Jaypee's Nurses' Dictionary UN Panda
Chapter Notes

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Abacavir An anti-HIV drug.
Abadie's sign 1. A sign in tabes dorsalis in which there is loss of pain from squeezing the calcaneal tendon 2. Spasm of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles occurring frequently in thyrotoxicosis but also seen normally especially with tension and fatigue.
A band A dark band in muscle representing overlapping of actin and myosin filaments.
Abasia Inability to walk because of motor incoordination; compare astasia.
Abate To lessen in force or intensity; to moderate or subside.
Abattoir A slaughter house or an establishment for the killing and dressing of animals.
ABC The mnemonic used for remembering the correct protocol, in order of priority, for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A refers to airway, B to breathing and C to circulation.
Abdominal angina An acute attack of severe abdominal pain, commonly occurring after eating and often associated with weight loss, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. It is caused by narrowing or obstruction of the mesenteric arteries, primarily atherosclerotic in origin.
Abdominal aponeurosis The wide tendinous expanse by which the external oblique, internal oblique and transverse muscles are inserted.
Abdominal apoplexy Infarction of an abdominal organ, usually the small intestine, resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion.
Abdominal epilepsy A convulsive equivalent in which abdominal pain, a sense of nausea and often headache are the most prominent symptoms.
Abdominal migraine Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea associated with migraine. See also convulsive equivalent.
Abciximab An antiplatelet agent.
Abdominal muscles A group of four pair of muscles making up in abdominal wall: The external 2oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis.
Abdominal reflex Contraction of the abdominal muscles induced by stroking the overlying skin; a superficial or cutaneous reflex.
Abdominal regions The nine regions of the abdomen artificially delineated by two horizontal and two parasagittal lines. The horizontal lines are tangent to the cartilages of the ninth ribs and iliac crests, respectively, and the parasagittal lines are drawn vertically on each side from the middle of the inguinal ligament. The regions thus formed are 1. above—the right hypochondriac, the epigastric and the left hypochondriac. 2. in the middle __ the right/left lateral or lumbar, umbilical and, 3. below—the right inguinal or iliac, the pubic or hypogastric, and the left inguinal or iliac. Also called regions abdominis (see Figure).
Abdominal respiration A type of respiration caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and the elastic expansion and recoil of the abdominal walls.
Abdominal ribs 1. The floating ribs. 2. Ossifications of the intersections tendineae.
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Abdominoposterior In obstetrics, designating a fetal position in which the belly is forward.
Abdominovesical pouch A pouch formed by the reflection of the peritoneum from the anterior abdominal wall onto the distended urinary bladder, it contains the lateral and medial inguinal fossae.
Abducent nerve The sixth cranial nerve, whose fibres arise from the nucleus in the dorsal portion of the pons near 3the internal genu of the facial nerve and runs a long course to supply the lateral rectus muscle which moves the eyeball outward; also called nerves abducens.
Abducent nucleus A nucleus lying under the floor of the fourth ventricle at the junction of the pons and medulla which gives origin to the abducent nerve.
Abduct To draw away from the median line.
Abduction 1. A movement whereby one part is drawn away from the axis of the body or of an extremity. 2. In ophthalmology (a) Turning of the eyes outward beyond parallelism (see Figure).
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Abduction of fingers
Abduction cap An orthopedic appliance of canvas or leather to maintain abduction in case of subdeltoid bursitis.
Abductor A muscle which on contraction, draws a part away from the axis of the body or of an extremity.
Abductor A muscle found in tailed animals corresponding to the coccygeal muscle in man.
Abductor digiti minimi The abductor muscle of the little finger or little toe. Also called musculus abductor digitiminimi.
Abductor hallucis A muscle of the medial side of the foot inserted into the base of the first metatarsal. Also called musculus abductor hallucis.
Abductor hallucis longus A muscle of the anterior region of the leg inserted into the base of the first metatarsal.
Abductor indicis The first dorsal interosseous muscle of the hand.
Abductor paralysis Paralysis of abduction especially of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and, thus of the vocal cords.
Abductor pollicis brevis The short abductor muscle of the thumb. Also called musculus abductor pollicis.
Abductor pollicis longus The long abductor muscle of the thumb. Also called musculus abductor pollicis longus.
Aberdeen formula A method (developed in Aberdeen in 41974) of estimating the number of nurses needed on a ward, based on the number and dependency of the patients. The formula is W = N (B + T) + A + D + E where: W = average weekly nursing workload in hours; N = average number of patients in ward; B = time in hours per week required to maintain the standard of basic nursing care for a totally helpless bedfast patient; T = time required for technical nursing of the ward speciality expressed as a percentage of the time spent on basic nursing; A = time per patient per week for administrative duties; D = time per patient per week for domestic work; E = patient dependency factor for ward speciality.
Aberrant Varying or deviating from the normal in form, structure or course.
Aberration 1. Deviation from the normal or usual. 2. Unequal refraction or focalization of a lens. Chromatic aberration: unequal refraction of light rays of different wavelengths, producing a blurred image with fringes of color. Chromosomal aberration: loss/gain/or exchange of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell resulting in a deletion, duplication, inversion or translocation of genes.
Abetalipoproteinemia A disease entity due to almost total absence of β-lipoproteins, characterized by the predominating presence in blood of acanthocytes, hypocholesterolemia, the celiac syndrome in early childhood and later ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and frequent retinitis pigmentosa and muscular atrophy; an autosomal hereditary trait.
Abeyance 1. A cessation of activity or function 2. A state of suspended animation.
Abiogenesis A theory that living organisms can originate from nonliving matter; spontaneous generation.
Abiosis 1. Absence of life 2. Nonviability.
Abiotrophy Progressive loss of vitality of certain tissues or organs leading to disorders or loss of function applied especially to degenerative, hereditary diseases of late onset e.g., Huntington's chorea.
Abirritant An agent such as a cream or powder, that relieves irritation.
Ablatio placentae Abruptio placenate.
Ablation The removal of part of a tumor by amputation, 5excision or other mechanical means.
Ablepsia Loss or absence of vision.
Abluent Detergent, Cleansing.
Abnormal 1. Not normal. 2. Deviating in form, structure or position, not conforming with the natural or general rule.
ABO blood group That genetically determined blood group system defined by the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes exposed to the naturally occurring antibodies anti-A and anti-B and to similar antiserums. The serum of normal individuals contains isoantibodies against the antigens lacking in their erythrocytes giving the following arrangement of antigens (isoagglutinogens) and antibodies.
Group (Land-steiner)
Erythrolyte Antigen (Agglutinogen)
Serum Antibody (Agglutinin)
A and B absent
Anti-A anti-B
Sub Groups of A are recognised and designated by subscripts as A1, A2, etc.
Abort 1. To miscarry; to bring forth a nonviable fetus. 2. To terminate prematurely or stop in the early stages, as the course of a disease. 3. To check or fall short of maximal growth and development.
Aborticide 1. The killing of an unborn fetus. 2. An agent that destroys fetus and produces abortion.
Abortifacient A drug or agent inducing expulsion of the fetus.
Abortion 1. The giving birth to an embryo or fetus prior to the stage of viability i.e., 20 weeks of gestation (fetus weighs less than 400 gm). A distinction is made between abortion and premature birth. Premature infants are those born after the stage of viability has been reached but before full term, 2. The product of such nonviable birth. 3. The arrest of any action or process before its normal completion. a. accidental Due to a fall, blow or other injury. a. complete One in which the embryo including the membranes is expelled entirely and identified. a. criminal Induced termination of pregnancy without medical or legal justification. a. habitual A condition in which a woman has had three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. a. insipient Threatened or imminent or impending 6abortion in which there is copious vaginal bleeding, uterine contractions and cervical dilation. a. incomplete In which part of the product of conception has been passed but part (usually the placenta) remains in uterus. a inevitable One signalled by rupture of the membranes in the presence of cervical dilation that has advanced beyond any hope of preventing complete abortion. a. missed One in which the fetus dies in utero but the product of conception is retained in utero for two months or longer.
Abortive poliomyelitis An early form of poliomyelitis, characterized clinically by relatively mild symptoms of upper respiratory infection, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, and vomiting but which does not progress to involve the central nervous system. Definite diagnosis rests upon isolation of the virus and serologic reactions.
Abrachia Armlessness.
Abrachius An armless individual.
Abrasion 1. A spot denuded of skin, mucous membrane or superficial epithelium by rubbing or scraping as of corneal abrasion, an excoriation. 2. The mechanical wearing down of teeth, as from incorrect brushing, appliances or bruxism. Compare attrition, erosion.
Abreaction In psychoanalysis, the mental process by which repressed emotionally charged memories and experiences are brought to consciousness and occur in hypnosis and narcoanalysis.
Abrosia Abstinence from food, fasting.
Abruptio Abruption, a tearing away.
Abruptioplacentae Premature separation of the placenta prior to delivery of the infant (see Figure on page 7).
Abscess A circumscribed collection of pus. a. amebic An abscess of the liver that contains ameba, and may follow amebic dysentery. It may occur independently also without intestinal infection. a. Bezold's A deep abscess in the neck associated with suppuration of the middle ear and purulent sinus thrombosis. a. Brodie's A chronic inflammation, sometimes tuberculus, of the head of a bone especially of the tibia.7
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a. cold Abscess without heat or other usual signs of inflammation commonly tuberculous (see Figure on page 8).
Abscissa 1. The horizontal of the two coordinates used in plotting the interrelationship of two sets of data. The vertical line is called the ordinate. 2. In optics, the point where a ray of light crosses the principal axis.
Absence 1. Inattention to one's environment. 2. Temporary loss of consciousness, as in absence attacks or psycho motor seizures. 3. Fleeting loss of consciousness occurring in hysterical attacks or at the climax of completed or very intense sexual gratification (Freud).
Absence attack or seizure A form of epilepsy characterized by a sudden transient lapse of consciousness, by a blank stare as in a state of “Suspended animation”, sometimes accompanied by minor motor activities such as blinking of the eyes, smacking of lips, stereotyped hand movements and automatism, often there is indistinct vision.
Absolute refractory period The refractory period in which no stimulus, however, strong can excite a response.
Absolute scotoma Scotoma with perception of light entirely absent.
Absolute temperature Temperature reckoned from the absolute zero estimated at approximately – 273o C or – 459o F.
Absolute threshold The lowest intensity as measured under optimal experimental conditions. At which a stimulus is effective or perceived.
Absolute zero A temperature of approximately –273.2o C or –459.8o F; the complete absence of heat.
Absorb 1. In physiology to suck; take, imbibe as fluids or gases through osmosis and capillarity.8
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Abscesses of breast
2. To infiltrate into the skin as ultraviolet rays. 3. To incorporate into the body via the blood and lymph. 4. To receive radiant energy and convert it to another form often with rise of temperature.
Absorbable ligature A ligature composed of animal tissue such as catgut which can be absorbed by the tissues.
Absorbed dose In radiology the amount of energy imparted by ionizing particles to a unit mass of irradiated material at a place of interest.
Absorbefacient Any agent that promote absorption.
Absorbent 1. Anything capable of absorbing or sucking up 9fluids, faeces or light waves. 2. A drug application or dressing that promotes absorption of diseased tissues.
Absorption 1. In physiology and pharmacology the passage by one or more processes of various body constituents or of medicinal agents through body membranes from one tissue compartment to another, e.g., products of digestion through gastrointestinal mucosa or of drugs through the skin. 2. In physics, and chemistry the taking up by one or more physical or chemical processes of a gas by a solid or liquid or of a liquid by a solid. 3. In physics, radiology and spectrophotometry the process where by the intensity of a beam of any electromagnetic radiation is attenuated in passing through any material by conversion of the energy of radiation to an equivalent amount of energy which appears within the medium, the radiant energy is converted to heat or some other form of molecular energy. 4. In psychology inattention to all but a single thought or activity.
Absorption atelectasis Obstructive atelectasis.
Absorption band A region of the absorption spectrum in which the absorptivity passes through maximum or inflection.
Absorption coefficient A constant in the law of absorption for homogeneous radiations.
Absorption curve In radiobiology a curve showing variation in absorption of radiation as a function of wave length.
Absorption spectrum A spectrum of radiation which has passed through some selectively absorbing substance as white light after it has passed through a vapor.
Absorptive Absorbent.
Abstergent 1. Having cleansing or purgative properties. 2. A cleaning lotion. 3. A purgative.
Abstinence Voluntary self denial of or forbearance from indulgence of appetites, especially from food, alcoholic drink or sex relations.
Abstinence delirium Delirium occurring on withdrawal of alcohol or of a drug from one addicted to it.
Abulia Loss or defect of the ability to make decisions.
Abulomania Mental disorder characterized by lack of will power and indecisiveness.
Abuse Misuse, maltreatment, or excessive use. Child a. The non-accidental use of physical 10force or the non-accidental act of omission by a parent or other custodian responsible for the care of a child. Drug a. Use of illegal drugs or misuse of prescribed drugs. Solvent a. The deliberate inhalation of volatile chemicals with the aim of inducing intoxication.
Acalcerosis Calcium deficiency of the diet or of the body as a result of the loss of the mineral in the excreta.
Acalculia Loss of the power to work out any mathematical problems even the simplest.
Acanthion The tip of the anterior nasal spine (see Figure below).
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Acanthocyte A throny or peculiarly spiny erythrocyte characterized by multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections (see Figure).
Acanthocytosis A rare condition in which as many as 70 to 80 percent of the redblood cells are acanthocytes ‘throny erythrocytes’, i.e., peculiar spherocytes with irregularly placed broad or coarse pseudopodia like projections; the abnormal cells manifest a greatly increased mechanical fragility and content of lipolecithin A; is thought to result from a mutant recessive allele for a gene that controls normal structure of redblood cells.
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Acanthoid Spine shaped, spinous.
Acantholysis A term used in dermal pathology to denote dissolution of the layers of the epidermis. It is seen in such conditions as pemphigus vulgaris and keratosis follicularis.
Acanthoma Well differentiated keratinizing cornifying squamous cell (or epidermoid) carcinoma, term sometimes used especially with reference to such neoplasms in the skin with little or no histologic evidence of invasion. Regarded by some observers as benign 11neoplasms. a. nigricans An eruption of warty growths and hyperpigmentation occurring in the skin of the axillae and in the groins. In adults it is indicative of abdominal malignancy. A benign type occurs in children. In the benign or juvenile type the subjects are obese and the skin condition is self limited.
Acapnia Absence of carbon dioxide in blood and tissues.
Acarbia Pronounced reduction in bicarbonate of the blood.
Acardia Congenital absence of the heart, a condition sometimes present in the parasitic members of conjoined twins.
Acardiacus A conjoined twin parasitic on its mate or utilizing the placental circulation of its mate and having no heart.
Acardiotrophia Atrophy of heart.
Acariasis Any disease caused by an acarid.
Acarid A member of the order Acarina, a mite.
Acaroid 1. Resembling a mite 2. An acarus or mite.
Acarophobia Fear of small parasites or small particles
Acatalepsia, catalepsy 1. Mental deficiency characterized by a lack of understanding 2. Uncertainty in diagnosis or prognosis.
Acataleptic Deficient in comprehension. 2. Uncertain.
Acataphasia A loss of the power of correctly formulating a statement.
Acataposis Difficulty in swallowing liquids; strictly inability to do so.
Acathexia An abnormal loss of the secretions.
Acathexis A mental disorder in which certain objects or ideas fail to arouse an emotional response in the individual.
Accessory Supplementary. A. nerve The 11th cranial nerve. It is made up of two portions: the cranial and the spinal.
Accident A sudden unexpected event or injury occurring without omen or forewarning or developing in the course of a disease.
Accommodation Adjustment of the eye for various distances specifically alteration of the covexity of the crystalline lens in order to bring light rays from an external object to a focus on the retina.
Accoucheur Obstetrician.
Accretion 1. Increase by addition to the periphery or material of the same nature as that already present e.g., the manner of growth of crystals. 2. In dentistry foreign material collecting on the surface 12of a tooth or in a cavity. 3. A growing together.
ACE inhibitors A group of drugs used in the treatment of hypertension. Their name, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, explains part of their mode of action, although it is thought that some of their other actions may also be important in reducing blood pressure.
Acebutolol Betadrenergic blocking agent used in hypertension.
Aceclidine A synthetic compound resembling acecholine, used in glaucoma 0.5-4%.
Acenesthesia Absence of the normal sensation of physical existence or of the consciousness of visceral function.
Acecainide A metabolite of procainamide.
Acenocoumarol (NND) An orally effective synthetic anticoagulant of the coumarin type and with similar action.
Acestoma Exuberant granulations that are forming a cicatrix.
Acetabulum Cup shaped cavity on lateral wall of pelvic bone in which head of femur articulates.
Acetabuloplasty An operation performed to improve the depth and shape of the hip socket in correcting congenital dislocation of the hip or in treating osteoarthritis of the hip (see Figure below).
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Acetal A clear liquid made by the imperfect oxidation of alcohol. Has been used as hypnotic.
Acetal dehyde CH3 CHO, a colourless liquid of irritating odor; it is polymerized into paraldehyde in presence of sulphuric acid. It is an intermediate in yeast fermentation of carbohydrate and in alcohol metabolism in man.
Acetamide Acetic acid amide formed by the action of ethyl acetate on ammonia, occurs in colourless deliquescent crystals of a mousy odor.
Acetaminophen N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol, P-acetamidophenol, a white odorless crystalline slightly bitter powder used as an antipyretic and analgesic.
Acetanilide Made from aniline by the action upon it of acetyl 13chloride. Occurs in the form of white scales or crystalline powder, very slightly soluble in water but soluble in 5 parts of alcohol, used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Toxic, continued use causes cyanosis.
Acetarsone Acetarsol(BP) acetyl amino hydroxy phenyl arsenic acid, N acetyl-4hydroxy-Marsanilic acid; stovarsol, Used in amebiasis and as a local application in vincents angina and in trichomonas vaginalis.
Acetate A salt of acetic acid.
Acetazolamide Diamox, the heterocyclic sulfonamide. 2. Acetylamino-1.3.4, thiadiazole 5 sulfonamide. It inhibits the action of carbonic anhydrase in the kidney causing an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, reduced excretion of ammonium, a rise in the pH of the urine and a fall in the pH of the blood. Has been used in respiratory acidosis for diuresis and control of fluid retention in epilepsy and in glaucoma.
Acetic Relating to vinegar, sour.
Acid-acetic Diacetic acid, CH3 COOH, a product of the oxidation of alcohol and of the destructive distillate of wood, the official acid is a liquid containing 36 percent (B.P. 33%) of absolute acetic acid (hydrogen acetate). Used locally as a counterirritant and occasionally internally. Used also as a reagent.
Acetoacetic acid Diacetic acid, CH3 COCH2 COOH, one of the ketone bodies formed in excess and appearing in the urine in starvation or diabetes.
Acetobacter A genus of the family pseudomonadaceae, containing rodshaped organisms frequently found in elongated, branched or swollen forms, polarly flagellate when motile, energy secured by oxidation of alcohol in wine cider or beer to acetic acid.
Acetohexamide A sulfonylurea, used in diabetes.
Acetokinase An enzyme found in Escherichia coli catalyzing the formation of acetylphosphate from acetate in the presence of ATP.
Acetolactic acid An intermediate in pyruvic acid catabolism in yeast.
Acetolase An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid.
Acetomeroctol An organic mercurial antibacterial agent.
Acetomorphine Heroin, see diacetylmorphine.14
Acetonaphthone Naphthylmethyl ketone occurs as yellow needles.
Acetone A colourless volatile inflammable liquid dimethyl ketone. Extremely small amounts are found in normal urine but large quantities occur in urine and blood of diabetic persons, it sometimes imparts an ethereal odor to urine and breath of such patient.
Acetonuria The excretion in the urine of large amount of acetone, an indication of incomplete oxidation of large amount of fat, commonly occurs in diabetic acidosis.
Acetophenazine maleate Tindal maleate, phenothiazine dimaleate, a tranquilizing agent with antiemetic hypotensive, spasmolytic and antihistaminic actions.
Acetophenone A coal tar derivative, phenylethyl ketone, a colorless liquid crystalizing to white needles at low temperatures with an odor of bitter almond. Has been used as a hypnotic or mild depressant.
Acetrizoate A radio-opaque compound used in urography, injected intravenously.
Acetrizoic acid A radio-opaque medium.
Acetyl-p-aminophenylsalicylate Salicylic acid ester of acetyl-p-aminophenol, used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and intestinal antiseptic.
Acetylcholine The acetic acid ester of choline isolated from ergot. Also liberated from preganglionic and postganglionic, endings of parasympathetic fibers and from preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic. Causes cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, gastrointestinal peristalsis and other parasympathetic effects. It is hydrolized into choline and acetic acid by the enzyme cholinesterase that is present in blood and other tissue.
Acetylcholinesterase Cholinesterase, that breaks down acetyl choline into choline and acetic acid.
Acetylcoenzyme A Condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid, an intermediate in transfer of two carbon fragment notably in its entrance into the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Acetylcysteine Mucomyst, a mucolytic agent that reduces the viscosity of mucous secretions.
Acetyldigitoxin Acylanid, same actions and uses as digitoxin but of more rapid onset and shorter duration of action.
Acetylene A colorless gas of a disagreeable odor that burns 15with an intense white flame. It is prepared commercially by the action of water on calcium carbide.
Acetylsalycylic acid An odorless white crystalline powder soluble in 300 part of water or 5% alcohol readily absorbed from mucous membranes and excreted in urine within 6 hours, widely used as an analgesic, antiinflammatory agent and in the treatment of rheumatism.
Achalasia Failure to relax, referring especially to visceral openings such as the cardia or any other sphincter muscles (see Figure).
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Acheilia Congenital absence of the lips.
Achilles A mythical greek warrior who was vulnerable only in the heel.
Achilles tendon Largest and strongest tendon of the body, formed by the union of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles at the lower end of the calf and inserts into calcaneus (see Figure).
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Achilles tendon
Achilles tendon reflex Reflex that occurs after the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsiflexed. It is exaggerated in upper motor neuron disease and not present in lower motor neuron disease.
Achiria 1. Congenital absence of the hands. 2. Anesthesia with loss of the sense of possession of one or both hands, a condition sometimes noted in hysteria. 3. A form of dyschiria in which the patient is unable to tell on which side of the body a stimulus has been applied.
Achirus A malformed individual without hands.
Achlorhydria Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.16
Achluophobia Fear of darkness.
Acholia Suppressed secretion of bile.
Acholic Without bile.
Acholuria Absence of bile pigments from the urine in certain cases of jaundice.
Acholuric Without bile in urine.
Achondroplasia Chondrodystrophy, diaphysial aclasis, abnormality in conversion of cartilage into bone resulting in an asymmetrical dwarf.
Achondroplasty Chondrodystrophy.
Achorion A genus of parasitic fungi, proper term now Trichophyton.
Achromasia 1. Cachectic pallor, pallor associated with the Hipocratic facies of extremely severe and chronic illness often heralding the moribund state 2. Absence of the ordinary staining reaction in a cell or tissue. 3. Achromatopsia.
Achromate An absolutely color blind person.
Achromatic 1. Colorless. 2. Not decomposing white light. 3. Not staining readily.
Achromatopsia Complete color blindness.
Achromatosis Absence of natural pigmentation as in albinism.
Achromaturia The passage of colorless or very pale urine.
Achylia 1. Absence of gastric juice or other digestive forment 2. Absence of chyle.
Achylous 1. Lacking in gastric juice or other digestive secretion. 2. Having no chyle.
Acid 1. A compound of an electronegative element or radical with hydrogen; it forms salts by replacing all or part of the hydrogen with electropositive elements or radical. An acid containing one displaceable atom of hydrogen in the molecule is called monobasic; onecontaining two such atoms dibasic and one containing more than two-polybasic. 2. In popular language any chemical compound which has a sour taste.
Acid-base Acid is a substance which generates hydrogen ions [H+] in the solution whereas base is a substance which generates hydroxyl ions [OH] in the solution. In the body an equilibrium occurs between the acid and base elements of blood and body fluids. The normal pH of the serum is between 7.35 and 7.45. Acid- base equilibrium in the body is maintained through the regulatory systems of the kidney, lungs, 17skin, adrenals, pituitary and the buffer systems present in the blood. When there is a loss of balance between the acidic and alkaline components of blood and body fluids, acid-base imbalance can occur. Metabolic disorders like gastrointestinal diseases diabetes mellitus, renal diseases, etc. can commonly result in acid-base imbalance in the body.
Acidemia An increase in the H-ion concentration of the blood__a fall below normal in pH not withstanding alterations in content of bicarbonate.
Acid-fast A term denoting bacteria that are not decolorized by mineral acids after having been stained with aniline dyes; the leprosy, tubercle and hay bacilli are examples.
Acid phosphatase An enzyme found in many tissues and fluid in the body. Acid phosphatase liberated from prostate gland serves as a marker for cancer prostate. It may also be sometimes elevated in conditions like Paget's disease, oesteomalacia, hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, etc.
Acidosis A condition of reduced alkali reserve (bicarbonate) of the blood and other body fluids with or without an actual decrease in pH. a. carbondioxide Acidosis resulting from retention of CO2, it is an exception to the definition in the main heading, for the bicarbonate of the body fluids is usually increased. a. compensated Reduced alkali reserve in which compensatory mechanisms maintain the pH of the body fluids at the normal value; in compensated acidosis Co2 and bicarbonate usually increases although pH remains within normal range. a. renal tubular Inability to excrete acid urine with hyperchloremia due to congenital defect in carbonic anhydrase, causing deficient formation of bicarbonate. a. respiratory Reduced alkali reserve of the body fluids with a fall in pH resulting from the failure of adequate compensatory mechanisms; bicarbonate may be within normal range in uncompensated acidosis from CO2 retention.
Acid rain Rain contaminated with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. By reducing pH, it is harmful for aquatic and plant life.
Acid reflux disorder A condition in which acid comes from the stomach into esophagus causing discomfort and damage to the esophageal lining.18
Aciduria Presence of excessive acid in the urine.
Acinetobacter Nonpathogenic genus of microorganism.
Acinus 1. One of the minute sac like secretory portions of an acinous gland. Some authorities use the terms acinus and alveolus interchangeably with reference to glands whereas other differentiate them by the constricted openings of the acinus into the excretory duct. 2. In the lung territory supplied by one terminal bronchiole (an absolute usage) (see Figure).
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Acini of pancreas
Acivicis A pyrimidine analog that blocks conversion of UTP to LTP.
Aclusion Lack of contact of opposing surface of molar and bicuspid teeth when jaws are closed.
Acme The peak, the time of greatest intensity of symptoms.
Acne A papular and pustular eruption due to inflammation with accumulation of secretion involving the sebaceous glands. a. atrophica Vulgaris in which the lesions leave a slight amount of scarring. a. ciliaris Follicular papules and pustules on the free edges of the eyelids. a. keratosa An eruption of papules consisting of horny plugs projecting from the hair follicles accompanied by inflammation. a. neonatorum A rare condition in infants characterized by papules and comedones on forehead and cheeks. a. rosacea Erythematosa, rosacea, acne of the cheeks and nose associated with papules, pustules, dilated blood vessels in the nasolabilal folds and dilated follicles. a. syphilitica Pustular syphilides, a rare type of secondary syphilis. a. telangiectodes An acniform eruption associated with tuberculosis. a. urticata An eruption beginning as small urticarial wheals and followed by slight scarring. a. vulgaris Acne simplex, acne disseminata, simple uncomplicated acne, an eruption of papules and pustules on 19an inflammatory base; condition occurs primarily during puberty and adolescence due to overactive sebaceous apparatus, probably affected by hormonal activity.
Acnegenic Pertaining to substances thought to be responsible for causing acne vulgaris.
Acnemia 1. Atrophy of the calf muscles. 2. Congenital absence of legs.
Acognosia, acognosy A knowledge of remedies.
Acology Therapeutics.
Acomania Servile submission to those in authority while being overdomineering at home.
Acomia Alopecia, baldness.
Aconative Without the desire or wish to act.
Aconite The dried root of Aconitum napellus, Antipyretic, diuretic, diaphoretic anodyne, cardiac and respiratory depressant, externally analgesic.
Acorea Congenital absence of the pupil of the eye.
Acoria Absence of the feeling of satiety after eating.
Acoustic Relating to hearing or the perception of sound.
Acoustic apparatus Auditory apparatus; the anatomical structures that help in hearing.
Acoustic area Part of the brain which lies over the vestibular and cochlear nuclei.
Acoustics The science of sounds and their perception.
Acquired Denoting a disease predisposition, that is not congenital but has developed after birth.
Acrania Lack of a cranium.
Acriflavine An acridine dye, a mixture of 2:8 diamino-10 methylacaridinium chloride and 2,8 diaminacridine. A brownish red odorless powder soluble in water. A powerful antiseptic. a. hydrochloride Acid acriflavine, acid trypaflavine, used as a wound antiseptic. It has been administered intravenously in brucellosis, tularemia, blastomycosis, and trypanosomiasis.
Acrimony The quality of being intensely irritant; biting or pungent.
