of Chest Physicians 792
American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 342
American College of Rheumatology 736
American Heart Association 475
American Joint Commission on Cancer 1114, 1124
American Joint Committee on Cancer 1004, 1266
American Rhinologic Society 634
American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology 1302
American Speech Language and Hearing Association 911
American Stroke Association 475
American Thyroid Association 1152
Amikacin 313, 315, 321
Amina propria matrix 888
Aminoglycoside 308, 313, 354
antibiotics 312315, 323
group 312
ototoxicity 307, 320
prevention against ototoxicity of 320
sensitivity 279
topical 626
Aminosidine 312
Amorphous nose 1766f
Amoxicillin 90, 110, 1353
clavulanate 1353, 1354, 1407, 1786, 1801
high-dose 1353, 1354
oral 58
prophylaxis 110, 111
groups 110
Amphiregulin 1050
Ampicillin 58, 312, 870, 1353
sulbactam 1408, 1411
Amplitude compression 370
Ampulla 7, 12, 464
Ampullary cupula 453
Amputation 1266
traumatic 1910f
Amyloid, detection of 876
Amyloidosis 803, 825, 876, 894, 1071
Anabolic therapy 229
Anaerobic organisms 1801
Analog sound processor 394
Analog-to-digital converter 364
Anaplastic thyroid cancer, treatment for 1157
Ancillary testing 443, 630
Ancillary therapy 1408
Androgen receptor downregulation 1274
Anesthesia 148, 1700, 1784, 2004
general 1376, 1853
oropharyngeal 939
Aneurysm, intracranial 527, 528
Angioedema 835
hereditary 835
Angiofibroma
juvenile nasopharyngeal 692, 1416, 1417, 1424, 1427
nasopharyngeal 1428f
Angiogram 664
Angiography, conventional 423
Angiolytic lasers 975
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 737, 790, 792
inhibitor medication 835
Animal thrombin 720
Ankylosis
hearing loss 221
malleus for 24
Ann Arbor classification 739t
Annexin binding 1055
Annular ligament 6
Annulus 5
Anomalous left pulmonary artery 1489
Anorexia nervosa 71
Anosmia 745
Antebrachial cutaneous nerves 1997
Antecubital fossa 1985
Anterior canal, vertigo of 460
Anterior cervical
chain 1641
spine surgery 893, 894
Anterior epistaxis, management of 717
Anterior ethmoid artery 587, 640, 714, 715f, 725
anatomy of 715f
Anterior ethmoid cells 587, 589
Anterior glottic stenosis 806, 810
management 806
presentation 806
surgical technique 807
Anterior glottic web 807
airway 808f
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery 475
syndrome 474, 475t
Anterior maxillary sinus 682f
inverted papilloma 682f
Anterior neuropore 1400
developmental errors of 1393
Anterior palate, embryology of 1836f
Anterograde linear thread 1677, 1677f
Antibiotics 90, 91, 218, 1227, 1353, 1407, 1408, 1453, 1786
broad-spectrum 213, 1025
detection of 749, 1564
effects of 1363
impregnated cotton bolsters 1795
nonaminoglycoside 312
ophthalmic drops 1650
postoperative 1845
prophylaxis 665, 1786
resistance 1308
soaked gelfoam 192
therapy 1408, 1801
Antibody
antimicrosomal 330
antineutrophil cytoplasmic 410, 803
antinuclear 330, 898
Anticholinergic medication 1547
Anticholinergic therapy 1799
Anticoagulants 1424
Anticoagulation, management of 718fc
Antidepressants 955
Antidiuretic hormone, insufficient secretion of 669
Antiepileptic medications 750
Antifungal 635
medications 636
therapy 650
Antigen
antinuclear 329
presenting
cells 1057
machinery, function of 1054
processing machinery 1053, 1055
Antihelix 1910
Antihistamines 90, 469, 1408
Antihypertensives 770
Anti-inflammatory drugs 312, 1574
Antileukotriene therapy 636
Antimicrobial agents, utility of 641
Antimicrobial therapy, intravenous 1384
Antioxidants 340
Antipseudomonas coverage 1376
Antireflux
medication 827
treatment, routine 1406
Antiretroviral therapy 1270
combination of 1564
Antiseptics 484, 487, 488
Anti-Sjögren's syndrome B antibodies 1575
Antiviral capsid antigen 1564
Antiviral medication 414, 416
Antoni B pattern 1274
Antral choanal polyp 1417, 1419
bilateral 1417
Antral irrigation, maxillary 1409
Antrostomy 393
maxillary 692, 725
retrograde 157
Antrum 514
Anxiety disorder 1390
Aortic arch
aneurysm 894
defect 1558
double 1477
right 1477
Apert's syndrome 842, 1319f, 1861f, 1862, 1863
Aphonia 1474
complete 1979
Apical cochlear cells 318
Apical turn losses 429
Aplasia, cochlear 1333, 1334, 1334f
Apnea hypopnea index 731, 1467
Apnea index 838
Apnea syndrome, severe 1319
Apneic spells 1478
Apocrine glands 1684
Apoptosis 300, 675
inhibition 675
Apoptotic pathways 684
Apoptotic phenotype 1055
Arachidonic acid 607, 654fc, 789
metabolites 84, 484
Arachnoid cyst 526
Arched eyebrows 1626
Arches, mandibular 1070f
Arcus marginalis 1631
Areolar tissue, loose 1599
Argon 967
ion 966
laser 967
Arhinia 1396
Armstrong's pioneering 91
Arnold-Chiari
malformation 473, 894, 952, 1486
syndrome 958
Arrhythmia 1823
cardiac 1823
Artefill 1674
Arterial anomalies 1558
Arterial embolization 728
complications of 727
efficacy of 726
treatment protocol 727b
Arterial irrigation 475f
Arterial stumps 640
Arterial thrombosis 1983
Arterial vascular insufficiency 1100
Arteriosclerosis 713
Arteriovenous malformation 1430, 1434, 1559, 1918, 1919, 1921, 1923, 1929
two types of 1559
Arteritis, temporal 332
Artery 663
pedicled ethmoid 581f
sling, pulmonary 1477
stylomastoid 1611
submandibular 726, 727
superior labial 714
supraclavicular 1969
supratrochlear 1970
thoracoacromial 1966
Arthritis 71
juvenile idiopathic 872
Artificial tears 2004
Artist's rendition 403f
Aryepiglottic fold 1130, 1137
Arytenoid 836, 896, 1137, 1143
abduction 905
adduction 901
technique 904f
cartilages 803, 1015, 1493
process of 1010
region prolapse, intermittent 796
Arytenoidectomy 819, 970972, 1522
endoscopic laser 905
pediatric endoscopic 819
Aseptic technique 233
Asian eyelids 1600
Aspergillus 56, 286, 600, 740, 741, 869, 870
flavus 646, 742
fumigatus 57, 646
laryngitis 871
Aspiration 1156, 1496
chronic 1523
development of 1541
episode 1546f
pneumonia 764, 1292
postoperative 1095
risk of 1544
silent 1541
Aspirin 312, 315, 332, 653, 654, 656, 716
desensitization 635, 659
exacerbated respiratory disease 625, 653, 655
clinical presentation 655
diagnosis 655
epidemiology 655
pathogenesis 654
pharmacology 653
therapeutic strategies 656
ingestion of 625
intolerance, rate of 655
maintenance of 658
sensitive nasal polyposis 607
sensitivity 625
tolerant 654
Asprella 458
single maneuver 463
Asthenia 215
Asthma 624, 625, 790, 791, 794
development of 625
Asthmatics, nasal secretions of 607
Astrocytomas 1284, 1390
Asymmetric calvarial growth 1860
Asymptomatic clefts, low-grade 1488
Ataxia 1383
familial periodic 1388
telangiectasia 1048
syndrome 1568
Atelectasis 63, 1538
risk of 1376
Atelectatic ear 165, 166f
Atopic dermatitis 54, 56
Atresia 60, 1321, 1862
auricular 1397
esophageal 1397
laryngeal 1486
unilateral 1400
Atrioventricular canals 1489
Atrophic drumhead 95, 95f
Atrophic eardrum 166
Atrophic mandible 1811, 1813
fractures, treatment of 1817
Atrophy 114, 1365
apical 429
focal partial 429
focal total 429
Atropine 780, 1578
Attack
cerebrovascular 894
syncopal 275
transient ischemic 475, 478
Attic cholesteatoma 96f, 144, 203, 205
Atticoantrostomy, right 1378f
Atticotomy 157, 173, 173f, 199, 200, 204, 205, 205f, 393
types of 204
Atypical mycobacterial nodal infection 1573f
Audiogram 22, 35
abnormal 285
normal 35f
Audiometric criteria 358
Audiometric feature 346
Audiometric measures 356
Audiometric tests 23, 144, 316, 346, 1362
Audiometry 50f, 422, 1378
high-frequency 317
Audiovestibular dysfunction 331
Auditory brainstem 42, 48f, 49f, 51
evoked responses 428
implants 267
normal 51f
origin of 43t
response 10, 42, 263, 271, 317, 356, 443, 524, 1329
Auditory cortex 11f, 852
Auditory dyssynchrony 44
Auditory electrophysiology 40
Auditory evoked potential 40, 318
Auditory feedback 852
alteration of 957
Auditory function 1384
recovery of 389
Auditory nerve 34, 312, 396
Auditory neuroepithelium 302
Auditory neuropathy 294, 305, 308, 309
diagnosis of 44
Auditory ototoxicity 317
Auditory perceptual assessment 1512
Auditory steady-state response 45, 317
Auditory symptoms 285
Auditory system 40
development of 1326
maturation of 1326
Auditory testing 1390
Auditory training 346
programs 384
Augmentation 1661, 1759
mentoplasty 1660
techniques 1760
Aural atresia 1302, 1395
Aural fullness 498, 506, 509
Aural rehabilitation 360
Aural specula 239
Auricle 3, 4f
Auricular artery, posterior 1606
Auricular burn defects, severe 1908
Auricular cartilage graft 1950f
Auricular construction 1882, 1892f, 1897f
second stage 1892f
strategy of 1908
Auricular defect
clinical classification of 1882b
complete 1887f
Auricular elevation 1902
difficulty of 1902
Auricular framework 1901
design 1896
six types of 1902f
Auricular injury 1795
Auricular landmarks 1606f
Auricular morphology 1883
Auricular rectangle 1887, 1910f
Auricular shape, classification of 1883, 1883f
Auricular shrinkage 1893
Auricular templates 1895
types of 1883f
Auricular vestige 1893
Auriculocephalic sulcus 1915
Auriculotemporal sulcus 1904
Autism 1518
range 1518
Autoantibody autoantigen profile 877
Autografts 150
Autoimmune diseases 407, 1574
chronic mucocutaneous 1067
Autoimmune disorders 38, 1636
Autoimmune epithelial disorders, antibody mediated 877
Autoimmune inner ear disease 326, 328f, 332, 333, 354
clinical presentation 326
diagnosis 328
treatment 330
Autoimmunity 354
Auto-inflation 1363
Autologous graft implantation 1938
Autologous tissue 137
Automated auditory brainstem responses 1327
Autonomic nervous dysfunction 472
Autophony 130, 506, 509
Autopsy specimen 412
Autosomal dominant 274, 279, 955, 1265
character 1432
condition 1077
disease 523
disorder 1265
fashion 1882
nonsyndromic hearing loss 278f
syndrome 523
trait 1434
transmission 476
Autosomal recessive 274276, 604, 1318
deafness 308
disorder 1406, 1863
loss 308
nonsyndromic hearing loss 277f
syndrome 1239
Autosomal transmission 294
Autosomes, abnormalities of 1302
Avulsed facial soft tissue 1789
Avulsion 1788
injuries 1795, 1800
partial 1795
Axial computed tomography 1125f
Axial contrast-enhanced computed tomography 1280f, 1291f, 1293f
Axial FIESTA magnetic resonance imaging 1280f
Axial noncontrast sinus 593f
computed tomography 589f
Axitinib 1202
Axonal regrowth 1997
Axoneme 601
microtubules 603
Axons, De novo sprouting of 1997
Azathioprine 332, 737, 877, 879
Azidothymidine 286
Azithromycin 1407, 1572
Azurophilic granules 738
B
B cells 1456
Bacitracin 1791
Back sleeping 1435
Backcut scar 1842
Bacteria 112f, 213
anaerobic 208, 613, 1800
Bacterial biofilms 624
Bacterial infection 1565, 1574, 1623
severe 970
Bacteroides 1800
Ballistic injuries 1789, 1790
Balloon
dilatation, endoscopic 1521
dilation 970
laser 1302
eustachian tuboplasty 74f
laryngoplasty, endoscopic 971
sinuplasty 1410
techniques 733
tracheoplasty 946
Baltimore longitudinal studies 345
Bamboo nodes 872, 873
Bárány's rotational tests 474
Barium swallow 793, 1545
Barking cough 1474
Barometric trauma 202
Barotrauma 82fc, 86, 122, 354, 498, 1383
Bartonella henselae 1562, 1566
Basal cell 600, 620, 744
adenocarcinoma 1188
adenoma 1187
carcinoma 57, 1237, 1241f, 1243, 1247, 1254
subtype of 1243
hyperplasia 170
nevus syndrome, congenital 1239
pluripotent 1188
Basal membrane thickening 1417
Basal turn losses 429
Basement membrane 620, 1585
Basic life support 1527, 1529
Basic surgical Robot system 1161
Basilar membrane 8
dimensions 8
Basilar type migraine 1387
Battle's sign 38, 421
Becker depression inventory 434
Beclomethasone 1421
Behavioral modifications 880
Behavioral techniques 1577
Behavioral therapy 777, 991, 992
Behçet's disease 332, 354, 1093
Bell's palsy 20, 411f, 412416, 467, 518
acute 417
complete 416t
incomplete 414t
treatment strategies in 413, 414
Bell's phenomenon 408
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo 451, 454, 455, 467, 506, 1383
clinical presentation 454
differential diagnosis 453
physiopathology 451
posterior canal 453, 454
time course 452
Benzalkonium 312, 313, 315
Benzethonium chloride 312, 315
Benzhexol hydrochloride 1578
Benzocaine 938
Benzodiazepine 433, 436, 469, 770, 955, 956
antidepressive drugs 434
Benztropine 1578
Bernoulli's principle 1770
Berry ligament 1153, 1165
Berry picking 1158
Beta-2 transferrin test 1828
Beta-cell lymphoma, diffuse large 1091
Betahistine 445
Beta-lactamase 1349, 1352
producing strains 1353
Betamethasone 488, 1421
Bethesda classification system 1149
Bezold's abscess 208, 210, 211
Biallelic mutations, prevalence of 309
Bi- and unilateral laryngeal palsy, etiologies of 1486t
Biennial bone mineral density 1180
Bifid uvula 1438f, 1852f
Bilateral disease, intramuscular streptomycin for 512
Bilateral unipedicle advancement flaps 1953
Biliary tract infection 605
Bilobed flap 1944, 1962, 1964, 1964f
classic design of 1947f
resulting scar of 1947
Biochemotherapy 1252
Biofilm 605, 1361
Bioflavonoids 229, 230
Biomechanical principles relating muscle 2007
Biopsy 872, 877, 1922
excisional 1253, 1256
incisional 1253, 1256
intraoperative 1181
laryngopharyngeal 947
material 1566
specimens, examination of 1070
transbronchial 875
Bioradiation 1041
Bipedicle advancement flaps 1954
Bipolar electrocautery, judicious 640
Bipolar sensory cells 744
Birth serum rubella immunoglobulin 272
Bisphosphonate 229, 770, 1180
drugs 1079
oral 1079
third-generation 230
Bite force reduction 1811
Bite injuries 1795
Bithermal caloric testing 1384
Biventer-Venter
mandibularis 988
mastoideus 988
Blast injury 185, 421, 1787
Blastomyces 870
Bleeding 1448, 1658
diathesis 688
disorder 1637
during surgery 650
dyscrasia 88
life-threatening 718
persists despite medical treatment 1427
signs of 640
surgical control of 1011
Blepharoplasty 1636, 1640
lower 1645, 1657
techniques in 1645
upper 1645, 1819
Blepharoptosis 1637, 1644
Blepharospasm 953, 1664
oromandibular dystonia syndrome 961
Blindness during embolization 726
Blistering sunburn 1239
Blocking both nasal fossae 1419
Blood
coagulation abnormalities 1302
diseases of 1302
labyrinth barrier 213
loss anemia, acute 1791
pressure
control of 835
instability 1291
systolic 716
test 443
transfusions, multiple 1795
vessels 1181, 1266, 1586
prominent 719f
stag-horn 1267f
Bloodless surgery 964
Bloody otorrhea 421
Bloom's syndrome 1048
Blows, glancing 1791
Bluetooth format 377
Bluetooth protocol 378
Blunt trauma 420, 1788
anterior 802
Blurred vision 38
Body dysmorphic disorder 1741
Body mass index 702, 838, 840
Bolster sutures 1898, 1900f
Bolus characteristics, effects of 763
Bolus transport 753, 758
Bolus viscosity 763
Bolus volume 763
Bondy mastoidectomy 136, 174
Bondy procedure 187
Bone 1029
abnormalities 1863
anchored hearing
aid 265, 1342
loss 1330
asymptomatic masses of 1069
cells, neoplasm of 1076
cement 176
cholesteatoma, petrous 540, 541t, 542, 543f, 544f
conduction 10
device 1342
sensitivity 509
cortical 164f
defects 214
diseases of 1184, 1302
endochondral 222
erosion 117, 208
formation 123, 220, 224f
grafting, autogenous 1817
implants, homologous 132
incus 5
inflammation 604
malleus 5
marrow 870
metabolism 614
mineral density 1180
T-score 1180
morphogenic protein 170
occipital 534, 1432
ossicles 5
Paget's disease of 1076
palatine 567, 1822
parietal 534
rarefaction 227f
extensive 227f, 228f
removal of 161
resorption 220
sarcoma 1265, 1270
local management of 1270
staging of 1271t
sclerotic 1071
squamous 534
stapes 5
tissue 220
density 1351f
tumors 1030
wax 504
zygomatic 1822
Bony boundaries 578
Bony canal 398
and middle ear 508f
Bony cartilaginous
bridge 1745
junction 1749f
Bony displacement, minimal 1823
Bony expansion, external signs of 626
Bony fallopian canal 412
Bony fistulas 487
Bony fixation, stable 1988
Bony labyrinth, integrity of 144
Bony obstruction, lateral 1399
Bony reference points, lacking of 1831
Bony ridge, stable medial 1824
Bordetella pertussis 791, 797
Borrelia burgdorferi 410
Bortezomib 1202
Bossae 1762
Botox 1665
injection 956, 1799
Botulinum
exotoxin 1664
injection 961
toxin 943, 961, 993, 1578, 1628, 1664
injection 890, 943, 944
toxin A 1547, 1664, 1665, 1673
application of 1664
dilution of 1673
dosage 1667t
injection 1665f, 1666, 1668f, 1673f, 1678, 1681
result of 1673
use of 1673
widespread use of 1664
Bow and lean test 458
Bowel disease, inflammatory 332, 333, 874
Bowman's glands 745
Boxer's ear 1450
Boyle's ideal gas law 63
Brachial arteries 1985
Brachial plexus 1231, 1281
injury 1169
Brachycephaly 1868
Brachytherapy 1033
catheters 1034f
Bradycardia 1576, 1823
Bradykinin 789
Bradytrophic tissue 1610
Bragg peak 1034, 1267
Brain
abscess 56, 208, 215, 1829
diagnosis 215
otogenic 215
treatment 216
death, diagnosis of 45
defects 934
derived neurotrophic factor 320
injury 1518
ischemic 419
neurons, hyperpolarization in 436