Acrisorcin Antifungal agent available as 0.2% cream.
Acrocephaly Malformation of the head consisting in a high or pointed cranial vault due to premature closure of the sagittal, coronal and lamboid sutures.
Acrocyanosis A circulatory disorder in which the hands and less commonly the feet are persistently cold, blue, and sweaty. Milder forms are closely allied to chillblains.20
Acrodynia 1. Peripheral neuritis of the fingers or toes 2. A condition caused in rats by a deficiency of pyridoxine (B6) characterized by redness and swelling of the tips of the ears and nose leading to necrosis of these parts.
Acromegaly Acromegalia; Marie disease, a trophic disorder marked by progressive enlargement of the head and face, hands and feet and thorax due to excessive secretion of growth hormone by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (see Figure).
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Appearance in acromegaly: (A) Facial appearance; (B) Acromegalic hand (upper) and normal hand (lower)
Acromelalgia A vasomotor neurosis marked by redness, pain and swelling of the fingers and toes, headache and vomiting, probably the same as erythromelalgia.
Acromion Acromial process, the outer end of the spine of the scapula which projects as a broad flattened process overhanging the glenoid fosssa; it articulates with the clavicle and gives attachment to the deltoid and some fibers of the trapezius muscles.
Acropachy Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
Acropathy Simple hereditary clubbing of the digits without associated pulmonary or other progressive disease; often more severe in males, autosomal dominant inheritance.
Acrophobia A morbid dread of elevated places.
Acrosome The juxtanuclear body at the anterior extremity of a spermatid derived from the Golgi apparatus.
Acrotism Absence or imperceptibility of the pulse; pulselessness.
Actin One of the protein components into which actomyosin can be split. Can exist in a fibrous form (f-actin) or a globular form (G-actin).
Actinobacillus A genus of the family Bricellacea, Gram negative nonmotile small rods or coccoid forms characterized by the tendency to form aggregates in tissues or culture which resemble the sulfur 21granules of actinomycosis. Pathogenic for animals, some species attack man.
Actinomyces Ray fungus so called because it occurs in the form of aggregation of radiating clubshaped rods; a genus of the family Actinomycetaceae, containing nonmotile branching filamentous organisms forming a mycelium and fragmenting into elements of irregular sizes. They are mostly anaerobic but some are microaerophilic. A few of the species are pathogenic for man; several cause scab and other potato diseases but the greater number of them are nonpathogenic soil organisms.
Actinomycin An antibacterial crystalline substance isolated from Actinomyces (streptomyces) antiboiticus. Active against Gram positive bacteria e.g., Bacillus subtilis; slightly active against Gram negative bacteria. It is also fungicidal and toxic to animal tissues. There are three close similar compounds termed A, B and D.
Actinomycosis A disease of cattle and swine, sometimes communicated to man, caused by the ray fungus Actinomyces (Nocardia). It affects the jaw most commonly (lumpy jaw) but it may invade the brain, lungs or gastroenteric tract. It is characterized by the formation of granulomas of sluggish growth which eventually breakdown and discharge a viscid pus containing minute yellowish granulles; the constitutional symptoms are of a septic character.
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) The time required for a fibrin clot to form after addition of calcium and phopholipids, normally 16-40 seconds.
Activation 1. The act of rendering active. 2. An increase in the energy content of an atom or molecule. 3. Techniques of altering the physiologic environment of the brain by stimulating it by light sound or electricity in order to produce hidden or latent abnormal activity in the electroencephalogram. 4. Stimulation of cell division in an ovum by fertilization or by artificial means.
Activator 1. A substance that renders another substance such as an enzyme active. 2. Internal secretion of the pancreas. 3. An apparatus for impregnating water with radium emanation. 224. A catalyst or accelerator for the polymerization of resins.
Active 1. Production effect; not passive. 2. More than usually likely to undergo some chemical reaction. a. transport The name given to the passage of ions or molecules across a cell membrane not by passive diffusion but by an energy consuming process. Active diffusion can take place against a concentration gradient.
Activities of daily living Activities performed by individuals in a normal day that allow independent living.
Actomyosin A protein complex composed of the globulin myosin and actin in the micellae of the muscle fiber. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Acuity Sharpness, clearness, distinctness. a. visual Acuteness of vision; it is indicated by a fraction in which numerator is a number expressing the distance in feet at which the patient sees a line or typed on the chart (usually 20 feet) and the denominator a number expressing the distance in feet at which the normal eye would see the smallest letters which the patient sees at the distance at which he is; thus if at 20 feet he sees only the letters which the normal eye would see at 50 feet the formula of his vision will be V = 20/50.
Acupuncture Puncture made with long fine needles for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Acute care Medical treatment given in a hospital to the patients suffering from an acute illness or injury or recovering from surgery.
Acute mountain sickness Headache, vomiting, breathlessness, insomnia occurring on ascent to high attitude without proper acclimatization.
Acute phase reactants Proteins released from liver to blood in response to cytokines like 1L-6 and C-reactive protein.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome Respiratory insufficiency due to damage to alveolocapillary membrane. The oxygen lack does not improve with nasal oxygen therapy.
Acute urethral syndrome Dysuria, urgency, frequency in women in absence of significant bacteriuria.
Acyclovir Antiviral agent used in herpes.
Acyesis 1. Sterility in the woman. 2. The nonpregnant condition.23
Adalimumab Monoclonal antibody for autoimmune diseases.
Adamantine Exceedingly hard specifically relating to the enamel of the teeth.
Adamantinoma A tumor of jaw, arising from enamel cells. May be benign or of low grade malignancy. SYN__ ameloblastoma.
Adams-Stokes syndrome Black out due to sudden fall in cerebral circulation commonly after heartblock.
Adapalene A newor tretinoin anti-acne drug.
Addict A person who finds it difficult to stop some practice especially the taking of drugs or excessive use of alcohol.
Addiction Habituation to some practice, withdrawal from which causes symptoms.
Addison's disease A disease due to deficient adrenocortical hormone secretion with asthenia, weight loss, fatigue, dehydration and shock.
Additive A substance not essentially part of a material such as food, fuel etc., but which is deliberately added to fulfill some specific purpose.
Additive effect The effect of a combination of two or more drugs that is equal to the sum of the individual drug effects.
Adducent To draw toward the median line.
Adduction 1. Movement of a limb toward the central axis of the body or beyond it. 2. A position resulting from such movement (see Figure).
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Adduction of fingers
Adductor A muscle drawing a part towards the medianline.
Adefovir Antiviral agent, used in hepatitis B.
Adenase A deaminating enzyme in the liver, pancreas and spleen that converts adenosine into hypoxanthine.
Adenine One of the two purines found in both ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid; found also in various nucleotides of importance to the body e.g., adenylic acid adenosine triphosphate (ATP) coenzymes I and II, Q-nitrogen.
Adenitis Inflammation of a lymphnode or of a gland.24
Adenoacanthoma A malignant neoplasm consisting chiefly of glandular epithelium (adenocarcinoma) usually well differentiated with foci of metaplasia to squamous (or epidermoid) neoplastic cells.
Adenoblast An embryonic cell destined to proliferate into cells that will enter into the formation of a gland.
Adenocarcinoma A malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells in glandular or glandlike pattern; frequently with infiltration of adjacent tissue, metastases, recurrence after removal etc; a malignant adenoma.
Adenocyst A cystic tumor developing from glandular epithelium, adenocystoma.
Adenocystoma Adenoma in which the neoplastic glandular epithelium forms cysts or cysts like structures.
Adenohypophysis Anterior lobe, pars anterior or pars glandularis of the pituitary gland.
Adenoid Gland like, adeniform, lymphoid; denoting a form of connective tissue found in the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, solitary and aggregated nodules of the intestine, red bone marrow and elsewhere; it consists of a connective tissue frame work or reticulum; containing masses of round cells (lymphocytes) in its interestices (see Figure).
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Adenoid growth
Adenoidectomy Surgical removal of adenoid glands.
Adenoma A neoplasm of glandular epithelium. a. chromophobe A tumor of the chromophobe cells of the anterior pituitary body associated with hypopituitarism, the cells do not stain well with acid or basic dyes. a. eosinophilic A tumor of the eosinophilic chromophil cells of the anterior pituitary associated with gigantism and acromegaly. a. islet cell A benign neoplasm of the pancreas composed of tissue similar in structure to that of 25the islets of Langerhans. It may contain functioning beta cells and may cause hypoglycemia, sometimes termed insulinoma or Langerhansian a. a. racemose A benign neoplasm composed of epithelial tissue resembling racemose gland. a. sebaceum A neoplasm occurring on the face composed of a mass of sebaceous glands and appearing as an aggregation of red yellow and yellow papules; the patients are sometimes mentally retarded with seizure.
Adenomyosis The ectopic occurrence or diffuse implantation of adenomatous tissue in muscle (usually smooth muscle) as in benign invasion of myometrium by endometrial tissue.
Adenomyxoma A benign neoplasm with histologic characteristics of adenoma and myxoma.
Adenosarcoma A malignant neoplasm of mesodermal tissue with adenomatoid element, sometimes applied to sarcoma originating in connective tissue of a gland.
Adenosine A condensation product of adenine and D-ribose a nucleoside which can be found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids and of the various adenine nucleotides used in PSVT and stress testing.
Adenosine diphosphate A condensation product of adenosine with pyrophosphoric acid, ADP, formed from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate group of latter compound.
Adenosis A more or less generalized glandular disease especially one involving the lymphatic nodes.
Adenotome An instrument for the removal of adenoids in the nasopharynx.
Adenovirus A group of viruses infecting upper respiratory tract.
Adenylate cyclase An enzyme that synthesizes c-AMP.
Adiaphoresis Absence or deficiency of perspiration.
Adiaphoretic A drug that causes repression of perspiration.
Adipocere A fatty substance of waxy consistency into which dead animal tissue are sometime converted when kept from the air under certain favouring conditions of temperature; it is believed to be produced by the conversion into fat of the proteins of the tissues.26
Adiposis An excessive local or general accumulation of fat in the body, liposis. a. dolorosa Dercum's disease, an affection characterized by a deposit of symmetrical nodular or pendulous masses of fat in various regions of the body attended with more or less pain. a. tuberosa simplex Anders disease, an affection resembling A. dolorosa in which the fat occurs in small more or less circumscribed masses on the abdomen or confined to the extremities; these masses are sensitive to the touch and may be spontaneously painful.
Adipsia Absence of thirst.
Adjuvant That which aids or assists; denoting a remedy that is added to a prescription to assist or increase the action of the main ingredient; synergist.
Adolescence Period of attaining complete growth and maturity.
Adolescent Pertaining to the period or state of adolescence.
Adrenal Adrenal glands are small triangular paired glands which lie on the superior surface of each kidney. Each adrenal gland consists of two parts:
  1. An inner zone medulla which secretes catecholamines like adrenaline and nor-adrenaline 2. An outer part cortex which secretes mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), glucocorticoids (cortisone) and sex steroids (testosterone). The secretions of the cortex play an important role in controlling many body functions including growth, regulation of metabolism, weight changes, neuromuscular activity, gastrointestinal function, maintenance of body fluid balance and reproduction. Catecholamines, on the other hand, are involved in mediating the fright, flight or fight response (see Figure).
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Adrenal gland
27Adrenal cortical hyperplasia Comprises of a group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with a deficiency of an enzyme envolved in the synthesis of cortisol, aldosterone or both. The clinical manifestations are thus related to the degree of deficiency of either cortisol or aldosterone. The most common from of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Salt wasting may be present due to inadequate aldosterone synthesis. The sex of a neonate with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is often unclear because of genital ambiguity. Excessive production of androgens can result in female virilization, clitoromegaly, excessive facial/pubic hair, etc. Deficiency of cortisol results in compensatory hypersecretion of corticotrophins and subsequent adrenal hyperplasia.
Adrenal cortical insufficiency When the adrenal cortex is unable to produce sufficient amounts of adrenal cortical hormones, the condition is termed as adrenal cortex insufficiency.
Adrenalectomy Excision of one or both adrenal glands.
Adrenaline Trade name for epinephrine.
Adrenalism A condition resulting from abnormal function of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands, suprarenalism.
Adrenergic Relating to nerve fibers that liberate adrenaline.
Adrenochrome The red oxidation product of epinephrine, was used therapeutically in Germany during the second world war to increase efficiency of diabetic laborers. It is said to produce psychic changes.
Adrenocorticotrophin Adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
Adrenogenital syndrome A condition caused by excess secretion of androgenic hormones by adrenal gland or excess medications with male hormones. In congenital form, the female baby, due to presence of enlarged clitoris and fused labia may be mistaken as male.
Adrenoleukodystrophy A hereditary disease with white matter atrophy of brain and atrophy of adrenal glands.
Adrenosterone An androgen isolated from the adrenal cortex, also known as andrenosterone and as Reichsteins compound G.
Adriamycin Doxorubicin, an anticancer antibiotic.
Adson's maneuver Test for thoracic-outlet syndrome in which there is loss of radial 28pulse in the arm by rotating the head to the unaffected side with extended neck following deep inspiration.
Adsorb To attach atoms or molecules to the surface of a substance by means of unsatisfied valence bonds.
Adsorbent A substance which adsorbs e.g., ADTE, carbon, clay, magnesia, etc.
Adult Fully grown and mature, a fully grown individual.
Adulterant Impurity, additive that is considered to have an undesirable effect.
Adulteration The alteration of any substance by the deliberate addition of a component not ordinarily part of that substance, usually used to imply that the substance is debased as a result.
Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) Use of adjuctive measures like monitoring arrhythmia control, defibrillation, and ventilatory support in patients of shock.
Adventitia The outer most covering of any organ or structure which does not form an integral part of such organ or structure specifically the outer coat of an artery; the tunica adventitia.
Adventitious 1. Coming from without; extrinsic. 2. Accidental. 3. Relating to the adventitia of an artery or an organ.
Adynamia Weakness, vital debility, asthenia.
Aerobacter A genus of the tribe Escherichia, family Enterobacteriacea, containing rod shaped Gram negative organisms, found chiefly in the intestine.
Aerobe An organism that can thrive only in presence of oxygen.
Aerocele Refers to a cavity or pouch filled with air or gas. Aeroceles are commonly seen in connection with trachea or larynx resulting in formation of eracheocele and laryngocele respectively. An epidural aerocele is a collection of air between the dura mater and walls of the spinal column.
Aerodynamics The study of air and other gases in motion, the forces that set them in motion, and the result of such motion.
Aerometer An apparatus for determining the density of or for weighing air.
Aerophagia Swallowing of air.
Aeropholia Abnormal and extreme dread of fresh air or of air in motion.
Aeroscope An instrument for the examination of air for visible impurities.29
Aetinolol Cardioselective betablocker used in hypertension.
Afebrile Nonfebrile, apyretic.
Affect 1. Feeling 2. The sum of an emotion.
Afferent Bringing to or into, denoting certain arteries, veins, lymphatics and nerves.
Affinity 1. Attraction. 2. In chemistry the force that attracts certain atoms to unite with certain others to form compound 3. The selective staining of a tissue by a dye or the uptake of a dye chemical or other substance selectively by a tissue.
Affusion The pouring of water upon the body or any of its parts for therapeutic purposes.
Afibrinogenemia The absence of a detectable amount of fibrinogen in the blood, a relatively rare cause of hemorrhages.
Afterbirth The placenta and membranes that are extruded after the birth of the fetus and most other mammals.
Aftercare The care and treatment of a patient after operation, or of one convalescing from an acute or serious illness.
After discharge The prolongation of reflex response after cessation of stimulation.
After image 1. After vision, Spectrum. 2. Ocular spectrum, the image of an object of which the subjective sensation persists after the object has disappeared. It is called positive when its colors are the same as in the original, negative when the complementary colors are perceived
After pains Painful cramplike contractions of the uterus occurring after childbirth.
After potential The small changes in electrical potential in a stimulated nerve which follow the main potential change. They follow the “spike” potential of the oscillographic record and consists of an initial negative deflection followed by a positive deflection in the oscillograph record.
Agalactia Absence of milk in the breasts after child birth.
Agammaglobulinemia A condition characterized by 1. A lack or extremely low levels of gamma globulin in the blood (and lymphoid tissue) 2. Defective formation of antibody, and 3. Frequent occurrence of suppurative and nonsuppurative infectious disease observed in 2 clinical forms, i.e., primary and secondary. a. acquired A type of primary agammaglobulinemia occurs 30in both sexes at various ages probably resulting from pathological alteration or destruction of normal lymphoid tissue. Level of gamma globulin likely to be from zero to 100 or 125 mg per 100 ml. a. congenital A type of primary agammaglobulinemia occurs chiefly in male infants more than 4 to 6 months of age probably resulting from sex linked recessive gene; level of gamma globulin likely to be from zero to 20 or 30 mg per 100 ml. a. primary As distinguished from hypogammaglubulinemia; includes transient, congenital and acquired forms, probably results from decrease synthesis of gamma globulin with levels usually less than 100 or 125 mg per ml. a. secondary Probably results from increased rate of catabolism or unusual loss of gamma globulin; levels of gamma globulin usually range from 200 to 400 mg per 100 ml. a. transient A type of primary agammaglobulinemia occurs in infants of both sexes usually during the second to sixth months of life probably resulting from immaturity of lymphoid tissue, level of gamma globulin likely to be less than 100 to 150 mg per 100 ml.
Agamogony Asexual reproduction.
Aganglionosis The state of being without ganglia, absence of ganglion cells from Auerbach plexus in eye, distal colon in congenital hypertrophic dilation of the colon.
Agar A gelatinous substance prepared from seaweed in Japan and India, used in constipation to increase the bulk of the feces and in bacteriology as a base for culture media; when unqualified it is usually called agar-agar.
Agent An active force or substance capable of producing an effect. a. antifoaming Chemicals such as ethylalcohol or 2-ethylhexanol administered with oxygen to patients in pulmonary edema to relieve the respiratory obstruction aggravated by the foam of edema fluid. a. chelating A compound such as calciumdisodium ethylene diamine tetra accetic acid which forms a complex with a metal. The medicinal use of these agents is to render poisonous metal compounds innocuous. The resulting chelate complex is unionizable, stable and nonpoisonous and is excreted in the urine. a. eaton A living organism of a coccobacillary 31type 125 to 150 µ that is grown on living cells and on official media and produces a characteristic cold agglutinin. a. reducing Any substance that has the power of initiating a reaction involving the gain of electrons. a. sclerosing A compound such as sodium ricinoleate used in the treatment of varicose veins.
Ageusia Loss of the sense of taste.
Agglutinate Pertaining to a specific activity of antibody in an antigen antibody reaction, as a specific hemagglutin as certain red blood cells (see Figure).
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(A) Bacteria in suspension;(B) Agglutinated bacteria
Agglutination Aggregation into clumps or masses of microorganisms or other cells upon exposure to a specific immune serum or other source of appropriate antibody. a. cold Agglutination of red blood cells by their own serum or by any other serum when the blood is cooled below body temperature but is most pronounced below 25o C. The phenomenon results from cold agglutinins. Although it is seen occasionally in the blood of apparently normal persons it is more frequent in scarlet fever, staphylococcal infections, pneumonia, certain hemolytic anemias and trypanosomiasis.
Agglutinin Antibody that causes clumping or agglutination of the bacteria or other cells which either stimulate the formation of the agglutinaion or contain immunologically, similar reactive material. a. cold Agglutinin that agglutinates human group 0 erythrocytes at zero to 5o C but not at 37o C, found in the serum of less than half of patients with primary atypical pneumonia and also in certain other diseases especially trypanosomiasis, titer is usually at a peak relatively early during recovery.
Agglutinogen An antigenic substance that stimulates the formation of specific agglutinin.
Aggregate 1. To unite or come together in mass or cluster. 2. The total of individual units making up a mass or cluster.
Agitophasia Abnormally rapid speech in which words are 32imperfectly spoken or dropped out of a sentence.
Aglossia Congenital absence of the tongue.
Aglutition Inability to swallow or great difficulty in swallowing, aphagia, dysphagia.
Agnathia Absence of the lower jaw.
Agnosia Lack of sensory ability to recognize objects. a. auditory Central auditory inappreciation of sound, ability to perceive sound at the end organ with inability to interpret it centrally. a. optic Inability to interpret visual images. a. tactile Inability to recognize objects by touch. a. visual spatial Disturbance in spatial orientation and in understanding of spatial relations; apractognosia.
Agonal Relating to the process of dying or the movement of death so called because of the former erroneous notion that dying is a painful process.
Agonist Denoting a muscle in state of contraction with reference to its opposing muscle or antagonist.
Agony Extreme mental or physical suffering; struggle for death.
A:G ratio See Albumin:globulin ratio.
Agrammatism Loss, through cerebral disease, of the power to construct a grammatical or intelligible sentence, words are uttered but not in proper sequence, a form of aphasia.
Agranulocytosis Acute condition characterized by pronounced leukopenia with great reduction in the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, infected ulcers likely to develop in the throat, intestinal tract and other mucous membranes as well as in the skin. Termed also sepsis agranulocytica, malignant leukopenia, agranulocytic angina, mucocytis necroticans agranulocytica and schultz angina.
Agraphia Loss of the power of writing due or to an inability to phrase thought. Acoustic agraphia is acquired inability to write from dictation. In amnemanic agraphia, letters and words can be written but not connected sentences; in verbal agraphia single letters can be written. Musical agraphia is the loss of power to write musical notation.
AHF Antihaemophilic factor (clotting factor VIII).
AHG Antihaemophilic globulin (clotting factor VIII).
AID Artificial insemination of a woman with donor semen.
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is the extreme end of the spectrum 33of disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and impairs the body's cellular immune system. This may result in infection by organisms of normally no or low pathogenicity (opportunistic infections), principally Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), or the development of unusual tumours, namely Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A. related complex (ARC) recurrent symptoms such as lymphadenopathy, night sweats, diarrhoea, weight loss, malaise and chest infections. Examination of the blood may show abnormally low platelet and neutrophil counts as well as low lymphocyte counts (see Figure on page 34).
Air A mixture of gases that make up the earth's atmosphere. It consists of: non-active nitrogen 79%; oxygen 21%, which supports life and combustion; traces of neon, argon, hydrogen, etc.; and carbon dioxide 0.03%, except in expired air, when 6% is exhaled as a result of diffusion that has taken place in the lungs. Air has weight and exerts pressure, which aids in syphonage from body cavities. A. bed a rubber mattress inflated with air. Complemental a. additional air that can be inhaled with inspiratory effort. A. embolism an embolism caused by air entering the circulatory system. A. encephalography radiological examination of the brain after the injection of air into the subarachnoid space. A. hunger A form of dyspnoea in which there are deep sighing respirations, characteristic of severe haemorrhage or acidosis. Residual a. Air remaining in the lungs after deep expiration. Stationary a. That retained in the lungs after normal expiration. Supplemental a. The extra air forced out of the lungs with expiratory effort. Tidal a. That which passes in and out of the lungs in normal respiratory action.
Airway 1. The passage by which the air enters and leaves the lungs. 2. A mechanical device (tube) used for securing unobstructed respiration during general anaesthesia or on other occasions when the patient is not ventilating or exchanging gases properly. It may be passed through the mouth or nose. The tube prevents a flaccid tongue from resting against the posterior pharyngeal wall and causing obstruction of the airway (see Figure on page 35).34
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HIV virus
Akathisia Motor restlessness.
Akinesia Loss of muscle power. This may be the result of a brain or spinal cord lesion or, temporarily, to anaesthesia.
Alalia Loss of impairment of the power of speech due to muscle paralysis or a cerebral lesion.
Alanine aminotransferase An intracellular enzyme involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Increased enzyme level in blood indicate necrosis of liver, muscle or brain (formerly called SGOT).
Albinism A condition in which there is congenital absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.35
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Oropharyngeal airway
It may be partial or complete.
Albright's syndrome F. Albright, American physician, 1900-1969. Condition in which there is abnormal development of bone, excessive pigmentation of the skin and, in females, precocious sexual development.
Albino A person with very little or no pigment in the skin, hair or choroid. A congenital diffuse absence of melanin in the skin and hair.
Albumen 1. White of egg, egg albumin ovalbumin 2. Albumin.
Albumin A simple protein widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals, it is soluble in pure water, precipitable from a solution by mineral acids and coagulable by heat in acid or neutral solution. Varieties of it are found in blood, milk and muscles. a. native Protein existing in its natural state in the body, it is soluble in water and not precipitated by diluted acids, the two principal forms are serum albumin and egg albumin. a. normal human serum A sterile preparation of serum albumin obtained by obtaining blood plasma proteins from healthy persons. Used as a transfusion material and to treat edema due to hypoproteinemia.
Albumin-globulin ratio Often abbreviated as A:G ratio. Albumin and globulin are different types of proteins found in the serum. Albumin is mainly synthesized by liver. This protein helps in creating an osmotic force which maintains fluid volume within the vascular space. Globulins, on the other hand, are synthesized in various other parts of the body. Globulins include: gamma globulins (antibodies), beta globulins, alpha-2-globulins and alpha-361-globulins. Optimal range of A:G ratio is 1.7. A:G ratio may get altered in presence of a pathology.
Albuminuria The presence of protein in urine chiefly albumin (but also globulin) usually indicates disease but sometimes results from a temporary or transient dysfunction. a. adolescent Functional albuminuria occurring at about the time of puberty, it is usually cyclic or orthostatic albuminuria. a. of athletes A form of functional albuminuria following excessive muscular exertion. a. cyclic A functional form sometimes observed intermittently in cycles of 12 to 36 hours duration chiefly in younger persons, the degree of albuminuria is usually slight. a. dietetic The excretion of protein in the urine following the ingestion of certain foods, also termed digestive albuminuria. a. functional A collective term designating any albuminuria in which there is no detectable, associated pathologic condition in the kidneys or other tissues; may be observed intermittently during pregnancy or adolescence, in athletes etc. a. orthostatic A condition characterized by the appearance of albumin in the urine when the patient is in the erect posture and its disappearance when he is recumbent.
Albuterol A sympathomimetic drug used in bronchial asthma.
Alcaine Proparacaine, a local anaesthetic.
Alcohol 1. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which the hydrogen (H) in a hydrocarbon is replaced by hydroxyl (OH), the hydroxide of a hydrocarbon radical reacting with acids to form esters as a metallic hydroxide reacts to form salt. 2. Any beverage containing ethyl alcohol. 3. Ethanol a liquid containing 92.3 percent by weight corresponding to 94.9 percent by volume of C7H5OH. a. absolute With a minimum admixture of water at most 1 percent. a. dehydrogenase A pyridinoenzyme of the liver catalyzing the dehydrogenation of ethyl alcohol to acetaldehyde. a. dehydrated Absolute alcohol; ethyl hydroxide C2H5-OH. Containing not more than 1 percent by weight of water. a. denatured Methylated spirit, ethyl alcohol that has been made undrinkable by the addition of one ninth of its volume of methyl alcohol 37and a small quantity of benzine or the pyridine bases. a. dilute Eight concentration are official, 90, 80, 70, 50, 45, 25 and 20 per cent V/V.
Alcoholism Poisoning with alcohol.
Alcoholophilia The craving for alcohol.
Alcuronium A neuromuscular blocking agent; non depolarizing.
Aldolase Zymohexase, an enzyme involved in the glycolytic chain catalyzing the splitting of fructose-1, 6-disphosphate to 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and phosphodihydroxyacetone.
Aldose A monosaccharide containing the characterizing group of the aldehydes (CHO).
Aldosterone A steroid principle of the adrenal cortex which is more potent than deoxycorticosterone in causing sodium retention and potassium loss. It possesses little or no antirheumatic property. Chemically it differs from corticosterone in having an aldehyde group at C-18.
Aldosteronism Excessive production or excretion of aldosterone. Two forms are recognized 1. True or Primary, characterized by persistent hypokalemia (with alkalosis), hypertension, polyuria, exacerbation of muscular weakness and normal or elevated serum sodium 2. So-called secondary form that is characterized by conspicuous edema (in contrast to primary) and is associated with congestive cardiac failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and so on.
Alendronate Bisphosphonate for osteoporosis.
Aleukia 1. Absence or extremely decreased number of leukocytes in circulating blood, sometimes also termed aleukemic myelosis. 2. Absence or extremely decreased number of blood platelets. (See also thrombopenia).
Alexia Loss of the power to grasp the meaning of written or printed words, sentences, also called optical, sensory or visual alexia in distinction to motor alexia (aphemia or anarthria) in which there is loss of the power to read aloud although the significance of what is written or printed is understood; musical blindness is loss of the power to read musical notation.
Alfacalcidol Active vit D3.
Alfentanil Newer more potent opioid analgesic with shorter duration of action.38
Alfuzosin Alfa-blocker, used in prostatic hypertrophy.
Algesia State of increased sensitivity, to pain some times provoked by stimuli not normally painful.
Alegesimeter, algesiometer An instrument for measuring the degree of sensitivity to a painful stimulus.
Algesthesia The appreciation of pain especially hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, a form of hyperesthesia.
Algid Chilly cold.
Algogenesis (Greek: algos+ genesis = pain + origin). Algogenesis thus refers to the origin or production of pain.
Algogenic Producing pain or lowering the body temperature.
Algolagnia (Greek: algos + lagnia = pain + lust). Sexual tendency in which the person derives sexual gratification either by inflicting pain to the partner or by experiencing the pain, particularly involving the erogeneous zone.
Algophily A desire to suffer from pain because one derives sexual pleasure from it.
Algophobia An abnormal and persistent fear of experiencing pain.
Algor (latin: algor-coolness) Algor mortis is defined as reduction in body temperature following death.
Alimentary Relating to food or nutrition.
Aliphatic 1. Fatty. 2. Denoting the open chain compounds most of which belong to the fatty series.
Alkalies A strongly basic substance alkaline in reaction and capable of saponifying fats, i.e., sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide.
Alkaloid A basic substance found in the leaves, barks, seeds and other parts of plants usually constituting the active principle of crude drug. A substance of similar nature is formed in animal tissues. Alkaloids are usually bitter in taste and alkaline in reaction and unite with acids to form salts.
Alkalosis A normally high alkali reserve (biocarbonate) of blood and other body fluids with a tendency for an increase in pH of the blood although it may remain normal. It may result from persistent vomiting, hyperventilation or excessive ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.
Alkaptonuria Urinary excretion of alkaptone bodies (e.g., homogentisic acid) which cause a dark color if the 39urine is permitted to stand or is alkalinized; Represents a defect in the metabolism of tyrosine and phenylalanine; some times associated with ochronosis.
Alkylating agents Cell cycle nonspecific anticancer drugs.
Alkylation The substitution of an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical for a hydrogen atom in a cyclic or ring compound.
Allantoin Ureidohydantoin, glyoxyidiureide, a nitrogeneous crystalline substance present in the allantoic fluid, the urine of the fetus and elsewhere. Used externally to promote wound healing. It is the oxidation product of purine metabolism in animals other than man and other primates.
Allele Any one of a series of two or more different genes that may occupy the same position or locus on a specific chromosome. As autosomal chromosomes are paired each autosomal locus is represented twice in normal somatic cells. If the same allele occupies both loci the individual or cell is homozygous for this allele, if the two loci are different the individual or cell is heterozygous for both.
Allelism State of two or more genes that must occupy the same position or locus on a specific chromosome.
Allergen A substance (usually protein but may be non- protein material) that stimulates an altered cellular response in the animal or human body thereby resulting in manifestation of allergy as the protein (S) of certain foods, bacteria, pollen and so on. a. bacterial The specific protein (or other material) in the bacterial cell that may stimulate an allergic response e.g., tuberculin which is prepared from tubercle bacilli. a. pollen The material in pollen that may stimulate an allergic response.
Allergic Relating to a recognizable condition of allergy or to any response stimulated by an allergen.40
Allergy 1. Any abnormal or altered reaction to an antigen or allergen including greater (hyper) or less sensitivity, the term is now used almost invariably to indicate hyper- sensitivity of the body cells to a specific substance (antigen, allergen) that results in various types of reaction. The exciting material or antigen may be protein, lipid or carbohydrate in nature. The allergic reaction is basically an antibody reaction and includes anaphylaxis, atopic diseases, serum sickness, contact dermatitis. 2. That branch of medicine which embraces the study, diagnosis and treatment of allergic manifestation. 3. An acquired hypersensitivity to certain drugs and biologic preparations. a. bacterial Increased sensitivity to various substance of certain species of bacteria. Usually result from previous infection with a specific organism but under special condition may occasionally develop after injection of antigenic materials not related to antibody in circulating blood. a. bronchial Asthma and similar conditions that are allergic in origin. a. cold Physical allergy produced by exposure to cold. a. contact Cutaneous reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen to which the person is hypersensitive. a. delayed Allergic response that is not apparent until several hours or a few days have passed as in hypersensitivity to tuberculin, coccidioidin, and other extracts from microorganism. a. drug Unusual sensitivity to a drug or other chemical or to combination products of such compounds with various substances in the body.
Alloantigen An antigen present in the blood or tissue of a donor, i.e. it is not present in the recipient. It can trigger an immune response.
Alloarthroplasty Surgical creation of a new joint in the body using materials other than the cells and tissues from human body. E.g. use of hip prosthesis. In other words it can be defined as surgical construction of an artificial joint.
Allocheiria A sensation or stimulus is perceived at a point on the body which is opposite to the point where the stimulus was actually applied. This is also known as allachesthesia, allesthesia or allochiria. This condition is usually due to the lesions in the central nervous system, 41particularly the parietal lobe.
Allochezia Either defecation from an opening other than the anus or expulsion of non-faecal matter from the anus.
Alloeroticism Sexual attraction toward another person, as opposed to autoeroticism.
Allogamy The fertilization of the ova of one individual by the spermatozoa of another; the opposite of autogamy.
Allograft Tissue transplanted from one person to another. Non-viable a. Skin, taken from a cadaver, which cannot regenerate. Viable a. Living tissue transplanted.
Allopath One who practises medicine according to the system of allopathy.
Allopathy A therapeutic system in which disease is treated by producing a morbid reaction of another kind or in another part by method of substitution.
Alloploidy The condition of a hybrid individual or cell having two or more sets of chromosomes derived from two different ancestral species.
Allopurinol Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, used in gout and hyperuricemia.
Allosome One of the chromosomes differing in appearance or behaviour from the ordinary chromosomes or autosomes and sometimes unequally distributed among the germ cell, heterotypical chromosome.
Allylestrenol Progestational agent.
Alma-Ata declaration A declaration made in 1978 at in conference on Primary Health Care at Alma-Ata in USSR for attaining health for all by year 2000.
Almetrine Respiratory stimulant used in COPD.
Alochia Absence of lochia.
Alopecia Acomia, baldness. a. areata Condition of unknown etiology producing of circumscribed, noninflamed areas of baldness on the scalp, eyebrows and bearded portion of the face. a. dynamica Hair loss due to some destructive disease process affecting the hair follicles. a. follicularis A papular or postular inflammation of the hair follicles of the scalp resulting in scarring and loss of hair in the affected area (see Figure on page 42).
Alveolus A small angular cavity; bony socket of a tooth; air sac of the lungs.
Alovera Skin texture enhancer and emollient.
Alpha 1 antitrypsin An inhibitor of trypsin deficient in patients of emphysema.42
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Androgenic alopecia
Alpha fetoprotein An antigen present in fetus, increased in adults with hepatic cancer.
Alprazolam A benzodiazepine, anxiolytic agent.
Alprostadil Prostaglandin used in congenital heart disease esp. PDA.
ALP test ALP (alkaline phosphatase) is an enzyme found in various body tissue. Various types of this enzyme (also known as isoenzymes) are present in different body structures, e.g. Liver and bone ALP isoenzyme. E.g. Liver and bone ALP isoenzyme. ALP isoenzyme test aims at measuring the amounts of different types of ALP present in the body. Elevated levels of ALP can occur in conditions like liver disease, biliary disease (jaundice), kidney disease, bone disease, various types of cancers, oesteogenesis imperfecta, etc.
Alternative medicine Methods other than scientific to diagnose and treat diseases like homeopathy, ayurveda, acupuncture, acupressure, aromatherapy, naturopathy, faith healing, yoga.
Altitude sickness A pathological condition occurring at high altitudes due to presence of a low air pressure. It can result in symptoms like headache, dyspnoea, lassitude, weakness, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, diziness, anorexia, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, usual disturbances, mental confusion, depression, etc. The exact pathogenesis of altitude sickness is not yet understood. Though it occurs at low atmospheric pressure, it is not necessarily related to low partial pressure of oxygen.
Aluminium A white silvery metal of very light weight. Symbol Al. atomic no 13, atomic weight 26.97 melting point 660o, inhalation of the finely divided dust has been proposed to bind silica, to prevent silicosis. a. hydroxide Hydrated alumina a light white powder. Soluble in water, used as an astringent dusting powder. Also used 43internally as a mild astringent, antacid. a. oleate A yellow mass insoluble in water. Used locally, on mucous membranes as an astringent antiseptic. a. phosphate A white infusible powder insoluble in water but soluble in alkali hydroxides. Used for dental cement with calcium sulfate and sodium silicate. a. subacetate Used in solution as an astringent, and in embleming fluids. Diluted to about 0.5 percent with water it is used as an ingradient in mouth washes. a. sulfate Cake alum, a white crystaline powder soluble in water, used as an astringent, detergent in skin ulcers. a. tannate A basic salt of varying composition, a brownish powder insoluble in water. Used as astringent solution for local applications. a. torotannate A brownish powder. Used as an antiseptic and dusting powder. The tartarte is soluble in water, it is used as a local astringent.
Alveolitis Inflammation of alveoli. a. allergic Diffuse granulomatous lung disease caused by hypersensitivity to organic dusts (see Figure).
Alzheimer's cells A. Alzheimer, German neurologist, 1864-1915. 1. Giant astrocytes with large prominent nuclei found in the brain in hepatolenticular degeneration and hepatic comas. 2. Degenerated astrocytes.
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Alveoli pulmonis (pulmonary alveoli), with cross-section showing the alveolar ducts and sacs
Alzheimer's disease A disease of unknown etiology causing presenile dementia.
Amalgam A solution of metal in mercury. In dentistry the metal consists mainly of intermetallic compound Ag3 Sn, Zinc and copper are useful but not essential.
Amanita A genus of fungi, Agaricus. a. phallaoides deadly agaric, contains a poisonous principle that causes severe gastrointestinal symptoms and is hemolytic and injurious to the kidneys.
Amantidine An agent used in Parkinsonism, and influenza.44
Amaurosis A total loss of vision. a. fugax Temporary blindness in airplane pilots when making a circular manoeuvre with head toward the centre of the circle due to centrifugal force causing cerebral ischemia, flight blindness, blackout. a. burn's Postmarital amaurosis; blindness following sexual excess. a. toxic Blindness due to optic neuritis excited by tobacco, alcohol, wood alcohol, lead, arsenic, quinine or other poisons.
Ambenoniam An anti-cholin-esterase agent.
Amblyacousia Hearing dullness.
Amblyopia Uncorrectable decrease in vision in one or both eyes, which occurs commonly due to asymmetric refractive error or strabismus.
Amblygeustia Temporary or permanent dimunition in the sense of taste.
Amblyoscope An instrument resembling a stereoscope used in training the fusion sense and habituating an amblyopic eye to bear its share of vision.
Ambroxol A mucolytic.
Ambu bag A hand operated, self-rainflating bag used during resuscitation. It is connected by tubing and non-rebreathing valve to a face mask or endotracheal tube and is used for artificial ventilation.
Amebiasis Infestation with Entamoeba histolytica or other pathogenic amoebas. a. hepatic Infection of the liver with entamoeba histolytica, may occur with or without antecedent amebic dysentery.
Amebocyte A cell such as a neutrophil leukocyte having the power of ameboid movements.
Ameboid 1. Resembling an ameba in appearance or characteristic 2. Of irregular outline with peripheral projections.
Ameboma An amebic granuloma, a nodular tumorlike focus of proliferative inflammation sometimes developing in chronic amebiasis especially in the wall of colon.
Ameiosis A cell division resulting in formation of gametes without reduction in chromosome number.
Amelia Congenital absence of a limb or limbs.
Amelioration Improvement, moderation in the intensity of symptoms.
Amelobastoma A neoplasm originating from epithelial tissue. Related to the enamel organ.45
Amenorrhoea Absence or abnormal cessation of the menses.
Amentia 1. Idiocy 2. A form of confusional insanity marked especially by apathy, disorientation and more or less stupor.
Amethocaine A local anaesthetic for mucous membranes. A. pastille A lozenge that, when dissolved slowly in the mouth, will aid the passage of a bronchoscope or gastroscope.
Amethopterin Methotrexata, a cytotoxic drug.
Amifostine Cytoprotective agent in cancer chemotherapy.
Amiloride A potassium sparing diuretic.
Amikacin An aminoglycoside antibiotic.
Aminacrine Antibacterial, antitrichomonad agent used in vaginal preparations.
Amino acid A chemical compound containing both NH2 and COOH groups. The end-product of protein digestion. Essential a. a. One required for replacement and growth but which cannot be synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts and must be obtained in the diet (see Table). Nonessential a. a. One necessary for proper growth but which can be synthesized in the body and is not specifically required in the diet.
Amino caproic acid Antifibrinolytic agent used for vascular plugging in haemorrhage.
Aminoglutethimide Adreno- cortical suppressant used in breast cancer.
Aminopterin 4-Aminopteroyl-glutamic acid, a folic acid antagonist, yellow crystals, soluble in alkali. Used in treatment of acute leukemia and other neoplastic diseases.
Aminosalicylic acid p-Aminosalicylic acid, 4-amino-2hydroxybenzoic acid, small crystals slightly soluble in water. Melting point 150o C. A bacteriostatic agent against tubercle bacilli, used as an adjunct to streptomycin. Abbreviated AS or PAS.46
Amiodarone Antiarrhythmic agent.
Amitryptyline hydrochloride Chemically and pharmacologically related to imipramine hydrochloride. An antidepressant agent with mild tranquilizing properties, used in the treatment of mental depression and maniac depressive states.
Amlodipine Calcium channel blocker for hypertension.
Ammonia A volatile alkaline gas, NH3, very soluble in water combining with acids to form a number of salts.
Ammoniemia The presence of ammonia or some of its compounds in the blood, thought to be formed from the decomposition of urea with weak pulse, gastroenteric symptoms and coma.
Ammonium A group of atoms, NH4 that behaves as a univalent metal in forming ammonical compound; it has never been obtained in a free state. a. acetate White, deliquescent, crystals, soluble in water, melting point 112o C. Mild diaphoretic and refrigerant, used in preserving meat. a. carbonate A mixture of carbon dioxide and carbonate soluble in water, occurs in white masses with ammonical odor. Cardiac and respiratory stimulant and expectorant. a. chloride White crystallin powder soluble in water. Stimulant-expectorant and cholagogue. Used to relieve alkalosis, also promotes lead excretion. a. nitrate A white deliquescent crystalline salt, soluble in water. Used in making nitrous oxide gas in freezing mixtures and in fertilizers. a. salicylate White crystalline powder soluble in water. Used in rheumatism.
Amnesia Loss or impairment of memory, inability to recall past experiences. a. anterogradea In reference to events occurring after the trauma or disease that cause the condition. a. retrograde In reference to events that occurred before the trauma or disease that caused the condition. a. visual Inability to recall to mind the appearance of objects that have been seen or to recognize printed words.
Amniocentesis The withdrawal of fluid from the uterus through the abdominal wall by means of a syringe and needle (see Figure on page 47). It is primarily used in the diagnosis of chromosome disorders in the fetus and in cases of hydramnios.47
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Amnioinfusion Infusion of normal saline into the amniotic sac to increase the amniotic fluid volume.
Amnion The innermost or the membranes enveloping the embryo in utero. It consists of a layer of splanchnopleure with its ectodermal components toward the embryo and its somatic mesodermal component external (see Figure).
Amnioscope An endoscope which is passed through the uterine cervix to visualize the fetus and amniotic fluid.
Amniotomy Surgically breaking the amniotic sac to induce or expedite labor.
Amobarbital White crystalline powder of a bitter taste slightly soluble in water, melting point 156o C. A central nervous system depressant, has an intermediate duration of action.
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Amnion, chorion, and other embryonic membranes surrounding the embryo
Amodiaquine hydrochloride Camoquine hydrochloride, as the dihydrochloride hemihydrate, yellow crystals soluble in water. A synthetic antimalarial drug, effective against plasmodium vivax in the erythrocytic phase of malaria, less effective against P.vivax falciparum and P. malaria infections. Also used in treatment of amebic hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis.
Amoeba A genus of unicellular protozoan organisms of microscopic size existing in nature in large numbers, many living as parasites, some species pathogenic for man.
Amoebiasis Infection with amoeba, particularly Entamoeba histolytica.48
Amoebic Pertaining to, caused by, or of the nature of an amoeba. A. abscess an abscess cavity of the liver resulting from liquefaction necrosis due to entrance of Entamoeba histolytica into the portal circulation in amoebiasis; amoebic abscesses may affect the lung, brain and spleen. A. dysentery a form of dysentery caused by Entamoeba histolytica and spread by contaminated food, water and flies; called also amoebiasis. Amoebic dysentery is mainly a tropical disease by many cases occur in temperate countries. Symptoms are diarrhoea, fatigue and intestinal bleeding. Complications include involvement of the liver, liver abscess and pulmonary abscess. Several drugs are available for treatment, for example, emetine hydrochloride and chloroquine, which may be used singly or in combination.
Amoxapine Tricyclic antidepressant.
Amoxicillin Ampicillin group of antibiotic with better GI. absorption.
Ampere Unit of strength of an electrical current representing a current having a force of one volt and passing through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm.
Amphetamine An acrid liquid racemic synthetic preparation slightly soluble in water, closely related in its structure and action to ephedrine and other sympathomimetic amines. Central nervous system stimulant.
Amphoric Denoting the sound heard in precussion and auscultation resembling the noise made by blowing across the mouth of a bottle.
Amphoteric Having two opposite characteristics especially the capacity of reacting as either acid or base.
Amphotericin B An antibiotic substance derived from strains of streptomyces nodosus, used for the treatment of deep seated mycotic infections.
Ampicillin Semisynthetic broad spectrum penicillin, acid resistant.
Ampoule A hermetically sealed container usually made of glass containing a sterile medicinal solution or powder to be made up in solution, to be used for subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection.
Ampulla A sacular dilation of canals, is seen in the semicircular canals of the ear or the lactiferous ducts of the mammary glands.49
Amputation 1. The cutting off of a limb or part of a limb, the breast or other projecting part. 2. In dentistry amputation may be of the root of a tooth or of the pulp or even of a nerve root or ganglion e.g., the Gasserian ganglion.
Amrinone Bipyocidine derivative with positive inotropic effect, used in heart failure.
Amyelia Congenital absence of spinal cord.
Amyostasia Tremors of the muscle causing difficulting in standing or in coordination. This condition is commonly seen in the cases of locomoter ataxia.
Amygdala A nugget like mass of gray matter in the anterior portion of temporal lobe.
Amylase A starch splitting or amyloytic enzyme that causes hydrolytic cleavage of the starch molecule.
Amylnitrate A vasodilator used in angina and cyanide poisoning.
Amylocaine hydrochloride Benzoyl ethyldimethyl— aminopropanyl hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Its action is slightly stronger than that of cocaine less toxic but more irritant. It has been used for spinal anesthesia. Side effects and after effects are frequent.
Amyloid A protein (probably combined with chondrotin sulfuric acid) that is microscopically homogeneous hyaline and acidophilic and frequently manifests great affinity for congored; occurs characteristically as pathologic extracellular deposits beneath the endothelium of capillaries or sinusoids in the walls of arterioles and especially in association with reticulo endothelial tissue.
Amyloidosis Deposits of amyloid in various organs tissues. Four types of conditions are recognized i.e. primary secondary, a localized masses or nodules, and associated with multiple myeloma. a. primary A form of amyloidosis not associated with other recognized disease, tends to involve diffusely the mesenchymal tissues in the tongue, lungs, intestinal tract, skin, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, the amyloid in this condition frequently does not manifest the usual affinity for congored and sometimes provokes a foreign body type of inflammatory reaction in the adjacent tissue. a. secondary The most frequent form of amyloidosis occurs in association with another chronic disease, e.g., tuberculosis, 50osteomyelitis, pyelonephritis and so on; organs chiefly involved are the liver, spleen, and kidneys and the adrenal glands less frequently (see Figure).
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Amylopectin A polysaccharide found in the outer layer of the starch granule, characterized by glucose residues arranged in branched chains.
Amyotonia Loss of muscular tone. Amyotonia congenita is a congenital disease associated with absent tone and reflexes in the voluntary muscles. Due to reduced muscular tone, the muscles often remain underdeveloped.
Amyotrophy Muscular wasting or atrophy.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. It is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease associated with degeneration of motor neurons and the nerve cells in the CNS which are responsible for controlling voluntary muscular activity. The disorder results in extreme weakness and atrophy of muscles both in upper and lower limbs. Eventually the patient loses the ability to control and initiate voluntary movements in the entire body except for the eyes. Cognitive function usually remains unimpaired. The disease has no cure. However, recently the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved the use of the drug riluzole (rilutek) for treatment of this condition.
Anabolism The process of assimilation of nutritive matter and its conversion into living substances. This includes synthetic processes and requires energy.
Anaerobe A microorganism that can live and thrive in the absence of free oxygen. These organisms are found in body cavities or wounds where the oxygen tension is very low. Examples are the bacilli of tetanus and gas gangrene. Facultative a. A microorganism that can live and grow with or without molecular oxygen. Obligate a. An organism that can grow 51only in the complete absence of molecular oxygen.
Analgesia Loss of sensibility to pain.
Analgia Freedom from pain.
Analogous Resembling functionally but having a different origin or structure.
Analogue 1. One of two organs or parts in different species of animals or plants which differ in structure or development but are similar in function. 2. In chemistry one of two or more compounds with similar structure but different atoms e.g., nitrogen and carbon monoxide.
Analysis 1. The breaking up of a chemical compound into its simpler elements, a process by which the composition of a substance is determined. 2. The separation of any compound substance into the parts composing it. 3. Applied in electroencephalography to the estimation or recording of the components of a complex wave form in terms of their frequency and amplitude. a. gastric Analysis of the contents of the stomach after the ingestion of a test meal. The gastric contents are aspirated through a specially designed stomach tube, and the free and total acidities, the pH and the peptic activity are determined. They may also be examined for food residue, bile, blood, mucus etc.
Anamnesis 1. The act of remembering. 2. The medical history of a patient.
Anandria Absence of masculinity.
Anaphase The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. In mitosis a full set of daughter chromosomes (46 in man) moves towards each pole. In the first division of meiosis one member of each homologous pair (23 in man) now consisting of two chromatids united at the centromere, moves towards each pole. In the second division of meiosis the centromere has divided and the two chromatids separate one moving to each pole.
Anaphrodisiac A drug or a chemical substance which blunts the libido or sexual desire. It is the opposite of aphrodisiac which enhances sexual desire.
Anaphylactoid Resembling anaphylaxis. A shock may result from intravenous injection of 1. serum that is pretreated with kaolin or starch 2. Trypsin 3. organic 52colloids. 4. peptone or 5. several other materials. The pathologic changes in a shock are different from those of true anaphylaxis.
Anaphylatoxin According to the humoral hypothesis of the mechanism of anaphylaxis, anaphylaxis results from the in vivo combination of specific antibody (anaphylactin) and the specific. Sensitizing material, when the latter is injected at a shock dose in a sensitized animal.
Anaphylaxis The antithesis of prophylaxis; anaphylaxis is an exaggerated or extreme hypersensitivity that may be induced in various animal species as a result of the injection of even a small dose of foreign material (anaphylactogen) this is usually termed the sensitizing dose. Anaphylaxis develops during an incubation period of 10 to 14 days and then the injection of a second larger dose of the same material (usually termed the shocking dose) promptly results in anaphylatic shock.
Anaplasia 1. A reversion in the case of a cell to a more primitive embryonic type, i.e., to one in which reproductive activity is marked. 2. Loss of structural differentiation.
Anasarca Severe generalized edema.
Anastrozole Aromatase inhibitor for breast cancer.
Anastomosis 1. A natural communication direct or indirect between two blood vessels or tubular structures. 2. An operative union between of two hollow or tubular structures (see Figure).
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Anastomosis arteriovenosa simplex
Anatomy 1. The structure of an organism; morpholgy. 2. The science of the morphology or structure of organisms. 3. Dissection. 4. A work describing the form and structure of an organism and its various parts. a. applied Anatomical knowledge utilized in the diagnosis of disease and in treatment especially surgical treatment. a. comparative 1. Anatomy of the lower animals 2. The comparative study of the human body with those of 53other animals and observation of analogous and homologous parts. a. surface The study of the configuration of the surface of the body especially in its relation to deeper parts.
Ancylostoma A genus of Nematoda, the old world hookworm the members of which are parasitic in the duodenum where they attach themselves to the mucous membrane sucking the blood and causing a state of anemia and mental and physical inertia. The eggs are passed with the feces and the larvae develop in moist soil, they enter the body of man through the skin of the feet and ankles, possibly also in the drinking water and reach maturity in the intestine. a. caninum A species with three pairs of ventral teeth in the oral cavity infesting dogs, cause of kennel anemia, it occurs also although rarely in man. a. duodenale A reddish worm with two pairs of hooklike teeth on the ventral surface and one rudimentary minor pair. These species and A. braziliense (with only one pair of ventral teeth) are found in man, the latter in dogs and cats also (see Figure).
Androgen A generic term for an agent usually a hormone, e.g., testosterone or androsterone that stimulates the activity of the accessory sex organs of the male; encourages the development of the male sex characteristics.
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Ancylostoma duodenale, (A) Larval form; (B) mouth of adult, showing two pairs of teeth
Androgynoid A man with hermaphroditic sexual characteristics who is mistaken for a woman, a pseudohermaphrodite. Possession of masculine characteristics by a genetically pure female.
Androgynus Female pseudohermaphrodite.
Andropathy Any disease such as prostatitis peculiar to the male sex.
Androstenedione A testosterone precursor.54
Anemia (Anaemia) Qualitative or quantitative in reduction in red blood cells. a. elliptocytic Anemia characterized by elliptical erythrocytes (ovalocytes) resembling those observed normally in camels; 1 to 15 percent of erythrocytes in nonanemic persons may be oval but greater proportions are observed in certain patients with microcytic anemia, latter conditions frequently termed symptomatic ovalocytosis. a. hyperchromic Characterized by an increase in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is greater than normal with the exception of some instances of hereditary spherocytosis such “supersaturation” does not occur although the weight of hemoglobin per cell may be greater in the macrocytes of pernicious anemia, the increase is proportional to larger volume and such cells are not truly hyperchromic. a. hypochromic Characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of haemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is less than normal; the individual cells contains less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. a. hypochromic microcytic A type of anaemia caused by a deficiency of iron; the amount of haemoglobin is reduced to a greater degree than the blood red cell count as a result of 1. less than the normal percentage of haemoglobin per cell and 2. the smaller than the normal size of most of the erythrocytes. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are less than normal. a. Iron deficiency Any hypochromic microcytic anemia with the exception of that occurring in thalassemia and anemia produced in certain experimental animals that are deficient, in vitamin B6 or copper. a. macrocytic Any anaemia in which the average size of circulating erythrocytes is greater than normal, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is 94 cu or more (normal range 82 to 92 cu) includes such syndromes as pernicious anemia, celiac disease, anaemia of pregnancy etc. a. megaloblastic Any 55anaemia in which there is a predominant number of megaloblasts and relatively few normoblasts among the hyperplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow (as in pernicious) a. normochromic Anemia in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes is within the normal range, i.e., the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is around 32 to 36 percent.
Anergia Lack of activity.
Anergy Impaired ability to react with antigens.
Aneroid Equipment that does not utilize liquid medium for measurement of pressure, e.g., aneroid barometer.
Anesthesia Partial or complete loss of sensation with or without loss of consciousness (depending upon stage of anaesthesia) induced by administration of an anaesthetic agent. a. caudal Injection of anaesthetic agent into caudal epidural space. a. dissociative A type of anaesthesia characterized by amnesia, analgesia and cataplexy. The patient is dissociated from environment. a. infiltration Local anaesthesia produced by injecting the local anaesthetic solution directly into tissue. a. inhalational General anesthesia produced by inhalation of vapor or gas anaesthetic like ether, nitrous oxide, halothane, trilene etc. a. pudendal The pudendal nerve near the spinous process of ischium is blocked; used in perineal and obstetric surgery. a. spinal Anaesthesia produced by injection of anaesthetic agent into subarachnoid space. a. surgical Depth of anaesthesia of which relaxation of muscles and loss of sensation and consciousness are adequate for performance of surgery. a. twilight State of light anaesthesia.
Anesthesiologist Physician specializing in anaesthesiology.
Anesthetize To induce anesthesia.
Aneuploidy Possession of abnormal number of chromosomes.
Aneurysm Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel due to congenital weakness or defect in the wall (see Figure on page 56). a. atherosclerotic56
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Types of aneurysm
Aneurysm due to degeneration of arterial wall by atherosclerosis. a. berry Small saccular congenital aneurysm of cerebral vessel. a. cirsoid A dilatation of network of vessels, forming a pulsating subcutaneous tumor, usually on the scalp. a. compound Aneurysm in which some of the layers of vessel wall are ruptured and others dilated. a. dissecting Aneurysm in which following interruption of wall of a blood vessel, blood enters in between the walls separating them for variable distance and often obstructing the vessel lumen. a. fusiform Aneurysm in which all the walls of blood vessel dilate more or less equally, forming a tubular swelling. a. mycotic Aneurysm due to bacterial infection of vessel wall. a. saccular The dilatation does not involve the entire circumference of vessel.
Angel dust Phencyclidine, a psychodelic.
Angel's trumpet A flowering shrub producing alkaloids like atropine, hyoscyamine and hyoscine.