parenchymal tissue 186
plasticity 42
retraction, minimal 1025
tissue 215
Brainstem 10, 19, 504, 951, 1383
auditory pathways 44
caudal 501
cerebrovascular accident 952
chiari malformation of 1480
edema 529
herniation 1862
implants 267
neurological signs of 474
potentials 40
Branchial apparatus
appears 1551
embryology of 1551, 1551t
Branchial arch 1551, 1882
anomalies 1395
Branchial cleft 1551, 1560, 1575
malformation 1553f
Branchial derivatives 1561t
Branchial myoclonus develops 957
Branchial pouches 1551, 1560
Branchio-oto-renal syndrome 274, 1322f
Brandt-Daroff
exercises 456
maneuvers 457f
Branhamella catarrhalis 1355
Breastfeeding 81, 1438
Breath sounds, auscultation of 846
Breathing
pattern 1511
transoral 825
Brent's method 1885
Breslow thickness 1248
Breughel's syndrome 961
British Columbia Cancer Agency 1039
Broad flat tip 1720
Broad thumbs and hallux 1321
Broadened candidacy criteria 405
Bronchiectasis 604, 626, 794, 1407, 1416, 1475
Bronchiolitis 794
Bronchitis 791
chronic 791, 793, 794
nonasthmatic eosinophilic 790, 795
Bronchodilator therapy 1538
Bronchoscope, rigid ventilating 1539
Bronchoscopy 1096, 1104
fiberoptic 875
rigid 1493, 1532
Bronchospasm 1576
Bronchus, tracheal 1489
Brow
asymmetry 1629f
dome line 1742
elevator of 1669f, 1670f
fixation sutures 1631
incision, lateral 1819, 1820f
lid 1651
position affects eyelid appearance 1626
ptosis 1600, 1644
Browlift 1626
approaches 1630
Brown's sign 1292
Broyles’ ligament 882
insertion of 1010
Brudzinski's sign 214
Bruininks-Oseretsky test 1389
B-type Raf kinase 1150
Buccal cusp, maxillary 1807f
Buccal fat pad 1100
Buccal intercuspal groove 1806
Buccal mucosa 1780, 1797, 1799
Buccinator muscle 1113f, 1611
Buccopharyngeal membrane begins 1560
Budesonide 1421
Bud-like cochlea 1334
Bulbar palsy 893, 894
Bulbous nasal tip 1734f, 1738f
Bulging canals 147
Bulging eyes 1433
Bulla ethmoidalis 577
Bulla lamella 587
Bullous pemphigoid 1067
Bumetanide 313
Bunny lines 1670
Bupivacaine 397
Burkholderia cepacia 56
Burkitt lymphoma 1091
Burn 1790
circumferential 1791
deep partial-thickness 1791
injuries 1797
management of 1791
scar 1977
Burow's triangle 1936, 1944, 1952, 1960, 1962
excision 1944
standard 1953
removal of 1952f
single 1953
technique of 1953
Butamben 938
Butterfly grafts 1773, 1774, 1774f
Button battery 1779
C
Cable nerve graft 553
CAD/CAM techniques, benefit of 1988
Cadaveric temporal bones 514
Café-au-lait macules 1284
Calcitonin 220, 1181
Calcium 229
absorption 1178
channel blocker 332, 956, 1065, 1387
hydroxyapatite 943
cement 1655
inhibitors 340
lowering agent cinacalcet 1180
phosphate paste, use of 1043
serum 1180
Caldwell-Luc procedure 1658
Caloric stimulation, loss of 447
Caloric tests 473
Camouflage depressed traumatic scars 1675
Camurati-Engelmann disease 220
Canal skin 57
removal of 152
replacement of 153, 153f
Canal wall
down 137
mastoidectomy 174
intact 187
tympanomastoidectomy 1378f
up mastoidectomy 173
Canalicular defect 1798
Canalicular injury 1798
Canalicular laceration 1798
Canalith 451
jam 462
Canalolithiasis 13, 461
Canalplasty 150, 155, 200
Cancer 38, 1090f
early laryngeal 1006
genome atlas 1051
multiple primary 1104
sinonasal 699
stem cells 1059, 1060
general characteristics of 1059
supraglottic 1141
Candida 56, 869, 870
albicans 286
infection 871, 1065
parapsilosis 56
Candidate's ear 392
Candidiasis, acute pseudomembranous 1088
Canthal tendons, lateral 1638
Canthotomy, lateral 1794
Capreomycin 312
Carbogen breathing 1036
Carbon dioxide 966, 967, 1683, 1924
invention of 964
laser 905, 967, 1069f
Carbon monoxide 341
Carbonic anhydrase isozyme 1036
Carboplatin 1104
Carboxy alkyl esters 340
Carboxymethylcellulose 940, 1425, 1426f
Carcinogen exposure 1049
setting of 1048
Carcinogenesis 1082, 1087
Carcinoma
adenosquamous 1091
cuniculatum 1091
hard palate mimicking 1066f
high-grade mucoepidermoid 1221
in situ 1004, 1008, 1115
large cell 1188
low-grade mucoepidermoid 1199f, 1221
lymphoepithelial 1188
masopharyngeal 1026, 1219, 1416, 1417, 1570
metastasize, medullary 1222
microinvasive 1088
mucoepidermoid 1091, 1188, 1198, 1569, 1575
myoepithelial 1188
oncocytic 1188
right oropharyngeal 1032f
sebaceous 1188
sinonasal undifferentiated 698
submandibular 1208f
undifferentiated 1206, 1221
Carcinosarcoma 1188, 1198
Cardiac defect 1558
Cardiac disease 476
Cardiac failure
congestive 790
high output 1923
Cardiovascular circulatory function 1805
Carina 391
device 391
implant 391f
analysis of 394
Carotid artery 144, 419, 571f, 589, 1115, 1983
aberrant 145f
common 1275f
medialized 1856
petrous 422
right external 1290f
Carotid balloon occlusion testing, preoperative 1290
Carotid bifurcation 1291f
Carotid body 1288
function 1291
resection, bilateral 1291
tumor 1288, 1289, 1291f, 1295
bilateral 1291f
classification of 1291t
right 1291f
Carotid bruits 38
Carotid canals 593f
Carotid cochlear dehiscence 228
Carotid endarterectomy 894
Carotid foramen 535f
Carotid occlusion 670
Carotid sheath 1178
Carpal tunnel syndrome 1071
Carpenter syndrome 1862, 1863
Carroll-Girard screw 1820, 1821f
Cartilage 708, 1209, 1493
block 1904
bone junction 1902f
excision 1915
graft 1378f
harvesting technique 1904
interposition graft 836f
invading tumors 1026
invasion 1027
necrosis 1795
pseudomonal infection of 803
remnants 1552
support, loss of 1795
tympanoplasty 167, 167f
Cartilaginous dorsum 1753f
lowering of 1749
Cartilaginous structural support 1794
Caspase inhibitors 340
Castroviejo needle
driver 1591f
holder 1591
Cat scratch disease 1562, 1566
Catarrh
exudative 80
tubotympanic 80
Catastrophic flap failure 1079
Catch phenotype 1314
Catechol-O-methyltransferase 315
Cationic ferritin, passage of 484
Caudal dorsum 1962
Caudal extension septal grafts 1777
Caudal nasal sidewall, defect of 1964f
Caudal septal
deflection 1760, 1771
extension grafts 1729, 1730f, 1762, 1764
luxation 1747f
strut 1777
Caudal septum 1745
Caudal sidewall 1962
Cauliflower ear 57, 58, 1450
Caustic ingestion 1302, 1477, 1530
Caustic injuries
endoscopic classification of 1532t
grading system of 1533t
Cavernous sinus 535f, 545, 663
invasion of 1025
posterior 533
surgery 692
thrombosis 1411
Cavum concha 1606
Cefaclor 1353
Cefdinir 1407
failures 1354
Cefixime 1353
Cefpodoxime 1353, 1407
Cefprozil 1353
Ceftibuten 1353
Ceftriaxone 1353, 1411
Cefuroxime 1407, 1408
axetil 1353, 1354, 1801
exception of 1353
Celebrex 655
Celia dyskinesia 1416
Cell 1586
carcinoma 1023
cell
adhesion 1052
connectivity 676
chronic inflammatory 198
columnar 600
cycle
dysregulation 1050
inhibitor 321
phases 1050f
proteins 675
transitions, regulators of 1050
death
controlled 1835
noise-induced 340, 340fc
perpetuate 339, 340
protein 1 1059
signaling 341
embryonic differentiation of 305
hypoxic 1037
immunocompetent 327
mediated response 1937
migration, sequence of 1586
mitochondria of 318
neuroendocrine 1274
nonciliated 83
proliferation 1051
proliferative phenotype of 1052
regeneration 267
subset of 1059
survival 1051
sustentacular 744, 1289
walls, hydrolysis of 600
Cellular
energy, loss of 340
membranes 607
pleomorphism 1091
response 327
structure 996
Cellulitis 1802
orbital 615
periorbital 726
Celluloid, glass 1653
Celopharyngeal insufficiency 1302
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 624, 1783
Central auditory
pathways 10, 265
processing disorder 47
system 1326
Central compartment neck dissection 1161
Central giant cell granuloma 1073
Central hearing system 349
Central lip 1961
defect of 1961f
Central midface 1400
developmental errors of 1396
lesions 1253f
Central nervous system 19, 428, 467, 951, 1383, 1385, 1395, 1404
disorders 1389
lesion 951t
malformations 1321
pathology 1480
superficial siderosis of 22f
Central venous catheters 605
Central vestibular
disorders 472, 474, 476
signs of 472
symptoms of 472
pathways 14, 14f
problems 473
syndromes 474
Cephalic margin 1762
Cephalic rotation 1771, 1777
Cephalic synchondroses 1859
Cephalic trim, amount of 1733
Cephalometric skeletal landmarks 1595
Cephalometry 1595
Cephalosporin 312, 613, 1407
second-generation 870, 1227, 1353
third-generation 870
Cerebellar
abscess 217
left side 216f
artery
inferior 468
posterior inferior 475
ataxia 955
contusion 1383
dysfunction 951
function 1383
hemispheres, involvement of 473
lesion, exclusion of 460
ocular motor 477
peduncle, inferior 475
stroke 478f
symptoms 474
tests 472
tonsillar herniation 1872
vermian hypoplasia 1389
Cerebellopontine angle 501, 503, 523, 527, 528, 530
masses 526b
characteristics of 526t
syndrome 474
Cerebellum 19, 468f, 477, 478, 951
Cerebral palsy 1302, 1519
severe 1523
Cerebral thrombosis 355
Cerebritis 217
Cerebrospinal fluid 226, 284, 306, 398, 419, 504, 513, 679, 688, 702, 703f, 708f, 1277f, 1395, 1448, 1872
active 706f
high-signal 1279
leak 402, 424, 501, 531, 670, 701, 1829
result of 701
rhinorrhea 692
spontaneous 702, 705f
signs of 1448
Cerebrospinal otorrhea 425
Cerebrovascular accident 354, 776, 952
Cerumen 59
impaction 59
Ceruminal obstruction 1362
Cervical
abnormalities, classification of 1613t
adenitis 1460
syndrome 1460
adenopathy 1566
artery 1970f
transverse 1969
collar 455, 1805
presence of 1784
cysts 1555
dystonia 953, 954
esophageal region 756
esophagus 1120, 1143
fusion plate 784f
internal carotid artery 1293f
lymph nodes 1241
lymphatic disease 1226
mass, hard fixed nontender 1569
nodal metastases 1240
node, palpable 1241
plexus 36
point 1596
region 1400
reoperations 1183
skin 1935
spine 1494, 1805
evaluation 1805
injury 1805
sympathetic ganglia 761
trachea 1474
vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials 13
Cervicomental angle 1596
Cervico-ocular reflex 494
Cervicothoracic cysts 1515
Cervicotomy, left-lateral 1554
Cetuximab 1050
plus cisplatin-fluorouracil 1104
C-fibers act 789
Chalky patches 1365
Charcot-Leyden crystals 606
CHARGE syndrome 399, 403f, 1316, 1840
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome 1568
Cheekbone augmentation 1676
Chelate iron 315
Chemical
injury 1088
labyrinthectomy 447, 511, 512
peels 1686, 1687
and lasers 1686
procedural specifies 1688
Chemodenervation
agents, use of 2007
selective 2006
Chemoradiation 1129
therapy 1130, 1130t
concurrent 1129
Chemoradiotherapy 1138
cisplatin-based concomitant 1096
concomitant 1041
Chemoreceptor cells 744
Chemoreflex dysfunction 1291
Chemosensors 789
Chemosis, conjunctival 616
Chemotherapeutic agents 354, 1923
Chemotherapy 1028, 1050, 1202, 1252
adjuvant 1252
concomitant 1102
cytotoxic 1252
induction 1126, 1129, 1130, 1138, 1139
neoadjuvant 1095, 1271
resistance 1062
systemic 1250
Cherubism, indicative of 1073
Chest
retractions 1484
wall, anterior 1287f
X-ray 790792
Chiari malformations 1390
Chimeric flap 1986
Chin
projection 1605f
retrusion 1606
size, consideration of 1712
Chinchillas 484, 485f
Chlorambucil 877
Chloramphenicol 313, 487, 488, 870
Chlorhexidine 312, 313, 315, 488
gluconate 1079
Chloride transport 302
Chlorine 967
Choana and pyriform aperture 578
Choanal atresia 1302, 1310, 1397, 1399, 1401, 1542, 1865, 1866
Choanal stenosis 1321
bilateral 1399
Cholesteatoma 70, 94, 96, 105, 121, 125, 126f, 127, 129, 132, 136, 142, 144b, 154, 158, 161, 171f, 172, 175f, 177f, 179, 179f, 184f, 185f, 186, 190, 193, 195, 195f, 203, 212, 356, 425, 542, 1302, 1339f, 1362, 1365, 1369, 1378
aural 127
classification 184
complications of 178
debris 1372f
diagnosis of 540, 1376
endoscopic removal of 1377f
formation 171f, 185, 399
mechanisms of 1372
risk of 104
keratinocytes 1370
location 541
management of 1379
open 129
operative management of 1377
preoperative management of 1376
primary acquired 170, 184, 185f, 1372
recurrent 411f
removal of 160f
residual 175f, 190, 410
right attic 173f
routes of spread of 172f
sac 160
secondary 540
acquired 185, 186f
surgical treatment of 184
Cholesterol
granuloma 61, 80, 96, 97, 117, 121, 125, 144, 152, 197, 534
high 475
Chondritis 57, 1795
Chondrocranium 1860
Chondrocytes 1419
Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helices 55
Chondromyxoid stroma 1196f
Chondronecrosis 812
Chondroradionecrosis 1138
Chondrosarcoma 549, 664, 698, 699,
cranial base 549
radiologic distinction of 549
Chorda tympani 5, 38, 137, 171, 242, 401
nerve 150, 163, 232, 400, 508
Chordoma 549, 664, 1416, 1417
right clival 552f
Chorea 956
Choristoma 527, 528
lipomatous 526
muscular 526
Chromium 747
Chronic cough 789f, 791
causes of 796
evaluation and management 792fc
Chronic denture irritation, area of 1068
Chronic disease, exacerbations of 790
Chronic disorders 1587
Chronic ear disease
risk of 1374
standard classification of 1370
Chronic inflammatory disease 96
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 770, 790, 832, 1475
history of 1143
Chronic otitis media 42, 66, 71f, 94, 96f, 103f, 109, 116, 117f, 118f, 126, 129, 132f, 185, 196199, 207, 214, 284, 288, 428, 433435, 490, 1308, 1370, 1384, 1437, 1915
cholesteatomatous 207
effusion 110
granulomatous 122f
silent 117, 121, 121f, 122f
surgical treatment of 139
tinnitus in 431
treatment of 136, 137, 139t
without cholesteatoma 116, 133t
Chronic progressive central vertigo disorders 477
Chronic rhinosinusitis 70, 598, 604, 607, 610, 653, 1403, 1417
clinical evaluation 611
diagnostic criteria 610
differential diagnosis 612
investigation 629
medical management 613
pathogenesis of 1418
pathophysiology 598, 602, 603t
postoperative management 641
prevalence of 1404
subtype of 646
treatment and management 634
with nasal polyposis 619
without nasal polyposis 610
Chronic sinusitis 604, 733, 1416, 1761
survey 628
Chung's retractor 1163, 1166
Churg-Strauss syndrome 1416, 1779
Chyle fistula 1231, 1234
Cicatricial furrows 1503, 1505f
Cicatrix formation 803
Cilia 601
surface of 601
Ciliary pseudostratified epithelium 1417
Cinacalcet 1181
Ciprofloxacin 57, 488
drops 490
powder 490
topical drops of 490
traverses membrane 487
Circumvallate papillae 1112
Cisplatin 313, 1037, 1102, 1202
neoadjuvant 1096
ototoxicity 318
Citric acid 793
Clarithromycin 1572
Classic frontal bone surgery, workhorse of 1656
Classic roll test 457
Classical Mondini deformity 1338f
Clear cell carcinoma 1188
Cleft complications 1845
Cleft edges 1843
Cleft lip 85, 1430, 1431, 1431f, 1437, 1835
bilateral 1839, 1844f
complete 1839
care, postoperative 1845
complete 1837, 1838f
deformity, bilateral 1836, 1845
incomplete 1837, 1838f
nasal deformity 1397, 1770
nose 1740
repair 1440, 1840
advancement 1842f
bilateral 1845
goal of 1840
principles of 1841
unilateral 1842, 1843b
Cleft palate 85, 1302, 1314, 1316f, 1363, 1374, 1430, 1431, 1431f, 1437, 1848
bilateral 1850, 1851
incomplete 1853
isolated 1835, 1848
repair 1440, 1858f
endoscopic laryngeal 1302
surgical techniques of 1852
submucosal 1852f
two-thirds of 1848
typical nonsyndromic 1851
unilateral 1850
Cleft rhinoplasty 1846
Clindamycin 1353, 1407, 1411
Clivus 534, 547
Clobetasol 1065
Clodronate 230
Clonazepam 433
Clopidogrel 716
Closed skin bone conduction device 1344
Clostridium botulinum 954, 1664
Cloverleaf skull 1862
Clozapine 955
Clutton's joints 273
Cobalt 1653
Cobblestones 1928
Cocaine 354, 716, 1779
drops 750
inhalation of 1078
Cochlea 7, 8f, 178, 226, 229, 302, 322f, 419, 534, 535, 536, 1338
abnormal 403
apex of 313
electrical activity of 9
promontory of 506
vestibular apparatus 1375
Cochlear defects, congenital 13
Cochlear duct 7, 224, 225
ruptured 429
Cochlear implant 28f, 29f, 1329, 1331, 1333, 1335, 1518
design 396
incision 397
indications 396
surgery 309
Cochlear microphonic, assessment of 44
Cochlear nerve 43f, 501, 505, 534
deficiency 1341f
potentials 40
Cochlear wall, lateral 26
Cochleostomy 400, 403
Cochleovestibular nerve 419
Coffin-Lowry syndrome 1430
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1840
Cogan's colitis 331
Cogan's peptide 331
Cogan's syndrome 326, 329, 331, 332, 354, 355, 469
Cognitive therapy 992
Cold air exposure 603
Cold-steel instruments 785
use of 1008
Colistin 312
Colitis, ulcerative 331, 333, 874
Collagen 520, 1585, 1693
cross-linking of 1938
fibers 481, 483f
bundles 222
remodeling marks 1938
thick bundles of 888
Colliculus, inferior 11
Columella 1601, 1742, 1836, 1843
Columellar batten type graft 1764
Columellar break point 1742f
Columellar defects 1971f
Columellar incision 1723, 1723f
Columellar retraction 1764
Columellar strut 1730f, 1733
dissection plane, endonasal placing of 1754f
grafting 1766
placement 1762
Columnar epithelial cells 624f
Coma, staging of 45
Commando operation 1099
Common cavity 401, 1333, 1336, 1338f
Comparative genomic hybridization 1087
Complex inflammatory disease 653
Composite grafts 1936, 1957
Composite soft tissue, avulsion of 1788