Angel's wing Posterior projection of scapula caused by paralysis of serratus anterior.
Anger The emotion of extreme displeasure to a person, a situation or an object.
Angiectasia Dilatation of blood and lymph vessel.
Angiitis Inflammation of blood vessels.
Angina Severe pain. a. abdominis Abdominal pain due to ischaemia of gut. a. cruris Leg pain due to vascular obstruction. a. decubitus Attacks of angina pectoris occurring in recumbent position. a. Ludwig Deep infection of tissues in the floor of the mouth. a. pectoris Ischemic pain of cardiac origin manifesting as constriction around heart, faintness; radiation of pain occurring to jaw, neck, left shoulder, upper abdomen and along inner border of left arm. a. prinzmetal's Angina pectoris with ST elevation due to coronary spasm. a. unstable Angina of recent onset, abrupt progression; occurring at rest; is due to superadded coronary thrombosis, a fore runner of impending infarction. a. 57variant Angina occurring at rest in absence of cardiac acceleration (see Figure).
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Angioblast The mesenchymal cell derivative which ultimately develops into blood vessels.
Angioblastoma Tumor involving blood vessels of brain and meninges.
Angiocardiogram Serial X-rays of heart after intraventricular injection of radio opaque dye.
Angioedema An allergic condition characterized by urticaria and edematous areas of skin and mucus membrane or viscera. The reaction is IgE dependent, but is often complement mediated as in hereditary angioedema.
Angioendothelioma A tumor with endothelial cells predominance occurring in bone.
Angiogenesis Development of blood vessels.
Angiogenic factors A group of polypeptides that either stimulate vascular endothelium to proliferate or stimulate macrophages to secrete endothelial growth factors.
Angiography X-ray of blood vessels after injection of radio opaque material. a. cerebral X-ray picture of cerebral circulation to evaluate stroke, tumor, AV malformation, aneurysm or abnormal vascular pattern. a. coronary X-ray of coronary circulation to evaluate ischaemic disease. a. digital subtraction A computer aided “subtraction” technique that subtracts images of surrounding tissue from the contrast image to give better resolution and minor details.
Angioid streaks Dark wavy anastomosing striae lying beneath the retinal vessels.
Angiokeratoma Thickening of epidermis of feet with telangiectases warty growths.
Angiolipoma A mixed tumor containing blood vessels and fatty tissue.
Angiolith Calcareous deposits in walls of blood vessels.58
Angiology Science of blood vessels and lymphatics.
Angioma A tumor containing blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymph vessels (lymphangioma), considered to be misplaced fetal tissue undergoing abnormal development. a. capillary Congenital superficial hemangioma appearing as irregular red discolouration due to overgrowth of capillaries. a. cavernous Elevated dark red tumor consisting of blood filled vascular spaces; involves submucous and subcutaneous tissue and is pulsatile. a. senile Hemangioma in elderly due to capillary wall degeneration, producing a compressible mass. a. serpiginous A skin disorder characterized by appearance of small, red vascular dots arranged in rings due to proliferation of capillaries. a. stellate Hemangioma in which telangiectatic blood vessels radiate from a central point SYN __ spider nevus.
Angiomalacia Softening of wall of blood vessels.
Angiomatosis Multiple angiomas.
Angiomyolipoma A benign growth containing vascular, muscular and fatty elements.
Angiopathy Any disease of blood or lymph vessel.
Angioplasty Dilatation of obstructed vessel by an angiographic procedure (see Figure).
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Balloon angioplasty—the expanded balloon pressing against a stenotic site in an artery
Angiotensin A vasopressor substance formed by interaction of renin on a serum globulin called angiotensinogen. a. I Physiologically inactive form of angiotensin. a. II Physiologically active form of angiotensin; a potent vasopressor and stimulant of aldosterone secretion.
Angiotensinogen A serum globulin fraction formed in the liver; hydrolyzed to angiotensin by renin.
Angle The space outlined by two diverging lines from a common point or by the meeting of two planes. a. acromial Angle formed by junction of lateral and posterior borders of acromion. a. alpha Angle formed by intersection of visual line with 59optic axis. a. alveolar Angle between the horizontal plane and a line drawn through the base of nasal spine and the midpoint of alveolus of upper jaw. a. cardiophrenic The angle formed by diaphragm and heart outline. a. carrying Angle made at the elbow by extending the long axis of fore arm and the upper arm. Normally it is around 15o in male and 18o female. a. costophrenic Angle formed by lateral end of diaphragm with the rib cage. a. facial Angle made by the lines from the nasal spine and external auditory meatus meeting between upper middle incisor teeth. a. gamma Angle between line of vision and visual axis. a. of Treitz Sharp curve at duodeno jejunal junction. a. sphenoid Angle formed at the top of sella turcica by intersection of lines drawn from nasal point and tip of rostrum of sphenoid bone. a. visual Angle formed by the line drawn from nodal point of eye to the edges of the object being viewed.
Angor animi The feeling that one is dying as in angina pectoris.
Angstrom unit Unit for measurement of wavelength equal to 10-10 meter.
Angular artery Artery at inner canthus of eye.
Anhedonia Lack of pleasure in normally pleasurable acts.
Anhidrosis Absence of sweat secretion.
Anhydrase Enzyme that helps in removal of water from a chemical compound.
Anhydride Compound formed by removal of water from a substance, especially an acid.
Anhydrous Lacking water.
Anicteric Without jaundice.
Aniline The simplest aromatic amine, an oily liquid derived from benzene, used for dyes.
Anilism Chronic aniline poisoning manifesting with vertigo, cardiac conduction defects, muscular weakness.
Anima Soul, individual's innerself.
Animal A living organism. a. cold blooded An animal whose body temperature changes with that of environment. a. warmblooded Animals that maintain constant body temperature irrespective of change in environmental temperature.
Animation State of being alive. a. suspended State of apparent death.
Anion An ion carrying negative charge being attracted to positive pole, anode.60
Anion gap It is calculated from subtracting HCO3 + Cl from plasma sodium. Normal value is 8-12 mEq/L.
Aniridia Congenital absence of a part of iris.
Anisindione Anticoagulant agent.
Anisocoria Inequality in size of pupils.
Anisocytosis Marked inequality in size of cells.
Anisodactyly Unequal length of the coresponding fingers or digits.
Anisogamy Sexual fusion of two gametes of different form and size.
Anisognathous A condition of having different sizes of maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) dental arches or jaws. The upper jaw is usually larger than the lower one.
Anisoleukocytosis Various forms of leukocytes are present in an abnormal ratio in the blood.
Anisomastia Condition of unequal size of breasts.
Anisometropia Condition in which refractive powers of each eye are different.
Anisophoria Muscular imbalance in eye so that horizontal visual plane of one eye is different from other.
Anisopiesis Inequality in arterial blood pressure between the two sides of the body.
Anisotropine A belladona alkaloid derivative, spasmolytic.
Anisuria Characterized by marked alteration in the amount of urine produced; alternating between oliguria and polyuria.
Ankle The hinge joint formed by articulation of tibia, fibula and talus. a. clonus Repeated contraction and relaxation of leg muscles following mild extension of ankle in patients of corticospinal disease, an evidence of increased muscle tone.
Ankle jerk Plantar flexion of foot due to contraction of calf musculature following a brisk tap to tendo achilis tendon.
Ankyloblepharon Adhesion of upper and lower eyelids at lid margin.
Ankylocolpos Imperforated or atretic vaginal canal.
Ankyloglossia Poor tongue protrusion due to abnormally short frenulum.
Ankylosis Immobility of a joint, due to fibrous tissue growth or bony fusion within joint. a. dental Fusion of root cementum with adjacent alveolar bone.
Annular Circular.61
Annuloraphy Closure of hernial ring by suture.
Annulus A ring shaped structure.
Anococcygeal body The muscle and fibrous tissue lying in between anus and coccyx; giving attachment to.
Anococcygeal ligament A band of fibrous tissue joining coccyx to external sphincter ani.
Anode The positive pole.
Anodontia Absence of teeth.
Anomaloscope Device for detection of color blindness.
Anomaly Deviation from normal, irregularity.
Anomia Inability in naming objects.
Anopheles A genus of mosquito, vector for plasmodia, the causative agent of malaria.
Anorchism Congenital absence of one or both testes.
Anorexia Loss of appetite. a. nervosa A psychological malade of young girls who are anorexic for fear of becoming obese.
Anorexigenic Causing loss of appetite
Anoscope Speculum for examining anus and lower rectum.
Anosmia Loss of sense of smell.
Anovulatory Not associated with ovulation.
Anovulatory cycle Menstrual cycle not preceded by ovulation.
Anoxemia Insufficient oxygenation of blood.
Anoxia Reduced oxygenation of tissues from various causes. a. altitude Insufficient oxygen content of inspired air in high altitude causing anoxia. a. anemic Anoxia due to decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood. a. anoxic Anoxia due to defective pulmonary mechanism of oxygenation, i.e., pulmonary fibrosis, edema, bronchial obstruction, emphysema etc. a. stagnant Tissue anoxia due to stagnant peripheral circulation as in cardiac failure, shock.
Ansa Any structure in the form of a loop or arc. a. cervicalis A nerve loop in the neck formed by fibres from first three cervical nerves. a. lenticularis Fibre tract from globus pallidus to ventral nucleus of thalamus that winds round in internal capsule. a. peduncularis Fibre tract from anterior temporal lobe to medio dorsal nucleus of thalamus, extending around internal capsule. a. sacralis Nerveloop connecting sympathetic trunk with coccygeal ganglion.62
Ansamycin A rifamycin derivative, used in tuberculosis.
Ansiform Shaped like a loop.
Antabuse Disulfiram, used to cause aversion in alcoholics by increasing acetaldehyde concentration.
Antacid Agent that neutralizes gastric HCl.
Antagonism Mutual opposite or contradictory action.
Antagonist Agent or any other thing that counteracts the action of something else. a. narcotic A drug that reverses action of a narcotic hence producing withdrawal symptoms in some (see Figure).
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Antagonist—The triceps brachii extends the forearm at the elbow while the biceps brachii and its antagonist—flexes the elbow
Antalgesic SYN __ analgesic, i.e., pain reliever.
Antaphrodisiac Agent that suppresses sexual desire.
Antasthenic Invigorating, strengthening, relieving weakness.
Antazoline An antihistamine used for allergic conjunctivitis.
Ante Prefix meaning before.
Antecedent Some thing coming before; precursor.
Antecibum Before meals.
Ante cubital At the bend of elbow.
Ante cubital fossa Triangular area lying anterior to and below the elbow, bounded medially by pronator teres and laterally by brachio-radialis.
Anteflexion Abnormal bending forward, e.g., especially of uterine body at its neck (see Figure).
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Anteflexion of uterus
Antegrade Moving forward or in the direction of flow.
Ante mortem Before death.
Antenatal Occurring before birth.
Antenatal diagnosis Diagnostic procedures done to determine the health and genetic status of foetus, e.g., ultrasound, amiocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, biophysical profile, non-stress test.63
Antepar Piperazine citrate.
Antepartum Before onset of labor.
Anterior In anatomy refers to ventral portion of body.
Anterior chamber The front chamber of eye bounded infront by cornea, behind by iris and lens; contains aqueous humor.
Anterior horn cell The nerve cells in anterior horn of spinal cord whose axons form the efferent fibres innervating the muscles.
Anterograde Moving frontward.
Anteroinferior Infront and below.
Anterolateral Infront and to one side.
Anteromedian Infront and towards midline.
Anteroposterior Passing from front to rear.
Anterosuperior In front and above.
Anteversion A tipping forward of an organ as a whole, without bending (see Figure).
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Anteversion of uterus
Anthelmintic Agents against intestinal worms.
Anthracosis SYN __ black lung; accumulation of carbon deposits in lungs due to smoking or coal dust.
Anthralin A synthetic hydrocarbon used as ointment to treat fungal infections and eczema.
Anthrax Disease caused by bacillus anthracis, a disease primarily of animals. In man it may occur as cutaneus pustule with black eschar, or a pulmonary form (wool sorter's disease) with pulmonary edema, necrotizing mediastinal lymph adenitis, pleural effusion etc.
Anthropogeny Origin and development of man.
Anthropology The study of man; physical, cultural, linguistic and archaeologic.
Anthropometry Science of measuring human body, including craniometry, osteometry, skin fold thickness, height and weight measurement.
Anthropomorphism Attributing human qualities to nonhumans.
Anthropophilic Parasites that prefer human host rather than other animals.
Anti Prefix meaning against.64
Antiadrenergic Counter acting or preventing adrenergic actions.
Antiagglutinin A specific antibody opposing the action of agglutinin.
Antiamebic A medicine used to treat amebiasis.
Antiandrogen Substances antagonizing action of androgen, e.g., ciproterone acetate.
Antibiosis Relationship between two organisms where one is harmful to the other.
Antibiotic Substances that inhibit or destroy micro organisms; can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic (only inhibit growth).
Antibody A protein substance developed on challenge by an antigen. Antibodies may be present due to previous infection, vaccination, transplacental transfer (IgG only) or unknown idiopathic antigenic stimulation. a. acetylcholine receptor present in 85% cases of myasthenia gravis. a.anticardiolipin present in SLE causing vessel thrombosis. a. antiglindin present in celiac disease; non-specific a. antimicrosomal directed against a thyroid microsomal antigen in patients of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. a. antimitochondrial directed against inner mitochondrial antigen seen in primary biliary cirrhosis. a. antimyosin (Indium III tagged) binds to irreversibly damaged myocardium; used in infarct avid scintigraphy. a. antinuclear antibodies against nuclear antigens present in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. a. blocking Antibody that reacts with other antigens and blocks its effects. a. cross- reacting Antibody that reacts with other antigens functionally similar to its specific antigen. a. anti SSA, anti SSB antinuclear antibodies present in SLE and Sjogren's syndrome. a. antithyroglobulin present in 50-75% cases of Hashimoto's disease. a. Donath Landsteiner IgG antibody directed against P blood group antigen, responsible for haemolysis in paroxysmal haemoglobinuria. a. fluorescent Antigen antibody reaction made visible by incorporating a fluorescent material into the reaction and their examination under fluorescent microscopy. a. OKT3 mouse monoclonal antibody against T3 lymphocytes, used to treat transplant rejection. a. phospholipid include anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulants. a. Prausnitz Kustner's IgE antibodies causing cutaneous anaphylaxis. a. 65warm IgG antibody that reacts with antigen at 37°C.
Antibody coated bacteria Bacteria coated with antibody present in urine. Analysis of antibody pattern can localize the site of invasion of bacteria in urinary tract. a. warm. IgG antibody that reacts with antigen at 37°C.
Antibromic Deodorant.
Antiburn scar garment A garment made of stretchable filaments worn to provide uniform pressure over burn graft sites inorder to reduce scarring during healing.
Anticholinergic Agents that prevent parasympathetic transmission e.g., belladona, tricyclic antidepressants, thereby causing dryness of mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurring of vision and tachycardia.
Anticholinesterase Substance opposing action of choline sterate which causes breakdown of acetylcholine.
Anticoagulant Agents that prevent/delay clot formation, e.g., sodium citrate heparin.
Anticodon A triple arrangement of bases in tRNA that complements the triplet on corresponding MRNA.
Anticonvulsant Agents that prevent or control seizure.
Antidepressant Agents that prevent, cure or alleviate mental depression.
Antidiuretic hormone Vasopressin.
Antidote Agents that neutralize poisons or their effects. a. chemical Antidote that reacts with poison to produce harmless chemical compound, e.g., common salt precipitates silver nitrate to produce silver chloride. a. mechanical Antidote that prevents absorption of poison, e.g., charcoal, egg albumin, milk casein and fats (fats contraindicated in camphor, phosphorus poisoning). a. universal Two parts of activated charcoal, one part tannic acid, one part magnesium oxide; given orally mixed with water. Charcoal adsorbs, tannic acid precipitates and magnesium oxide neutralizes poisons. This antidote like chemical antidotes should be removed from stomach after some time.
Antidromic Nerve impulse travelling in opposite direction than normal.
Antiemetic Agent that prevents or relieves vomiting and nausea.
Antiestrogen Substances that block or modify action of estrogen e.g., clomifene citrate.66
Antigen Substance that induces antibody production and interacts with it in a specific way. a. Australia hepatitis B surface antigen. a. CA 125 antigen of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. a. carcinoembryonic elevated in carcinoma colon, pancreas, stomach, breast, IBD, pancreatitis; primarily used in monitoring response to treatment in colorectal cancer. a. class I major histocompatibility antigen found on every cell except RBC. a. Class II histocompatibility antigen found principally on B lymphocytes (HLAD, DR, DT, MT). a. class III non-histocompatibility antigens. a. CALLA occur in lymphoblasts of ALL. a. Forssman heterogenous antigen inducing production of antisheep haemolysis. a. HbeAg present in blood during active replication of HBV a. K bacterial capsular antigen, e.g. salmonella V1 antigen. a. Kveim prepared from sorcoid tissue.
Antigen-antibody reaction Combination of antigen with specific antibody that may result in agglutination, precipitation, neutralization, complement fixation or increased susceptibility to phagocytosis.
Anti G suit A garment designed to maintain uniform pressure in lower extremities and abdomen; used by aviators.
Antihelix Inner curved ridge of external ear parallel to helix.
Anti-histamine Agents that weaken the actions of histamine by blocking its receptors.
Anti-inflammatory Counteracting inflammation.
Antiluetic Agent that cures or relieves syphilis.
Antilymphocytic serum Serum used in certain autoimmune disorders and in transplant patients to reduce chances of rejection.
Antimetabolite 1. A substance structurally similar to metabolite, opposes or replaces a metabolite 2. a class of antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer.
67Antimony A metal whose compounds are used to treat trypanosomiasis.
Antineoplastic Agents that prevent the development, growth and proliferation of malignant cells.
Antinuclear antibody A group of antibodies that react against normal components of cell nucleus. They are present in SLE, PSS, scleroderma, polymyositis, etc.
Antioxidants Agents that prevent or inhibit oxidation e.g. vit E, A,C.
Antipathy Antagonism, strong aversion.
Antiperistalsis Reverse peristalsis.
Antiplasmin An inhibitor of fibrinolysis; its deficiency causes bleeding.
Antiplastic Preventing or inhibiting wound healing.
Antiprostaglandins Agents that interfere with prostaglandin activity; used for treatment of arthritis, dysmenorrhoea.
Antiprostate Cowper's gland.
Antipruritic Preventing or relieving itching.
Antipyretic Agent that reduces fever.
Antishock garment Inflatable garment that compresses lower extremity and abdomen to prevent pooling of blood. Useful in aviation and in treating hypotension.
Antiseptic Agent preventing sepsis by inhibiting growth of micro-organisms.
Antisudorific Agent that inhibits perspiration.
Antithrombotic Preventing thrombosis or blood coagulation.
Antithrombin III A protein synthesized in liver. Its concentration is lowered in nephrotic syndrome leading to renal veins thrombosis.
Antitoxin Antibody capable of neutralizing a toxin.
Antitrypsin A substance that inhibits action of trypsin. a. alpha I A low molecular weight glycoprotein whose deficiency is associated with early onset emphysema and neonatal hepatitis.
Antitussive Agent preventing or relieving cough.
Antivenin Serum that contains antibodies against animal or insect venom. a. black widow spider Horse antivenin against black widow spider. a. polyvalent Antisnake venom against common snakes.
Antivitamin A vitamin antagonist, agents that oppose action of vitamins.68
Antrectomy Excision of walls of an antrum.
Antroatticotomy Operation to open the maxillary sinus and the attic of tympanum.
Antrocele Fluid accumulation causing a cystic swelling of antrum.
Antrostomy Opening up of antral wall by surgery.
Antrum Any nearly closed cavity or chamber especially in a bone (see Figure).
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Antrum pyloricum
Anulus A ring shaped structure. a. fibrosus The tough outer portion of intervertebral disk (see Figure on page 69).
Anuresis Absence of urination.
Anus The lower external opening of GI tract, lying between the folds of buttocks.
Anxiety A feeling of apprehension, worry, uneasiness.
Anxiety neurosis A mental disorder with excessive anxiety not restricted to specific situation or objects and is associated with somatic symptoms like palpitation, tremor, dryness of throat, headache.
Anxiolytic Agents that diminish or counteract anxiety.
Aorta The main arterial trunk arising from left ventricle and lying to the right and anterior to pulmonary artery. The aortic arch ends at level of fourth thoracic vertebra. The branches of aorta are 1. ascending aorta—two coronary arteries, right and left 2. arch of aorta-right innominate, left subclavian 3. thoracic aorta-bronchial arteries, esophageal arteries, intercostal arteries 4. abdominal aorta-celiac artery, renal arteries, mesenteric arteries (superior and inferior) (see Figure on page 69).
Aortic bodies Chemoreceptors present in wall of aorta to monitor oxygen saturation.
Aortic regurgitation Leakage of blood from aorta into left ventricle during diastole (see Figure on page 70).
Aortic stenosis Narrowing of aortic valve. Normal valve diameter-2 cm/m2
Aortic valve The valve between left ventricle and ascending aorta, consists of three semilunar cusps that appose during diastole, thus preventing backflow of blood from aorta to left ventricle.69
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Anuli fibrosi cordis, one surrounding each of the two artioventricular valves
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Aorta—arising from the left ventricle. Then ascending, arching and descending through the thorax to the abdomen, where it divides into the common iliac arteries
Aortitis Inflammation of aortic wall, commonly syphilitic or of unknown origin.70
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Aortic Insufficiency
Aorto coronary bypass Surgical procedure to direct blood from root of aorta to coronary vessels by putting a saphenous vein graft or internal mammary arteries; a modality of treatment for coronary obstruction.
Aortography X-ray of aorta after contrast injection.
Aortolith Calcareous deposits in the aortic wall.
APACHE II score Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II is a severity-of-disease classification, applied within 24 hours of admission of the patient to the ICU.
Apareunia Inability to accomplish sexual intercourse.
Apathetic Indifferent, disinterested.
Apathism Slowness to react to stimuli, (opposite of erethism).71
Apatite The deceptive stone, a mineral containing calcium and phosphorus ions.
Aperient A very mild laxative.
Aperitive Appetite stimulant.
Apert's syndrome Congenital disorder with peaked head, webbed fingers and toes.
Aperture An orifice or opening.
Apex The pointed end of any cone shaped structure.
Apex beat The systolic movement of left ventricular apex against chest wall, felt in 5th intercostal space 1/2” inside midclavicular line.
Apgar score A system of assessing infants’ physical condition one minute after birth. The heart rhythm, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli and skin colour are assigned a score of 0, 1 or 2. Total score is 10. Those with very low score require immediate attention. Apgar score at birth has a prognostic bearing on ultimate neurological development (see Table).
Aphakia Absence of lens of eye.
Aphasia Impairment of speech; may be motor or sensory (Wernicke's). a. amnestic Loss of memory for words. a. anomic
Table   Apgar score
Blue, pale
Body pink, limbs blue
Completely pink
Respiratory effort
Slow, irregular, weak cry
Strong cry
Heart rate
Slow, less than 100 bpm
Over 100 bpm
Muscle tone
Some flexion of limbs
Active movement
Reflex response to flicking foot
Facial grimace
72Forgetful for naming. a. Broca's Motor aphasia with intact comprehension. a. global Failure of comprehension as well as speech production. a. jargon Use of disconnected words. a. motor Inability to use muscles controlling speech production. a. semantic Inability to understand meaning of words. a. syntactic Lack of proper grammatical composition.
Aphemia Motor aphasia.
Aphephobia Morbid fear of being touched.
Apheresis Technique of separating blood into its components.
Aphonia Peripherial failure of speech production; commonly due to a laryngeal lesion.
Aphrasia Inability to speak or understand phrases.
Aphrodisiac Sex stimulant.
Aphthae Small ulcer on mucus membrane.
Aphthous Pertains to aphthae, i.e., recurrent stomatitis.
Apicectomy Excision of apex of petrous part of temporal bone.
Apicitis Inflammation of tooth/lung apex.
Aplanatic lens A lens that corrects spherical aberration.
Aplasia Failure of an organ or tissue to develop normally.
Aplastic Having deficient or arrested development.
Aplastic anemia A bone marrow disorder characterized by marrow hypoplasia and peripheral pancytopenia. Bone marrow transplantation is the choice of treatment.
Apnea Temporary cessation of breathing.
Apneumatosis Congenital atelectasis.
Apneusis Abnormal respiration with sustained inspiratory effort; caused by pontine lesion.
Apochromatic lens Lens that corrects both spherical and chromatic aberration.
Apocrine Secretory cells that contribute part of their protoplasm to the matter secreted.
Apocrine sweat glands Sweat glands of axilla and pubic region that open into hair follicles rather than directly onto surface.
Apoenzyme The protein portion of an enzyme.
Apoferritin The protein that combine with iron to form ferritin.
Apolipoprotein The nonlipid protein portion of lipoprotein named as B100, A1, AII, B and E.
Apomorphine A grayish white powder; derivative of morphine, used as emetic and cough suppressant.
Aponeurosis A flat fibrous sheet of connective tissue serving to attach muscle to bone (see Figure on page 73).
Apophysis An outgrowth from bone without as independent center of ossification.
Apophysitis Inflammation of apophysis.
Apoplexy Bleeding into an organ; sudden loss of consciousness with paralysis due to haemorrhage into brain.73
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Palmar aponeurosis—A fifth longitudinal band, radiating toward the base of the thumb, is sometimes present
Apoptosis Disintegration of cells into membrane bound particles, that are then phagocytosed by other cells, an important process for limitation of tumor growth.
Apparatus 1. A mechanical device or appliance used in operations or experiments. 2. A group of structures or organs that work together to perform function, e.g., a auditory, a biliary, a juxtaglomerular, a lacrimal.
Appendectomy Surgical removal of vermiform appendix.
Appendicitis Inflammation of vermiform appendix. Characterized by pain in right iliac fossa, nausea and vomiting, tenderness and rigidity over right rectus muscle or Mc Burney's point, mild fever, leukocytosis. a. chronic follows acute attack with inflammatory adhesions, and formation of a lump. a. gangrenous Acute appendicitis involving blood vessels with their occlusion and development of gangrene and its vulnerability for rupture.
Appendicolysis Operation to free appendix from adhesions.
Appendicostomy Operation in which opening is made in vermiform appendix to irrigate cecum and colon.
Appendix An appendage. a. atrial Muscular pouch attached to left and right atria; the sites for atrial thrombi. a. epiploica Numerous pouches of peritoneum on colon filled with fat (see Figure on page 74).
Appestat Area of brain controlling appetite.
Appetite Strong desire for food in constrast to hunger which is a painful condition due to lack of food. a. perverted Desire to eat unnatural substances SYN __ pica.
Appetizer Substance that promotes appetite.
Applanometer Device for measuring intraocular pressure.
Apple Adam's The laryngeal prominence formed by two laminae of thyroid cartilage.
Apple picker's disease Respiratory involvement due to fungicides used in apple harvesting.74
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Vermiform appendix and its adjacent structures
Appliance In dentistry a device used to correct bite such as artificial dentures.
Applicator A rod with cotton swab on end for making local applications.
Apposition Being positioned side by side.
Approach 1. Surgical procedures for exposing any organ or tissue 2. draw near.
Apraxia Inability to perform purposive and learned movements even though there is no motor/sensory loss. a. amnestic Patient cannot understand the action asked to perform even though ability to perform the act is intact. a. constructional Inability to construct two or three dimensional figures due to lack of ability to integrate perception into kinesthetic images. a. dressing Patient's inability to dress due to lack of knowledge about spatial relations of body. a. ideational Incorrect use of objects due to inability in perceiving their correct use. a. motor Inability to perform an action although the components of it are understood.
Apron Outergarment for protection of clothing inside.
Aprosody Absence of normal variations in pitch, rhythm and stress in the speech.
Aprotinin Protease inhibitor used in pancreatitis, carcinoid syndrome and during surgery to reduce blood loss.
Aptitude Inherent ability or skill in learning or performing.
Aptyalism Deficient secretion of saliva.
APUD cells Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells; 75the class of cell producing hormones like ACTH, insulin, glucagon, thyroxin dopamine, serotonin, histamine etc.
Aqua Water. a.aerata Carbonated water. a. calcariae Lime water. a. fervens Hot water a. fontana Spring water.
Aquanant Persons working under water for carrying research.
Aquaphobia Morbid fear of water.
Aquapuncture Subcutaneous injection of water to produce counter irritation.
Aqueduct Canal or channel. a. cerebral Canal in midbrain joining third and fourth ventricles. a. vestibular Passage from vestibule to petrous part of temporal bone. a. cochleae Canal connecting subarachnoid space and the cochlear perilymphatic space.
Aqueous Watery
Aqueous humor Transparent liquid produced by ciliary processes and filling the posterior and anterior chambers of eye and finally absorbed into venous system by canals of Schlemm.
Arabinose A pentose plant sugar, gum sugar.
Arachidonic acid An essential fatty acid, precursor for prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes.
Arachnoid A thin membrane surrounding brain and spinal cord, lying in between dura mater and pia mater; subarachnoid space contains CSF.
Arc A structure or projected path having a curved or bow like outline (see Figure).
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Three-neuron reflex arc
76Arch Any anatomic structure with a curved or bow like outline, e.g., aortic arch. a. axillary An anomalous muscular slip across the axilla between pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi. a. crural The inguinal ligament extending from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle. a. longitudinal The anteroposterior arch of the foot; the medial portion is formed by calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiform and first three metatarsals and the lateral portion by calcaneus, cuboid and 4th and fifth metatarsals. a. mandibular The first branchial arch from which upper and lower jawbones andassociated structures develop, so also malleus and incus. a. palmar The superficial arch is formed by termination of ulnar artery and the deep arch by communicating branch of ulnar and the radial artery. a. plantar Arch formed by external plantar artery and deep branch of dorsalis pedis artery. a. transverse Transverse arch of foot formed by navicular, cuboid cuneiform and metatarsals. a. zygomatic Arch formed by malar and temporal bones.
Archipallium Olfactory cortex.
Architis Inflammation of anus.
Arcuate Shaped like an arc.
Arcus An arch. a. juvenalis Opaquering at the periphery of cornea in young, may be due to hypercholesterolemia, corneal irritation/inflammation. a. senilis Opaque white ring at periphery of cornea due to deposit of fat granules or hyaline degeneration.
Ardor A burning sensation during urination.
Area Well-defined space with defined boundaries. a. association Area of cerebral cortex that is neither sensory nor motor but seat of higher mental processes. a. Brodman's Division of cerebral cortex into 47 areas inrespect to their different functions. a. Kiesselbach's Area in anterior portion of nasal septum, with rich capillaries, a site of frequent bleed. a. of Rolando Area infront of fissure of Rolando in anterior central convolution governing motor function of body. a. silent Any area of brain whose destruction does not produce detectable motor or sensory loss (see Figure on page 77).
Areflexia Absence of reflexes.
Areola 1. A small space or cavity in a tissue. 2. Circular area of different pigmentation, e.g., around nipple.77
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Lateral view of the cerebral hemisphere, which shows some of Brodmann's areas
Arena virus A group of viruses that include lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses and lassa fever viruses; mostly arthropod borne.
Areolar glands (Montgomery's glands). Large modified sweat glands beneath the areola secreting a lipoid material that lubricates the nipple.
Areometer Device for measuring specific gravity of fluids.
Arformeterol Betagonist for inlation in asthma.
Argentaffinoma An Argentaffin tumor secreting serotonin that may arise in intestinal tract, bile ducts, pancreas, bronchus or ovary.
Arginine Amino acid obtained from decomposition of vegetable matter, protamines and proteins. On hydrolysis it yields urea and ornithine.
Arginosuccinic acid Formed from citruline and aspartic acid.
Argon An inert gas occupying 1% of atmosphere.
Argyl Robertson pupil Absence of light reflex with preservation of accommodation reflex as in tabes.
Argyria Bluish discolouration of skin and mucus membranes from prolonged administration of silver.
Argyrol Mild silver protein used as an antiseptic for eye, nose, throat and urethral irrigation.
Argyrophil Cells that bind to silver salts producing brown or black stain.
Aristogenics SYN-eugenics. The science dealing with genetic and prenatal influences affecting expression of certain characteristics in offspring.
Arithmetic mean In statistics, the number obtained by addition of all the values listed in a group divided by total values.78
Arm a. chromosome the two segments of chromosome, short arm P and long arm Q, joined at centromere (see Figure).
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Chromosome arms of the segment
Arm board Board placed under the arm for stabilization during I.V. administration.
Armamentarium The total utilities at disposal like drugs, instruments, books, supplies.
Armature 1. A part of an electric generator consisting of a coil of insulated wire. 2. In biology a structure that serves to protect.
Arnold-Chiari deformity A condition in which the inferior poles of cerebellar hemispheres and medulla protrude through foramen magnum causing hydrocephalus. It is commonly associated with spina bifida and meningo myelocele.
Aroma Pleasant odor.
Aromatic 1. Having an aggreable odor. 2. Belonging to a series of compounds in which the carbon atoms form a closed ring (as in benzene) in comparison to aliphatic series where carbon atoms form straight or branched chains.
Aromatic ammonia spirit Solution of ammonium carbonate in diluted ammonia solution, fragrant oils, alcohol and water. It acts as a reflex stimulant on inhalation. Also acts as an antacid and carminative.
Arousal 1. Alertness. 2. Sexual excitement.
Arrectores pilorum Involuntary muscle in skin connected to hairfollicle whose contraction due to cold, fright causes erection of hair and “goose flesh” appearance of skin.
Arrest Cessation of function. a. cardiac Cessation of heart function. a. epiphyseal Arrest in growth of long bones. a. pelvic The foetal presenting part is arrested in its descent in maternal pelvis. a. respiratory Stoppage of spontaneous respiration. a. sinus The SA node does not initiate the impulse formation, a feature of sick sinus syndrome.79
Arrhenoblastoma An ovarian tumor secreting male sex hormones, causing virilization in females.
Arrhythmia Variation in the normal rate or rhythm of the heart beat either in force or in time usually occurs as a result of irregularities in heart's conduction system.
Arsenic poisoning Accidental or deliberate ingestion causes acute gastroenteritis with shock, convulsion, paralysis and death.
Arsphenamine A light yellow powder containing about 30% arsenic previously used for treatment of syphilis. SYN __ Salvarsan.
Artemether An antimalarial for resistant falciparum malaria.
Arterial line A method of haemodynamic monitoring where catheter is put into an artery for recording blood pressure, arterial gas analysis.
Arteriogram X-ray of an artery after injection of radio opaque material.
Arteriole A minute artery that leads into capillary.
Arterioplasty Repair or reconstruction of an artery.
Arteriosclerosis Thickening and hardening of an artery with loss of elasticity and contractility. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis include ageing, hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking etc.
Arteritis Inflammation of an artery. a. nodosa Widespread inflammation of adventia of small and medium sized arteries with impaired function. a. temporal Chronic inflammation of temporal and often occipital and ophthalmic arteries with presence of giant cells and occlusion of vascular lumen.
Artery (from Greek arteria meaning windpipe). The ancient Greeks believed that air travelled through them. Arteries carry oxygenated blood from heart to distant body parts: exceptions are pulmonary artery and umbilical artery. a. end Artery whose branches do not anastomose with those of other arteries, e.g., arteries of brain and spinal cord.
Artesunate An antimalarial for resistant falciparum malaria.
Arthralgia Joint pain.
Arthritide A skin eruption caused by arthritis.
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint usually following trauma, due to degeneration, infection (gonococcal, tubercular, brucella, pneumococcal), rheumatic fever, ulcerative 80colitis, collagen disorders, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, synovioma, para or periarticular infections, denervation, e.g. tabes dorsalis.
Arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint to drain joint fluid for analysis.
Arthrodesis The surgical immobilization of joint, ankylosis.
Arthrogram Visualisation of interior of a joint after injection of radio opaque dye into joint space.
Arthrogryposis Fixation of a joint in a flexed position.
Arthrolysis Restoration of mobility of an ankylosed joint.
Arthropathy Any joint disease.
Arthroplasty Reconstruction or reshaping of a diseased joint, even by replacement of joint components.
Arthroscope An endoscope for examination of interior of a joint.
Arthroscopy Visualization of interior of a joint by arthroscope.
Arthrospore A bacterial spore formed by segmentation.
Arthrotome Knife for making incision into joint.
Arthus reaction An immediate hypersensitivity reaction due to preformed antibody to injected antigen.
Articulate 1. To join together as a joint. 2. To speak clearly.
Articulation 1. A joint, classified, being synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (slightly movable) and diarthrosis (freely movable) 2. Utterance of words and sentences. a. apophyseal The joint between superior and inferior articulating process of vertebra. a. confluent Speech in which syllables run together.
Artefact Anything artificially produced; as in histology/radiology a feature produced by the technique but not occurring naturally.
Artificial Not natural, formed by imitation of nature. a. insemination donor Artificial insemination of a woman with sperms of anonymous donor. a. insemination husband Use of husbands sperms for insemination of wife. a. intelligence Computer performance of cognitive tasks. a. pneumothorax Introduction of air into pleural cavity to induce collapse of lung as to control haemoptysis in tuberculosis.
Artisan's cramps Muscle cramp involving muscles used in prolonged spells of writing, sewing, telegraphing etc.
Aryepiglottic Pertaining to arytenoid cartilage and epiglottis.81
Asafetida A gum resin with strong odor and garlic taste.
Asbestos Fibrous incombustible form of magnesium and calcium silicate used to make insulating material.
Asbestosis A form of pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of asbestos dusts, also responsible for pleural mesothelioma.
Ascariasis Infestation with ascaris lumbricoides.
Ascaris lumbricoides A species of ascaris inhibiting human intestine, often producing dyspepsia, intestinal obstruction, biliary colic and appendicitis (see Figure below).
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Ascaris lumbricoides
Aschheim-Zondek test A pregnancy test where patient's urine is injected into female mice to induce ovulation.
Aschner's phenomenon Slowing of pulse following carotid sinus massage or pressure on eye ball.
Aschoff's cells Large multinucleated cell with vesicular nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm (see Figure below).
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Aschoff body
Aschoff's nodule Small nodules composed of central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by giant cells and leukocytes, seen in interstitial tissues of heart in rheumatic myocarditis.
Ascites Accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity. a. chylous Milky ascites resulting from rupture of thoracic duct.
Ascorbic acid Vit C.
Aseptic Sterile, free from germs.
Aseptic technique Techniques that prevent contamination of operative wounds.
Asparagine Amino succinic acid; a non essential amino acid.
Aspartame An artificial sweetner, 180 times sweeter than sugar; synthesized from aspartic acid and phenyl 82alanine. Unsuitable for cooking as the flavor changes on eating.
Aspartic acid A nonessential amino acid, product of pancreatic digestion.
Aspergillin A pigment produced by A. niger which also produces black spores and commonly infects ear canal.
Aspergillosis Granulomatous inflammation of skin, lungs, ear canal and mucous membrane by A. fumigatus.
Aspermia Lack of or failure to ejaculate semen.
Aspersion Sprinkling of an affected part with water, a form of hydrotherapy.
Asphyxia Suffocation caused by lack of oxygen due to failure of breathing, tracheo bronchial obstruction, drowning, environmental oxygen lack, edema of the lungs.
Asphyxiant An agent, especially gas producing asphyxia.
Asphyxiate To cause asphyxia.
Aspirate To draw in or out by suction.
Aspirator Apparatus for evacuating fluid contents of a cavity.
Aspirin Acetyl salicylic acid.
Assault Violent physical attack on an individual. In legal sense any procedure on an individual without proper permission. a. sexual Sexual intercourse without consent/against will.
Assay The analysis of a substance or mixture to determine its constituents or the relative proportion of each.
Assimilate To absorb digested food.
Assimilation 1. The processes whereby the products of digestion are absorbed and utilized in the body. 2. In psychology, the absorption of newly perceived information into the existing conscious structure.
Association Relationship; interrelationship of conscious and unconscious; in genetics the occurrence together of two characteristics at a frequency greater than would be predicted by chance.
Association cortex Areas other than motor and sensory cortex which serve to integrate brain functions.
Astasia Inability to stand or sit erect due to motor incoordination. a. abasia A form of hysterical ataxia with inability to stand or walk although all leg movements can be performed while sitting or lying down.
Astemizole H1 receptor blocker antiallergic.83
Astereognosis Inability to recognize objects or forms by touch.
Asterion The junction of lambdoid, occipitomastoid and parietomastoid sutures (see Figure).
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Asterixis Transient lapses of muscle tone with involuntary jerky movements especially of hands as in hepatic failure.
Asteroid Star shaped.
Asthenia Loss of strength, debility. a. neurocirculatory A psycho-somatic disorder characterizes by mental and physical fatigue, dyspnea, giddiness, etc.
Asthma Paroxysmal dyspnea and wheezing caused by bronchospasm, bronchial mucosal swelling and retention of viscid sputum. a. cardiac Asthma secondary to left ventricular failure. a. extrinsic Asthma due to environmental allergens. a. intrinsic Asthma where no external cause is identifiable.
Astigmatism A form of ametropia where the curvature of cornea or lens differ in different meridians so that an object is not sharply focussed on retina. a. compound The horizontal and vertical curvatures are abnormal. a. simple Only one meridian is defective.
Astraphobia Fear of thunder and lightening.
Astringent An agent that has constricting or binding effect, i.e., that causes coagulation of proteins and thus contracts organic tissue; there by checks haemorrhages and secretions. Common example are salts of lead, iron, zinc, tannic acid.
Astrocyte Star-shaped neuroglial cell with many branching processes (see Figure on page 84).
Astrocytoma A tumor of astrocytes; classified inorder of increasing malignancy as grade I—consisting of fibrillary or protoplasmic astrocytes—Grade II composed of astroblasts Grade III-IV—called glioblastoma multiforme composed of spongioblast, astroblast and astrocyte in varying proportion.84
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Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel
Astrophobia Morbid fear of stars and celestial bodies.
Asylum An institution for mentally ill.
Asymmetry Without symmetry.
Asymptomatic Without any symptoms.
Asynclitism An oblique presentation of foetal head during labor.
Asynergia Lack of coordination between body parts or muscles that normally act in unison.
Ataraxia A state of complete mental relaxation and tranquility.
Atavism The appearance of characteristics presumed to be present in some ancestors.
Ataxia Defective muscular control and coordination. a. alcoholic Ataxia due to loss of proprioception in chronic alcoholism. a. Brun's Ataxia of bilateral frontal lobe lesions with a tendency to stagger and fall backwards. a. cerebellar Motor ataxia of cerebellar disease. Often with nystagmus, tremor, scanning speech and dysmetria. a. Friedreich's An inherited disease manifesting in childhood or adolescence. There is degeneration of lateral and dorsal columns of spinal cord. Peripheral neuropathy, high arch palate, kyphoscoliosis are often associated. a. sensory Ataxia due to loss of proprioceptive impulses. a. telangiectasia IgA deficiency state of congenital origin manifesting with cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia and recurrent sinopulmonary infections.85
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Atelectasis Collapsed or airless condition of lungs; the affected lungs are often unexpanded since birth, can be caused by bronchial obstruction, or compression.
Atherogenesis Formation of atheromata in the walls of arteries.
Atheroma Fatty degeneration of arterial wall with cholesterol deposit and smooth muscle hyperplasia.
Atherosclerosis A sclero degenerative disease of arterial wall marked by intimal lipid deposit, fibrous tissue accumulation and smooth muscle cell proliferation (see Figure above).
Athetosis Slow irregular twisting involuntary movement of hand and fingers (see Figure).
Athlete's foot Fungus infection of foot particularly in betweeen toes.
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Positions of fingers in movements of athetosis
86Atlantoaxial Pertaining to first and second cervical vertebrae.
Atlas This is the first cervical vertebra of the human spine. It is named after a character of Greek mythology. Atlas was the name of a powerful deity who carried the earth on his shoulders. The bone atlas articulates with the occipital bone of the cranium above and with the second cervical vertebra (axix) below (see Figure).
Atom The smallest form of an element consisting of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Atopy An allergy with a genetic predisposition. Principal forms of atopy are bronchial asthma, urticaria, eczema and rhinitis.
Atorvastatin Lipid lowering agent.
Atracurium Nondepolarizing muscle relaxant.
Atresia Congenital absence or closure of any tubular structure.
Atrial fibrillation Randomized irregular arhythmic atrial contractions giving rise to irregularly irregular pulse.
Atrial flutter Rapid regular atrial contraction with a varying but regular ventricular response due to fixed or varying A-V block.
Atrial natriuretic factor A hormone secreted by dilated atria that helps in natriuresis.
Atrichosis Congenital absence of hair.
Atrioventricular bundle The conducting system extending from A-V node till division into left and right bundles.
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Atlas. (A) (top) superior aspect; (bottom) transverse aspect. Note the absence of the body and spinous process. (B) Position
87Atrioventricularis communis Persistence of the common atrioventricular canal manifesting with atrio ventricular septal defects and A -V valve incompetence.
Atrium A chamber or cavity in communication with another. a. of ear Portion of tympanic cavity lying below the malleolus.
Atrophy Decrease in size of tissue or wasting. a. acute yellow Extensive necrosis of liver cells with jaundice, haemorrhage and mental obtundation. a. optic Degeneration of optic nerve head, primary or secondary (MS, glaucoma, trauma etc). a. disuse Atrophy resulting from lack of use of muscle. a. peroneal muscular A hereditary disease involving peroneal nerves with progressive atrophy of peroneal muscles. a. Sudeck's Acute atrophy of bone at the site of injury, possibly due to local vasospasm.
Atropine sulfate A parasympatholytic agent used for preanesthetic medication to decrease bronchial secretions and in organophosphorous poisoning.
Atropinization Administration of atropine till desired effect is obtained.
Attack The sudden on set of an illness, e.g., heart attack.
Attention-deficit-disorder A disease of infancy or childhood, mainly boys characterized by inappropriate attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Attenuate To render thin, weak or less virulent.
Attic The middle ear cavity above the tympanic membrane.
Attitude 1. Behavior towards a person, thing or situation 2. Bodily posture or position assumed, e.g., catatonic posture.
Audible sound Sound with frequency of 15-15000 Hz.
Audiologist A specialist in the evaluation and rehabilitation of persons with hearing disorder.
Audiometry Testing of hearing by audiometer.
Audito-oculogyric reflex Sudden turning of eyes and head towards direction of loud sound.
Auditory bulb The membranous labyrinth and cochlea.
Auditory evoked response An objective method of assessing hearing where the hearing stimulus as traverses along its path to auditory cortex produces characteristic electric 88potentials recorded across the cortex. It is useful in childrens, in malingerers, and in psychiatric patients. It can pin point as to the site of lesion along the auditory pathway.
Auditory reflex Any reflex produced by stimulation of auditory nerve like blinking of eyes in response to sudden sound.
Auer bodies Rod shaped intracytoplasmic structure present in myeloblasts in acute myeloblastic leukemia.
Auerbach's plexus A plexus formed by sympathetic nerve fibers in muscular coats of GI tract.
Augmentin Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid.
Aura A subjective sensation preceding an attack of epileptic seizure or migraine; epileptic aura may be psychic in nature or sensory in the form of auditory, visual, olfactory or taste hallucinations.
Auranofin Gold preparation for rheumatoid arthritis.
Aureomycin Chlortetracycline hydrochloride.
Auricle 1. Left and right atria 2. Pinna of the ear.
Auriculopalpebral reflex Closure of eye resulting from tactile or thermal stimulation of external auditory meatus. Synonym: Kisch's reflex.
Auriscope Instrument for examination of ear.
Aurotherapy Treatment with gold salts, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis.
Auscultation The technique of listening to sounds produced within body, e.g., passage of air in bronchi, blood in occluded vessels, and A-V malformation, bowel movement, beating of heart, murmurs and adventitious heart sounds etc.
Austin Flint murmur Diastolic mitral regurgitation in a aortic insufficiency mimicking mitral stenosis but without the opening snap or presystolic accentuation.
Australia antigen Hepatitis B surface antigen, existing in serum as part of Dane particle (40-400 nm) or as free particles and rods (22 nm).
Autacoids Generic name for histamine and antihistamine like agents in body.
Autism Mental introversion with attention centered around own ego. a. infantile A syndrome appearing in childhood with self absorption, aloneness, inaccessibility, rage reactions and behavioral-language problems; a form of childhood psychosis.
Autoagglutinin Agglutinins that agglutinate individuals own red blood cells.89
Autoanalyzer Device that analyzes multiple samples automatically.
Autoantibody Antibody acting against the host antigens.
Autoclave A device used for sterilization by steam pressure.
Autodigestion Digestion of a tissue by tissue's own products, e.g., pancreatic digestion in acute pancreatitis.
Autoerotism Sexual arousal or gratification by using one's own body as in masturbation.
Autograft A graft transferred from one part of body to another.
Autohemolysis Hemolysis of ones blood by person's own serum.
Autohemotherapy Injection of patient's own blood.
Autoimmunity Condition in which antibodies are produced against body's own tissues.
Autoimmune disease Diseases in which antibodies are produced against body's own tissues to cause organ damage, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic carditis, myasthenia gravis.
Autoinfection Infection produced by an agent already present within the body.
Autoinfusion Forcing blood from extremities to body core by applying tight bandages.
Autoinoculation Inoculation of a person by organisms obtained from the same individual .
Autologous blood transfusion Use of patient's own blood for transfusion, the blood being collected prior to operation or during operation from wound site; thus avoiding dangers of mismatch and transfusion associated infections like HBV, AIDS.
Automatism Behavior without conscious volition or knowledge, the individual appearing normal but amnesic for the events.
Autonomic nervous system The part of nervous system controlling involuntary functions like heart beat, glandular secretions, bowel and bladder contraction and other smooth muscle function. It is divided into parasympathetic or craniosacral system and sympathetic or thoracolumbar system (see Figure on page 90).
Autopsy Postmortem examination to ascertain cause of death.
Autoregulation A phenomena where the involved tissue regulates events like blood flow into/through it according to its requirement. e.g., as in brain.90
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Autonomic nervous system
Autosomes Any of the chromo-somes other than sex chromosomes.
Autosplenectomy Multiple infarcts of spleen that cause it to shrink as in sickle cell anaemia.
Autotrophic Self nourishing, e.g., green plants and bacteria forming protein and carbohydrate from inorganic salts and bicarbonates.
A-V block A block in atrio ventricular node whereby impulses arising from atria cannot reach ventricles or are delayed; divided into first degree (prolonged PR), second 91degree (mobitz type I and II) and third degree (A-V block).
Avascular Having poor blood supply.
Aversion therapy A form of behavior therapy where unpleasant and undesired (e.g., alcohol) stimuli are presented to patient simultaneously so that patient associates the undesired stimulus with the unpleasant one and thus discontinues the undesired stimulus.
Avidin A protein of egg white inhibiting biotin.
Avulsion A tearing away forcibly of a part or structure.
Axanthopsia Yellow blindness.
Axial line A line running in the main axis of body. The axial line of hand runs through second digit.
Axilla Armpit.
Axis 1. A line running through the center of the body. 2. The second cervical vertebra bearing the odontoid process about which atlas rotates. a. cardiac A graphic representation of the main conduction vector of the heart. Normal axis is 0 to + 90o. a. visual The line passing from object through center of cornea and lens to the fovea (see Figures on page 92).
Axis deviation Deviation of cardiac axis, like left axis deviation –10o to –90o, right axis deviation + 91 to –90o.
Axis traction Traction made on the fetus in the direction of long axis of birth canal (see Figure on page 93).
Axon A process of nerve cell conducting impulse away from the cell body.
Axoneme Axial thread of a chromosome.
Axonometer Device for determining axis of astigmatism.
Axonotmesis Nerve injury disrupting nerve impulse transmission but without severing the nerve.
Avidin A glycoprotein that binds to biotin, preventing its absorption.
Azapropazone A pyrazolon, aspirin like agent, potent uricosuric.
Azaserine Glutamine antagonist, potent inhibitor of purine nucleotide biosynthesis.
Azatidine An antiallergic agent.
Azathioprine An immunosuppressant.
Azauridine A pyrimidine analog.
Azelastine Topical vasoconstrictor for nasal allergy.
Azithromycin Antibiotic of macrolide group better than erythromycin.
Azoospermia Complete absence of sperms in the semen.92
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Axis. (A) (top) transverse aspect; (bottom) superior aspect. (B) Position
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Axis of the eye
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Axial traction
Azotemia Increased blood urea.
Azotobacter Gram-negative, rodshaped, nonpathogenic bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Aztreonam An antibiotic for gram-negative sepsis.
Azygos Occurring singly, not in pairs.
Azygos vein The thoracic continuation of ascending lumbar vein through aortic hiatus in diaphragm entering superior vena cava at the level of D4 vertebra.
Babcock sentence test This is a test for dementia. This test aims at testing the patient's memory by asking him to repeat a complicated sentence.
Babesia A genus of the order Haemosporidia found in the cattle, sheep, horse, dogs and other vertebrate animals, transmitted by tick.
Babesia microti Principally manifesting with fever, chills and hemoglobinuria.
Babesiosis A disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite.
Babinski's reflex Dorsiflexion of great toe and fanning out of other toes on stimulation of lateral part of sole of foot is called positive Babinski's reflex; commonly results from pyramidal tract interruption; also positive in infants below 6 months (before myelination).
Bacampacillin A long acting ampicillin given in twice daily dose.
Bacillemia Presence of bacilli in blood.
Bacillus Any rod shaped micro-organism (see Figure).
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin A strain of Mycobacterium bovis made avirulant by serial cultivation on bile glycerol potato medium, used in BCG vaccine for prevention of human tuberculosis.
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95Bacitracin Topically used antibacterial agent.
Backache Any pain in back; due to muscle spasm, disease of disk, ligaments, vertebral body, nerve roots, and meninges.
Baclofen GABA inhibitor used to reduce muscle spasticity.
Bacteria Any microorganism of the class Schizomycetes; can be spherical or ovoid (cocci); rod shaped (bacilli) or spiral (see Figure).
Bacteriocin Protein produced by certain bacteria which is lethal to other bacteria.
Bacteriocinogen A plasmid that produces bacteriocin.
Bacterioclasis Fragmentation of bacteria.
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria.
Bacteriuria Presence of bacteria in urine, significant if concentration exceeds 105/ml.
Bacteroides A genus of non-spore forming, gram negative, anaerobic bacteria frequently found in necrotic tissue.
Bagasosis Hypersensitive pneu-monitis due to inhalation of bagasse dust, the moldy fibrous waste of sugarcane.
Brainbridge reflex An increase in the heart rate caused by an increase in right atrial pressure.
Baker's cyst Synovial cyst in popliteal fossa.
Balanitis Inflammation of the glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it.
Balantidiasis Infestation with B. coli.
Balanoplasty Plastic surgery repair of glans penis.
Balanoposthitis Inflammation of glans and prepuce.
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96Balanus This is the glans of the penis or clitoris.
Ballance's sign This is a sign indicative of ruptured spleen. In this sign there is presence of a dull percussion note in both the flanks. The dullness on the left side is due to the presence of coagulated blood, whereas that on the right side is due to the fluid blood. Dullness on the left flank remains constant. However, with the change of position to the right side, the haemorrhagic fluid moves to the right flank resulting in dullness.
Ballottment Palpatory technique for examining floating objects, e.g., foetus in uterus, hydronephrotic kidney.
Balneology Science of baths and bathing.
Balser's fatty necrosis Gangrenous pancreatitis with fatty necrosis of pancreas and often of bone marrow.
Bamboo spine Spinal column in radiograph resembling bamboo stalk as in ankylosing spondylitis.
Bandage A piece of gauze to be wrapped around a body part as dressing. b. barton Double figure of eight bandage for the lower jaw. b. butterfly Adhesive bandage used to hold wound edges together. b. buttocks T or double T bandage or open triangle bandage for buttocks. b. cravat Triangular bandage folded to form a band around any injured bony part, e.g., knee, elbow, hand, wrist, head, clavicle. b. figure of eight Bandage in which turns cross each other like the figure 8 used to fix and elevate the shoulders in fracture clavicle, to fix splints for the foot or hand. b. spica Bandage in which a number of figure of 8 turns are applied, each a little higher or lower with some overlapping. Used for breasts, shoulders, great toe etc. b. suspensory used for support of breast and scrotum (see Figure on page 97).
Bandl's ring Ring like thickening at the junction of upper and lower uterine segments.
Banti's syndrome A combination of anaemia, cirrhosis and splenic enlargement.
Barber's itch Folliculitis of face mostly by Staph. aureus.
Barbotage Repeated injection and withdrawal as in withdrawal of CSF and injection of drugs into SA space.
Baresthesia Pressure sense.
Baritosis Barium dust induced pneumoconiosis.
Barium An alkaline metallic compound used as barium sulphate for upper GI studies, colon and GI tract.97
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Different types of bandages
98Barium enema Enema in which a suspension of barium sulfate is injected into the rectum to render the lower GI tract radio-opaque, in order to diagnose the intestinal (colonic or small intestinal) lesions.
Barium meal Solution of barium sulfate that is swallowed by a patient in order to aid the radiographic diagnosis of stomach and duodenum.
Barium swallow Solution of barium sulfate swallowed by the patient for the radiographic diagnosis of the esophagus.
Barlow's disease Vit. C deficiency state.
Barrette's esophagus Metaplasia of the lower esophageal squamous epithelial lining to goblet cells (usually found in the lower gastrointestinal tract).
Barognosis The ability to estimate weight.
Baroreflex Reflex mediated by pressure changes within great vessels through stimulation of mechanoreceptors.
Barotrauma Trauma due to changes in atmospheric pressure.
Barr body Sex chromatin mass seen within the nuclei of normal female somatic cells, representing inactivated X-chromosome.
Barrel chest Rounded chest due to air trapping as in emphysema. In normal chest, AP diameter is more than transverse, hence elliptical shape.