Comprehensive multidisciplinary team 1835
Compression 1523
bone conduction 10
hearing aid 371
supraglottic 1477
Compressive tongue-base lesions 1476
Computer-generated face 1626
Computerized tomography 1192, 1328
Conazole 871
Concave alar margin 1720
Concha bowl 368, 1937
Concha outline, types of 1883f
Conchal cartilage 1765
Conchal cavity 1893
Conchal cup 1910
Conductive hearing loss 34, 131, 333, 422, 509, 550, 1318, 1329
audiogram of 36f
residual 26, 27f
sudden, causes of 356
Condylar foramen, posterior 534
Condylar fractures 1813, 1816
bilateral 1813
treatment of 1813
unilateral 1813
Condylar head displacement 1813
Condyle displacement 1813
Condyloma acuminatum 1091
Congenital anomalies 934, 1302, 1653, 1977
Congenital cholesteatoma 180, 180f, 184, 184f, 195, 203, 1373
clinical presentation 180
epidemiology 180
evaluation 180
growth patterns 180
management 180
pathogenesis 180
pearl of 1373f
Congenital midline masses, common 1393fc
Congenital nasal pyriform 1398f
aperture stenosis 1396, 1397, 1398f
Congenital sensorineural hearing loss 271, 274f
classification 272
diagnosis 271
intervention 271
Congenital subglottic stenosis 1487
causes of 800
Conjunctival fornix, inferior 1823
Conjunctivitis, nonexudative 1566
Connective tissue 520, 1683, 1791
cells 1585
disorders 1783
layer 481
Connexin 26 308
gene 301, 302
Conotruncal anomaly face syndrome 1542
Consciousness 1387
level of 208
loss of 746
Constipation 1578
Constricted ear 1882
Contact lesions 889
Continuous positive airway pressure 710, 731, 731t, 734t, 838, 839
Continuous pulse-oximetry monitoring 1857
Continuum theory 124f
Contract neck muscles 1672
Contralateral tail, placement of 1660
Contrast enhanceable mass 1554
Contusion, severe 193
Convexity deformity, double 1604, 1643f
Conylar foramen, anterior 534
Copious purulent nasal discharge 1403
Corda tympani 1375
Cordectomy 836, 1013, 1014f, 1139
combination of 972
complete 976, 1009
endoscopic 1140
partial 817, 819, 976
subepithelial 1010f
subligamental 1011f
total 1013f
Corditis, polypoid 886, 975f
Cordotomy 817, 905, 970, 1522
Core-needle biopsy 1246
Cornea protection 416
Corneal abrasions 333, 1651
Corneal injury, risk of 1642
Coronal bone 422f, 689f
Coronal noncontrast sinus 580f, 582f-587f, 589f, 591f, 593f, 594f
computed tomography 581f
Coronal sinus 715f
Corrugator supercilii 1599, 1629
muscles 1599
Corticoid containing otic drop 1364
Corticosteroid 213, 215, 266, 333, 488, 634, 1497
bursts of 737
injection 635
potential risks of 641
topical 635
use of 90, 1533
Corynebacterium diphtheria 1457
Cosmetic
deformities 1823
risk of 1394
issues 1431
outcomes 1832
rhinoplasty 1775
satisfaction 1174, 1175
Cosmoderm 1674
Cosmoplast 1674
Costal cartilage graft 1499f
harvest of 1503f
Cottle maneuver 1771
Cotton-tipped applicators 1689
Cough 788, 1462, 1472
chronic 1544
clinical approach 789
differential diagnosis of 790t
irritant-induced 793
neuropathic 795
pathophysiology 789
postinfectious 790
reflex 772
respiratory retraining for 863
subacute 791
symptoms of 1563
variant asthma 794
whooping 790, 791
Coumadin 1637
Cover body theory 849
Cover concha cavity 1897f
COX theory 654
Cranial contents, extracranial herniations of 1393
Cranial fossa
anterior 1827
middle 157, 417, 533, 1279
posterior 139, 560
Cranial nerve 407, 408, 473, 474
asymptomatic schwannomas of 1275
examination 770
palsy 218, 425
sixth 533
Cranial neuropathies, multiple 56
Craniectomy, endoscopic 692
Craniocaudal direction 1289
Craniocaudal length 934
Cranioendoscopic groups 694
Craniofacial abnormalities 1308, 1467, 1468, 1542
Craniofacial anomalies 840, 1430, 1522
types of 1430
Craniofacial approaches 1277
Craniofacial clefts 1397, 1878
paramedian 1878
unilateral 1878
Craniofacial growth 1439
Craniofacial resection 690
Craniofacial skeleton 1859
Craniofacial structures 1864
Craniofacial surgery 1859, 1879
Craniopharyngiomas 664
Cranioplasty 504
Craniosynostosis 1430, 1432, 1435, 1860, 1866
bicoronal 1871f
coronal sutures 1321
diagnosis of 1435
metopic 1868, 1870f
repair of 1655
sagittal 1873
symptoms of 1432
syndromic 1319
treatment for 1433
types of 1432, 1433, 1867f
various types of 1432
Craniotomy, bifrontal 691
Cribriform plate 673, 702, 703, 707
Cricoarytenoid joint 836, 872, 996, 1120, 1123
arthritis of 813
fixation 803, 1493
Cricoarytenoid muscle, posterior 849, 851, 943
Cricoid cartilage 1027, 1493, 1511
low 1180
superior edge of 1014
Cricoid ring 782
Cricoid split 1488, 1521
Cricopharyngeal bar 782f
Cricopharyngeal dysfunction 769
Cricothyroid node 1220
Cricothyrotomy 833, 841
Cricotracheal resection 829f, 837
partial 1498
technique 827
Crile's landmark paper 1979
Crohn's disease 333, 874, 875
Cross-facial nerve
grafting 2001
transposition 2000
Cross-hatching technique 1678f
Crouzon's syndrome 842, 1321, 1430, 18611863
diagnosis of 1862
management of 1862
Crow's feet 1667
injection of 1669f
Crus communis 455, 456, 462, 464
Crush injury 1788, 1793
Cryosurgery 1065
Cryotherapy 1249
Cryptorchidism 1863, 1865
Cryptotia 1882
Crystal ball effect 130
Cupid's bow 1843
landmarks 1877
low point of 1842, 1843
peak of 1840, 1842
structure 1840, 1842
Cupula ampullaris 12
Cupulolithiasis 460, 461
Curvilinear configuration 1943f
Curvularia 741
Custom-made electromagnetic coil 390
Cutaneous melanoma 1257
appropriate treatment of 1251
prevalence of 1237
Cutis aplasia tumor 1977
Cyanoacrylate 1556, 1590
Cyanosis 1478
Cyanotic spells 1319, 1542
Cyclin 1050
dependent kinase 1050, 1058, 1088
inhibitor 1113
Cyclooxygenase 84, 654, 675
pathway 607
Cyclophosphamide 330, 332, 877, 879, 1202
Cyclops auris 142f
Cyclosporine 877, 879, 1065
Cymba concha 1606
Cyst 886, 931
bronchogenic 1490
congenital 1551
dentigerous 1072
dermoid 1556, 1561
dissection of 931
fluid content of 537
large mucous 1418f
laryngeal 1477, 1485
masopharyngeal 1476
microsurgical dissection of 931
paraglottic 1476
periapical 1071
pharyngolaryngeal 1485
projection zone of 1552
removal, complete 538
saccular 1477, 1479
small epithelial 152
treatment of 1553
types of 1576
vallecular 1477, 1479
Cystadenocarcinoma 1188
low-grade cribriform 1188
Cystadenoma 1187
Cysteinyl leukotrienes 654
Cystic cochleovestibular anomaly 402
Cystic dilatation 621
Cystic fibrosis 626, 653, 1302, 1322, 1406, 1406f, 1417
chronic rhinosinusitis 603f
evaluation for 619
transmembrane regulator 600
Cystic hygromas 1556
Cystic hypoplastic cochlea 1334
Cystitis, urinary catheter 605
Cytochrome P450-related enzymes 1084
Cytokeratin 697
Cytokine 220, 1054, 1360
antagonists 229
interferon-γ 1053
tumor necrosis factor alpha 874
Cytology 1154
Cytomegalovirus 272, 286, 354, 869, 1188
infection 1342, 1564f
Cytoplasm 486
Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody 735
Cytoplasmic immunofluorescence staining 410
Cytotoxic medications 330
Cytotoxic molecules 738
Cytotoxic T cells 622
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte 1053, 1056
antigen 4 1056
Cytotoxicity 1055
antibody dependent cell-mediated 1054
Cytoxan 330
Czermak's mirror test 1443
D
Dacarbazine 1252
Dacryocystoceles 1398
Dacryocystorhinostomy 692
concomitant 1396
endoscopic 679
Dandy's syndrome 326, 1389
Dapsone 877
Darwin's tubercle 1606
Dead corneocytes 1252
Dead ear 138
Deafness 1321
etiology of 1342
functional 44
genetic 293
nonsyndromic hereditary 308
psychogenic 44
single sided 360
Decompensation, cardiorespiratory 1442
Decompression, orbital 692
Decongestant 1408
drops 750
Decubitus films, lateral 1538
Dedo laryngoscope 925f
Deep chemical peels penetrate 1688
Deep peels 1688
Degenerative disorders 427
Dehydrogenase, succinate 1288
Dejerine's syndrome 958
Delphian lymph node 1220
Delta sign 217
Deltopectoral flaps 781
Dementia 1179
risk of 349
Dendritic cells 1055, 1456, 1557
Dense connective tissue, area of 481
Dense fibrofatty tissue 1575
Dense fibrous tissue
bridge of 533
development of 521
Dental
abnormalities 1863
arch 1849
care, routine 1043
caries 333, 605
displacement 1819
examination 1451
implant 1072f
placement 1072f
lamina rests 1073
malocclusion 1807f
occlusion, premorbid 1805
problems 1431
wires 1809
Denture papillomatosis 1065
Deoxyribonucleic acid 286, 292, 467, 1048, 1057, 1085
chemical structure of 1684
levels 676
mitochondrial 274, 294
replication phase 1050
sequencing technology 310
Depot technique 1677f
Depression 756, 1179, 1184
severe 960
Depressor
anguli oris 1671
antagonistic 1629
function, persistent 1630
labia 2005
septi nasi muscle, release of 1745
supercilii muscles 1627, 1629, 1667
Dermabrasion 1683, 1686, 1690, 1693
Dermal epidermal junction 1684
Dermal filler injections 1678
Dermal lesions, fibrotic 57
Dermal matrix replacement, primary disadvantage of 1937
Dermatitis 1138
chronic 1329
seborrheic 54
Dermatochalasis 1600, 1601
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans 1266, 1268
management of 1268
Dermatologic disease, history of 1693
Dermatomyositis 952, 959
Dermatophytes 56
Dermatoses 54
Dermis 1685f
thicker 1683
Desmoglein 877
Desmoplasia, severe 1206
Dexamethasone 432, 488, 498, 499, 1421
drops of 499
injection 433, 498
intratympanic 432
oral suspension 1065
Diabetes 38, 475, 1302
insipidus 669
mellitus 1586, 1783
postoperative 662
Diabetic ketoacidosis 740
Diacylglycerol 1051
Diadochokinesis 771
laryngeal 861, 865
Diamond excision 1845
Diaphragma sellae 663
Diathermy machine 782
Diazepine 469
Dideoxycytidine 286
Dideoxyinosine 286
Digastrics muscle, posterior belly of 38
DiGeorge anomaly 1302
DiGeorge syndrome 1314, 1479f, 1542, 1840
Digital noise reduction 372, 373
Digital trauma 1423, 1779
Dihydrostreptomycin 312
Dihydrotestosterone 1699
Dilation techniques 945
Diligent nasal hygiene 1779
Dilute fluorescein dye 1798
Dimenhydrinate 469
Dingman retractor 1853, 1855, 1856
Dingman tongue blade 1854
Diphenylhydantoin 1568
Diplopia 218, 475, 649, 710
Directional microphone system 374f
Disclose eosinophilic infiltrate 1417
Discoid lupus erythematosus 1088, 1089, 1091
Disorganized suck-swallow-breath coordination 1542
Disrupt bolus flow 783
Distal duct injuries 1799
Distal esophageal spasm 774
Distal middle constrictor muscle 1120
Distant metastasis 1161
Distant skin 1259
Distress, respiratory 1496
Diverticulum, carcinoma in 782
Dix-Hallpike maneuvers 453
Dizziness 34, 38, 39, 130, 142, 226, 476, 509, 669, 1382
causes of 1390
chronic 506
diagnosis of 1382b
drug induced 1390
migraine-associated 442
migraine-related 1385
nonvertiginous 1383
psychiatric 1390
signs of 1382, 1382b
Dome sutures, placement of 1736f
Donaldson's line 501f, 514
Donor
axonal loads 2001
facial branch 2001
hair 1697f
harvesting 1701
nerve 1997
site morbidity 1759
Dopamine receptor blockers, use of 955
Doppler ultrasonography, use of 1985
Dorello's canal 211, 533, 698
Dorsal hump 1725, 1726
reduction 1726f
Dorsal nasal pole 1742f
Dorsal septum 1769
curvature of 1760
position 1725
Dorsal strut, castellation of 1760
Dorsal thyroid area 1161
Double blind study 1409
Down's syndrome 800, 840, 845, 1308, 1313, 1466, 1468, 1487, 1494, 1510, 1522, 1544, 1840
Doxorubicin 1202, 1929
Draining ears 489
Drooling scale 1577
Drug
eluting middle meatal stent 635
ototoxicity 427
overdose 354
resistant streptococcus pneumoniae 1353
therapy, intratympanic 266
Dry vermilion thickness 1843
Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1302
Ductal injuries 1798
Ductal integrity 1798
Ductal papillomas 1187
Ductal retention cysts 1505
Dull pain 130
Dural arteriovenous fistula, intraosseous 536
Dye lasers 967
medium of 967
Dynein Complexes Act 627
Dysarthria 957, 1670
Dyschromias 1687, 1691
Dysequilibrium 524, 1388
vague symptoms of 1385
Dysfunctional olfactory epithelium, histopathology of 746
Dyskeratosis congenita 1238, 1243
Dyskinesia 653
acquired ciliary 602
ciliary 629, 1419
primary ciliary 603, 619, 627, 1406
Dyslipidemia 1179
Dysosmia 636, 745
Dysostosis
mandibulofacial 1399
otomandibular 1864
Dyspepsia 641
Dysphagia 333, 524, 549, 769, 776, 780, 832, 834, 969f, 1017, 1028, 1138, 1496, 1534, 1548, 1672
actual incidence of 1541
bootcamp 777
complain of 897
frequent causes of 1542
history 897
impact of 1541
long-term 1156
management of 776
oropharyngeal 776
predilection for 897
signs of 1545
symptoms of 1545
treatment of 999, 1547
worsen 770
Dysphonia 854, 908, 911, 912, 998, 1017, 1078, 1474, 1475, 1484, 1496, 1509
causes of 998
diagnosing cause of 854
endorsement of 927
evaluation of 999
functional 991
gradual-onset 857t
pathological causes in 998
spasmodic 951, 953
spastic 1664
ventricular 993
whispering 953
Dysplasia 675
auriculobranchiogenic 1864
cemental 1071
cemento-osseous 1076
continuum of 1003
fibrous 220, 536, 1071
frontonasal 1878
mild 1004
mild to moderate 1004
osseous 536
periapical cemento-osseous 1076
recurrent severe 1004
severe 1004
Dysplastic lesions, continuum of 1004
Dyspnea 1005, 1442, 1484
obstructive 1484
symptomatic relief of 794
Dystonia 952, 955, 957
classification of 953f
cranial 961
drug induced 954
iatrogenic 954
involuntary 956
laryngeal 953
breathing 953
oromandibular 953, 1664
psychogenic 955
Dystopia 294
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa 1238, 1239
history of 1243
Dystrophy, myotonic 952, 959
E
Eagleton's sign 474
Ear 133, 153
avulsion injury 1796f
canal 35, 37, 56, 59, 114, 145, 499
anatomy 382
bone, amount of 204
drainage 37
granulation tissue 1570
injury 60
mass 60
open 389
osteoma of 62f
skin 55
small 204
stenosis, acquired 60
contralateral 129
discharge 130
disease 16, 207, 1438
effusions 1305
elevation 1892f
endoscopes 203
external 3
impressions 368
infection
chronic 212
complications of 208
infirmary collection 430
inner 6
cochlea 7
lobe 1255f
middle 5
mastoid process 6
tympanic cavity 5
normal 34
pain 36
severe 329
physiology of 137
positioning template 1888, 1890f, 1895
surgery 1440
template 1913f
wax 59
Eardrop
components 487
containing neomycin 95
Eardrums, intact 202
Early glottic cancer 1005, 1017
endoscopic resection of 1008
Early glottic carcinoma 976, 1017
treatment for 1017
Earmold 368, 369, 382
impression 368
Ecchymosis 1678
Echelon lymph nodes 1028f
Ectasias, capillary 884
Ectoderm 1400, 1551
Ectodermal dysplasia syndromes 1840
Ectodermal epithelial cells 184
Ectopic lymphoid nodules 1064
Ectropion 1601, 1668
Eczema 54, 56
treatment of 56
Edema 83, 209, 467, 912
periauricular 1355
periorbital 615, 1403, 1636
postintubation 1477
stromal 1417
supraglottic 1011
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 1783
Eighth cranial nerve 501
anatomy of 501, 502f
Eikenella corrodens 1800
Einstein's quantum electronics theory 965
Elastic fibers 483f, 1585
large 481
Elastoplast, strap of 1523
Electrical burn
high-voltage 1791
low-voltage 1791
Electrocautery, cautious use of 1855
Electrocochleography 40, 41
Electrode, transtympanic 41
Electrodiagnostic tests 414416
Electroencephalogram
component of 431
normal 1390
Electroencephalography 1467
Electromyogram 1995
Electromyography 415, 1995
laryngeal 806, 898, 899
Electroneuronography 415
Electronic capsule 393
Electronystagmography 524
caloric test 323
Electro-oculogram 1467
Electrostapedial reflex assessment 397
Elliptical-shaped flap 1968
Embolization
bilateral 726
disadvantages of 728
Embryology 1555, 1882
Emissary vein 542, 543
Emphysema, subcutaneous 1233, 1525, 1818
Empyema 1538
subdural 217
En bloc
neck dissection 1099f
surgery 1099
En plaque 1378
Encephalitis 208
Encephaloceles 1393, 1400, 1417, 1874
basal 1394t
delineate 1394
ethmoidal 1878
sincipital 1394f, 1394t
Encephalomyopathy, mitochondrial 307
Encephalopathy 1441
Encode extracellular matrix proteins 304
Endocarditis, native valve 605
Endochondral ossification 1860
Endocrine
disorders 1302
neoplasia, multiple 1073, 1150
Endoderm 1400, 1551
Endolymph 8, 346
absorption of 439, 513
excess secretion of 498
malabsorption of 520
nanoliters of 515
passive diffusion of 501
secretion of 302
stain of 429
volume 429
Endolymphatic duct 439, 534
around entrance of 225f
Endolymphatic fluid drainage pathways 424
Endolymphatic hydrops 13, 198, 424, 427, 428, 512, 515
delayed 1383
presence of 428
symptoms of 512
Endolymphatic outflow, obstruction of 439
Endolymphatic pressure, level of 498
Endolymphatic sac 308, 498, 501, 501f, 511, 513, 514, 517f, 519, 521, 539
and duct 13
enhancement 511
surgery 445
surgery 498, 500, 518
surgical techniques for 513
Endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt 513
Endonasal hybrid rhinoplasty 1741
Endoscopic endonasal appearance 674f
Endoscopic laser therapy 1481
Endoscopic paradigm 690, 691
component of 691
Endoscopic resection 696, 1428
Endoscopic sinus surgery 567f, 576, 612, 615, 626, 649, 702, 704f, 713, 733, 737