Barthel index A widely used index for the functional assessment of a person's ability to perform the daily activities like feeding, grooming, controlling bowel and bladder functions, etc.
Bartholin's duct Duct of sublingual salivary gland that runs parallel with Wharton's duct and opens with it.
Bartholin's gland A compound mucus gland lying in lateral wall of vestibule of vagina, at the junction upper and middle one third.
Bartonellosis Infection due to bartonella bacilliformis (oroya fever) characterised by fever and haemolysis; transmitted by females and flies and treated with chloramphenicol.
Bartter's syndrome Hyperplasia of Juxtaglomerular cells with hypokalemia, hyperaldosteronism but without a rise in blood pressure.
Basal body temperature chart Daily temperature charting to predict ovulation.99
Basal ganglia Four masses of gray matter (caudate, lentiform, amygdaloid and claustrum) lying deep in cerebral hemispheres.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Normal value is 40 kcal/m2/hour, a test of thyroid function.
Base Any substance that accepts hydrogen ion; strong bases feel slippery and are corrosives.
Base pair In double stranded helical DNA the connecting chemicals, i.e., base pairs adenine-thymine, guanine-cytosine bind the strands.
Basion Mid point of anterior border of foramen magnum.
Basiphobia Fear of walking.
Basisphenoid An embryonic bone that becomes the lower portion of sphenoid.
Bassini's operation Surgical repair of inguinal hernia.
Battered child syndrome Physical injuries inflicted upon children.
Battery Unlawful touching of a patient without consent, justification; battery occurs if a surgical or medical procedure in done without prior consent.
Battery sign Swelling behind the ear in fracture base of skull.
Baxter's formula This is a commonly used formula to calculate the fluid requirements, particularly in case of burn victims. According to this formula 4 ml of ringer lactate solution is administered per kilogram body weight percent of body surface area burnt.
Bazin's disease Erythema induratum.
B cells Bone marrow derived lymphocytes, which when stimulated by antigen, transform to antibody producing plasma cells.
BCG vaccine Bacille Calmette - Guérin, indicated for vaccination of tuberculin negative children.
Beaker Wide mouthed glass vessel.
Beau's line White lines on finger nails.
Beclomethasone Synthetic corticosteroid.
Becquerel (BQ) A measure of radioactivity of radionuclides equal to 3.7 × 1010 curies.
Bedlam Asylum for insane.
Bedsore Pressure Sore. i.e., ischaemic necrosis of tissue esp. over bony prominences.
Behçet's syndrome A symptoms complex of recurrent orogenital ulceration, uveitis and joint pains, 5 times more frequent in males.
Belching Expulsion of stomach gas through mouth and nose.100
Bell's palsy Sudden unilateral lower motor facial palsy due to swelling/ischemia of the nerve in bony canal.
Bellini's tubule The straight connecting tubule of the kidney.
Bence-Zones protein A low molecular weight protein that disappears when urine is boiled to above 60oC but reappears once urine is cooled, commonly seen in multiple myeloma.
Benedict's sol A solution of copper sulfate, sodium citrate and sodium carbonate, used for testing presence of reducing sugars in urine.
Benedict's test 8 drops of urine is added to 5 ml. of Benedicts Sol. and boiled to see for green, yellow, red precipitate.
Benedipine A calcium channel β−blocker for hypertension.
Benign Not recurrent, nor progressive.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Prostatic enlargement in elderly due to hyperplasia causing obstruction of prostatic urethra.
Benoxynate HCl Topically used ophthalmic local anaesthetic.
Benserazide Inhibitor of amino acid decarboxylase, used in parkinsonism.
Bentonite Hydrated alumino silicate, used as a suspending agent.
Benzapril An ACE inhibition for hypertension.
Benzafibrate Lipid lowering agent.
Benzalkonium chloride An antimicrobial preservative, used as detergent and germicide.
Benzene A volatile liquid used in synthesis of dyes and drugs.
Benzidine Used for test of occult blood in stool (to a solution of benzidine in glacial acetic acid is added 3% H2O2 and the stool sample. Appearance of blue colour indicates presence of blood).
Benznidazole A nitroimidazole for Chaga's disease.
Benzobromarone Uricosuric agent used in gout.
Benzocaine Topical anaesthetic.
Benzodiazepine Psychotropic agents with potent hypnotic and anti anxiety effects.
Benzoic acid Antifungal agent.
Benzoin A plant resin used as inhalant, or protective coating for ulcers.
Benzoyl peroxide Keratolytic agent (for acne).
Benzthiazide Diuretic of thiazide group.101
Benztropine mesylate Antiparasympathomimetic agent for treatment of parkinsonism.
Benzyl benzoate Scabicide.
Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate Anthelmintic for hookworm and mixed infestation.
Beraud's valve A fold of mucus membrane at the mouth of lacrimal duct in the lid.
Beri beri A disease due to thiamine deficiency characterized by cardiac failure (wet type) or fatigue, neuritis, poor memory, anorexia (dry type).
Berylliosis Beryllium induced pulmonary fibrosis.
Bestiality Sexual intercourse with animals.
Beta adrenergic receptors Specific receptors in blood vessels, heart, bronchi intestine etc for action of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Beta adrenergic receptor blockers Drugs that block both Beta1 and Beta2 receptors.
Betadine Povidone-iodine.
Betahistine Drug used for vertigo.
Betaine An alkaloid from beet, used orally as a source of HCl.
Betalactamase An enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates antibiotics.
Beta methasone Synthetic glucocorticoid.
Betatron Electron accelerator that produces high energy electrons or X-rays.
Bethanicol Choline ester used for relief of urinary retention.
Betz cells Giant pyramidal cells in the motor cortex whose axons form pyramidal tract.
Bezoar A hard mass of entangled material found in stomach or intestine, hair ball (trichobezoar), hair and vegetable fiber (trichophyto bezoar).
Bevacizumab Monoclonal antibody for colon cancer.
Biblio mania Obsession with collection of books.
Biceps A muscle with two heads. b. brachii Flexor of elbow and supinater. b. femoris Muscle on posterior lateral side of thigh, flexor of knee and rotates it outwards.
BCNU Carmustine, an antineoplastic agent.
Biconcave Concave on eachside (see Figure A on page 102).
Biconvex Convex on both sides (see Figure B on page 102).
Bicornis Uterus with two horns due to incomplete union of mullerian ducts.
Bicuspid Having two cusps or leaflets mitral, often aortic.
Bicuspid tooth Permanent premolars are bicuspid.102
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A. Biconcave B. Biconvex
Bicycle ergometer Stationary bicycle used for cardiac exercise, i.e., MUGA testing/intra operative exercise test.
Bifid Cleft or split into two parts.
Bifocal Eye glasses with lenses for distant and near vision.
Bifonazole An imidazole with antifungal activity.
Bigemini Group of two beats separated by a long pause. Commonly due to regular extrasystoles, (e.g., digitalis toxicity).
Bile A thick viscid fluid with bitter taste secreted by liver. The bile when secreted in liver is straw coloured but down below is yellow-brown or green in colour (see Figure).
Bile acids Cholic, taurocholic and glycocholic acids that exist as salts in bile and are helpful for intestinal fat absorption (micelle formation).
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Biliary system
Bile pigment Bilirubin and biliverdin, imparting brown colour to urine and faeces and give positive reaction in Vandenberg's test.
Biticyanin A blue or purple pigment, an oxidation product of biliverdin.
Biligenesis Formation of bile.
Bilirubin Bile pigment; yellow to orange coloured, can be direct acting when conjugated to glucuronic acid or indirect acting when unconjugated.
Biliverdin Greenish pigment, formed by oxidation of bilirubin.
Biling's ovulation method A method for estimating the time of ovulation in a woman on the basis of analysis of the colour and consistency of the cervical mucous during various phases of menstrual cycle. This method is often adopted as a method for natural family planning. At the time of 103ovulation, the cervical mucus becomes thick and tenacious which fractures easily on stretching.
Billroth's operation BI: Excision of pylorus and gastroduodenal anastomosis BII: Partial gastrectomy followed by side to side gastrojejunal anastomosis.
Bimanual Examination by both hands.
Bimodal Means a graphic presentation with two peaks.
Bioassay Determination of strength of a drug in live animal/humans.
Bioavailability The rate and extent to which an active drug or metabolite enters the general circulation to be available at the acting site.
Biochemistry Chemistry of living things.
Biodynamics The science of force or energy of living matter.
Biofeedback A training programme aimed at controlling in function of autonomic nervous system.
Biogenic amines Chemical compounds important in neuro- transmission, e.g., dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine.
Biokinetics Study of growth changes and movements in developing organisms.
Biometry Computation of life expectancy, application of statistics to biological science.
Biophysics Application of physical laws to biological processes and function.
Biopsy Removal of tissue for examination b.aspiration–tissue removed by needle and syringe; b. brush- tissue removal by use of brush; b. cone- removal of cone shaped tissue b.punch tissue removal by a hollow punch.
Biostatistics Application of statistical processes and methods to the analysis of biological data e.g., morbidity rate, mortality rate etc.
Biot's breathing Short breaths in succession followed by long apnea as seen in raised intracranial pressure.
Biotin Otherwise known vit. H; deficiency manifests with poor mental and physical development, alopecia, impaired immunity etc.
Biparietal Distance between both parietal eminences important for foetal descent and delivery.
Bipolar In bipolar disease patient has alternating mania and depression.
Birefringence It is also known as double refraction. It is the decomposition of a ray of 104light into two rays: ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray due to the polarization of light.
Birenberg bow This is an effective intrauterine contraceptive device.
Birth mark Nevus, pigmentation or vascular tumor.
Birth rate Number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year. Syn Natality.
Bisacodyl A laxative that acts directly on the rectum. Given as tablets or in the form of suppositories.
Bisacromial Pertains to two acromial processes.
Bisexual 1. Having gonads of both sexes. 2. Hermaphrodite. 3. Having both active and passive sexual interests or characteristics. 4. Capable of the function of both sexes. 5. Both heterosexual and homosexual. 6. An individual who is both heterosexual and homosexual. 7. Of, relating to or involving both sexes as in bisexual reproduction.
Bismuth Silvery metallic element whose salts are astringent, protective, soothing and antidiarrhoeal.
Bisoprolol Betablocker.
Bite In dentistry denotes the angle and manner at which upper and lower teeth meet when jaw is closed. b. closed lower incisors lie behind upper incisors. b. open gap existing between upper and lower incisors. b. over upper incisors overlap lower ones. b. under lower incisors pass in front of upper ones.
Bite wing radiograph X-ray showing crown and upper third of root of upper and lower teeth.
Bitot's spots Triangular, shiny, gray spots on conjunctiva seen in vit A deficiency.
Bjerrum's screen Used for mapping the field of visions esp. central and paracentral scotomas.
Black eye Bruising, discoloration and swelling of eyelids following trauma.
Blackhead A plug of dried sebum in a sebaceous gland (Acne).
Black measles Also called haemorrhagic measles implying a severe hemorrhagic measle eruption.
Blackout Sudden loss of consciousness.
Black water fever Haemoglobinuria following P. falciparum induced hemolysis.
Black widow A species of poisonous spider: Latrodectus mactans, whose bite causes severe abdominal cramps.105
Bladder Receptacle to hold secretions. (urinary bladder, gallbladder). b. autonomous Bladder with loss of both efferent and affarent limbs of reflex arc, constant dribbling with large amount of residual urine. b. exstrophy Congenital eversion of bladder. b. neurogenic Any bladder dysfunction due to interruption of its innervation. b. worm Larval form of tape worm with a rounded cyst or bladder into which scolex is invaginated.
Blalock-Taussig operation A. Blalock, American surgeon, 1899-1964; H.B. Taussig, American paediatrician, 1898-1986. Operation in which the subclavian artery is anastomosed to the pulmonary artery. Performed in Fallot's tetralogy.
Blanch To lose colour. In blanching test, the nail is pressed quickly and then released. When circulation is good, colour returns within 5 seconds.
Bland diet Diet without irritant foods. e.g., milk, cream, prepared cereals, eggs, lean meat, fish, cheese, custard, cookie etc.
Blandin's glands Glands on each side of frenulum of tongue.
Blastocyst A stage of mammalian embryo next to morula and consists of outer trophoblast to which is attached an inner cell mass. The enclosed cavity is blastocele (see Figure).
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Early blastocyst
Blastoma Neoplasm composed of immature undifferentiated cells.
Blastomere One of the cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized ovum.
Blastomyces A genus of yeast like budding fungi pathogenic to man.
Bleaching powder Calcium hypochlorite or chlorinated lime.
Bleeding time Time required for blood to stop flowing from a pin prick. Normal range 1-3 minutes (Dukes) or 1-9 minutes (Ivy).
Blennorrhagia A discharge from mucous membranes.
Bleomycin Anti tumor agent used for carcinoma of skin, lungs, head and neck.106
Blepharitis Inflammation of lid margins including hair follicles and the glands.
Blepharoconjunctivitis This is the inflammation of both the conjunctiva and eyelids.
Blepharodiastasis Excessive separation of eyelids.
Blepharospasm Twitching or spasm of orbiculares oculi muscle.
Blindness Amauresis.
Blindspot Physiological scotoma situated 15° to outside of visual fixation point, corresponding to optic disc.
Blister Collection of fluid within epidermis.
Blood brain barrier A barrier membrane, i.e. endothelium and basement membrane, that prevent entry of damaging substances into CNS.
Blood group A genetically determined system of antigens located on surface of RBC. AB, and O system is the commonly accepted one. There are 30 Rh antigens too (see Figure on page 107).
Blood pressure Pressure exerted by moving blood on the vessel wall. A value beyond 140/90 mmHg in those below 50 years and 160/95 mmHg in those above 60 years is abnormal.
BP diastolic BP in between heart beats; depends upon elasticity of arteries and peripheral vascular resistance.
Blumenbach's sign Sign indicative of peritonitis, pain is experienced while pressure is relieved, on the abdomen by examining hand.
Boa's point A tender spot left of 12th dorsal vertebra, in patients with gastric ulcer.
Bochdalek's ganglion Ganglion of plexuses of dental nerve in the maxilla above the canine tooth.
Body-ketone They are acetone, acetoacitic acid and betahydroxy butyric acid. b. amygdaloid Almond shaped gray matter in the lateral wall and roof of third ventricle of brain concerned with memory. b. Aschoff Microscopic areas of central fibrinoid degeneration with sorrounding chronic inflammatory cell infiltration seen in rheumatic fever. b. carotid Flat structure at bifurcation of common carotid, containing baroreceptors. b. Donovan chlamydia granulomatis, causative organism of granuloma inguinale. b. Negri Inclusion bodies in nerve cells of CNS in patients of rabies.
Body mass index Body weight in kg divided by height in meters squared (W/H2), an index for estimating obesity.107
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Blood group
108Body rocking Rhythmic purposeless body movements.
Boeck's sarcoid Older name for sarcoidosis.
Boil A furuncle, acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue including glands and hair follicles.
Bombesin A neuropeptide present in gut and brain.
Bone Bone can be defined as a rigid hard connective tissue which forms part of the endoskeleton of the vertebrates. The bones help in supporting and protecting various organs in the body. The inner part of the bone is known as bone marrow which is the site for haematopoiesis. In an adult human being there are 206 bones. The bones can be of two types: compact (cortical) and cancellous (spongy) bone. Compact bone can be called as dense bone which is responsible for giving smooth, white and solid appearance to the bone. This type of bone accounts for about 80% of total bone mass in an adult skeleton. Cancellous bone comprises of a trabecular meshwork found in the interior of the bone. It accounts for the remaining 20% of the total bone mass. Depending on their shape and size, bones can be classified into five categories: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones and sesamoid bones. Each long bone is composed of three parts: epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis (see Figure).
Bone alveolar Bone of maxilla and mandible supporting the teeth. b. sesamoid Bone found embedded in tendons and joint capsule.
Bone age Estimation of biological age based on development of ossification centers of wrist and long bones.
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109Bone densitometry Method of determining bone density by radiographic or ultrasonic means for diagnosis of osteoporosis.
Bone marrow Bone marrow is highly vascular, pulpy, network of reticular tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. The major function of the bone marrow in adult bones is haematopoiesis or production of new blood cells. Bone marrow is primarily of two types: red marrow and yellow marrow. Red marrow is mainly composed of myeloid tissue and is responsible for synthesis of RB C's, WBC's and platelets. Yellow marrow is mainly composed of fat cells and is responsible for synthesis of a few white blood cells. Red marrow is mainly found in the flat bones like hip bone, skull bones, rib, vertebrae, scapula and in the canellous material at the ends of long bones (femur, humerus, tibia, etc). Yellow marrow is mainly found inside the medullary cavity in the middle portions of the long bones.
Bone marrow aspiration Bone marrow aspiration or bone marrow biopsy is a medical procedure in order to obtain the bone marrow sample for the purpose of pathological examination. Bone marrow aspiration is used for the diagnosis of numerous haematological conditions including leukaemia, multiple myeloma, anaemia, haematological malignancies, etc. The common sites for bone marrow aspiration include the sternum and posterior iliac crest.
Bone marrow transplantation autologous Cryopreservation of patient marrow and its reinfusion for marrow hypoplasia following cancer chemotherapy.
Bone marrow transplantation Used in treatment of aplastic anaemia thalassemia, immune deficiency, sickle cell disease.
Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome This is another name for Turner's syndrome. The individuals suffering from this syndrome have only one X Chromosome and no second sex chromosome (either X or Y). The phenotype of such individuals is female due to absence of Y chromosome. The individuals may show the following features: Growth retardation, webbed neck, infertility, short stature, development delay, learning disabilities, lymphedema, etc. 110The external genitalia is of female type. Though uterus and fallopian tubes are present, both ovaries and testis are absent.
Borax Sodium borate, used as water softner, and weak antiseptic.
Borborygmus A gurgling, splashing sound heard in abdomen caused by passage of gas.
Boric acid An odourless white crystaline powder used as a mild antiseptic solution especially for eyes, mouth and bladder.
Bornholm's disease Pleurodynia caused by coxackie B. virus.
Bottle mouth syndrome Dental caries caused in infants when they take a bottle filled with liquid other than water.
Botulin The neurotoxin responsible for botulism.
Botulism A severe form of food poisoning due to botulinous toxins A, B, C, D, E, F and G.
Bougie A slender flexible instrument for dilating tubular organs, e.g., urethra (see Figure).
Boutonniere deformity Proximal IP joint flexion and DIP hyperextension, characteristic of rheumatoid deformity.
Bowleg Outward bending of lower limbs (genu varum, due to rickets).
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Bougies: (A) Otis bougie à boule; (B) olive-tipped bougie; (C) filiform bougie
Bowman's capsule A bilayered membrane closely applied to glomerulus. Functioning as a filter for formation of urine.
Bowman's membrane Thin homogeneous membrane separating corneal epithelium from corneal substance.
Boyle's law The law states that at a constant temperature, the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure.
Brachium pontis Middle cerebellar peduncle.
Brachycheilia Abnormally short lips.
Brachydactylia Abnormally short fingers and toes.
Brachytherapy Radioactive material implant (radium, cesium, iridium or gold) at the malignancy site.
Bradford frame This is a rectangular metallic frame having canvas or webbing straps used 111for immobilizing the spine and pelvis. It is often used to support individuals with diseases or fractures of the spine, hip or pelvis. This device is named after its inventor, an American orthopaedic surgeon Edward H Bradford.
Bradycardia Sinus rhythm, <60/minute in adult, 100/minute in a child and 120/minute in fetus.
Bradyarrhythmia Slow and irregular heart rate.
Bradykinesia Slownes of movement (parkinsonism).
Bradyphrasia Slowness of speech.
Bradypnea Abnormally slow respiration.
Braille Raised dots system for education of blind.
Brain Composed of neurones and neuroglia, average weight 1350-1400 gm of which 2% in spinal cord and 85% is cerebrum, divided into 1. diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus) 2. mesencephalon (tegmentum, crura cerebri, medulla) 3. meten- cephalon (cerebellum, pons) and 4. telencephalon (cerebral cortex) (see Figure).
Brain death Isoelectric EEG for atleast 30 minutes with no change in response to sound and pain stimuli; absent respiration and all reflexes, (barbiturate, diazepam, methaqualone can produce short periods of isoelectric EEG).
Bran Outer layer or husk of grains/cereals composed of undigestible cellulose, adding bulk to stool.
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Brain—Lateral views showing cortical lobes and ventricles
112Branchial arches Five pairs of arched structure that form lateral and ventral walls of pharynx of the embryo from which structures of face and neck are formed.
Branchial clefts Openings between branchial arches.
Brandt-Andrews maneuver Expulsion of placenta from uterus during third stage of labour by gentle traction on cord by one hand, the other hand pressing uterus backwards and upwards.
Braxton Hicks sign Painless intermittent uterine contractions occurring after 3rd month of pregnancy.
Break bone fever Dengue fever (group B arbovirus).
Breast cancer Malignant neoplasm of breast, leading cause of death in women. Breast self examination in useful for early detection.
Breathing Act of inhaling and exhaling air. b. bronchial Prolonged high pitched expiration with often a tubular quality.
Breech presentation Foetal buttocks present at pelvic inlet (see Figure).
Bregma That point on skull where coronal and sagittal sutures join (see Figure on page 113).
Breisky's disease Kraurosis vulvae.
Brennerman's ulcers This can be described as meatitis, meatal ulceration and meatal stenosis of the urinary meatus in circumscribed males.
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Breech presentation
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Circumcision results in removal of foreskin which makes the meatus prone to infection, thereby resulting in the development of ulceration.
Brenner's tumor Benign fibroepithelioma of ovary.
Bretylium Antiarrhythmic agent.
Bright's disease Bright's disease was a term used to describe different forms of kidney disease in accordance with the older classification system of renal diseases. This usually referred to the inflammation of kidneys, what is now commonly known as nephritis.
Brimonidine Anti-glaucoma eye drop.
Briquet's syndrome A personality disorder with alcoholism and somatization disorder.
Brittle diabetes Changing and unpredictable response to insulin leading to ketosis, particularly in childhood diabetes.
Broca's area Posterior end of left inferior frontal gyrus which contains motor speech area controlling movements of lips, tongue and vocal cord.
Brodie's abscess Subacute osteomyelitis usually due to tuberculosis or Staph. aureus infection.
Brodmann's area Division of cerebral cortex into 47 areas, now classified according to their function.
Bromhexine Mucolytic agent.
Bromocryptine mesylate A dopaminergic ergot derivative that is used in hyper- prolactinemia.114
Bronchiectasis Chronic irreversible and permanent dilatation of bronchi, may be congenital or acquired.
Bronchiocele Circumscribed dilatation of bronchus.
Bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole is the last division of bronchial tree and continues as alveolar duct into alveolus. Terminal bronchiole is next to last subdivision of a bronchiole.
Bronchiolitis Inflammation of bronchioles, commonly in small children.
Bronchitis Inflammation of mucous membrane of bronchi (see Figure).
Bronchodilator An agent that dilates the air passages and relaxes the bronchial smooth muscles in order to aid breathing.
Bronchogram Radioopaque material opacification of bronchi.
Broncholith A calculus in the bronchus.
Bronchophony The voice as heard over normal bronchus by use of stethoscope.
Bronchopneumonia Inflammation of terminal bronchioles and alveoli.
Bronchoscope An endoscope for visualization of tracheobronchial tree, biopsy and foreign body removal (see Figure on page 115).
Bronchoscopy Examination of bronchial tree by a bronchoscope.
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Bronchovesicular Sounds intermediate between bronchial and alveolar sounds.
Bronchus The hollow tubes formed by division of trachea at the level of D4.
Brooke's formula This is one of the most commonly used formula for calculating the amount of fluid to be administered within the first twenty-four hours following burns injury in a patient with burns involving more than 50% of the surface area. It calls for administration of ringer's lactate solution at the rate of 2 ml /kg/% burn.
Brown-Séquard syndrome Hemisection of spinal cord with loss of pain and temperature on opposite side, motor paralysis on the same side with loss of position and vibratory sense.
Brucellosis Infection caused by Brucella organism (B. abortus, suis and melitensis).
Bruch's membrane The membrane lying between choroid membrane and the pigmented epithelium of retina.
Bruck's disease A combination of muscle atrophy and skeletal disorder like multiple fracture, ankylosis.
Bruise Injury with effusion of blood into subcutaneous tissue and skin discolouration with intact skin.
Bruit An adventitious sound of arterial or venous obstruction narrowing.
Brunner's glands Compound glands of duodenum and upper jejunum secreting mucus.
Brush border Hollow microvilli in the renal tubules and intestinal epithelium.116
Brushfield spots Gray or pale yellow spots present at the periphery of iris in Down's syndrome.
Bruxism Grinding of teeth particularly during sleep.
Bryant's traction Traction applied to lower leg vertically in treating femur fracture in children.
Buck's traction Traction of lower extremity applied in line with long axis of the leg.
Buclizine Antihistamine used for motion sickness.
Budesonide A corticosteroid used as bronchial spray in asthma.
Buerger's disease Thrombo- angitis obliterans, a vasospastic disease, often nicotine induced, responding to sympathectomy, revascularization and vasodilators.
Buffalo hump Excess fat deposition in cervical and upper thoracic region due to cortisone excess.
Buffer A substance that maintains hydrogen ion concentration in blood. Principal blood buffers are: bicarbonates, carbonates, carbonic acid, dibasic phosphates, Hb and plasma proteins.
Buffy coat A light coloured layer containing white cells that forms when blood is centrifused or is allowed to stand in a test tube.
Bufotenine A hallucinogen from plant, N-methylation product of - 5HT.
Bulb Any rounded or globular structure; bulbar paralysis-paralysis due to disease of medula oblongata.
Bulbitis Inflammation of urethra in its bulbous portion, e.g., posterior portion of corpus spongiosum found between the two crura of penis.
Bulbocavernosus reflex Contraction of bulbocavernosus muscle on percussing of dorsum of penis.
Bulbomimic reflex Contraction of facial muscles following pressure on eyeball.
Bulbourethral glands Cowper's glands: Two small glands about the size of a pea, one on each side of prostate gland secreting a viscid fluid adding to semen.
Bulimia Excessive and insatiable appetite. Bouts of over eating followed by vomiting in young girls.
Bulla A large blister or skin vesicle filled with fluid.
Bullaquine An antimalarial.
Bumetanide A diuretic.
Bunion Inflammation and thickening of the bursa of the joint of great toe often with 117lateral displacement of the toe (see Figure).
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Buphthalmos Infantile glaucoma with uniform enlargement of eye esp. cornea.
Buprenorphine Semisynthetic morphine analog, very potent analgesic.
Burkitt's lymphoma Undifferentiated lymphoblastic lymphoma involving sites other than lymph nodes and RE system, with strong association with EB virus infection.
Burn An injury to tissues caused by: (a) physical agents, the sun, excess heat or cold, friction, nuclear radiation; (b) chemical agents, acids or caustic alkalis; (c) electrical current. Burns are described as being partial thickness (involving only the epidermis) or full thickness (involving the dermis and underlying structures). Clinically, emphasis is placed on the percentage of the body affected by the burn. The treatment of shock and prevention of infection and malnutrition need special attention.
Burnett's syndrome Milk - alkali syndrome.
Burning foot syndrome Burning in the sole of feet due to vitamin deficiency and chronic renal failure.
Burr or Bur A device that rotates at high speed, used by dentist or surgeon to make holes in cranium (see Figure).
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Bur or Burr
Bursa A pad like cavity in the vicinity of joint lined with synovial membrane, acting to reduce friction between tendon and bone (see Figure on page 118).
Bursitis Inflammation of a bursa.
Bursolith Calculus formed in bursa.118
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Bursa subacromialis (subacromial bursa), lying between the acromion and supraspinatus tendon and extending between the deltoid and greater tubercle
Burton's line A blue line along the margin of the gum visible in chronic lead poisoning.
Buspiron Antianxiety agent.
Busulphan A cytotoxic drug that depresses the bone marrow and may be used to treat myeloid leukaemia.
Butenafine An antifungal.
Butorphanol Morphine conzener, acts like pentazocine.
Butterfly rash Skin rash on both cheeks joined by an extension across the bridge of nose (see Figure on page 119).
Butoxamine Beta2 adrenergic antagonist.119
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Butterfly rash
Butyric acid A fatty acid used in disinfectants, emulsifying agent.
Butyrophenone A class of chemicals of which haloperidol is a member, antipsychotic agents.
Byler's disease Inherited disease with cirrhosis and mental retardation in children.
Byssinosis Pneumonoconiosis of cotton and textile workers.
Cabergoline Dopamine receptor agonist used in hyperprolactinemia.
Cachet Used for administering medicines with a bitter taste.
Cachexia A state of ill health, malnutrition, wasting.
Cacogenesis Abnormal development or growth.
Cacogeusia Unpleasant taste in the mouth.
Cacosmia Unpleasant odor (olfactory hallucination).
Cadaver Dead body, corpse cardaverine-malodorous substance, cadaverous; resembling corpse.
Cadence Rythmic movements.
Cadwell luc operation Also known as maxillary antrostomy, this procedure involves opening the maxillary sinus by giving an incision in the buccal cavity over the canine teeth. This procedure helps in the drainage of this sinus.
Cafe-au-lait spots Spots of patchy pigmentation of skin, usually light brown in color-characteristic of neurofibromatosis.
Caffeine An alkaloid of tea, coffee. CNS stimulant, analgesic.
Caffey's disease This disease is also known as infantile cortical hyperostosis and is characterized by subperiosteal new bone formation over many bones. The bones most commonly involved include mandible, clavicle and shafts of long bones. There could be appearance of fever.
Caisson's disease A condition that develops in divers when air pressure is rapidly reduced while ascent to the surface. Symptoms are due to bubbling out of dissolved nitrogen.
Calabar A parasitic infection mainly seen in Africa, characterized by presence of lumps in the subcutaneous tissue, particularly anterior chamber of eyes.
Calamine A pink powder containing zinc oxide and little ferric oxide, used as protective, astringent.
Calcaneus The heel bone articulating with talus and cuboid.121
Calciferiol Vit D2, ergocalciferol.
Calcitonin Calcium lowering hormone, used in hypercalcemia, pagets disease secreted by D cells thyroid.
Calcitriol A sterol of vit D activity, very potent.
Calcium channel blockers A group of drugs that act by slowing the influx of calcium ions into muscle cells resulting in decreased arterial resistance and decreased myocardial O2 demand.
Calcium dobesilate Endothelium stabilizer for haemorrhoid.
Calculus Any abnormal concretion in the body.
Calf Fleshy muscular back part of leg formed by gastrocnemius and soleus.
Caliper A two-pronged instrument that may be used to exert traction on a part. Walking c. An appliance fitted to a boot or shoe to give support to the lower limb. It may be used when the muscles are paralysed or in the repair stage of fractures.
Calisthenics An exercise programme to bring suppleness and gracefulness of body combined with music.
Callosity Localized hypertrophy/thickening of skin at friction/pressure points.
Callus See callosity.
Calmodulin Intracellular proteins that combine with calcium and activate a variety of cellular responses.
Caloric test A test for vestibulo-ocular reflex. In involves irrigating cold or warm water into the external auditory canal. In a patient with intact cerebrum, the irrigation of cool water causes the eyes to turn towards the ipsilateral ear with horizontal nystagmus in the contralateral ear. Warm water, on the other hand, causes the eyes to turn towards the contralateral ear with horizontal nystagmus in the ipsilateral ear. In patients with absent vestibulo-ocular reflex, the nystagmus component of the test would be absent with both hot and cold water.
Calvaria The dome like superior portion of cranium (see Figure on page 122).
Calorie A unit of heat. Used to denote physiological values of various food substances, estimated according to the amount of heat they produce on being oxidized in the body. See Oxidization.122
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A Calorie (or kilocalorie) represents the heat required in raising 1 kg (1000 g) of water by 1oC. A small calorie equals the heat produced in raising 1 g of water by 1oC. In the SI system the calorie is replaced by the joule (1 cal = 4.18 kJ).
Calvé-Perthes disease Aseptic necrosis of femoral head epiphysis.
Calyx Any cuplike organ or cavity.
Canal Channel, passage way. c. femoral The medial division of femoral sheath, containing some lymphatic vessel and a lymph node. c. inguinal 1½” long oblique passage extending from internal inguinal ring to external inguinal ring transmitting spermatic cord, and ilioinguinal nerve in male and round ligament of uterus and ilioinguinal nerve in female.
Canaliculus Small channel or canal.
Cancer Malignant tumor which is invasive and metastasizes to new sites by lymph/blood (see Table on page 123).
Cancrum A rapidly spreading ulcer.
Candida A genus of yeast like fungi that develop a pseudomycelium and reproduce by budding (see Figure on page 123).
Candidiasis Infection of skin and mucus membrane by candida.
Cane sugar Sucrose.123
Table   Early warning signs of cancer
  • Any lump or thickening, especially in the breast, lip or tongue.
  • Any irregular or unexplained bleeding. Blood in the urine or bowel movements. Blood or bloody discharge from the nipple or any body opening. Unexplained vaginal bleeding or discharge, or any bleeding, after the menopause.
  • A sore that does not heat, particularly around the mouth, tongue or lips, or anywhere on the skin.
  • Noticeable changes in the colour or size of a wart, mole or birthmark.
  • Loss of appetite or continual indigestion.
  • Persistent hoarseness, cough or difficulty in swallowing.
  • Persistent change in normal elimination (bowel habits).
Special note: Pain is not usually an early warning sign of cancer.
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Candida albicans
Canker Ulceration of mouth and lips.
Cannabis Dried flowering tops of the cannabis sativa.
Cannibalism Eating of human flesh (kuru)
Cannon waves These refer to the large ‘a’ waves present 124on jugular venous pulse. These waves usually result when the right atrium has to contract against an increased resistance, e.g. tricuspid atresia or stenosis or right atrial myxoma.
Canthoplasty Enlargement of palpebral fissure by division of external canthus.
Canthridin Keratolytic for removal of warts.
Cap Protective covering. c. enamel cap like structure of enamel organ developed during third month of fetal development. c. phrygian the cholecystographic appearance of gallbladder showing kinking between body and fundus. c. ofzinn a prominence of pulmonary arc representing dilated pulmonary artery in PA view in patent ductus arteriosus.
Capacity a. Volume or potential volume of material. b. power or ability to hold, retain or contain. c. diffusion the ability of alveolo capillary membrane to transfer gas. c. forced vital volume of gas that can be expelled with maximum effort. c. functional residual volume of gas in the lungs after quiet expiration. c. iron binding capacity of serum transferin to bind iron. c. total lung volume of air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration. c. vital volume of gas that can be expelled after full inspiration (see Figure on page 125).
Capitulum Rounded articular end of a bone.
Caplan's syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis with progressive massive lung fibrosis in pneumoconiosis.
Capreomycin A second line tuberculostatic drug.
Capsid Protein covering around the central core of virus particle protecting the virus particle from destructive enzymes.
Capsofungin Potent antifungal.
Capsule Gelatin enclosure for drug delivery. c. articular A two layered covering for sinovial joints. The inner layer is sinovial and outer layer is fibrous. c. Glisson Outer fibrous capsule covering liver and portal vessels. c. Tenon The thin fibrous sac enveloping the eyeball.
Captopril Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. A vasodilator useful for hypertension and congestive failure.
Caput succedaneum Swelling on presenting part of foetal head during labour.125
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Subdivisions of total lung capacity: TLC, total lung capacity; VT, tidal volume; IC, inspiratory capacity; FRC, functional residual capacity; ERV, expiratory reserve volume; VC, vital capacity; RV, risidual volume
Table: Black's classification of dental caries
Dental caries
Class I
Cavities occurring in pit and fissure defects in occlusal surfaces of bicuspids and molars, lingual surfaces of upper incisors, and facial and lingual grooves sometimes found on occlusal surfaces of molar teeth.
Class II
Cavities in proximal surfaces of bicuspid and molars.
Class III
Cavities in proximal surfaces of incisors and cuspids not requiring removal of incisal angle.
Class IV
Cavities in gingival third of labial, lingual, or buccal surfaces.
Class VI (Not a true Black classification)
Cavities in incisal edges and smooth surfaces of teeth above the height of contour.
126Caramel Flavoring and colouring agent made by heating sugar or glucose, destroying the sweet taste in the process.
Carbachol Cholinergic drug for producing miosis, also used for emptying bladder.
Carbamate Ester of carbonic acid–the insecticides and parasiticides that act by inhibiting choline esterase. e.g. Aldicarb, Aminocarb, Carbaril, Carbofuran, Dimetilan, Methomyl, Propoxur.
Caries The decay or death of bone which becomes soft discoloured and porous.
Carbamazepine Antiepilepsy drug used for temporal lobe epilepsy and trigeminal neuralgia.
Carbasone Contains 28% arsenic, antiamoebic agent.
Carbenicillin Broad spectrum antibiotic, penicillin derivative.
Carbenoxolone Oleandane derivative used in peptic ulcer.
Carbidopa Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, used in combination with levodopa for parkinsonism.
Carbimazole Antithyroid drug.
Carbocistine Beta lactamase inhibitor.
Carbohydrate Chemical substances containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen e.g., sugar, glycogen, starches, dextrin and celluloses. Sucrose is glucose + fructose; maltose is 2 D glucose; lactose is glucose + galactose.
Carbon 14C is radiocative isotope of carbon with halflife of 5600 years. Used in archeology dating and as tracer element in metabolic studies.
Carbon dioxide Final metabolic product of carbon compounds present in food. CO2 combining power is a test of buffer capacity of blood. Solid CO2 (–80oC) used for removal of naevi, telangiectasis, warts, haemorrhoids, etc.
Carbon monoxide Present in automobile exhaust fumes, displaces O2 from haemoglobin, hence diminishing O2 transport.
Carbon tetrachloride A colourless toxic anesthetic liquid, previously used for ankylostomiasis but toxic to liver and kidney.
Carboplatin Antineoplastic agent.
Carboxyhemoglobin Compound formed by CO and Hb.
Carboxylase An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of carboxyl group (COOH) from amino acids in the presence of Vit. B1 acting as an coenzyme.127
Carboxylation Replacement of hydrogen by a carboxyl (COOH) molecule.
Carboxylic acid Organic acid with COOH group.
Carbuncle Spreading inflammation of deeper skin.
Carbutamide An oral hypoglycemic agent.
Carcinoembryonic antigen A class of antigen in fetus and expressed by colonic tumors. CEA level returns to normal after complete removal of colonic tumor.
Carcinogen Carcinoma inducing chemicals e.g., benzpyrines.
Carcinoid Tumor of Argentaffin cells in the GI tract, bronchi, ovary, secreting serotonin.
Carcinoid syndrome Syndrome due to metastatic carcinoid tumors secreting serotonin, bradykinin, histamine and prostaglandin. Symptoms are diarrhoea, flushing, hypotension and heart valve lesions.
Carcinoma Malignant growth of epithelial tissue; basal cell c. is from basal layer of skin, rarely metastasizes (rodent ulcer). epidermoid c. tumor on the surface either wartlike or infiltrating. Medullary c. Carcinoma that is soft because of predominance of cells and paucity of fibrosis. Squamous cell c. Cancer from squamous epithelium with rolled out everted edges. Scirrhous c. A form of cylindrical carcinoma with a firm, hard structure. Cylindrical c. Carcinoma of glands usually entodermal origin.
Carcinophilia Having affinity for cancer cells.
Cardarelli's sign Pulsating movement of trachea with aortic aneurysm.
Cardiac arrest Abrupt cessation of heart beat (temporary or permanent), that results in the loss of effective circulation. It is usually caused by ventricular fibrillation.
Cardiac cirrhosis Cirrhosis of liver secondary to a cardiac cause. Commonly constructive pericarditis.
Cardiac cycle The period from beginning of one heart beat to beginning of next beat. It comprises atrial systole 0.1 second, ventricular systole 0.3 second and ventricular relaxation of 0.5 seconds.
Cardiac failure Condition resulting from inability of heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the body needs.
Cardiac output Blood ejected from left/right ventricle per minute, usually 3 lit/m2.128
Cardiac plexus Branches of vagus and sympathetic trunk encircling base of heart.
Cardiac position A position of comfort for the patients of asthma and cardiac diseases, who are unable to breathe easily in lying-down position. The patient is propped up in sitting position with the means of back rest and pillows and an overbed table is placed in front with a pillow on it, so that the patient can lean forwards and take rest.
Cardiac reflex Slowing of heart rate from stimulation of sensory nerve endings in the walls of carotid sinus from a rise in arterial blood pressure. (Marey's law).
Cardiac reserve The capacity of heart to increase cardiac output and raise blood pressure to meet body requirements.
Cardiectasis Dilatation of heart.
Cardiff count-to-ten chart Method of evaluating the intrauterine wellbeing of the fetus in which the pregnant woman records fetal movements during her normal activities. If the count is less than 10, further medical evaluation is recommended.
Cardinal Important or of primary importance.
Cardiocele Herniation of heart through an opening in diaphragm or chest wall.
Cardiocentesis Puncture of heart.
Cardiodynia Pain in the region of heart.
Cardioesophageal reflux Reflux of gastric contents into esophagus.
Cardiogenesis Formation and growth of embryonic heart.
Cardiogenic In relation to heart itself.
Cardiogram Recording of electrical activity of heart.
Cardiograph Machine that picks up electrical activity of heart.
Cardiolipin An extract of beef heart used for test of syphilis.
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of heart.
Cardiomyopathy Primary disease of heart muscle.
Cardiomyopexy Stitching of pectoral muscle to cardiac muscle inorder to augment vascular supply to heart muscle.
Cardiomyoplasty Reinforcement of cardiac muscle contractility by transfer of lattismus dorsi to surround the heart and to contract synchronously with cardiac muscle.
Cardiomyotomy Surgical therapy of achalasia in which the muscle surrounding cardio 129esophageal junction is cut but the mucus membrane is left intact.
Cardioplegia Deliberate arrest of cardiac function by use of hypothermia, potassium, etc.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Emergency medical care to a person whose heart and lung function is going to stop or has recently stopped. Artificial respiration and cardiac massage are the two principal components of CPR (see Figure).
Cardiorrhexis Rupture of heart.
Cardioverter Defibrillator that delivers electric shockwaves for treating cardiac arrhythmia/ventricular standstill.
Caries The decay or death of bone which becomes soft discoloured and porous.
Cariogenic Conducive to dental caries formation.
Carisoprodol A muscle relaxant, acting through CNS.
Carminative Agent that helps to get rid of gas in intestine.
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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
130Carmustine Antineoplastic agent.
Carnal Related to desires or appetite of flesh.
Carnett's sign Method of determining the source of pain while evaluating a surgical abdomen, when the patient raises his head after being in supine position. It is positive, if the pain increases or remains the same and indicates that the source of origin lies in the abdominal wall and not the viscera.
Carnitine A chemical important in metabolism of palmitic and stearic acid. Used therapeutically in treatment of myopathy due to carnitine deficiency.
Carnivorous Flesh eating.
Carotene Yellow cristalline pigments of plant and animal tissue, converted to Vit A in liver.
Carotenemia A benign condition with high blood caroten level causing yellow colouration of skin but not of conjuctiva.
Carotid body A pressure and hypoxia sensitive flat structure present at carotid bifurcation.
Carotid sinus A dilated area at the bifurcation of common carotid, richly supplied with sensory nerve endings, responding to changes in concentration of O2 and blood pressure.
Carotid siphon The S shaped terminal portion of internal carotid artery.
Carotidynia Pain elicited by pressures on common carotid artery.
Carotinase Enzyme that converts carotine into Vit A.
Carpal tunnel The canal beneath flexor retinaculum of wrist in which flexor tendons and median nerve pass.
Carpal tunnel syndrome Pain, tenderness and weakness of muscles of thumb caused by pressure on median nerve in carpal tunnel.
Carphology Involuntary picking at bed clothes, muttering etc. the signs of impending end.
Carpopedal spasm Spasms of hand and feet seen in tetany and hyperventilation (see Figure).
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Carpopedal spasm
131Carpus Wrist (see Figure).
Carrier A person who harbors a pathogenic organism without any sign or symptom of disease but is capable of spreading the organism to others.
Cartilage A type of dense connective tissue capable of withstanding high pressure and tension. Cartilage is avascular and is without nerve supply. c. hyaline Bluish - white glassy translucent cartilage, e.g., semilunar cartilage of knee, thyroid cartilage.
Caruncle Small fleshy growth.
Carvedilol Betablocker.
Cascara A laxative prescribed from the bark of the Californian buckthorn. It may be prepared as an elixir or tablets.
Casein The principal protein in milk derived from casinogen.
Casoni's test Appearance of wheal surrounded by erythematous zone following intradermal injection of sterile hydatid fluid. The test is false positive in 40% cases in diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus.
Cast 1. A solid mold of a part, usually applied for immobilization of fracture, dislocation and severe injuries. 2.
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132In dentistry a positive copy of tissues of jaw over which denture base is to be made. 3. Pliable or fibrous matter which mould to the shape of the part in which they accumulate. According to source they can be classified as bronchial, intestinal, nasal, esophageal, renal, vaginal etc. According to constituents casts can be bloody, fatty, hyaline, granular, waxy etc.
Castellani's paint Composed of phenol, resorcinol, used as a disinfectant for skin and as an antifungal.
Castle factor Also known as Castle's intrinsic factor, it is a small mucoprotein secreted by the gastric parietal cells. This factor is required to facilitate adequate absorption of vitamin B12 by the stomach. Deficiency of this factor can result in pernicious anaemia.
Castor oil Obtained from the plant Ricinus communis, hydrolyzed in intestine to ricinoleic acid that acts as laxative.
Castrate To remove or inactivate ovaries or testes.
Casuality Accident/injury/death.
Catabolism Breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances with consumption of energy; opposite of anabolism.
Catagen Intermediate phase of hair growth lying between anagen (growing) and telogen (Resting phase).
Catalase An enzyme that helps in breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Catalepsy A trance like state with diminished responsiveness but often intact perception.
Catalysis Enhancement of a chemical reaction by a catalyst.
Catalyst A substance that speeds up chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered, e.g., HCl catalyzes hydrolysis of sucrose.
Catamenia Menstruation.
Cataphasia Involuntary repitition of same word.
Cataphoria Tendency of visual axes to incline below the horizontal plane.
Cataphylaxis The process of carrying antibodies and leukocytes to the site of an infection.
Cataplexy The brief sudden loss of muscle control brought on by strong emotion i.e., excitement, anger.
Catapres Clonidine, an antihypertensive agent.
Cataract Opacity of lens nucleus, capsule or both. Immature stage. Lens swollen, anterior chamber shallow Mature stage. Lens shrinks, no iris shadow on transillumination, 133cataract can be polar, lamellar, nuclear, cortical, congenital, traumatic, diabetic but senility is the single most common cause.
Catarrh Inflammation of mucous membranes esp. of head and throat.
Catatonia A phase of schizophrenia in which patient is unresponsive and tends to assume fixed posture.
Catecholamine Biologically active amines like epinephrine and nor epinephrine derived from amino acid tyrosine.
Catgut Suture made-up of sheep's intestine. Chromium trioxide treatment enhances strength of the suture.
Catharsis Purgation.
Cathartic Agent causing purgation.
Catheter A hollow tube for evacuation and injection of fluids. Arterial and venous catheters for recording of pressure, pacing catheter for atrial/ventricular pacing; self- retaining bladder catheter; Tenckoff peritoneal catheter for peritoneal dialysis.
Cathexis The emotional or mental energy used in concentrating on an object or idea.
Cathode Negative electrode, opposite of anode.
Cation An ion with positive charge that travels onto cathode.
CAT scan Computerized axial tomography: computerized X-ray picture of any body part.
Cat scratch fever Febrile disease with lymphadenopathy transmitted by cats.
Cauda Tail or tail like structure. Terminal portion of spinal cord—cauda equina. Inferior portion of epididymis—cauda epididymidis (see Figure).
Caudate Possessing a tail.
Causalgia Intense burning pain accompanied by trophic skin changes, due to injury to sympathetic innervation.
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Cauda equina—descending from the conus medullaris of the spinal cord
134Caustic An agent particularly an alkali that destroys living tissue.
Cauterization Destruction of tissue by caustic, electric current, freezing etc.
Cautery The means of destroying tissue.
Cavalry bone Sesamoid bone in adductor longus of thigh in riders.
Cavernitis Inflammation of corpus cavernousum of penis.
Cavernoma Cavernous haemangioma.
Cavernous Containing a hollow space.
Cavitis Inflammation of venacava.
Cavity A hollow space in a viscus or tooth.
Cavity preparation Artificial cavity prepared in teeth for tooth restoration e.g., root canal treatment.
Cecectomy Surgical removal of cecum.
Cecopexy Surgical fixation of cecum to abdominal wall.
Cecum The first portion of large intestine, 6 cm in length, 7.5 cm in width, with appendix arising at its lower end.
Cefadroxyl Longacting oral cephalosporin.
Cefadinir Oral cephalosporin.
Cefotaxime A third generation cephalosporin antibiotic having a broad spectrum of activity, used to treat intra-abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, gonorrhoea, and other infections due to susceptible organisms, including penicillinase-producing strains.
Cefoxitin A semisynthetic cephalosporing antibiotic, especially effective against Gram-negative organisms, with strong resistance to degradation by β-lactamase.
Table   Major groups of cephalosporin
135Cefpodoxime Oral third generation cephalosporin.
Celiac disease Intestinal malabsorption syndrome mostly gluten induced.
Celiac plexus Sympathetic plexus near origin of celiac artery.
Celiocentesis Abdominal puncture.
Cell The basic structural unit of all plants and animals containing protoplasm and nucleus. c. Alzheimer's giant astrocytes with large prominent nuclei found in hepatic coma and hepatolenticular degeneration. c. antigen presenting group of dendritic cells that process antigen and present them to lymphocytes. c. APUD amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells, that include melanocytes, chromaffin cells, and cells in thyroid, parathyroid, hypothalamus, adrenals secreting epinephrine, serotonin somatostatin, dopamine etc. c. argentaffin Epithelium of digestive tract containing granules that stain with silver. c. basket found in cerebellar cortex whose axon gives off brushes of fibrils. 1. Branching basal cell of salivary gland 2.136
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Epithelial cell
Certain cells of cerebellar cortex. c. beta Insulin secreting cells of pancreas (islets of Langerhans). c. Betz Large pyramidal cells of motor cortex. c. chief Parathormone secreting cells, pepsin secreting gastric cells, chromophobe cells of pituitary. c. columnar Cells with height breadth. c. cuboid Cell with height equal to width and depth. c. Downey's atypical lymphocytes of three types invariably present in infectious mononucleosis. c. endothelial Flat cells outlining blood vessels, peritoneum and pleura-pericardium. c. Fanana's type of neuroglical cell found in cerebellar cortex. c. gitter polymorphonuclear leukocytes with granules showing brownian movement; their presence in urine may indicate pyelonephritis. c. Hela Cells cultured from patients of carcinoma of cervix. c. Kupffer Fixed phagocytic cells in sinusoids of liver. c. Langerhan's stellate dendritic cells found in epidermis and are antigen presenting cells. c. Leydig Interstitial cells of testes. c. littoral Macrophages in sinuses of lymphatic tissue. c. mast Cells containing heparin and histamine. c. Merkel specialized cell at epithelial dermal junction acting as touch receptors. c. Mikulicz's cells in rhinoscleroma that contain the bacillus. c. Mott abnormal plasma cells containing Mott/Russel bodies in multiple myeloma. c. natural killer A line of B lymphocytes that kill the virus infected and tumor cells. c. neuroglia Supporting cells in CNS and retina. c. Niemann-Pick A foamy lipid filled cell present in spleen and bone marrow in Nieman and Pick's disease. c. Owl's eye degenerated renal epithelial cell. c. Paneth's epithelial cells seen in crypts of Lilberkuhn. c. parafollicular lie along thyroid follicles and secrete calcitonin. c. plasma antibody secreting cells of B lymphocyte lineage. c. Purkinje Cells of cerebral cortex whose axon extend to brainstem nuclei, cerebellum or anterior horn cells of spinal cord.
c. Roji cells from cultured lymphoblast cell line of Burkitt's 137lymphoma, used for detection of immune complexes. c. Reed Sternberg giant histiocyte, multinucleated seen in Hodgkin's lymphoma. c. Schwann large nucleated cell whose cell membrane wraps around myelinated neurone thus augmenting conduction. c. Sertoli's supporting cells in seminiferous tubules. c. Sezary abnormal mononuclear cell in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. c. stem a precursor or progenitor cell. c. target thin RBC with dark center and a peripheral ring of haemoglobin seen in thalassemia, liver disease. c. Vero a cell line derived from African green monkey kidney cells used in isolation of viruses. C. Warthin Finkeldey's multinucleated giant cells in intranuclear inclusions seen in measles (see Figure on page 136).
Cell kinetics The study of growth and division of cells.
Cell membrane The envelop surrounding cell, composed of carbohydrate, lipid and protein.
Cell organelle Structures in the cytoplasm like mitochondria, golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes etc.
Cellophane Thin transparent water proof sheet of cellulose acetate, used as dialysis membrane.
Cellular immunity T-cell mediated immune reaction, basis of organ transplant rejection, lepromin test and BCG vaccination.
Cellulitis Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.
Celsius scale Temperature scale where boiling point of water is 100° and melting point is of ice is 0°.
Cement Material that makes one substance bind to another.
Cementitis Inflammation of dental cementum.
Cementoblast Cells lining the developing tooth depositing cementum.
Cementoclast Multinucleated large cells that remove cementum (i.e., odontoclasts).
Cementoma A benign fibrous connective tissue growth usually at root of tooth containing small masses of cementum.
Cementum Thin layer of calcified tissue formed by cementoblast covering the root of tooth (see Figure on page 138).
Center A group of nerve cells in CNS subserving special function. c. apneustic Center in brainstem regulating breathing. c. auditory138
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Cementum covering the anatomical root of an anterior tooth
Center for hearing in the anterior part of transverse temporal gyri. c. autonomic Center controlling autonomic functions located in hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. c. cardioaccelerator and c. cardioinhibitory Both present in medulla oblongata, innervating the heart through sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. c. Broca's Center in inferior frontal gyrus (area) controlling speech. c. ciliospinal Center in spinal cord giving rise to sympathetic fibers dilating the pupil. c. defecation Two centers located in medulla oblongata and in S2-S4 segments of spinal cord. c. deglutition Center in medulla oblongata on the floor of fourth ventricle that controls swallowing. c. heat regulating A heat loss and a heat production center located in medulla. c. micturition Located in S2-S4, medulla and hypothalamus controlling micturition. c. pneumotaxic Center in pons that rhythmically inhibits inspiration. c. respiratory The inspiratory, expiratory and pneumotaxic centers in medulla oblongata controlling the respiratory movements. c. satiety An area in ventromedial thalamus that modulates eating behavior.
Centigram Hundredth of gram, 10 mg.
Centiliter Hundredth of liter, 10 ml.
Centimeter Hundredth of meter, 10 mm.
Centepede Arthropod with long flat segmented body each with a pair of legs.
Central core disease A form of benign familial polymyopathy characterized by hypotonia, and nonprogressive muscle weakness.
Central line A venous access device to give fluids and to monitor venous pressure in vena cava and atrial chamber.
Central venous pressure Pressure in superior vena cava and right trium, normally 5-10 cm of H2O.
Centrifugal Force directed outwards from center of rotation.
Centrifuge A machine that spins test tubes at high speed, causing heavy particles to settle down to the bottom. 139RBCs settle down at bottom, and WBCs form a thin layer between RBC and plasma.
Centrilobular Concerning the center of a lobule.
Centriole A minute organelle consisting of a hollowed cylinder closed at one end and open at the other. During mitosis the centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell to which spindle fibers are attached.
Centripetal Directed towards the axis, i.e., center.
Centromere The constricted central portion of chromosome that divides chromosome into two.
Cephalexin Analog of antibiotic cephalosporin.
Cephalgia Headache, pain in the body.
Cephalhematoma Subcutaneous swelling containing blood found on the head of a newborn baby disappearing within 2-3 months.
Cephalic index Maximal length of head divided by maximal breadth × 100.
Cephalometry Measurement of the head using various bony points used to assess growth and in determining orthodontic or prosthetic treatment.
Cephaloridine An analogue of the antibiotic cephalosporin.
Cephalotomy Perforating the foetal head to facilitate delivery.
Cercaria A free swimming stage in the development of fluke or trematode.
Cerclage Encircling of a part with a ring or loop as in incompetent cervix.
Cerebellum Largest portion of rhombencephalon lying dorsal to pons and medulla oblongata; involved in coordination of fine movements, maintenance of posture, equilibrium, muscle tone, etc.
Cerebromalacia Softening of cerebrum.
Cerebroside A lipid constituent of nerve tissue.
Cerebrospinal fever Inflammation of brain and meninges.
Cerebrospinal fluid The cushioning fluid formed in the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricle. Normal amount 100-140 ml, specific gravity 1003-1008 (see Figure on page 140).
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Ischemic or haemorrhagic cerebral events due to embolism, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, A.V. malformation, etc.
Cerebrum Consists of two hemispheres united by two commissures; corpus callosum, anterior and posterior hippocampal commissures (see Figure on page 140).140
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Circulation of CSF
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Ceruloplasmin Copper transporting glycoprotein in blood.
Cerumen The wax like, soft brown secretion in external auditory canal.
Ceruminosis Excessive secretion of cerumen.
Cervical plexus The plexus formed by joining of anterior rami of first 4 cervical nerves, communicating with sympathetic ganglia.
Cervical spondylosis Osteoarthritis of cervical vertebra with osteophytic growths often causing nerve root compression.
Cervical vertebra First seven bones of spinal column.
Cervicitis Inflammation of uterine cervix.
Cervicodynia Pain in the neck, cervical neuralgia.