Endoscopic surgery 1136, 1139, 1145
partial 1126
techniques 1140
Endoscopic techniques 1277, 1498
Endoscopic tympanomeatal flap, disadvantages of 204
Endoscopic visualization 662, 828, 934
Endoscopy 629, 777, 835
hypopharyngeal 1554f
nasopharyngeal 1852
preoperative 1144
rigid 688
salivary 1799
sinonasal 565
transnasal 72
virtual 1496, 1497
Endosteal layer 663
Endosteum, cochlear 221, 223, 224f
Endothelial cell 216, 482
single layer of 1576
surface 327
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase 1919
Endotheliogenesis regulation 1919
Endotracheal intubation 800
Endotracheal tube 605, 780, 784f, 824, 924, 925, 1493, 1495, 1809
oral 1784
Endovascular intervention 727
Enophthalmos 1823
Enterobacter 531
Enterobacteriaceae 208
Enterovirus 354, 1563
Entropion 1601
Enzyme
cyclooxygenase 607
replacement therapy 1317, 1318
Eosinophilia 1419
syndrome 655
Eosinophilic mucin 606, 647
Eosinophils 1417
apoptosis, induction of 1420
cells 1417
count, peripheral 606
varying degrees of 1070
Ependymoma 1390
Epidermal growth factor 320, 1050, 1051, 1051f
receptor 10491051
downregulation 1274
phosphorylation 1051
Epidermal regeneration rate 1686
Epidermis 1593, 1683, 1684
layers of 1684f
Epidermitis 1037
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis 1238, 1239, 1243
Epidermoid
cyst 526, 540, 1561
tumors 526
Epidermolysis 1687
Epidural abscess 208, 217
diagnosis 217
treatment 218
Epiglottectomy
suprahyoid 1141
total 1141
Epiglottic cartilage 760
Epiglottic inversion 755, 760, 763
Epiglottic petiole 763
Epiglottis
laryngeal surface of 803
suprahyoid 1137
Epilepsy
myoclonic 307
neonatal 302
Epinephrine 638f, 716, 723, 1784, 1854
nebulized racemic 1477
soaked pledgets 929
subepithelial infusion of 933
Epiphora 737, 1024, 1398
Episodic ataxias, familial 476
Epistaxis 1421, 1423, 1828
anatomy 714
assessment of 716
management of 713, 727
recurrent 738, 1423
Epithelia, types of 620
Epithelial basal ductal cells 1189
Epithelial cells 83
independent transformation of 1087
types of 83
Epithelial dysplasia 1067, 1088
Epithelial incisions 965
Epithelial invasion theory 170
Epithelial membranes, loss of 441
Epithelial mesenchymal transition 1060
Epithelial microflap 968
Epithelial migration 123, 425
Epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma 1188
Epithelial rests 166
Epithelial sodium channel 602
Epithelial tumors, benign 1187b
Epithelioid melanocytes 1248
Epithelium 83, 126, 620, 887, 930
basal layer of 1059
human outer 482f
implantation of 425
inner 481, 483
metaplastic 97
olfactory 687, 744
outer 104, 481
respiratory 738f
types of 1416
Epitympanic disease 190
Epitympanic perforation 172
Epitympanic retraction 172
Epitympanum 189
anterior 172, 172f
posterior 171, 172f
Epley repositioning maneuver 456f
Epstein-Barr virus 676, 738, 739f, 1026, 1188, 1457, 1459, 1562
Epulis fissuratum 1068
Erb's point 1231
Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet 1690
Erosion, common area of 649
Erythema 615, 912, 1678, 1693
absence of 1350
postauricular 209
postprocedure 1693
Erythematous cellulitic neck mass 1565
Erythematous mucosa 735
Erythematous rash 1566
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 57, 330, 735, 898
Erythromycin 313
Erythroplakia 1088, 1089, 1089f, 1090f
areas of 1091
diagnoses of 1089
Escherichia coli 600
endotoxin 484
Esophageal clearance 755, 762
Esophageal coin 1535f
Esophageal dilation 945
Esophageal dismotility 1542
Esophageal foreign body 1534
management pathway 1535fc
Esophageal injury 1530, 1531
evaluate degree of 1532
Esophageal lacerations 1537
Esophageal lumen 782f
Esophageal motility 1533
Esophageal mucosa 774
Esophageal perforation 1537
Esophageal peristalsis 760
Esophageal phase dysphagia 770
Esophageal repair 1531
Esophageal spasm 779
Esophageal sphincter, lower 756, 779
Esophageal strictures 769, 1537
Esophageal wall 1533
mucosal damage 1536f
Esophageal web, proximal 784f
Esophagitis, eosinophilic 802, 1542, 1544
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy 793
Esophagography, routine barium 1533
Esophagoscopy 1096, 1104
flexible fiberoptic 1532, 1536
rigid 777, 1536, 1537
transnasal 777, 793, 939
Esophagram, videofluoroscopic 773, 773f
Esophagus 761, 1161, 1302, 1488f
balloon dilation of 945
button battery in 1536f
functional evaluation of 774
hypercontractile 774
require emergent endoscopic removal 1537
Estapedotomy 214
Esteem device 394, 394f
Esthesioneuroblastoma 747f
Esthetic borders 1941
Esthetic compromise 1914
Esthetic regions 1941
borders of 1958
Esthetic units 1941
Estlander flap 1974
Estrogen
supplemental 1693
therapy, short-term 1180
Etanercept 331
Ethacrynic acid 313
Ethambutol 1572
Ethanol 315, 488
Ethmoid 572
artery
ligation, endoscopic anterior 725f
right anterior 715f
bone 560, 599
bulla 565, 567, 574f, 585, 587, 588f, 596f
drains 587
lamella 577, 715
cavity 725
cell
infraorbital 589, 589f, 639
supraorbital 574f, 595, 596f
infundibulum 567, 585588
olfactory neuroblastoma 689f
roof 702, 703, 707, 725
sinus 567, 579, 587, 639f, 673, 697, 1405f
skull base 725
tumors 688
Ethmoidal bulla 640
Ethmoidal cells, frontal 594
Ethmoidectomy 692
anterior 725
Ethnic nose 1740
Ethylene diamine tetra-acetate 17
Etidronate 230
European Laryngeal Society 1009
cordectomy classification 1009
European Laryngological Society 1140
endoscopic cordectomy 1140t
endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy 1141t
European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 1037, 1126
Eustachian tube 67, 71t, 82, 103, 111, 136, 180, 404, 536, 542, 543, 707, 757, 1348
anatomy of 66
dilation, regulation of 68
dilatory dysfunction
functional 70
obstructive 70
dysfunction 63, 71, 82fc, 498, 1305, 1373
diagnosis of 72
etiologies of 70
management of 73
function 63, 70
left 71f, 75f
obstruction 1375
orifice 204f
physiologic functions of 111
structure 113
ventilate 90
Evoke esophageal atresia 1487
Ewald's laws 12
Excellent tumor control rates 1295
Excessive sodium, cellular influx of 340
Exocrine glands, dysfunction of 1416
Exophthalmos 1570, 1601
Exophytic mass 688f
Exostoses 60, 150, 1069
Extended spreader grafts 1730f, 1765, 1773
External anterior ethmoid artery ligation 726
complications of 726
External auditory canal 32, 88f, 187, 220, 229, 398, 419, 538, 863, 1329, 1355, 1552, 1575, 1796
cholesteatoma 59, 180
stages of 181t
stenosis 425, 1862
External auditory meatus 144, 1553f, 1595
External beam radiation therapy 812, 1156, 1294
External carotid
artery 714, 727, 1097, 1552
branches 397
system 1423
External ear 3, 32f, 54, 55
canal 37, 410, 1281, 1313, 1342, 1362
atresia 1342
cholesteatoma 59f
disease 59
stenosis 60f
complex 137
diseases of 54
furuncle 57
horizontally 238
infections 55
External jugular vein 1228f, 1253f, 1258f, 1618f
External nasal valve 598, 17691771
External skin 1984
and soft-tissue envelope 1794
Extracapsular extension 1041
presence of 1102
Extracellular fluid 1178
Extracellular matrix 622
components 1835
formation 304
loose 1586
protective 624
proteins 300, 304
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 1478
Extraesophageal reflux 826
disease 615
Extranodal extension 1114
presence of 1155
Extranodal natural killer 738f, 739f
Extraocular motor function 1830
Extraocular movement 1024, 1792
limitation 1823
Extrapyramidal system 951
Extrapyramidal tracts 951
Extrathyroid extension 1152
Extravascular giant cell 736f
Extravascular lesions 736
Extrinsic tongue muscle 1808
Ex-utero intrapartum treatment 1487
Eye
anatomical landmarks of 1637f
anomalies 1558
care 416
examination 1451
movements 1449
proptosis, mild left 1405f
Eyebrow
elevate 1666, 1668f
ptosis, paralytic 2005
Eyelids 1637, 1965
anatomy 1639f
appearance of 1626
blood flow to 1641f
deeper lacerations of 1794
defects, full-thickness 1965
droopy lateral lower 1668
fat compartments of 1640f
hemangioma, large lower 1924f
horizontal lacerations of 1793
injury, severe full-thickness 1793f
lacerations, skin closure of 1793
ligamentous structures of 1639f
paralyzed 2004
ptosis, right 1673f
repair of 1792
rhytids, diminish dynamic 1668
F
Face
embryology of 1836f
meningioma, posterior petrous 547, 548f
paralyzed 1994
risk injury, lateral 1798
skin muscles of 1551
Facelift 1608
surgery 1608, 1611
concept of 1673
Facial analysis 1595, 1743
Facial anatomy 1595, 1720
Facial angles and relationships 1597t
Facial artery
musculomucosal flap 1780, 1857
transverse 1798
Facial asymmetry 421, 1321, 1820
Facial autologous muscular injection 1679
Facial beauty 1595
Facial bite injuries 1801
Facial bones, tumor of 1023
Facial bruising 726
Facial cleft 1874
number 1875f, 1876f
Tessier classification of 1874f
transverse 1876f
treatment of 1877
Facial convexity angle 1597f
Facial cutaneous defects 1957b
Facial defects 1597
cutaneous 1968f
Facial deformity 648
syndromic 1915
Facial deterioration 407
Facial dimensions, premorbid 1831
Facial dysmorphogenesis, otomandibular 1864
Facial dysplasia
lateral 1430, 1864
necrotic 1864
Facial edema 726, 727
Facial esthetic regions 1941f
concept of 1942
Facial esthetic units 1597, 1599f
Facial features
prominent 1797
syndromic 1545
Facial fillers 1674t
nonsurgical 1673
Facial fracture 1448, 1450, 1805
complex 1830
multiple 1450
repair 1831
goal of 1806
Facial growth
and development 1859
postnatal 1859
Facial height and width 1595
Facial injury 1784
Facial lacerations, extensive 1786
Facial landmarks 1595
Facial length 1715
Facial lines
hyperfunctional 1664
paralyze hyperfunctional 1664
Facial motor cortex 2006
Facial muscles 1603, 1611, 1665f, 2006
activity, emotional 1994
irreversibly paralyzed 1995
paralyzed 1997
reinnervating paralyzed 1997
superficial 1611
Facial necrosis, intrauterine 1864
Facial nerve 96, 148, 150, 158f, 161, 162f, 190, 398, 410, 419, 534, 539, 539f, 542, 1371f, 1552, 1611, 1638, 1657, 1995, 1999f, 2006
branch function 1788f
branch of 38, 756, 1203f, 1628
cost of 531
course of 144
decompression surgery 416
dehiscent 255
dysfunction 1212
fibers 2006
frontal branch of 2001f
function 38, 1279
clinical 1799
preservation of 531
geniculate segment of 413
iatrogenic 415
impairment 547
injury 178, 1799, 1800
intratemporal lesions of 139
inventory of 212
labyrinthine segment of 416
leading 412
mastoid segment of 535
neuroma 549
nonparalyzed 2000
normal 193, 2002
paralysis 38, 184, 193, 212, 416, 422, 1570
paresis 141, 411
delayed 1784
part of 1372f
perigeniculate 421f
preservation of 1928f
protruding 233
repair 552
schwannoma 527, 1279f
intraparotid 1278f
left 1279f
segment of 412f, 527
skeletonized 1998
surgery 417
techniques 1997
transection 1800f
transposition 1999, 2000f
trunk 1815f
tympanic 163f
segment of 158f
upper branches of 1815f
vertical segment of 145f, 1998
Facial nucleus 2006
ipsilateral 1997
Facial numbness 524, 727, 1783
Facial pain 628, 727
Facial palsy 407, 408
current 410
diagnostic tests 410
etiology 407
topodiagnosis 407
treatment of 407, 426
Facial paralysis 38, 113, 208, 212, 214f, 415, 423, 474, 1302, 1771, 1996, 2002, 2003, 2006
causes of 1994
complete 1996
long-standing 1995
severity of 38
Facial paresis 407, 412
progressive 411f
Facial plastic
and reconstructive surgery 1583, 1585, 1653
procedures 1679
surgeon 1710, 1840, 1846
surgery 1664
Facial prominences 1836t
Facial proportions, principles of 1597
Facial reanimation 1994
goal of 1994
strategies, current 2006
Facial recess 6, 162, 190, 191f, 400, 401
opening 155
Facial retraining therapy 2007
Facial rhytids, correction of 1676
Facial scarring 726
Facial schwannoma 527, 528, 528f, 1276
Facial skeleton, properties of 1832
Facial skin excisions 1023f
Facial soft-tissue
injuries 1783
lacerations 1786
Facial symmetry 1800, 1888
grading system 407
Facial trauma 1783
Facial twist 1868f
Facial weakness 1799
Facioauriculovertebral malformation complex 1864
Facioauriculovertebral syndrome 1430
Fallopian canal 212, 419, 422
Fallot's tetralogy 1489
Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome 1240
Fanconi's anemia 1048
Fanning technique 1677f
Far-field wireless technology 377
Fascia 137
capsulopalpebral 1639, 1640
dense parotidomasseteric 1799
dissection of 1229
flap
occipital 1903f
raising temporoparietal 1902
masseteric 1614, 1619
parotidomasseteric 1603
placement of 153f
press 188, 188f
pre-tracheal 1149
removal of 151
Fascicles, myelinated 744
Fasciculus, medial longitudinal 14
Fasciitis, necrotizing 605
Fasciocutaneous flap 1979
Fat
abdominal 504
clumping 1680
grafting 1679
injection 1679
techniques 1680f
migration 1609
subcutaneous 1610, 1628
subplatysmal 1610
Fatigue 1184
Fatty acids, polyunsaturated 1188
Federal Caustic Poisons Act 1530
Federal Hazardous Substances Act 1530
Feeding
counseling 1440
difficulties 1431, 1474, 1485
disorders frequently 1548
monitoring 1440
normal 1474
problems 1544
impact of 1547
tube 1548
and nutrition 1981
Femoral circumflex artery, lateral 1986
Fenestra ovalis 16
Fenestrometer 514
Fetal development 566
Fever 193, 208, 209, 727, 1562
periodic 1308, 1460
Feyh-Kastenbauer retractor 1144
Fiber composition 1065
Fibril deposition 876
Fibrillation waveforms, amplitude of 1995
Fibroblast 83, 170, 220, 481, 1586
growth factor 320
receptor 2 1861
inhibitor 1400
Fibroelastic tarsal plates 1639
Fibrofatty tissue 1845
Fibrogenesis 1586
Fibroma 1068
excision 1069f
Fibromatosis, aggressive 1270
Fibroneocartilage, development of 1795
Fibro-osseous lesions 692
Fibrosarcoma 1091, 1265
development of 1265
Fibrosis 1138, 1795
and neobone formation 125
and resulting diplopia 1819
minimize risk of 1817
oral submucous 1088
radiation-induced 894, 903
transmembrane regulator 600
Fibrous connective tissue 708, 1600
Fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia 1068
differential diagnosis of 1068
Fibrous tissue 520, 1266
invasion, formation of 515
proliferation of 102
Fibrovascular blebs 1928
Fibula 1980
free flap 1988, 1989f
osteocutaneous free flap 1988
Fibular flap section 1980
Filiform papillae 1070
Filler injection techniques 1676
Filling radix and securing graft 1727f
Finasteride 1699
Fine-needle aspiration 1027, 1149, 1180, 1192
biopsy 1562
cytology 1160, 1563
First branchial cleft malformation 1551, 1553f
classifications of 1552t
Fissure, pterygomaxillary 1428
Fissured tongue 1070
Fistula 144, 193, 516
acquired perilymphatic 1383
congenital 1488
perilymphatic 1383
discharge 1552
formation 1538
perilymphatic 205, 211, 234, 464, 1383
persistent tracheocutaneous 846
projection zone of 1552
salivary 1210, 1799
test 1383
positive 186
tracheocutaneous 1488, 1490, 1525, 1529, 1532, 1537, 1549
treatment of 1553
Fitzpatrick scale, completion of 1693
Fixed supraglottic obstruction 1476
Flaccid paralysis 951
Flap
anterior 1855, 1897f
arc 1943
axial pattern 1942
design 1971, 1989
dissection stage 1161
distal border of 1950
edema, minimizes 1944
elevation 1724, 1843
interpolation 1969
necrosis 1623
plus skin grafts 1957
shape 1943
surgery 1444
upper margin of 1968f
vasculature 1974
Flat esophageal wall 1537
Flexible laryngoscopy 771f, 864f, 978
Flexible laryngovideo-stroboscopy 863
Floating mass transducer 387, 1344
Flonase 656, 1421
Floppy eyelid syndrome 1636
Fluid, nasal regurgitation of 1314
Fluocinolone 1065
Fluorescein
dye 1798
treponemal antibody-absorbed microhemagglutination assay 273
visualization of 709
Fluorine 967
Fluorodeoxyglucose 1105, 1223
Fluoroquinolones 613
Fluoroscopic examinations 1546
Fluoroscopy 764
Fluticasone 656, 1421
Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia 1076
Focal dystonias, adult-onset 953
Folic acid, lack of 1437
Follicle stimulating hormone 664
Follicular cell 1029
Follicular thyroid cancer 1222
Follicular unit 1696
extraction 1696
grafting 1696
Fontaine's sign 1289
Fontana-Masson stain 697
Food and Drug Administration 386, 396, 635, 1665
Footplate
floating 257
inferior half of 255f
posterior half of 244f
Foramen
cecum 1556
lacerum 533, 419
anterior 543
magnum 534
ovale 534, 1277f
palatine 638
rotundum 534, 590
spinosum 419, 534
Forearm, cross-sectional anatomy of 1985f
Forehead
bony surfaces of 1784
depression 1829
flaps 1969
mass formation 688
rhytids 1630
Foreign body 36, 59, 713, 1362, 1477, 1539, 1779
reaction 1653
sensation 872
supraglottic 1477
tracheal 1477
tracheobronchial 1537
Formaldehyde 748
Fossa
pterygopalatine 589f, 638, 1428
surgery, pterygomaxillary 692
tonsillar 1034, 1455
triangular 1606
Fossula fenestrae cochleae 480
Fourth pouch fistula 1554f
management of 1554
Fourth pouch malformations 1554
treatment of 1554
Fovea ethmoidalis abnormalities 577
Fractures
classification 1825
fragility 1180
high subcondylar 1815f
management, pediatric 1454
mandibular body 1813
naso-orbitoethmoid 1453, 1825
noncomminuted
angle 1813
mandible 1812
symphyseal 1812
orbital blowout 1452
parasymphyseal 1808, 1813
posterior table 1828
subcondylar 1816
trap-door 1452
types of 419, 1451t
zygomaticofacial 1818
Framycetin 488
Franceschetti-Klein syndrome 1865
Frankfort horizontal plane 1605f
Frazier tips 717
Free flaps 1980t, 1981
Free tissue transfer 781, 1966, 1979, 1988
failure, incidence of 1981
reconstruction 1979
success of 1982
Frenzel-assisted Dix-Hallpike test 442
Fresh frozen plasma 718, 835
Frey's syndrome 1210, 1210f, 1937
Frontal bone 1655
deformity 1656, 1656f
Frontal bullar cell 595, 596f
Frontal cell 587
Frontal recess 586, 587
injury 1828, 1829
polyposis 641
Frontal sinus 572, 579, 593, 593, 673, 680, 682, 707, 735, 1828f
aplasia 1416
dissection of 640
fracture 1808, 1825, 1827, 1828
concurrent 1831
management of 1828
repair 1829
injury 1828
ostium 574f
recess 585
Frontalis muscle 1599, 1629, 1631, 1632, 1670, 1670f, 1977
interdigitates 1599
lateral portion of 1670
Frontozygomatic suture 1451, 1822
Fryns syndrome 1840
Full-thickness skin graft 1933, 1935, 1935f, 1957
defect of nasal tip 1936f
donor sites 1936f
Functional muscle
transfer of 2002, 2007
units 2002
Functional voice disorders 984, 985, 985t-987t, 993
etiologies of 990
treatment of 991
Fundamental frequency, control of 852
Fundoplication
complete 1548
laparoscopic 1547
Fungal
antigen exposures 606
disease 1477
hyphae 606
infection, invasive 1779
inflammation, independent 606
laryngitis 870
otitis externa 56
rhinosinusitis 646
chronic invasive 646
noninvasive 646t
sinus disease, form of 605
sinusitis 740
chronic granulomatous invasive 741
massive allergic 606f
nonallergic eosinophilic 647
Fungi 646, 870
presence of 875
Fungus, role of 635
Furlow double Z-plasty 1439
Furlow palatoplasty 18551857
Furlow technique 1444
Furosemide 313
Furstenberg test 1394
Fused malleus-incus complex 1344
Fusobacterium 613, 1800
necrophorum 1457
G
Gabaergic drugs 432
Gabapentin 433
Gadolinium 144, 214f
administration 525
enhancement 545f, 552f, 1576
Gadopentetate dimeglumine 65
Galea 1629
aponeurosis 1791
capitis 1977
Gallium-67 bone scanning 1076
Ganglia, vestibular 467
Ganglion
cells 26
geniculate 534, 535, 536, 540
left geniculate 1279f
pterygopalatine 38
trigeminal 534
Gardner syndrome 1265
Gas exchange 63, 65, 1371, 1467
Gasserian ganglion 534
Gastric
bypass surgery 71
mucosa, heterotopic 879
reflux contains acid 879
wall 1533
Gastritis 641
Gastroesophageal reflux 784, 879, 915, 1349
disease 789, 790, 793, 802, 812, 870, 879, 879t, 933, 1314, 1406, 1484, 1494, 1541, 1542
diagnosis of 924, 1544
management 1544
symptoms 1544
Gastrointestinal tract 874
Gastroparesis, risk for 770
Gastropharyngeal reflux disease 813, 814
Gastrostomy 1292, 1548
percutaneous endoscopic 1142
tube 1981
placement of 1138
Gelfoam 515, 720
packing 517
small pledges of 163
soaked 164, 516
Gene
amplification 1050
group of 303
isolation, techniques for 310
mitochondrial 306, 307t
therapy 268, 444
goal of 268
Genetic
factors 1239, 1359
heterogeneity 301
medicine 292
preprogrammed theory 1859
syndromes 1434
testing 263, 279
therapy, technology of 321
Geniculate fossa facial nerve schwannomas 1278
Genital problems 1316
Gentamicin 312, 315, 321, 488, 489, 499, 511, 512, 516
continuous perfusion of 500
injection of 499
intratympanic
injection 447
therapy 446
iron complex, formation of 320
soaked gelfoam 520
Gentatoxin 315
Geographic tongue 1069
George washington crile 1226
Germ cell tumor 664
malignant 536
Germline malformations 1400
Giant cell 742f
granuloma 1073
Langhans type 872
multinucleated 738f, 1070
tumor 556
Gigli saw 163
Gilles de La Tourette syndrome 958
Gilles initial monobloc surgery 1859
Gingival enlargement, drug induced 1065, 1066f
Gingival growth, hyperplastic 1065
Gingivitis, desquamative 1089
Glabella 1595
Glabellar rhytids 1631
Glands
hyperplasia of 621
intraepithelial 600
sebaceous 1043, 1684
Glandular development 622
Glandular neoplasms 57
Glass ionomer cement 388, 394
Glaucoma 511
Glenoid fossa 419, 1813
Glial-derived neurotrophic factor 320
Gliomas 1284, 1395, 1400, 1416, 1417
extranasal 1395
intranasal 1395
Globe injury 1794
Glomangiopericytoma 1267f
Glomus jugulare 61f, 88, 1288, 1289
Glomus jugulotympanicum 427
Glomus tympanicum 1288
small right 1294s
tumor, right 1294f
Glomus vagale 1288
tumor, right 1293f
typical of 1293f
Glossectomy
partial 1100, 1101f
subtotal 1101f
transoral partial 1099f
Glossopharyngeal nerve 542, 757, 1552
injury, symptoms of 1456
lies 1455
Glossoptosis 1477, 1542, 1548, 1866
Glottal closure 763
Glottal gap 986
Glottal insufficiency 917
Glottic cancer 857, 1005, 1140
Glottic carcinoma 1008, 1012
early stage 803
pathological behavior of 1006
Glottic lesions 1003, 1505
Glottic leukoplakia 945
Glottic malignancies 1015
Glottic scarring 1477
Glottic stenosis 805, 836
imaging studies 805
physical examination 805
pulmonary function test 805
Glottic synechiae 1505
Glottic web 934, 998, 1479, 1522
congenital 1480
Glottis 849, 849f, 1137
posterior 812
premalignant disease of 1006
Glucocorticoids 1421
intravenous 1420
medications, systemic 749
Glucose transporter 1036
finding of 1919
Glue ear 80
Glutamate antagonists 320
Glutathione 315, 319
depiction of 318
oxidized 319
S transferase 315, 1084, 1085
Glycerol trinitrate 779
Glycolic acid 1688
Glycopyrrolate
bromide 1578
oral 1547
Glycosaminoglycans 1317
Gnathion 1596
Goblet cell 600
hyperplasia 624, 1417
Goldenhar syndrome 1343, 1430, 1864
Goldman displacer 1760
Golgi complex 483
Goode's method 1730
Gordon-Baker formula 1688
Gordon-Baker phenol peel 1688
Gorham-Stout syndrome 536
Gorlin syndrome 1238, 1239
G-protein-coupled receptors 1050
Gracilis muscle 2003
Gradenigo syndrome 211
Graft
dissection 1707
interpositional 1780, 1780f
placement 1708
preparation 1707
resorption 1938
Gramicidin 488
Granular cell tumor 1091
Granulation tissue 94, 97, 117, 121, 122, 125, 126f, 128, 144, 152, 154, 171, 196f-198f, 211, 212, 217, 819, 1364, 1371
enveloping stapes 198f
formation 97, 905, 1938, 1939
mass of 161
obstruction 203
presence of 198
suprastomal 824
Granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor 740
macrophage colony stimulating factor 1054
Granuloma 742f, 889, 912, 927, 928, 979, 1679
eosinophilic 1570
noncaseating 738f, 1567
peri-abutment 1343
presence of 872
pyogenic 1066, 1067f
right vocal process 890f
suprastomal 846
Granulomatosis 735, 823, 873
eosinophilic 1416, 1417,
Granulomatous disease 799
Granulosum 1585
Great auricular nerve 1206, 1618f, 1622
Great vessels 422
congenital diseases of 1302
Greater palatine
artery 714
canal 723
foramen 1854
Greatest wound closure
tension 1954f
vector of 1943
Greenstick fracture 1433
true 1452
Griesinger's sign 217
Grommet tympanostomy 108
Group beta-hemolytic streptococcus 1457, 1458
Growth
perilymphatic 1194
perineural 1212
rebound 1923
Gufoni maneuver 458, 460f
Guinea pig 310, 315, 321, 322, 404
cochlea, second turn of 9f
group of 322
ossicles of 230
spiral modiolar vein 327f
Gunshot
injuries 1789
wounds 1790
Gutzmann's A-I test 1443
H
Haemophilus influenzae 84, 111, 208, 287, 603, 623, 824, 869, 1405, 1462, 1521
endotoxin 484
nontypable 1349, 1405
type B 869
vaccination 612
Hair bundles 1383
Hair cell 3, 266, 340, 429
cilium 322f
cochlear 267
damage 487
external 9f, 322
injury, mechanisms of 319f
isolated in cultures 320
loss 12f, 18f, 341
missing 199
regeneration 268, 320
Hair follicles 1903f
loss of 1043
superiorly 1598
Hair loss
frontotemporal 1697
Ludwig type of 1697
Hair restoration 1696, 1702
Hair transplantation, surgical 1706f, 1711
Hairline
anterior 1705, 1941
frontal 1632
irregularities 1634
Hairy leukoplakia 1088
Haller's cells 604
Hallucinations, olfactory 745
Halo sign 702
Hampers voice performance 968
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease 1570
Hanging alae 1764
Harbor bacterial biofilms 1409
Hard palate
necrosis 1078
posterolateral 1850
Hard tissues, diseases of 1071
Harmonic curved shears 1165, 1167
Hartman's forceps 1534
Harvesting cartilage 1901, 1902f
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 873
Head and neck
acquired malignancies 1567
cancer 776, 1048
immunology of 1053
surgical management of 1023
vasic biology of 1048
disease and surgery 1021
examination 895
inflammatory lesions of 1563
lesions 1563t
congenital 800
neurogenic tumors of 1274
oncologic surgery 690
paragangliomas 1295t
radio-oncology 1035
reconstruction, history of 1979
skin cancer of 1237
soft tissue sarcoma 1266
squamous cell carcinoma 1031, 1049t, 1060, 1062, 1062t
surgery, transoral endoscopic 1117
tumors 1494
vascular lesions of 1551
Head impulse test 474, 477
Head injury 424
Head shake nystagmus 442
Head trauma 393, 746, 1383
Head turn and chin tuck 778
Headache 38, 193, 215, 217, 402, 524, 628, 669, 698, 727, 1829
occipital 215
tension 1664
Hearing
aids 229, 264, 350, 363, 364f, 365, 367, 368, 371, 372, 374, 374f, 380, 381, 1313, 1330
acoustics 363
batteries 366f
benefit 384
candidacy 380
channel 372
computer rendering of 364f
conventional 390, 395
fitting forum 381
form and function 363
implantable 265, 395, 1342
input-output function for 371f
microelectronic package 365f
placement of 368
prescription 381
processor 365
semi-implantable 386, 387
signal processing 370
styles 366
verification of 381
conservation 342
program 342
deficiency 345
devices, implantable 1302
evaluation 34, 144
help-seeking behavior 380
impairment 44, 426
management of 265
mitochondrial nonsyndromic 307t
prevention of 265
syndromic 307t
X-linked nonsyndromic 297, 300t
affects 261
age-related 339
autoimmune 329
central 394
classification of 272
complete 213
congenital 263
diagnostic of 310
effects of 636
fluctuating 441f
hereditary 263, 292, 300, 306
high-frequency 327
history of 1383
mild 49f
mitochondrial 308
mixed 130, 389f, 394, 440f, 1321
moderate-to-severe 393
nonsyndromic 276, 297
pediatric 1326, 1330f
penetrance of 307t
perceptive 1329
phenotype of 308
postlingual 392
progressive 25f, 306
recurrent conductive 26
rehabilitation of 261
risk of 511
sudden 470
sympathetic 424
syndromic 274, 295t
temporary 34
transient 34
traumatic 258f
types of 34
X-linked nonsyndromic 278f
organs of 3
preservation 265, 542
long-term 530
rates 504t, 530
surgeries 547
prosthesis 1329
researchers 340
residual 139, 267, 396
restoration 137
screening 1327
speech and language test 1440
status 133
symmetric 34
system 3
peripheral 349
test 500, 1440
Heart
congenital diseases of 1302
disease 475
failure, congestive 770
rhythm 1467
Heartbeat 427
Heat carrying capacity 802
Heat shock protein 328
Helical rim 1953
Helical tomotherapy 1032
Helicobacter pylori 879, 1568
Helicotrema 7
Heliox 1477
Helium-neon 966
beam 929
laser 967
Helix-lobule curve, types of 1883f
Helmet therapy 1866f
cervicofacial 1480
congenital 1558
control growth of 1923
craniofacial 1558
diagnosis of 1558
first line treatment of 1559
intranasal 1400
large cervicofacial 1558
noninvasive 1434
noninvoluting congenital 1558
subglottic 1477, 1480
types of 1923
Hemangiopericytoma 1270
sinonasal 1267f
Hematoencephalic barrier 1318
Hematologic diseases 1428
Hematology 1918
Hematoma 1210, 1234, 1592, 1622, 1634, 1916f
auricular 58
deeper 1788
forehead 1828
forms 1761
groin 727
retrobulbar 1650, 1818
subdural 400
substantial retrobulbar 1449
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 1086
complement 1318
Hematoxylin-eosin 1225
Hematuria 1421
Hemianopsia, bitemporal 663
Hemicoronal incision 1657
Hemifacial microsomia 1430, 1433, 1433f, 1661, 1861f, 1864, 1876, 1882, 1892f, 1904, 1906
microform presentation of 1864
sign of 1895
Hemifacial spasm 536, 1664
Hemiglossectomy defect 1986f
Hemignathia syndrome 1864
Hemilaryngectomy, vertical 1126
Hemimandibulectomy 1099f
Hemiplegia, hypoglossal 958
Hemitransfixion 1744
incision 1724
Hemodilution agents 358
Hemoglobin 64
chromophore of 1929
Hemolytic disease 273
Hemolytic streptococci 1405
Hemoptysis 1538
Hemorrhage 883, 1234, 1525
controlling 716
degree of 717
large volume 1783
life-threatening 419
neonatal intracranial 47
postoperative 1857
recurrent 884
severe 1576
Hemorrhagic complication 179
Hemorrhagic telangiectasia, hereditary 713, 1424
Hemostasis 665, 1646
adequate 1646
conservative methods of 1784
intraoperative 1857
meticulous bipolar 1622
temporary 1791
Hemotympanum 93, 419
idiopathic 85, 97
Hensen cells 8
Heparin 716
Hepatocyte growth factor 1053
Heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine 1405
Heroin 354
Herpes infections 1680
Herpes simplex 55
outbreaks, history of 1687
virus 21, 55, 286, 354, 467, 869
concept of 412
Herpes zoster
infections 408
oticus 55, 285, 286
clinical diagnosis of 286
virus 413
Herpetic ear infection 55f
Herpetic flares 1693
Herpetic infections 55
Herpetic ulcers, history of 1693
Heterozygosity, loss of 1049
Heterozygotes 304
Hiatus semilunaris 567, 570f, 585, 586
High-frequency speech 376
audibility of 375
High-low-high technique 1728
Hinge flap 1956
cutaneous 1956
Hinge mucosal flap, ipsilateral 1956
Hip, avascular necrosis of 641
Hiperostosis 220
Hirschsprung's disease 294
Histamine receptors 445
Histoplasma 870
Hoarseness 854, 969f, 1071, 1324, 1484, 1496
treatment of 911
Hodgkin's disease 1567
Hodgkin's lymphoma, cytologic analysis of 1568f
Holistic voice therapy 992
Holoprosencephaly 1397, 1874
spectrum 1396
Hormone
luteinizing 664
sensitive 1076
synthesis 1683
Horner's syndrome 1281, 1289, 1291
ipsilateral 1569
Hot potato voice 834
Hough-Cadogan pedal 390
House-Brackmann grading system 407
Human cytomegalovirus 1564
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 1050
Human gene nomenclature committee 224
Human genome project 293
Human herpes virus-8 1568
Human histopathology studies 124
Human immunodeficiency virus 286, 1562, 1564, 1575
infection 1239
Human leukocyte antigen 1359
Human olfactory mucosa 744f
Human otopathology, role of 17, 18
Human papillomavirus 674, 675, 928, 1003, 1026, 1048, 10561058, 1058f, 1059, 1084, 1112, 1115t, 1116t, 1220, 1122, 1239, 1482
analysis 676
high-risk 1083
infection, prevalence of 1087
life cycle of 1057f
negative 1058, 1114
positive 1058, 1114
role of 1122
Human T-cell leukemia virus 1568
Human temporal bone 17, 102, 103f, 121f, 123, 195, 328f
Human thrombin 720
Human tympanic membrane 103f
Human upper airway, functional design of 837
Human vacuum cleaner 1534
Humidification 1524, 1527
Humidity 130
Hump resection 1763
Humpectomy, cartilaginous 1753f
Hungarian test sentence 1444f
Hunter syndrome 1318
Huntington chorea 433
Huntington disease 956
Hurler syndrome 1318
Hurthle cell neoplasm 1150
Hutchinson's triad 287
Hyaline cartilages 1511
Hyaluronic acid 894, 1674, 1676b, 1767
derivatives 940
family of 1674
filler 2005
nonanimal stabilized 1675
Hyams grading system 697t
Hybrid cochlear implants 267
Hybridization techniques 1248
Hydration, intravenous 1688
Hydraulic effect 5
Hydrocarbons 1085
Hydrocephalus 529, 1395
evaluation of 1872
Hydrochloric acid, concentration 1531
Hydrocortisone 488
Hydrops 427
cochlear 441f
ex vacuo theory 65, 66, 1360
idiopathic endolymphatic 1385
tympanic 80
Hydroquinone 1686
Hydrotubotympanum 80
Hydroxide 230
Hydroxyapatite 163, 220, 230
Hydroxyzine 1692
Hyoepiglottic ligament 760
Hyoglossus 757
Hyoid
bone
horseshoe-shaped 759
position of 1612
excursion, anterior 755, 759
muscle strength 778
Hyolaryngeal complex 761, 763, 783
Hyperacusis 506
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy 358, 1817
Hyperbilirubinemia 316
Hypercalcemia 875, 1184
Hypercalcemic crisis 1179
Hypercalciuria 875
Hypercellular proliferation 698
Hyperesthesia 1174
Hyperfractionation 1096
Hyperfunction
adducted 989
laryngeal 984
nonadducted 989
Hyperfunctional disorders 952
Hyperglycemia 614, 1179
iatrogenic 641
Hyperhidrosis 1664
Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome 1460
Hyperkeratosis 1003
various degrees of 1088
Hyperkeratotic border 1070
Hyperkinetic disorders 774
Hypermethylation 1058
Hypernasality 1323, 1848, 1850
Hyperosmolar therapy, use of 402
Hyperostosis, skeletal 783
Hyperparathyroidism 1177, 1179, 1182, 1184
asymptomatic 1180b
primary 1180
hypercalcemic 1179
secondary 1179
surgical management of 1180
Hyperpigmentation
postinflammatory 1693
temporary 1975
Hyperplasia
basal 96
four-gland 1179
lymphoid 1477
palatal papillary 1065, 1065f
polypoid 886
reactive inflammatory 1068
seromucinous gland 1417
Hyperplastic candidiasis, chronic 1091
Hypersecretion, mucous 624
Hypersomnolence 838, 1923
Hypertelorism 1396, 1877
correction of 1879f
milder cases of 1879
moderate-to-severe cases of 1878
orbital 1862
Hypertension 475, 713
idiopathic intracranial 702, 710
Hyperthyroidism, myopathy of 959
Hypertrophic lesions 1929
Hypertrophic scar 1623, 1791, 1968f
history of 1783
Hypertrophy 1586
tonsillar 1466f, 1542, 1547, 1548
Hyperuricemia 57
Hypervascular glomus vagale tumor 1293f
Hypervascular mass, large 1293f
Hyperviscosity syndrome 354
Hypesthesia 1658
Hypocalcemia, chronic 1153
Hypofunction, unilateral vestibular 447
Hypofunctional disorders 952, 958
management 960
Hypoglobus 1823
Hypoglossal nerve 542, 1097, 1552, 1999f, 2000f
schwannomas 1281
splitting 1999f
Hypoglycemia 1390, 1576
Hypogonadism, hypogonadotropic 746
Hypointense 526
filling defect 526
signal 626
Hypomagnesemia 880
Hypoparathyroidism 1171
Hypopharyngeal cancer 1120, 1126, 1128t, 1130t, 1142
advanced 1129
biopsy of 1125
distribution of 1122t
Hypopharyngeal carcinoma 1123, 1125f
advanced stage 1127t
natural history of 1122b
symptoms of 1125t
Hypopharyngeal residue, evidence of 1545
Hypopharyngectomy, transoral 1145
Hypopharyngoplasty 961
Hypopharynx 1026, 1121, 1137, 1220, 1866, 1984
anatomy of 1121f
cancer 1120, 1136
development of 1122
carcinoma 1122
lymphatic drainage of 1122f
subsites of 1137t
Hypopituitary function 1874
Hypoplasia 1489, 1882
cochlear 1316, 1333, 1334, 1335f
complete 1882
incomplete 1489
middle third of auricle 1882
midfacial 1320f, 1321, 1861
muscular 126
segmental 1489
superior third of auricle 1882
tracheal 1489
Hypopnea index 838
Hyposmia 745
Hypotelorism 1432
Hypotension 1576, 1923
orthostatic 1071
Hypothesis 452
Hypothyroidism, myopathy of 959
Hypotympanic air cells 404
Hypotympanum 191
Hypoventilation syndrome, central 1521
Hypoxia 1061, 1586
delivery, peripartum 316
inhibits 1586
modification 1035
I
Ibandronate 230, 1079
Ibuprofen 313, 1352
Iliac crest 1980
Iliac spine, anterior superior 1986
Immune deficiency
secondary 1302
selective 122
Immunity 622
Immunoglobulin 81
A 601
E 647
intravenous 332
presence of 877
Immunohistochemical analyses 1266
Immunohistochemical staining 675, 696, 1225
Immunosuppression 1054, 1088, 1240, 1783
cessation of 1086
Immunosuppressive cytokines, production of 1055
Immunotherapy 626, 650
adjuvant 1252
Impaired immune system 1234
Implantation
bilateral 401
procedure 394
technique 1344
Incision 1227, 1591
bilateral 1630
superior pole of 147
Incisura auris 148
Incudostapedial joint 157, 242f, 249f, 424
capsule 390
Incus 251f
dislocation of 424
interposition ossiculoplasty 1377
long process of 1371f
process of 389f
resorptive osteitis of 26
Indomethacin 313
Infantile hemangioma 1575, 1918, 1919
growth 1919
Infection 82fc, 184, 185, 193, 216, 623, 1623, 1658
chronic 624
complex 125
intracranial 178
life-threatening 425
perioperative 1893
risk of 1801
severe sinopulmonary 602
signs of 80
Infectious disease 33, 118, 1572
Inferior turbinate 737, 1404, 1719
flap 709
hypertrophy 1771
reduction 1470
Inflammation 674
amount of 742
area of 884
autoimmune 827
causes of 623
chronic 96, 674
immune-mediated 327f
oropharyngeal 1566
persistent 103
result of 621
signs of 36, 1351f
Inflammatory cells 84, 199
chemotaxis 607
influx of 622
mixture of 1586
Inflammatory disease 75, 413, 713, 1572
Inflammatory disorders 835
Inflammatory mucocutaneous disease, immune-mediated 1066
Infliximab 332, 333
blocks, intravenous infusion of 874
Influenza 118
virus 601, 1563
Infrahyoid 1100
epiglottis 1137
Infralabyrinthine 539f, 541, 542
approach 536, 538
Infraorbital cells, presence of 588
Infraorbital fissure 1822
Infraorbital foramen 1821, 1822
Infraorbital nerve 1785, 1822
injury 1818
paresthesia 1818
Infraorbital rim 1808
bilateral 1822
fracture 1821
generates 1609
Infratemporal fossa 553f, 588
approach 536, 538
surgery 692
Injection techniques, office-based 940
Injury 801
avulsion type of 1791
extent of 1784
iatrogenic 704f, 952
inhalation 835, 1477, 1791
intraoral 1797
irreversible cochlear 313
life-threatening 1831, 1832
mechanism 1809
nonaccidental 1453
ocular 1818
parenchymal 1798, 1799
penetrating 420
sports related 802
temporal lobe 425
types of 420
Innate immunity 622, 1053, 1360
component of 622
Inner canthus 1242
Inner circular fibrous layer 104
Inner ear 11, 132, 189, 198, 199, 213, 214, 265, 266, 289f, 327f, 386, 451f, 487
chemical perfusion 498
concussion 354
damage 339
disease 202, 328f
granulomatous 328
immunomediated 326
epithelium, discontinuous 483f
erosion 184
fistulas 202, 203
infection of 233
inflammation 213
malformation 214, 1333
mice 306
perfusion 498, 499
proteins 329
structures 265, 506
tissues 213
trauma 193
Inner epithelial layer facing scala tympani 483f
Inner hair cells 10f
severe loss of 21
Insomnia 641
Inspired oxygen, fraction of 1012
Insulin syringe 148
Intensive care unit 870, 1872
Interarytenoid adhesions 1505, 1506f
Intercellular communication 300
Interferon 1059, 1248
Intermaxillary fixation screws 1810, 1810f
Internal auditory canal 96, 178, 227, 404, 413f, 444, 502f, 504, 505f, 525528, 530, 534536, 542, 1285f, 1334, 1338, 1339
narrow 1340, 1340f
Internal carotid artery 66, 533, 534, 535f, 536, 542, 543, 550f, 551, 551f, 553f, 663, 714, 727, 1291
course of 691
encasement of 1025
injury 670
right petrous 535f
system 1423
Internal fixation 1810, 1860
Internal jugular nodes, ipsilateral 1112
Internal jugular vein 179, 1097, 1181, 1205f, 1231f, 1275f, 1293f
Internal maxillary artery 589, 714, 727
ligation of 723
Internal nasal valve 598, 1719, 1720, 17691771, 1773
Internal valve angle 1769
International Cancer Control 1266
International Classification of Diseases 1082
International Classification of Headache Disorders 476, 1385
International Headache Society 612, 1385
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 1310
Interpolated flap, arch type of 1947
Intersinus air cell 594f
Intersinus septum 590
removal of 667
Interstitial brachytherapy, high-dose 1104
Intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma, right-sided 52f
Intracellular antioxidant system 319f
Intracranial abscess 193, 209
Intracranial complications 184, 214, 1379
Intracranial extension 694, 1279
risk of 1396
Intractable epistaxis 727, 727b
arterial embolization for 726, 727t
management of 722, 723
Intraepithelial adhesion molecules 1067
Intraepithelial bullae, formation of 1067
Intralaryngeal muscles 850
anatomy of 850f
function of 850f
role of 851t
Intralesional kenalog injections 1679
Intralesional therapy 1248
Intranasal anatomy 565, 578, 583
Intranasal corticosteroids 731, 1409
Intranasal polyps, bulk of 656
Intranasal surgical techniques 637
Intraocular injury 1790
Intraoral technique 1660
Intrathecal fluorescein, utilization of 709
Intratympanic gentamicin 512, 520
perfusion 500t
therapy 447, 511
Intravascular injection 1679
less risk of 1678
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles 1120, 1123
Intubation
duration of 1494
granuloma 1503, 1505f
history of 1496
injury 894
intracranial 1805
oral 1830
technique 1494
Inverted papilloma 673, 679, 680, 1417, 1424
pathophysiology 673
radiation therapy 683
radiologic diagnosis 676
staging systems 680t
surgical management 678
Iodine 312, 313, 315, 1171
Iodoform 313
Ipriflavone 230
Irradiation cavities 1095
Irritable larynx 796
syndrome 909, 915
Ischemia 1788
Island flap 1941, 1949, 1969, 1972
Isotretinoin 1104
Isthmus 197
Itching 54
Itraconazole 635
J
Jackhammer esophagus 774
Jacobsen's nerve 70
Janus kinase 1051
Jaw
abnormal 961
cysts of 1071
osteonecrosis of 1079, 1080f
pain 727
Jejunostomy 1548
Jet ventilation 827
Joint
arthritis, cricothyroid 873
Committee on Infant Hearing 271
diseases of 1302
incudomallear 158f, 159f
knife 249f
surfaces 390
Jostle sign 896f
Jugular bulb 144, 161, 177, 422, 501, 535, 539, 539f, 1288, 1292, 1294f
Jugular foramen 534, 547
right 1280f, 1290f
schwannomas 1279, 1280f
Jugular vein 419, 542, 543, 1158, 1206, 1983
Jugulotympanic paraganglioma 1294t, 1295
surgical resection of 1292
Juxtaoral organ of Chievitz 1091
K
Kadish staging system 697t
Kallikrein inhibitor 835
Kallman's syndrome 746, 747f, 748f, 1840
Kanamycin 313
A 312
B 312
Kantor-Berci laryngoscope 925f
Kaplan-Meier estimates 1034, 1040f
Kaposi's sarcoma 1091, 1265, 1270
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma 1922, 1930, 1930f
Karapandzic flap 1974
Kartagener's syndrome 604, 627, 1407, 1416, 1417
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome 1930
Kawasaki's disease 1302, 1562, 1566
Kearns-Sayre syndrome 307
Keloid 57
Keratin
debris 1395
islands 152
Keratinocyte
deoxyribonucleic acid 1238
suprabasal 1683
Keratitis, nonsyphilitic interstitial 331
Keratoacanthoma 1077, 1078f, 1091, 1247
Keratocysts, odontogenic 1073
Keratolysis 1687
Keratoma 184
Keratosis 54, 979, 1694
obturans 59
palatal 1088
seborrheic 54f
visible 1694
Kernig's sign 214
Ketorolac tromethamine 656
Khitahar's team 514
Kidney
disease 1783
failure 316, 713
stones, formation of 1178
Kiesselbach's area 1425
Kiesselbach's plexus 1428
anatomy of 714f
ectasia 1425f
Killian incision 1724
Kinase pathway 1049
Kinocilium 12
Kissing tonsils, depiction of 1466f
Klebsiella 869
oxytoca 56
pneumoniae 600
Kleeblattschadel deformity 1862
Klinefelter's syndrome 1568
Koch's postulates 354
Köerner's flap 165
L
Labbe's vein 542, 543
Labial artery, upper 1423
Labyrinth 6, 8f, 514, 520
bone of 515
chemical ablation of 520
ischemic necrosis of 475
Labyrinthectomy 511
physical 512
postauricular 447
transmeatal 498, 505, 507f
transtympanic pharmacologic 489
Labyrinthine 413, 413f, 1278
aplasia, complete 1334
fistula 184, 186, 193, 208, 211, 469
function, loss of 494
injury 514
membrane rupture 354, 355
segment 412, 413
Labyrinthitis 198, 208, 213, 214f, 464, 1384
acute 467
bacterial 284, 1384
diagnosis of 214
suppurative 213, 354, 1384
Lacrimal canalicular injury 1797
Lacrimal crest
anterior 1822
posterior 1822
Lacrimal drainage, obstruction of 1024
Lacrimal fossa 1822
Lacrimal glands 333
Lacrimal system 688
Lactate dehydrogenase, elevated 1244
Lactic acidosis 307
Lactobacillus acidophilus 489
Lagophthalmos, postoperative 1645
Lambdoid synostosis 1862
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome 952, 959, 1666
Lamella principle 577, 596
Lamina papyracea 578, 582, 585, 640, 648f, 673, 725
Lamina propria 83, 85, 600, 620, 883, 889, 996, 1006, 1511
deep 996
repair of 889
superficial 883, 968, 996
layer of 849
Lancefield groups 1457
Lange-Nielsen syndrome 263, 295, 302
Langerhans cell 170, 1070, 1072f
disease 1070
histiocytosis 61, 536, 1070, 1570, 1570f
mandibular 1072f
Lansoprazole 1547
Lars Lundman's laboratory 490
Laryngeal advanced retractor system 1144
Laryngeal amyloidosis 876
treatment of 876
Laryngeal anatomy 1475
Laryngeal cancer 1005
early staged 1136f
endoscopic resection of 1139
Laryngeal carcinomas, advanced stage 1027
Laryngeal cartilage
calcification of 1493
subglottic 934
Laryngeal clefts 1323, 1542, 1545, 1548
classification 1488f
Laryngeal closure 1549
Laryngeal defects, aspirations for 1484
Laryngeal disease, benign 918
Laryngeal forceps 1144
Laryngeal formation 996
Laryngeal framework surgery 961
description of 900
Laryngeal function 869, 1496
respiratory 960
studies 858
Laryngeal irritants, avoidance of 1513
Laryngeal laser surgery, in-office 937
Laryngeal lesions, benign 934
Laryngeal malignancies 812
Laryngeal manifestations 874, 875
Laryngeal massage 909
Laryngeal muscles, neural control of 851
Laryngeal nerve 1178
recurrent 781, 856, 914, 996, 1120, 1152, 1161, 1166
Laryngeal obstruction 796
Laryngeal preservation rate 1018
Laryngeal reinnervation 903
Laryngeal signs 872
Laryngeal sites 1497f
Laryngeal somatosensory detection 961
Laryngeal stenosis, etiology of 823
Laryngeal subsites 1137f
Laryngeal surgery 805
conservation of 1006, 1010, 1013
open 1142
Laryngeal trauma, external 812
Laryngeal tremor 955
Laryngeal vestibular closure 755, 760, 763
Laryngeal webs 799, 1323
acquired 934
congenital 1487f
Laryngectomy
conservation partial 1012
horizontal partial 1138, 1139
open partial 1127
supracricoid 1126, 1139
partial 1015
supraglottic 876, 1126, 1144
transoral partial 976
vertical partial 1014
Laryngitis, chronic 870
Laryngocele 1477, 1479
Laryngofissure 830, 830f, 876, 1013
Laryngohypopharyngeal endoscope 1225
Laryngological procedures, office-based 937, 938
Laryngology 968
lasers in 964
stems 923
Laryngomalacia 970, 1307, 1477, 1478, 1479f, 1484, 1485f, 1542, 1544, 1545, 1548, 1866
classifications of 970
feeding symptoms of 1542
signal 1476
symptom of 1484
Laryngopharyngeal mechanosensitivity 1546
Laryngopharyngeal reflux 789, 793, 826, 855, 857, 870, 879, 879t, 880t, 927, 955, 992, 1513
disease 1542
Laryngopharynx 1866
Laryngoplasty 900
endoscopic laser 971
Laryngoscope
removal of 925
transnasal 978
Laryngoscopy 1104
dynamic 1496
flexible fiberoptic 1026, 1027
rigid 863
transnasal flexible 937, 942, 1496
Laryngotracheal airway, position of 1612
Laryngotracheal lesions, causes of 1496
Laryngotracheal reconstruction 1498
Laryngotracheal stenosis 799, 970
classification of 825
infectious etiologies of 803
management of 1498f
Laryngotracheal swab 1496
Laryngotracheobronchitis 1477
Laryngotracheobronchomalacia 1496
Laryngotracheobronchoscopy 1496
Laryngotracheoplasty 837, 1506, 1521
Laryngotracheoscopy 1323f
Laryngovideostroboscopy 854
rigid 866, 866f
acquired pathology of 1492
bullous diseases of 877
cartilages of 848, 848f
changes 997
chondrosarcomas of 813
chronic inflammatory conditions of 872
common infections of 869
congenital malformations of 1484
deeper tissues of 1017
embryology of 996
epithelial lining of 996
exposure of 933
formation of 996
inflammatory conditions of 869
infraglottic 1220
malformations of 1484
malignant tumors of 1026
mycotic infections of 870
neonatal 997
neural control system of 851f
sarcoidosis of 875
stenosis of 799
subglottic 1220
subsites of 1137t
surgical anatomy of 1498f
tuberculosis of 803
visualization of 862, 863
Laser
applications 968
assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery 1636
assisted partial arytenoidectomy 972f
assisted uvulopalatoplasty 839
classification 966
cordectomy 1144
device, basic design of 965
eustachian tuboplasty 74f
media 966
microflap incision 968
nonablative 1691
physics 965
procedures 944
resurfacing procedures 1683, 1691
safety 966
officer, designation of 966
skin treatment 1691
surgery 1026, 1065
transoral 1126, 1128
technology, low-level 1700
therapy 1968f
treatment 1001
tympanostomy 499
types of 966, 967t
Lassa fever 354
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle 851
complex 943
Lateral medullary syndrome 474, 475t, 958
Lateral nasal wall 1771
destruction of 1078
incision 723
Lateral orbit, dislocation of 1451
Lateral semicircular canal 158f, 162f, 495, 514, 534, 535, 556
dysplasia of 1339f
Lateral sinus
position of 144
thrombosis 193, 208, 216
Laterocervical malformations 1551
Laterognathism, mandibular 1864
Latham device 1840
Latissimus dorsi 1100, 1980
Lawrence berkeley laboratory 1044
Layered Z-plasties 1856
Le Fort fracture 1829, 1830f
Lee Silverman voice treatment 960
Left internal carotid artery 1281f
canal 663f
Left vocal fold 818f
hemorrhagic polyp 980f
paralysis 896f-898f, 904f
pseudocyst 886f
Lempert's one-stage fenestration 137
Lentigo maligna melanoma 1248
Leontiasis ossea 1076
Lesions
history of 1064
presence of 1496
Lessac-Madsen resonant voice therapy 909
Lesser palate procedures 839
Lethal disease 207
Letterer-Siwe disease 1570
Leukemia 354
acute myeloid 1086
chronic
lymphatic 1239
lymphocytic 1238
small lymphocytic 1238, 1239
Leukocytes 213
Leukoedema 1088
Leukokeratosis nicotina palate 1088
Leukoplakia 857, 930, 1003, 1088, 1090f
areas of 1091
homogeneous 1089f
irregular appearance of 930f
nonhomogeneous 1089f
speckled 1088
Leukoplakic lesion 1004
malignant transformation of 1004t
Leukotriene 84, 625
pathway, breakdown of 654fc
receptor 625
antagonists 650
Levator injury 1794
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle 1600, 1822
Levator veli palatini 67, 757, 1850
contraction 67
muscles 85
pulls 1850
Levodopa 955
Lichen planus 1066, 1067f, 1088
erosive 1067
idiopathic 1066
Lichenoid reaction 1088
Lichtenberger needle driver 808
Lid
edema, severe 1411
laxity of 1641
ptosis, bilateral 1629f
retraction, vertical 1647
retractors, interrupt 1793
Lidocaine 91, 187, 488, 1065, 1784, 1854
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1087, 1265, 1270
Limb
dystonias 953
movement 1467
osteosarcoma 1271
sparing surgery 1266
Limbus
inferior 1637
lateral 1636
superior 1637
Lindeman procedure 781
Lindsay's pupils 267
Lindsay-Hemenway syndrome 452
Linea temporalis 149, 514
Linear frequency transposition 375
Linezolid 1407
Lingual nerve 1203f
Lingual palatal contact 755
Lingual thyroglossal duct cyst 1477, 1479
Lingual thyroid 1477
Lingual tonsillectomy 1302, 1470
Lingual tonsils 1455, 1455f
Lip
and chin
equal thirds of 1605f
landmarks of 1604f
cancer, risk of 1083
closure 753, 756, 1844
esthetic subunits of 1605f
injury 1797
paralyzed 2005
retraction of 756
segments, lateral 1845
split incision 1099f
Lipomas 1567
Lipopolysaccharide 600
Liposarcoma 1091, 1123, 1265, 1266, 1269
Liposuction cannula 1615f
Lipoxygenase pathway 654
Liquids
dysphagia for 769
viscosity of 1547
Lisch nodules 1284
Literature regarding tumor location 1295
Liver
failure 316, 713
metastasis, multiple 1209f
transplantation 957
Ljubljana grading system 1004
Load-bearing plates 1811
Lobule splitting technique 1898, 1900f
Local flap 1024, 1796, 1941, 1957
classification 1942
Lockwood's ligament 1640
Locoregional failure, lower rates of 1250
Locoregional tumor 1232
Loop diuretics 354
Loose connective tissue, area of 481
Lou Gehrig's disease 958
Loud sounds 371
Loupe magnification 1979
Low bacterial concentration rates 1405
Low-condylar fracture 1816
Lowenstein Jensen medium 1566
Lower eyelid 1639, 1643, 1953
blepharoplasty 1646
transconjunctival 1649
conjunctiva 1649
distraction test 1644f
incorporate skin resection 1609
malposition 1651
skin-muscle flap blepharoplasty 1648f
snap test 1644f
tarsus 1823
Lower jugular nodes level 1121
Lower lateral cartilage 598, 1717, 1723, 1732, 1741, 1770, 1777f
cephalic-medial trimming of 1745
surgery for 1775
thickness of 1732
Lower lid 1601, 1641
blepharoplasty 1643
transconjunctival 1649f, 1650f
compartmentalization of 1640
fat compartments 1647
margin, xentral 1643
retraction, suggestive of 1643
retractor system 1639
scar problems 1651
subciliary markings 1646f
support mechanism 1649
tarsoligamentous 1651
Lower limb fracture, history of 1100
Lower lip 988, 1712
mucocele of 1069f
vermillion 1090
Lower motor neuron diseases 958
Low-sodium diet 498
Luckett's sharp cartilage-breaking technique 1915
Ludwig's angina 834
Lumbar
drainage 520
puncture 709
Lund-Mackay score 632
Lund-Mackay system 632, 648
Lung
disease, chronic 1541
function, poor 1525
hyperinflated right 1538f
tumors 664
Lyme disease 329, 354, 407, 894
Lyme titer 330, 898
Lympangiosis carcinomatosa 1221
Lymph node 1161, 1287
clinical suspicious 1222
containing fibrofatty tissue 1230
dissection, comprehensive 1257
groups 1218
metastasis 1154f, 1218, 1250, 1259
detection of 1223
management of 1226
risk of 1218
paratracheal 1220, 1222
pretracheal 1220
regional 1221
retropharyngeal 1093, 1112, 1219, 1224
submandibular 1218
submental 1218
upper jugular 1218
Lymphadenitis 1561
acute 1565
suppurative 1573
Lymphadenocarcinoma, sebaceous 1188
Lymphadenoma 1187
Lymphadenopathy 894, 1027, 1563, 1567
parotid 1241
Lymphangioma 1430, 1434, 1561, 1977
complex 1939
Lymphatic channels, vast plexus of 1121
Lymphatic circulation, restoration of 1933
Lymphatic drainage
pathways 1253
patterns 1112
Lymphatic malformations 1523, 1556, 1557f, 1575, 1576, 1918, 1919, 1924
classification of 1557t
large cervicofacial 1920f
macrocystic forms of 1556
management of 1924
treatments of 1556
Lymphatic network 1121
Lymphatic tissue, sequestration of 1556
Lymphatic vessel systems 1083
Lymphaticovenous sacs, development of 1556
Lymphedema 1234
Lymphocytes 1070, 1417
passage of 1057
Lymphoma 354, 1148, 1416, 1417, 1462, 1567, 1779
evaluation 630
Lymphoproliferative disorder, post-transplant 1460
Lymphovascular invasion 1240, 1249
Lynch incision, location of 724f
Lysine-aspirin 656
Lysozyme catalyzes 600
M
Macrocysts 1576
Macrodeformation 1939
Macroglobulinemia 354
Macroglossia 1071, 1556
Macrophages 1586
secrete growth factors 1938
Macrostomia 1876f
Macula, structure of 13, 13f
Mafenide acetate 1791
Maffucci's syndrome 536
Major histocompatibility complex 1054, 1055, 1059
Malabsorption, endolymphatic 512
Malaise 209
Malaligned vermilion-cutaneous junction 1845
Malar bags 1601
Malar eminence 1680
Malar flattening 1419
Malformations
capillary 1919
congenital 32
lymphovenous 1523
oral lymphatic 1556
Malignancy, hematogenous 870
Malignant disease 1008
excision of 976
Malignant neoplasm, high-grade 1197
Malignant oral disorders, potentially 1088
Malignant salivary gland tumors 1204f
classification of 1188b
Malignant tumors 154, 524, 549, 1196
grading of 1194
Malingering disorder 354
Mallampati classification 838, 842
Malleable silver speculae 239
Malleal ligament, anterior 249
Malleus 534, 536
ankylosis 248
dislocation of 424
fixation 24
handle, fracture of 424
head 393
fixation of 424
incus complex 242f
incus joint 205f
fusion 203
neck 190
nipper 159
relocation
final step for 251f
first step for 250f
Malnutrition 315, 316, 1783
Malocclusion 1783, 1813, 1816, 1979
Mammalian bites 1800
Mandible fractures 1808, 1809f
comminuted 1816, 1816f
concomitant 1830
pediatric 1817
subtype of 1812
surgical treatment of 1809
treatment goals of 1809
Mandible horizontal buttresses, vertical segment of 1807f
Mandibular angle implants 1661
Mandibular deviation, persistent 1813
Mandibular fracture 1450, 1451
assessment of 1808
frequency 1808f
Mandibular tunnel, blunt dissection of 1620f
Mandibulectomy 1095
Manganese 747
Mannose-binding lectin 1359
Mantle cell lymphoma 1091
Mantoux test, intradermal 1562
Mantoux tuberculin skin test 1566
Marginal mandibular nerve 2003
Marginal reflex 1794
distance 1600, 1629
Marionette lines 1606, 1664, 1671
Marsupialize unicystic tumors 1074
Martha entenmann tinnitus 428
Maryland dissector 1165, 1167
Mask ventilation, tracheotomy under 1487
Mass
fibrous 857
lesions, bilateral 884
nasopharyngeal 1363
spectrometry 17
subglottic 876
submandibular 1561
supraclavicular 1561
transilluminable 1556
Massachusetts eye 430
Masseter muscle 1204f, 1611, 1798
transposition 2003
Masseter nerve 1997, 1999, 2001f
Mast cells 607, 1417
activation of 654
Masticatory forces 1821
Mastoid 140
aeration, postoperative 190
air cell 209, 214f
system 63, 1374
antrum 205f, 1378f
cavity 187, 192, 399
large 1378f
obliteration 192
right ear, obliterated 1378f
cell system 139
cholesteatoma 186
cortex 193
gas cell system 111
operation, modern 136
periostium 1620f
pressure 192
dressing 192
sclerotic 189
tegmen fracture 422f
tip, level of 189f
Mastoidectomy 133, 139, 158, 162, 173, 187, 216, 218, 393, 503, 516f
complete cortical 190f
cortical 173, 189, 398
radical 174, 187
technique 155
Mastoiditis 113, 178, 208, 209, 214f, 1362
acute 1355
chronic 196, 198, 199, 208
coalescent 208, 209
Mastoidotomy 200
Matrix metalloproteinase 85, 622, 1052, 1685
Mattress sutures, interrupted horizontal 1593f
Maxilla
bony erosion of 739f
lower 1025f
Maxillary arch 1070f
spanning, left 1079f
Maxillary fractures, sublabial approach for 1819f
Maxillary incision, sublabial 1831
Maxillary mega incisor 1398f
Maxillary ostium 585
Maxillary sinus 567, 572, 574f, 588, 638, 673, 681, 696, 723, 1025f, 1076
atelectatic 570f
hypoplasia 577
syndrome 567
left 689f
lies 588
natural ostium of 569f
ostia 589f
right 626f, 1406f, 1412f
surgery 1658
tumors 688
Maxillary spur 1760
Maxillary sublabial incision 1819, 1830, 1831
combination of 1819
Maxillectomy, medial 639
Maxillofacial skeleton 1784
Maxillofacial surgeon 1451
Maxillofacial surgery 1440, 1451
Maxillofacial trauma, pediatric 1448
Maxillomandibular fixation 1808, 1809f
Maximal tension, area of 1975
McEwen's triangle 210
McFee incision 1228f
Meal's nutritional value 1544
Measles 118, 285
virus, concept of 223
Meatoplasty 165, 165b, 191, 200
completed 192f
incisions 192f
Meatus
external 397
inferior 588
superior 572
Meckel's cartilage 1860
Meckel's cave 211, 535f, 556
area, dermoid of 561f
lesions of 560f
right 1277f
Meclizine 469
Medial canal fibrosis 60
Medial canthal tendon 1825
Medial cheek 1958
Medial crura 1762
feet cinching suture 1752f
Medial medullary syndrome 958
Median nasal prominences 1836, 1837, 1849
Median rhomboid glossitis 1070, 1071f, 1091
Mediastinoscopy 894
Mediastinum 1178, 1179
Medical speech evaluation 858, 861f
Mediterranean fever, familial 1460
Medpor, advantage of 1885
Medulla 472
Medullary disorders 952, 958
Medullary thyroid cancer, treatment for 1157
Medulloblastoma 1390
Meibomian glands 1601
Melanin producing cells 1253
Melanocytes 1585, 1693
stimulation of 1975
Melanocytic lesions, benign 1248
Melanocytic nevi
large congenital 1240
multiple benign 1240
acral lentiginous 1248
desmoplastic 1248
in situ, excision of 1955f
malignant 1239, 1248, 1258f
metastatic 1258f
nodular 1248
superficial spreading 1248
surgical treatment of 1256
Melanotic stools 1421
Melanotonin 320
Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome 1070
Melolabial flap 1969, 1971, 1971f, 1972f
Melolabial sulcus 1974
Membrane
cricothyroid 845, 934
interosseous 1989
thickness of 489
Membranous labyrinth 179f
malformations of 1333
Memory, short-duration 349
Mendelsohn maneuver 899
Ménière's attack 428
Ménière's disease 13, 41, 44, 51, 198, 225, 266, 288, 312, 328, 354, 433, 436, 439, 441f, 442444, 464, 469, 498, 500, 500t, 506, 511, 512, 519, 1385
bilateral 512
chronic symptoms of 511
clinical
diagnosis 442
features of 443
cure for 444
diagnosis of 44, 439t
etiology for 441
immune-mediated 329
incidence 439
left 441f
management of 511
medical management of 445
pathogenesis of 520, 521
pathology of 440
presentations of 440
severe 488
six forms of 498t
symptoms of 515
tinnitus in 431
treatment options 444
unilateral 512
vertigo of 505
vestibular 440, 512
Ménière's syndrome 431
Meningeal artery, middle 534, 535, 542, 543
Meningeal carcinomatosis 354
Meningeal metastases, solitary 527
Meningioma 354, 526528, 545, 664, 1284
excision of 526
left petroclival 545f
left sphenopetroclival 546f
sphenopetroclival 547f
Meningitis 56, 193, 198, 208, 214, 287, 425, 531, 1292, 1829
bacterial 287, 354
cryptococcal 354
delayed 1829
diagnosis 214
risk of 1394
symptoms 214
treatment 215
Meningocele 1394, 1417
Meningoencephalocele 1394, 1416
Mental
crease 1242, 1941
development, mild to moderate 1321
fold, correction of 1676
nerve block injection 1785
retardation 1395
Mentalis area, treatment of 1672f
Mentalis dysfunction 1660
Mentalis muscle 1659, 1671
Mentocervical angle 1596, 1597, 1597f
Mentolabial sulcus 1596, 1606, 1660
Mentoplasty 1659, 1660
Meperidine, intramuscularly 1692
Mercedes-Benz star 1498
Mercury 747
Merkel cell 1237, 1253
carcinoma 1259, 1259f, 1274
Mesenchymal cells, multipotential 549
Mesenchymal tissue 1266
Mesenchyme 102
pluripotential 1269
residual 197
Mesoderm 1400, 1551
Mesotympanum 197, 419
anterior 121f
posterior 172
recesses of 162f
superior 161
Metabolic diseases 1302
Metabolic disorder 1586
Metaiodobenzylguanidine 1295
Metalloproteinases, diagnosis of 1318
Metaplasia
degree of 620
squamous 673
Metastatic disease 630, 1252
Metastatic oral cancer, treatment of 1103
Methacholine inhalation challenge 794
Methadone 354
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 1686, 1893
Methotrexate 313, 331, 332, 879, 1248
regimens of 737
Methyl aminolevulinic acid 1249
Methyl bromide 748
Methyl methacrylate 1654
application of 1654
implant 1655
resin 1655
Methyl neobiosaminide 323
Methylcatechol 320
Methylene blue 398, 1842
Meticulous surgical technique 1835
Metoclopramide 955
Metopic suture 1432
synostosis, repair of 1656f
Michel's aplasia 1334
Michel's deformity 1333
Microbial disease, altered spectrum of 1370
Microdeformation 1939
Microdeletion syndrome 1314, 1315f
Microelectromechanical system microphone 364
Microfissures 487
Microflap 827
technique, use of 1007
Microform cleft lip 1838f
Micrognathia 842, 1525, 1866
Microischemia 529
Microphone 364, 391
Microphthalmia transcriptase factor 697
Microporus high-density polyethylene implant 1824
Micropunch instruments 1706
Microsomia 748
craniofacial 1864
Microstomia develops 1797
Microtia 1302, 1882, 1887
classification of 1883f
concha type 1905f
construction 1884, 1913f
third-step training of 1914f
lobule type 1897f, 1898, 1900f
syndrome 1864
unilateral 1890f
Microvascular anastomotic coupler devices 1981
Microvascular free
flap 1026, 1102f
tissue transfer 1983
Microvascular reconstructive surgeon 1981
Microvascular surgery 1979
development of 1966, 1977
Microvilli 599
enhances sensation 600
presence of 483
Midbrain 42
Mid-columellar scar 1742
Middle ear 6, 54, 63, 102, 113, 132, 136, 140, 143, 145, 147, 150, 155, 160, 162, 187, 197200, 202, 229, 265, 1288, 1348
air bubble in 87f
anterosuperior 1372f
quadrant of 1372f
cleft 68, 116, 126f, 128f, 197, 204, 258f
tissues of 137
complex 137
disease 106
diagnosis of 202
dissection of 189f
spectrum of 1370
effusion 80, 88f, 105, 196
presence of 1358
production of 1360
endoscopic 204
epithelial cells 1360
exploration 202, 204, 258f
exploring contents of 150
exposing contents of 150
fluid 111
classification of 87
functional changes of 85
gas
cushion 112f
exchange 64f
implant 386, 1346f
infections 202
inflammation of 80
malformations 42
medial wall of 480
mucoperiosteum 486
mucosa 117f, 118f, 130, 133
metaplasia of 1373
normal 112f
packing 152
posterior recesses of 121f
pressure 1370
falls 1373
regulation 63, 67
problem 233, 1884
protection 70
recess, posterior 190
side 484
space 150, 185, 1796
status 142
structures 1371
suppuration 137
surgery 137, 153, 258f
transducer 391
system 391
upper compartments of 158f, 159f
ventilation 104, 226
visualization 150f
Middle fossa 265, 545
approach 425
Middle meatal antrostomy, large 1421
Midface deficiency, correction of 1658
Midface fractures 1451, 1453
concurrent 1813
diagnosis of 1818
Le Fort classification of 1451f
Midface implants 1658
Midface morphology 1852
Midface tissue, unilateral removal of 1969
Midfacial growth, completion of 1453
Midscalp 1705
Migraine 464, 476, 612
manifestations of 1385
precursors of 1385
Millard's rotation
advancement flap 1841, 1841f, 1842, 1842f
essential principles of 1841
Millard's technique 1845
Mimic anaplastic thyroid cancer 1150
Minerals, depletion of 1586
Minimally invasive
closure 1938
endoscopic
resection 691
techniques 970
interventions 718
technique 2005
Minimum stimulus, strategy of 463, 464
Minocycline 312
Minor salivary gland 1187
cancer 1207, 1212, 1213
carcinomas 1024, 1091, 1123
malignancy 1066
tumors 1082, 1114, 1191, 1193
Mismatch negativity test 428
Mitochondria 483
dysfunctional 340
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1051, 1088, 1158
Mitogenic therapy 229
Mitomycin C 826, 971
Mitosis 1586
Mitral cells 745
Mobile footplate 259f
Mock transducer 393
Modern facelift techniques, development of 1608
Mohler's variation 1842
Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome 276
Mohs micrographic surgery 1251, 1253, 1254
Molar cusps, orientation of 1806f
Molecular genetic testing 1266
Mometasone 1421
Mondini's dysplasia 13, 214, 303, 1333
Mondini's malformation 308, 402
Mongolian gerbils 484
Monnier's laryngotracheal mold 1498f
Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 1056
Mononucleosis 354
infectious 1564
Monopolar electrocautery 1646, 1854
Monospot test 1564
Monotherapy
antiviral 416
potential 1801
Mood disorders 1102
Moraxella catarrhalis 111, 623, 1349, 1405, 1462
Morpheaform 1243, 1247
basal cell carcinoma 1250
Morsicatio buccarum 1088
Motion sickness 1389
Motor axons, myelinated 1999
Motor nerve injury 1997
Motor vehicle collision 1783
Mouth
floor of 1034
musculature 1808
suggest swallowing disorders 1545
Movement disorders 917
M-plasty 1956
Mucin proteins 601
Mucocele 1068
formation 1829
Mucociliary drainage 70
Mucociliary dysfunction 602
acquired 602
Mucocutaneous autoimmune lesions 1067
Mucoid
discharge 140
ear 80
fluid 87
Mucolytics 1408
Mucoperiosteal palatal flaps 1853
Mucoperiostitis, osteoclastic 143
Mucopolysaccharidosis 1308, 1317, 1318, 1468
Mucopurulent drainage 610
Mucosa 133, 599, 619, 1493
edematous 626
endolaryngeal 944
olfactory 745
reveal hypodynamic segments of 889
sparing techniques 1401
sublabial 1843
thick 152
triangle-shaped segment of 1853
tympanomastoid 1371
Mucosal advancement flap 1780
Mucosal biofilms 605
Mucosal blisters 877
Mucosal congestion 732
Mucosal disease, exacerbations of 642
Mucosal dryness 779
Mucosal edema 71, 1499, 1507
presence of 611
Mucosal flap down 1845
Mucosal inflammatory disease, etiology of 70
Mucosal irritation 1423
Mucosal laceration 1500, 1779
Mucosal lesions 917, 1499
Mucosal lining 67
Mucosal melanoma 687, 697, 1082
Mucosal problems 1761
Mucosal slicing technique 888
Mucosal tears 1537
Mucosal traction theory 171f
Mucosal trauma 718
Mucositis 1037, 1095, 1138
tubotympanic 117
Mueller maneuver 838
Muenke syndrome 1321, 1863
Mulberry molars 273
Müller's muscle 1600, 1639
Multi-dimensional voice program 859
Multidisciplinary cleft team 1840b
Multimodality therapy 1137
Multiple air cells 567
Multiple drug-resistant mycobacteria, emergence of 872
Multisystem inflammatory disease 873
Mumps 284, 354, 1573
virus 20
Muscles 66
atrophy, lack of 1673
cricopharyngeus 756, 1120
cricothyroid 828, 850, 851, 1551, 1672
excision 1645
extraocular 649
extrinsic 757
fiber atrophy 614
inferior oblique 1649
innervated 1995
interarytenoid 851, 944
masseteric 1664
mastication 1551
midfacial 2002
muscle contact 1845
palatopharyngeus 1856
periocular 1638f
periorbital 1599
reanimation, free functional 2003
resting length represents 2002
sling 1439
sternohyoid 1672
strength, suprahyoid 778
stylohyoid 38, 1230
superior oblique 1822
targeted 2001
tendon unit 1995
tension disorders 917
tension dysphonia 857, 863, 911, 917, 955, 986f, 990t
primary 913, 984
secondary 857, 913
transfer 2003, 2007
biomechanics of 1994
procedure 2005
transverse interarytenoid 1503f
weakness, proximal 1179
zygomaticus group of 1610
Muscular atrophy, neural 1441
Muscular diastasis, area of 1851
Muscular dystrophy, oculopharyngeal 952, 959
Musculoaponeurotic system 1638
Musculomucosal flap 1855, 1856
Musculoskeletal infections 605
Musculus uvulae 1850
Mutations, mitochondrial 308
Myasthenia gravis 894, 952, 1441, 1666
Mycobacteria, atypical 1566, 1572, 1572f
Mycobacterial disease 1477
Mycobacterial infection 1562
Mycobacterium africanum 1565
Mycobacterium avium 1566, 1572
intracellulare 1562
Mycobacterium bovis 1565
Mycobacterium kansasii 1566, 1572
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum 1562, 1572
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 286, 600, 1565, 1565f
Mycophenolate mofetil 332, 877
Mycoplasma 354, 1457
pneumoniae 601
Myeloma 354
Myer-Cotton grading 827
scale 800
system 800, 825
Mylohyoid 988
Myoclonus, palatal 427
Myocutaneous flap 1026, 1100
Myoepithelial cells 1188, 1196f
layer of 1189f
Myoepithelioma 1187
Myofibroblast 1419
phenotype 1938
Myopathy 952, 959
Myopericytoma 1267
Myoplasty, lengthening 2002
Myosin 14, 303
Myositis 959
Myotomy, cricopharyngeal 783, 961, 977
Myringitis 1349, 1362
infectious 1362
Myringoplasty 113, 138, 187
Myringosclerosis 114, 1365
Myringostapediopexy 140, 141f
Myringotomy 91, 92, 108111, 185, 199, 515, 1354
cruciate 498
incision 499
reduced use of 1355
Myxoid liposarcoma 1269
Myxomatous tissue 1418
N
N-acetyl transferase 1084
Nafcillin 1353
Nagata harvested split-thickness scalp grafts 1903
Nagata method 1885
Nagata template 1896
Narcotic pain medications 1687
Nasal air escape 1850
Nasal airway obstruction 1761
Nasal base deformities 1764
Nasal blockage 1403
Nasal bolster sutures 1844
Nasal bone 1725, 1770, 1794, 1808
complex 1827
fracture
adequate 1827
comminuted 1825
rhickened 1714
symmetry 1727
Nasal breathing 1994
Nasal bridge, pressure on 731
Nasal cautery 1779
Nasal cavity 588, 598, 610, 629, 640, 673, 697, 718, 1207, 1218, 1469, 1825
examination of 750
narrow 1399
right superior 688f
tumor of 1023
Nasal cleft 1875f
Nasal colonization, frequency of 1426
Nasal complications 670
Nasal congestion 610, 628, 1462
symptoms of 1563
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure, complications of 731
Nasal contour 1737
Nasal crusting 731
Nasal cycle 599
Nasal defects
posterior 1397
primary 1758
Nasal deformities, correction of 1676
Nasal dermoid 1395
axial computed tomography scan of 1395f
Nasal discharge 628, 738, 1403
discolored 1403
Nasal disease 732
inflammatory 1420
Nasal dorsum 1715, 1716f, 1725, 1765, 1778f
Nasal drainage 625
Nasal endoscopic
evaluation 1761
surgery 1423
Nasal endoscopy 611, 735, 741
Nasal facial proportions 1712
Nasal flaring 1484
Nasal fluid 702
Nasal fractures 713
Nasal injuries 1794, 1795
Nasal intervention, indications for 730
Nasal intubation 1779
Nasal irrigations, routine of 1024
Nasal meatuses 598
Nasal mucosa 38, 728, 1854
elevate 724
normal 622
Nasal mucosal
anesthetic 937
disease 1741
layer 1855
Nasal mucus drainage 648
Nasal obstruction 610, 625, 626, 636, 730, 738, 1398, 1406f, 1542
correction of 731, 734
etiologic factors of 1771t
medical management of 731
surgical management of 732
Nasal oxygen 716
Nasal packing 1426f, 1779
posterior 722
Nasal parameters 1761
Nasal peak inspiratory flow 628
Nasal pits 565
Nasal polyposis 93f, 602, 610, 635
recurrent 1416
surgery of 637, 638
Nasal polyps 598, 619, 625, 626, 675, 1416
appearance of 620
bilateral inflammatory 632
differential diagnosis in 1417t
endoscopic aspect of 1416f
epidemiology 619
grading of 630f
histological section of 1418f
inflammatory nature of 634
pathogenesis of 624, 1417, 1418f
treatment of 1420
Nasal projection 1602
Nasal prominences, lateral 1835, 1836, 1849
Nasal proportions 1601
Nasal ptosis 1777f
Nasal reconstruction 1949
Nasal regurgitation 1024
Nasal rhinoplasty, primary cleft 1846
Nasal root 1453
Nasal saline spray 732, 1761
Nasal septal
buttons 1781
flap 669
perforations 1769, 1778
etiologies of 1779b
management of 1769
Nasal septum 583, 585, 598, 697, 1771
deviation of 584f, 1405f
submucosal widening of 747f
Nasal sinus disease 746
Nasal skin excisions 1024f
Nasal speculum 629, 717
Nasal spine 1742, 1762
Nasal splint, various forms of 732
Nasal splinting devices 732
Nasal sprays, vasoconstrictive 1779
Nasal stenosis 719
anterior 720f
Nasal subunits 1601f
Nasal surgery 731733
functional 1769
leading cause of 1399
routine 734t
Nasal symmetry 1715
Nasal symptoms 628, 1421
Nasal thickness 1715f
Nasal tip 1715, 1717f, 1732f, 1771, 1962
cartilages, refinement of 1749
grafting 1735
hanging 1714
problems 1762
projection 1729
ptosis 1776
skin 1732f
soft tissue defect of 1948f
Nasal turbinates 583
Nasal valve
collapse 732
dysfunction 1771
narrow 1770
stenting of 1676
Nasal vestibulitis, signs of 1424
Nasal vibrissae 598
Nasalis muscle treatment 1671f
Nasoalveolar molding 1837
Nasoantral window 565
Nasobuccal membrane 1400
developmental errors of 1398
Nasofacial angle 1597, 1598f
Nasofacial groove 1670
Nasogastric intubation 1423
Nasogastric tube 1533, 1981
Nasolabial angle 1597, 1598f, 1762
augmenting 1761
volume 1757
Nasolabial fold 1242, 1680
correction of 1676
Nasolacrimal apparatus 1397
Nasolacrimal duct 595f, 681
cysts 1398
identification of 1476
left 1399f
Nasolaryngoscopy, flexible fiberoptic 1545
Nasomaxillary buttress 1807f, 1808
Nasomaxillary complex 1860
Nasomaxillary suture line 1395
Nasomental angle 1597, 1598f
Naso-ocular cleft 1397
Naso-orbitoethmoid complex 1825
fracture classification 1826f
Nasopharyngeal orifice 69f, 71f
Nasopharyngeal sphincter 1857f
Nasopharyngectomy 692
Nasopharyngitis 1457
Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy
fiberoptic 1092
flexible fiberoptic 1532
Nasopharyngoscopy 1443
Nasopharynx 111, 542, 730, 1026, 1207, 1209f, 1219, 1400, 1419, 1428, 1469, 1568
deep 1441
eustachian tube 118
lateral 1115
sinus 1302
small 1320
Nasoseptal flap 669
incision of 670
use of 670
Nasosinusal mucosa 1418
Nasotracheal intubation 1809
National Acoustic Laboratories 381
National Cancer Database 1124, 1270
National Center for Biotechnology Information 292
National Comprehensive Cancer Network 1005, 1240
Guidelines 1258
National Institute on Deafness 353
National Institutes of Health 17, 826, 1304
National Research Act 1310
National Temporal Bone Hearing 17
Natural killer cells 1055
Nausea 669, 1823
Navigation systems 597
Near-complete congenital glottic web 1000f
Neck 1218, 1610
abscess 178
deep 1302
suppurative 1565
advancement flaps 1977
cancer 690
irradiation 1044
discomfort 1175
disease 1152
dissection 1028, 1098f, 1232f
after radiochemotherapy 1231
bilateral selective 1220
central 1155f
classification of 1226
history of 1226
posterolateral 1227
selective 1227, 1231
therapeutic 1151
irradiation, ipsilateral 1223
lesions, acquired 1560
levels, classification of 1218
lifting techniques 1608
liposuction 1611, 1615
aspirate of 1616f
lymph node
level of 1204f
metastasis, risk of 1094
lymphatic malformation of 1556, 1557f
mass
acquired lateral 1561
clinical assessment of 1560
congenital 1560f
etiology of 1561t
inflammatory acquired 1566
midline 1561
pain 1174
radiology 407
skin, free mobility of 1617f
stiffness 214
surgery, comprehensive 1155
treatment 1096
tumorigenesis 1049
tumors, benign 1567
vascular lesions of 1551, 1556
weakness 1672
Negative intrathoracic pressure, loss of 833
Negative pressure
stimulates vasculogenesis 1939
wound therapy 1938, 1939
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1457
Neisseria meningitides 287
Neoadjuvant therapy 1250
Neoangiogenesis pathways, activation of 1288
Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet 965, 967, 1927
Neomycin 312, 313, 323, 487, 488
gold spheres 484
polymyxin drops 490
Neonatal hearing
development of 263
screening 263
Neoplasia 57, 1779
endocrine 1074
Neoplasm 813, 894, 1476
nonepithelial 687
pathogenesis of 1188
Neoplastic defects, reconstruction of 1792
Neoplastic disease 1302
Neoplastic lesions 1575
Nephrolithiasis 1184
Neridronate 230
Nerve
coaptation, types of 1998f
compression 529
damage 1622
degeneration, phase of 415
fascicles, multiple 1284
fibers 1282
injury, frontal 1634
integrity monitor 178
invasion 872
mandibular 535
monitoring probe 400
orbital 649
segments 1800
sheath 1029
superficial petrosal 536f
tympanic 70
Nervous system, plasticity of 2006
Netilmicin 313
Neural crest
cells 996
migration 275
origin 1693
Neural inflammation 467
Neuralgia, trigeminal 536, 545
Neurectomy
selective 2005, 2006
vestibular 447, 498, 501, 504t, 511
Neurilemoma 1073
Neurinoma, acoustic 1390
Neuritis, left vestibular 469f
Neuroacanthosis 956
Neuroanesthesia 533
Neuroblastoma 1416, 1417, 1569
olfactory 687, 696, 697, 697t
Neurocranium 1860
Neurodegenerative disorders 477, 478
Neurodevelopmental disorder 1518
Neuroepithelium, olfactory 750
Neurofibromas 1024, 1029, 1283f, 1296, 1567
right orbital plexiform 1283f
solitary 1282
Neurofibromatosis 275, 1282
central 1282
diagnostic criteria of 1284t
part of 1390
type 1 1265, 1282
type 2 267, 523, 1274, 1284, 1390
Neurofibromin, inactivation of 1284
Neurogenic dysphagia 961
characteristics of 961
incidence of 961
treatment for 961
Neurogenic tumors 1274, 1295
Neurohypophysis 669
Neurologic diseases, spectrum of 951
Neurologic disorder 770, 952, 952t, 955
Neurologic dysfunction, episode of 475
Neurological degenerative diseases 1666
Neuroma, unilateral acoustic 21f
Neuromuscular blockade 313
Neuromuscular disorders 1302, 1308, 1468, 1542
Neuromuscular junction 1441, 1664
Neuromuscular retraining
harnesses 2006
techniques 1994
Neuromuscular unit transfer, free functional 1995
Neuromuscular weakness 1467
Neuronal loss 19f
Neuronitis, vestibular 1384
Neurons 340
central vestibular 494
cochlear 429
olfactory 747
Neuro-otologic
symptoms 420
treatment 434
Neurophilia 1562
Neurorrhaphy
end-to-end 1997
end-to-side 1997
tension free primary 1800
Neurosarcoidosis 354
Neurosensory loss 342
Neurosurgery 1281, 1872
Neurotization 2002
Neurotrophin-3 320
Neutrophil 83, 1417
inflammation 610
polymorphonuclear 1586
recruitment of 1360
Nevus, congenital 1977
Next-generation sequencing technologies 1087
Nighttime taping 1651
Nikolsky sign 1067
Nimodipine 956
Nimorazole, administration of 1036
Nissen fundoplication 880, 1548
laparoscopic 1548
Nitric oxide 320, 1360, 1919
Nitrosamines 1085
Nitrosoureas 1252
Nitrous oxide anesthesia 1371
Nodal metastasis 1256
bilateral 1253f
pathology of 1123
Nodal response, regardless of 1231
Node-negative neck, treatment of 1255, 1257
Node-positive neck, treatment of 1254, 1257
Nodular basal cell carcinoma, subtype of 1254
Nodules, formation of 1679
Noise, laryngeal inspiratory 1484
Noise-induced hearing loss 338, 433435
clinical management 343
epidemiology 338
evaluation and diagnosis 342
management 342
pathogenesis 338
Noisy daycare centers 1510
Non-antigen specific tests 329, 330b
Non-Bell's palsy 410
Nonbeta-lactam antibiotics 1353
Noncompression plates 1811
Non-hair-bearing portions 1792
Non-Hodgkin's B-cell 1462
Non-Hodgkin's disease 1567
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 1568
Noninvasive examination methods, insufficient sensitivity of 1224
Noninvasive ventilation techniques 1497
Nonlocking system 1811, 1812
Nonmelanoma skin cancer 1237, 1239, 1240, 1244, 1247, 1248, 1258
features 1242
monitoring of 1258
surgical treatment of 1253
Non-neurologic disorders 1390
Nonpathological head-impulse test 477
Nonsentinel lymph node detection, detection of 1096
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs 625, 654, 880, 1673
medication, use of 783
Nonstick bipolar cautery, use of 1928
Nonsuture wound closure methods 1589
Nonsyndromic autosomal
dominant genes 298t
recessive genes 299t
Nonsyndromic genes, recognition of 294
Non-weight-bearing bone 1988
Normal sound-conducting system 138
Normosmia 745
Norrie's disease 21, 23f, 276
Norrie's syndrome 276, 295
Norwood-Hamilton scale 1696
Nose 1302, 1601
and facial features 629f
and sinuses 1024
assessment of 730
bony sidewall of 1716f
central 1849
complete agenesis of 1396
congenital malformations of 1393
double 1396
esthetic units of 1942f
fracture 1450
isolated 1451, 1452
fungal colonization of 606
narrow middle third of 1771
picking 1423
war of 1740
Nosocomial infections 605
Nostril 749
asymmetry 1747f
shape 1757
size 1736
symmetry of 1719
Nuclear factor kappa B 1051, 1053, 1202, 1685
Nuclear scintigraphy 1182
Nuclei, cochlear 42
Nucleic acid hybridization probes 1566
Nucleotide polymorphism, single 1359
Nucleus aplasia 1441
Nucleus tractus solitarii 758
Nutcracker esophagus 774
Nutritional deficiencies 1102, 1430
Nutritional disorders 1302
Nylon ethilon 1588
Nystagmography goggles 1384f
Nystagmus 14, 208, 457, 460, 1384, 1664
atypical 462
central
fixation 477
positional paroxysmal 454t
characteristics of 455t
direction 472
changing 473, 474
downbeat 476
gaze 473
inverted 473
optokinetic 473
persistent spontaneous 463
perverted 473
pseudospontaneous 458
pure torsional 463
spontaneous 473
syndrome 477, 478
typical 454
O
O'Brien's system 1241
Obesity 475, 1308, 1467, 1783
Obliteration techniques 176
Obsessive compulsive disorder 1458
Obstructive disease 71
Obstructive sleep apnea 730733, 1308, 1309, 1314, 1321, 1419, 1465, 1522
prevalence of 710
Ocular injury, occult 1830
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum 1430, 1864
Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, right-sided 604f
Odorant binds 745
Odynophagia 770, 834
Olfaction
anatomy of 744
assessment of 630
disorders of 745
physiology of 744
Olfactory apparatus 1396
Olfactory bulb 692, 744
contusion of 746
left 693f
Olfactory disorders 744, 749, 750
tests 748
treatment 749
Olfactory dysfunction 745, 747
etiology of 611
posttraumatic 746
Olfactory function, improvement of 1420
Olfactory loss
causes of 749
severity of 746
Olfactory tracts, absence of 747f, 748f
Olivocochlear tract 10
Ollier's disease 536
Omalizumab 636
Omnidirectional microphone 374
Omohyoid muscle 1226, 1229, 1230
Onabotulinumtoxina 1665
Oncocytoma 1187
Oncogene 1062
Onlay tip graft 1736, 1737f
Onodi cells, presence of 665
Open mouth posture 1544
Ophthalmic artery 714
Ophthalmic disturbances 614
Ophthalmic examination 615
Ophthalmic vein, superior 1822
Opiate combinations 354
Opitz G syndrome 1488
Optic
atrophy 1321
canals 663
disk elevation 710
nerve 571f, 572
classification 590t
decompression 692
Optical forceps 1537f
Optimal tumor staging system, revised 1255
Optokinetic stimulation 456
Oral bleeding, self-limited 1547
Oral cancer 1025, 1086
early stage 1082
recurrent 1103
risk of 1083, 1085
stage of 1094t
tobacco-induced 1085
Oral cavity 1025, 1207, 1219, 1302, 1533, 1785, 1807f
cancer 1082
treatment of 1094
during surgery 1234
examination of 863
malignant tumors of 1082
nonmalignant 1064
recurrence of 1103
semicircular canals, recurrence of 1103
tumor 1023
malignant 1090
Oral commissure 1843
Oral corticosteroid
short course of 794
short-term 634
Oral lesions, premalignant 1089f
Oral mucosa 1067
potentially malignant disorders of 1088
Oral mucous membranes, surface of 1068
Oral tongue, posterior 1097
Orbicularis muscle 1628, 1629, 1647
Orbicularis oculi 1600, 1603, 1667
functions 1628
lateral portion 1668
strip of 1645
Orbicularis oris 756, 1670, 1974
muscle 1797, 1837, 1846, 1974
inferior 1877
Orbit, tumor of 1023
Orbital abscess 616
left subperiosteal 1411f
Orbital bone, inferior 570f
Orbital fissure, superior 1822
Orbital floor
fractures 1818, 1822
repair 1831
Orbital fracture 1451
reduction of 1819
Orbital injury, complications of 726