Cervix The neck or part of an organ resembling neck. c. uteri The lower tubular part of uterus, 1” long protruding into vaginal valt.141
Cesarean section Delivery of foetus by giving incision on uterus, either extraperitoneal or intraperitoneal. Commonly done in cephalopelvic disproportion, breech presentation and foetal distress.
Cesium 137Cs an radioactive isotope of metal cesium is used for radiation of cancer tissue.
Cestoda A subclass that includes tapeworms that have a scolex and a chain of segments (proglottids).
Cetirizine H1 receptor blocker antiallergic.
Chaddock's reflex 1. Extension of great toe when outer edge of dorsum of foot is stroked. 2. Flexion of wrist and fanning of fingers when tendon of palmaris longus is pressed; positive in corticospinal tract lesions.
Chadwick's sign Also known as Jacquemier's sign, this is a sign of pregnancy. This sign is associated with bluish discolouration of cervix, vagina and vulva due to venous congestion.
Chafing Erythema, maceration and fissuring of skin due to friction of clothing in axilla, groin, between digits.
Chaga's disease African trypanosomiasis.
Chalasia Relaxation of sphincters.
Chalazion Distention of a meibomian gland of eyelid with hard secretions, resembling tumor.
Chalicosis Pneumonoconiosis associated with inhalation of dust produced during stone cutting.
Challenge In immunology, administration of specific antigen to an individual known to be sensitive to that antigen inorder to produce an immune response.
Chamber Closed space or compartment. c. anterior, posterior Anterior and posterior chambers of eye containing aqueous humor, lying between cornea and iris, iris and lens respectively. c. Boyden Chamber used to measure chemotaxis. c. hyperbaric Closed chamber with high internal air pressure, e.g., hyperbaric oxygen chambers for treatment of frost bite, gangrene decompression sickness. c. pulp The chamber within crown of tooth containing nerve endings and blood vessels (see Figure on page 142).
Chancre Hard painless syphilitic primary ulcer on exposed part with slough leather base.
Chancroid Non-syphilitic venereal ulcer due to Haemophilus ducreyi.142
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Chambers of the eye
Charcoal Activated charcoal used for adsorption of gas and poisonous alkaloids in GI tract.
Charcot's joint Denervated degenerating joint in syringomyelia, tabes dorsalis or spinal cord injury with hypermobility.
Charcot-Leyden crystal Colourless, hexagonal, double pointed and often needle like crystals found in sputum of asthmatic patients and in faeces of patients of intestinal amoebiasis.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease A form of hereditary progressive neuro-muscular atrophy usually developing in childhood, commonly males. (SYN-peroneal muscular atrophy).
Charcot's triad Combination of nystagmus, intention tremor, and scanning speech; frequently associated with multiple sclerosis.
Charle's law At constant pressure, a given amount of gas will expand in direct proportion to absolute temperature.
Charting The process of making a tabulated record of the progress of patient during hospital stay in relation to temperature, blood pressure, intake, etc.
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome AR disease in which neutrophils contain peroxidase positive inclusion bodies. Partial albinism, photophobia and pale optic fundi are the clinical features. Children usually die between 5 - 10 years of age due to lymphoma like disease.
Cheilitis Inflammation of lips.
Cheilosis Red lips, with fissured angles of mouth commonly due to riboflavin deficiency.
Chelation The process of chelating; meaning to hold ionic metallic compounds preventing their absorption or action at target sites, e.g. calcium disodium edetate.
Chemabrasion Use of chemicals to destroy superficial layers of skin to treat scars, tatoos, abnormal pigmentation.143
Chemical warfare Warfare with toxic-chemical/biological agents. The chemicals used are nerve gases/disease producing organisms.
Chemiluminescence Light produced by chemical reactions without production of heat, e.g. light production during bacterial killing by neutrophils, fire flies.
Chemodectoma Tumor of chemoreceptor system, e.g. para ganglioma.
Chemoprophylaxis Use of drugs to prevent occurrence of disease.
Chemoreceptor A sense organ or sensory nerve ending that is stimulated by and reacts to certain chemical stimuli; usually located outside CNS, e.g., carotid and aortic bodies, taste buds olfactory cells of nose.
Chemosis Edema of conjunctiva.
Chemotaxis Movement of cells in response to a chemical stimulus or message, e.g. movement of neutrophils to site of injury.
Chemotherapeutic index The ratio of the toxicity of the drug, expressed as maximum tolerated dose/kg body weight to the minimal curative dose/kg of body weight.
Chemotropism Ability of impulse to progress or turn in certain direction in response to certain stimuli.
Chenodeoxycholic acid Used for dissolution of gallstones.
Cherry red spots Red spot in retina of Taysach's disease.
Chest The body part accommodating heart and lungs. c. emphysematous Short and round thorax with AP diameter equal to transverse diameter, horizontal ribs (barrel chest). c. flail Paradoxical chest movement due to multiple rib fracture. c. flat Chest deformity with short AP diameter, long thorax, oblique ribs and prominent scapula. c. pigeon Prominent sternum with prominent sternal ends of the ribs.
Chest thump A sharp blow to chest in precordial area in order to revert a VT or restore normal rhythm in cardiac arrest.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration Breathing pattern in which period of apnea is followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respiration. Common in diencephalic and frontal lobe dysfunction.
Chiari-Frommel syndrome Persistent amenorrhoea and 144lactation following child birth due to hyperprolactinemia.
Chiasm A crossing or decussation. c. optic An incomplete crossing of the optic fiber (see Figure).
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Chikungunya An arboviral infection with fever, joint pain and rash.
Chilblain A form of cold injury characterized by local erythema, itching and often blistering.
Child abuse Emotional, physical and sexual injury to a child.
Chill Shivering with sensation of coldness and pallor of skin.
Chimpanzee An intelligent ape native to parts of Africa.
Chinese Restaurant Syndrome Headache, perspiration and chest pain after eating monosodium glutamate.
Chiropodist Podiatrist
Chiropractic A system of health care which emphasizes on good relationship between organs for proper functioning.
Chi-square2) A statistical test to determine the similarity of the number of occurrences being investigated to the expected occurrences.
Chlamydia A genus of micro- organisms causing ornithosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, trachoma and genital infection.
Chloasma Skin pigmentation (localized) following trauma, idiopathic or pregnancy.
Chloral hydrate Colourless, caustic, hypnotic agent.
Chlorambucil Cytotoxic agent used to treat C.L.L., Hodgkin's disease, etc.
Chloramphenicol Antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae, specific for treatment of enteric fever.
Chlorbutanol Antiseptic and local anaesthetic used in dentistry and as a preservative.
Chlordane An insecticide.
Chlordantion Topical antifungal agent.
Chlordiazepoxide A benzodiazepine, used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, etc.
Chloremia Increased chloride concentration in blood.145
Chlorhexidine Topical anti- infective agent.
Chlorinated lime Calcium hypochlorite and calcium chloride, used as bleaching agents and antiseptic.
Chlorite A salt of chlorous acid, used as disinfectant and bleaching agent.
Chlormezanone Antianxiety sedative agent.
Chloroguanide Antimalarial agent.
Chloroma Sarcoma of periosteum of cranial bones (green cancer).
Chlorophane Green-yellow pigment in retina.
Chlorophenothane An insecticide known as DDT.
Chlorophyll The green pigment in plants.
Chlorphene A phenol, disinfectant.
Chlorpheniramine An antihistamine agent.
Chlorphenoxamine Drug for parkinsonism.
Chlorpromazine Tranquiliser used in psychosis.
Chlorpropamide Oral hypoglycemic agent of sulfonyl urea group.
Chlorprothixene Anti-depressant.
Chlortetracycline Bacteriostatic antibiotic of tetracycline group.
Chlorthalidone Diuretic.
Chlorthiazide A diuretic.
Chlorzoxazone Muscle relaxant.
Choana Funnel shaped opening esp. on the posterior nares.
Choking Obstruction within respiratory passage or constriction in the neck obstructing breathing and circulation to brain.
Cholagogues An agent which promotes increased bile flow.
Cholangiectasis Dilatation of bile ducts.
Cholangiography Radiography of biliary system.
Cholangioma Tumor of bile ducts.
Cholangitis Inflammation of the bile ducts.
Cholecystectomy Excision of gall bladder.
Cholecystitis Inflammation of gall bladder manifesting with fever, chills, upper abdominal pain and mild jaundice; nearly always caused by gall stones.
Cholecystokinin Hormone secreted by duodenum that stimulates gall bladder contraction and pancreatic secretion.
Cholelithiasis Stone formation within gall bladder.
Cholemia Hyperbilirubinemia.
Cholera Profuse watery diarrhoea and vomiting with 146dehydration caused by vibrio cholerae.
Choleriform Resembling cholera.
Cholesteatoma An epithelial pocket filled with keratin debris.
Cholesterol A monohydric alcohol, principal constituent of gall stones and constituent of cell membrane, percursor of hormones.
Cholesterosis Cholesterol deposition in tissues.
Cholestyramine An ion exchange resin to treat itching of hyperbilirubinemia.
Cholic acid A bile acid.
Choline An amine, constituent of lecithin and other phospholipids; involved in protein metabolism.
Cholinergic Nerve endings that liberate acetyl choline.
Cholinergic fibers They include all preganglionic fibers, all post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers, postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands and, efferent fibers to skeletal muscle.
Cholinesterase Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of choline esters, i.e. acetyl cholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline.
Choluria Presence of bile salts and/or pigments in the urine and is usually indicative of jaundice.
Chondrin Gelatin like material obtained by boiling of cartilage (the basic substance of cartilage).
Chondritis Inflammation of cartilage.
Chondrodysplasia Multiple exostoses of epiphysis esp. of long bones, metacarpals, and phalanges.
Chondrogen Basal substance of cartilage and corneal tissue, which changes to chondrin on boiling.
Chondroitin Substance present in connective tissue, including cornea and cartilage.
Chondroma A painless, slow growing tumor of cartilage.
Chondromalacia Softening of articular cartilage, usually involving patella.
Chondrosarcoma Cartilaginous sarcoma.
Chorda A cord or tendon. c. tympani Branch of facial nerve whose efferent fibers innervate submandibular and sublingual glands and afferent fibers convey taste sensation from anterior two thirds of tongue.
Chordae tendinea Tendinous cords connecting free edges 147of A-V valves to papillary muscles.
Chordee A condition associated with downwards (ventral) or upwards (dorsal) curvature of the head of penis. The condition is most commonly associated with hypospadias. Chordee develops due to the presence of fibrous tissue between the glans and urethral opening.
Chorditis Inflammation of vocal/spermatic cord.
Chordoma A tumor along vertebral column composed of embryonic nerve tissue.
Chorea A movement disorder due to extrapyramidal damage characterized by quasipurposive, involuntary, non repititive limb movements, e.g., Sydenham's (rheumatic) chorea, chorea gravidarum, Huntington's chorea.
Choreoathetosis Jerky bizarre involuntary muscle contraction, usually more proximal than distal.
Chorioadenoma Adenoma of chorion, the outer membrane enclosing the foetus.
Chorioamnionitis Inflammation of membranes covering foetus, i.e., amnion & chorion.
Choriocarcinoma Malignant neoplasm of chorion usually following hydatid mole, abortion or often normal pregnancy.
Choriomeningitis Inflammation of meninges. c. lymphocytic is of viral origin.
Chorion An extraembryonic membrane that covers outerwall of blastocyst from which develop chorionic villi.
Chorionic villus sampling The procedure of obtaining samples of chorionic villi for prenatal evaluation of foetus.
Chorioretinitis Inflammation of choroid and retina.
Choroid Dark brown vascular layer of eye in between sclera and retina (see Figure).
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Choroideremia X-linked choroid degeneration manifesting as nightblindness progressing to absolute blindness.
Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid.
Christian-Weber disease Nodular, nonsuppurating panniculitis with fever.148
Christmas factor A thromboplastin activator present in plasma.
Chromaffin cells Pigment cells of adrenal medulla and para- ganglia containing granules that stain with chromium salts.
Chromatin It is a DNA structure present in the cell nucleus. Males are chromatin negative and females are chromatin positive (inactivated X-chromosome).
Chromatography A method of separating two or more chemical compounds in solution by passing across the surface of an absorbent paper.
Chromatophore A pigment bearing cell.
Chromatoptometry Measurement of color perception.
Chromoblasts An embryonic cell that becomes a pigment cell.
Chromolysis Dissolution of chromophil substance (Nissle bodies) in neurons in certain pathological conditions.
Chromomycosis Fungal infection of skin marked by warty plaques.
Chromophil Easily staining cell of anterior pituitary which is usually secretory.
Chromosome The structures containing DNA that store genetic information. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosome in everycell.
Chronic fatigue syndrome It can be described as a debilitating disorder or disorders of uncertain causation. Symptoms usually include muscle and joint pain, cognitive difficulties and severe mental or physical exhaustion in a previously healthy and active person. It is also sometimes known as myalgic encephalomyelitis.
Chronic granulomatous disease A disease of children characterized by inability of neutrophils to kill ingested organisms.
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) Included in this group are chronic asthma and bronchitis with dyspnoea, poor FEV1, and maximum breathing capacity.
Chronological Description of an event in natural sequence according to time.
Chvostek's sign Spasm of facial muscle by tapping over area of facial nerve, a sign of tetany.
Chyle The protein and fat rich fluid of lymphatic channels drained to left subclavian vein via thoracic duct.149
Chylemia Chyle in peripheral circulation.
Chylomicron Small particles of fat rich in triglycerides.
Chyluria Presence of chyle or fat globules in urine.
Chyme Thick semifluid mass consisting of partly digested food and digestive secretions that is passed from stomach to duodenum during digestion.
Chymopapain An enzyme related to papain.
Chymotrypsin A proteolytic enzyme present in the intestine that hydrolyses proteins to peptones.
Cicatrix Scar left by a healed wound.
Cicatrization Healing by scar formation.
Ciclesonide Topical steroid for rhinitis.
Ciclopirox Locally applied antifungal agent.
Cilia Hair like processes projecting from epithelial cells of bronchi propelling up mucus and foreign particles. c. immotile syndrome A group of inherited conditions characterized by immotility of cilia of respiratory mucosa and sperms. SYN-Kartagener's syndrome.
Ciliary body An annular structure on the inner surface of anterior wall of eyeball, composed of ciliary muscles and secretes aqueous humor.
Ciliary ganglion The ganglion in orbital fossa receiving preganglionic fibers from Edinger-Westphal nucleus and giving rise to 6 short ciliary nerves that innervate ciliary muscles, sphincters of iris and smooth muscles of blood vessels.
Ciliary muscles Smooth muscles of ciliary body, by contraction loosen suspensory ligament of lens allowing lens to become more spherical for accomplishing near vision.
Ciliary process About 70 folds arranged meridionally so as to form a circle, secrete nourishing fluid for cornea, lens and vitreous.
Ciliary reflex Normal contraction of pupil during process of accommodation.
Ciliospinal center Center in spinal cord that controls dilatation of pupil.
Ciliospinal reflex Dilatation of pupil following stimulation of the skin of the neck.
Cilostazol A vasodilator.
Cimetidine H2 receptor antagonist inhibiting gastric acid secretion.
Cinchona Dried bark of cinchona tree containing quinine, cinchonine.150
Cinchophen Old agent for gout frequently producing fatal hepatitis.
Cineangiocardiography Graphic record of heart and blood flow dynamics after constrast injection.
Cingulotomy Excision of anterior half of cingulate gyrus for control of intractable pain.
Cingulum A band of association fibers in the cingulate gyrus extending from anterior perforated substance to hippocampal gyrus.
Cinnarazine Drug used for vertigo.
Cinoxacin A quinolone, antibacterial agent.
Ciprofloxacin A quinolone with broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
Circadian Pertains to events that occur approximately at 24 hours interval.
Circle of Willis The anastomosis at base of brain where posterior cerebral and middle cerebral vessels meet (see Figure).
Circulatory failure Inadequate cardiac pump action to meet oxygen demand of body tissues. Peripheral circulatory failure means pooling of blood in expanded vascular space consequent to vasodilatation resulting in decreased venous return to heart.
Circumcision Removal of extra prepucal skin covering glans penis.
Circumduction Circular movement performed by the limb, the joint performing the movement is at the apex of the cone.
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Circle of Willis
151Circumflex Winding around.
Circumvallate papillae V-shaped row of papillae at base of tongue (see Figure).
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Circumvalate papillae
Cirrhosis Chronic liver disease characterized by bridging fibrosis, hepatic cell degeneration and regeneration and evidence of portal hypertension. c. alcoholic 20% of chronic alcoholics develop cirrhosis. c. biliary Cirrhosis following chronic bile stasis. c. cardiac Chronic heartfailure leading to passive congestion of liver ending in cirrhosis. c. infantile Childhood cirrhosis due to protein malnutrition. c. macronodular Cirrhosis characterized by broad bands of fibrous tissue and large irregular regenerating nodules, e.g. post-necrotic/post hepatic cirrhosis.
Cisapride Agent to improve GI motility.
Cisplatin Antineoplastic agent for treatment of ovarian and testicular tumors.
Cisterna A reservoir or cavity.
Cisvestitism Wearing of clothes contrary to ones profession.
Citalopram An antidepressant.
Citric acid A tribasic acid present in juice of citrous fruits.
Citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle) The cycle involving oxidative metabolism of pyruvic acid to CO2, and H2O, releasing energy (36 ATP).
Citrovorum factor Folinic acid used with dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.
Citruline Amino acid formed from ornithine, present in water melons.
Clark's rule A formula for calculating pediatric dose i.e. weight of the child in lb. × adult dose/150.
Clasmatocyte A large wandering uninucleated cell with many branches, a fixed macrophage of loose connective tissue.
Claude's syndrome Third cranial nerve palsy, contralateral ataxia and tremor, caused by lesion around red nucleus.
Claudication Pain in calf muscle during walking due to inadequate blood supply.
Claustrophilia Dread of being in an open space, a morbid 152desire to remain within with windows shut.
Claustrophobia Fear of closed space.
Claspknife rigidity Passive flexion of the joint causes increased resistance of the extensors. This gives way abruptly if flexon is continued, a sign of pyramidal tract lesion.
Clavulanic acid Beta lactamase inhibitor.
Clawfoot Excessively high longitudinal arch of foot with dorsal contracture of toes.
Clawhand A hand characterized by hyperextension of proximal phallanges and extreme flexion of middle and distal phallanges (see Figure).
Clean catch method Contamination free urine specimen collection.
Cleavage Splitting a complex molecule into two or more simple ones.
Cleft A fissure or elongated opening. c. alveolar An anomaly resulting from lack of fusion between median nasal process and the maxillary process, commonly associated with cleft lip and cleft palate. c. bronchial An opening between branchial arches of an embryo (see Figure).
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Cleft lips
Cleft foot A bipartite foot resulting from failure of a digit and its corresponding metatarsal to develop.
Clemastine Antihistaminic agent.
Clenching With the teeth in contact, forcible repeated contraction of jaw muscles.
Cleptomania Impulsive stealing in which motive is not related to value of stolen object.
Clidinium bromide Parasympathetic inhibitor used for treatment of peptic ulcer.
Climacteric Menopause or end of woman's reproductive ability. Male climacteric points to lessening male sexual activity.153
Climax Sexual orgasm, period of greatest intensity.
Clindamycin hydrochloride An antibiotic against gram-positive cocci, implicated to produce pseudomembranous colitis due to resistant claustridium dificile.
Clinocephaly Congenital flatness or saddle-shape of the top of the head caused by bilateral premature closure of the sphenoparietal sutures.
Clinoid processes Three pairs of prominences on upper surface of sphenoid bone.
Clinoquinol Iodochlor hydroxy quine, antiamoebic agent.
Clithrophobia Morbid fear of being locked in.
Clitoridectomy This refers to partial or total removal of the clitoris. This has been defined by the WHO as type I female genital multilation (Type I FGM).
Clitoridotomy This refers to removal or splitting of the clitoralhood. This is also a type of female genital mutilation.
Clitoris Small erectile body beneath anterior labial commissure of female, homologous to penis of male.
Clitoris Crises Involuntary orgasm in female in tabes dorsalis.
Clitorism Recurring painful erection of clitoris, akin to priapism in male.
Clivulus A surface that slopes as in sphenoid bone.
Clobazam A benzidiazepine.
Clofazimine Antileprotic agent that stains skin.
Clobetasol A locally applied steroid.
Clofibrate Lipid lowering agent, may be carcinogenic and causes gall stones.
Clomiphene A nonsteroidal agent to stimulate ovulation in females and spermatogenesis in males.
Clonazepam Anticonvulsant for myoclonic seizure.
Clonidine Antihypertensive agent, also used for migraine prophylaxis.
Clonus Alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles, sign of upper motor lesion.
Clonic spasm Spasm marked by repeated muscular contraction followed by relaxation.
Clonorchiasis Liver fluke caused by chlonorchis sinensis which infects bile duct of man. Infection contacted by eating uncooked fresh water fish containing larvae. Treatment is with praziquantel.
Clopidogrel Antiplatelet agent.
Clostridium Anaerobic spore forming rods common in soil 154and G-I tract of animal and man. c. botulinum Produces botulism. c. difficile Causes pseudomembranous colitis. c. histolytium Proteolytic, isolated from gas gangrene. c. perfringens Causes gas gangrene (C. welchii) c. tetani Produces tetanus.
Clotrimazole Antifungal agent for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Cloxacillin Betalactamase resistant penicillin.
Clozapine Diabenzodiazepine group of antipsychotic agent.
Clubbing Bulbous enlargement of finger and toes tips with exasserated lateral and longitudinal curvatures. Most commonly found in infective endocarditis, suppurative lung disease, cyanotic heart disease and often congenital.
Clumping Thick grouping of micro organisms in a culture when specific immune serum is added.
Cluster headache Nocturnal headache, 2-3 hours after falling asleep, continuing for months associated with watering from eyes.
Clutton's joint Hydroarthrosis of knee joint often associated with interstitial keratitis, seen in congenital syphilis.
Coagulation The process of clotting, dependent upon availability of prothrombin, calcium, fibrinogen and thromboplastin. Prothrombin is converted to thrombin by the action of thromboplastin in the presence of calcium ions. Thrombin then converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin mesh work on which RBCs are entangled. Thromboplastin is produced from injured vessel wall or by activated platelets (see Figure on page 155).
Coarctation A stricture, compression of walls.
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Clubbed nails
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Coat's disease Development of large white masses in blood vessels of retina.
Cobalt 60 Radioactive isotope for treating malignancies.
Cocaine CNS stimulant, in toxic doses causes CNS depression, cardiac arrhythmia, and respiratory depression.
Coccidioidomycosis A coccidioidal granuloma.
Coccygeal body Small arteriovenous anastomosis at the level of coccyx.
Cochlea A winding cone-shaped tube resembling a snail shell, winding two and three quarter turns about a central bony axis, organ responsible for hearing (see Figure on page 156).
Cochlear implant An electronic device that receives sounds and transmits the resulting electric signals to implanted electrodes in cochlea so that the sound is perceived. SYN __ Cochlear prosthesis.
Cochlear nerve 8th cranial nerve supplying cochlea with nucleus at pons and medulla.
Cochleo-palpebral reflex Contraction of orbicularis oculi from sudden noise near the ear.
Cocktail Any beverage or product containing several ingredients.
Codeine Derivative of opium used as analgesic-hypnotic.
Cod liver oil Oil extracted from liver of fish rich in vitamin A and D156
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Codman's exercise Mild exercises to restore the motion and function in the arms or shoulders after injury or immobilization.
Coenzyme A diffusible heatstable enzyme which when combines with apoenzyme forms active complete enzyme, e.g. riboflavin, coenzyme I and II.
Coenzyme A A Precursor for biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols.
Cogan's syndrome Interstitial keratitis associated with tinnitus, vertigo and usually deafness.
Cognition Awareness with perception, reasoning, judgement, memory, etc.
Cogwheel Combination of tremor and rigidity as in extrapyramidal disease, i.e., Parkinson's disease.
Coherent Sticking together, adhesiveness.
Cohort The component of population born during a period and traced through life.
Cohort study In epidemiology, a method of investigation is a cohort, q.v.; is followed prospectively or retrospectively.
Coin test A test for pneumothorax, a coin placed on chest is struck with another coin. A metallic ringing sound is heard at a distant site of the chest in pneumothorax.
Coitus Sexual intercourse between male and female.157
Colchicine Antigout medicine, may produce GI side effects.
Cold agglutinin The agglutinin agglutinating RBCs at 4oC, commonly seen in viral and mycoplasma infections.
Cold common SYN __ nasal catarrh, acute catarrhal inflammation of mucous membrane of nasal cavity, sinuses and pharynx caused by rhinovirus.
Cold pack Wrapping patient in cold water soaked clothing to reduce fever, for relief of pain and diminution of swelling in bruise.
Colestipol Ion exchange resin akin to cholestyramine.
Colic Spasmodic pain originating from any hollow viscus. c. biliary Gall stone in bile duct/cystic duct causing pain. c. intestinal Abdominal pain due to worms, infection, spasm of intestines. c. renal Passage of stone, clot along ureters with pain in loin radiating to groin, genitalia and inner aspect of thigh. c. uterine Dysmenorrhoeic pain due to retained clots.
Colistin Polymyxin, an antibiotic effective against many organisms including pseudomonas.
Colitis Inflammation of colon. c. ulcerative Inflammation involving rectum with skip lesions, cobble stone appearance, friable mucosa and bloody offensive diarrhea.
Collagen Fibrous insoluble protein of skin, bone, ligaments and cartilages.
Collagen vascular diseases A group of diseases of blood vessels of unknown etiology manifesting with joint pain, skin rash, muscle ache and bleeding manifestations. Included in this group are SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis etc.
Collagenase Enzyme responsible for breakdown of collagen.
Collapse 1. An abnormal retraction of the walls of an organ 2. A sudden exhaustion, prostration or weakness due to poor circulation.
Collapse therapy Unilateral pneumothorax induced to promote healing/stop bleeding of Koch's lesion.
Collapsing pulse Pulse of aortic regurgitation.
Colles’ fascia Inner layer of superficial fascia of perineum.
Colles’ fracture Transverse fracture of distal end of radius with displacement of lower fragment backwards, upwards and laterally (see Figure).
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Colles’ fracture
158Collecting tubule Small ducts in renal medulla that receive urine from several renal tubules. These ducts form papillary ducts of Bellini that open into renal papillae.
Colloid A glue like substance; the homogeneous gelatinous substance seen in thyroid gland containing thyroid hormones.
Coloboma A cleft or fissure in iris or ciliary body of eye.
Colon The large intestine, from the caecum to the rectum (see Figure below). Ascending c. That part arising to the right of the abdomen to in front of the liver. Descending c. That part running down from in front of the spleen to the sigmoid colon. Giant c. Megacolon. Irritable c. [see Irritable (Bowel syndrome)]. Pelvic c., sigmoid c. That part lying in the pelvis and connecting the descending colon with the rectum. Transverse c. That part lying across the upper abdomen connecting the ascending and descending portions.
Colon irritable Motility disorder of colon manifesting with abdominal pain, frequent small ribbon like stools, usually triggered by anxiety.
Colonic irrigation Flushing out of colon prior to surgery of colon, colonoscopy.
Colonoscope A fibreoptic instrument, passed through the anus, for examining the interior of the colon.
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159Coloproctectomy Surgical removal of colon and rectum.
Color blindness Defective perception of color; color blindness in which all colors are perceived as gray is called monochromasia.
Colorimeter Instrument for measuring intensity of colour.
Colostomy Opening up of colon to exterior through abdominal wall (see Figure).
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Colostrum Breast fluid secreted during first 2-3 days after delivery, rich in protein, calories and antibodies.
Colpectomy Surgical removal of vagina.
Colpocele A hernia into the vagina.
Colpocystitis Inflammation of the bladder and vagina.
Colpoperineoplasty Plastic repair of the vagina and perineum.
Colpoperineorrhaphy Surgical repair of the ruptured vagina and perineum.
Colpopexy Suture of a prolapsed vagina to the abdominal wall.
Colpoplasty Also called vaginoplasty. It is the plastic surgery of the vagina.
Colpoptosis This is a condition associated with the prolapse of vagina.
Colporrhaphy Repair of the vagina. Anterior c. Repair for cystocele. Posterior c. Repair for retrocele.
Colporrhexis A tearing or laceration of the vaginal vault.
Colposcopy Examination of vagina and vaginal portion of cervix by colposcope, usually to select sites of abnormal epithelium for biopsy in patient with abnormal papsmear.
Colpostenosis Narrowing of vagina.
Colpotomy Also known as vaginotomy. This is a surgical procedure involving making an incision over the vagina. Anterior colpotomy is performed either to vsualize the pelvic structures or to Perform surgery on the fallopian tubes or ovaries. Posterior colpotomy is usually 160performed to drain an abscess in the pouch of Douglas.
Colpoxerosis A condition characterized by unusual dryness of the vaginal mucous membrane.
Column A cylindrical supporting structure.
Coma A state from which patient cannot be aroused by painful stimuli and he does not respond to inner needs.
Coma vigil Coma with open eyes and vaccant look as in severe systemic infections.
Comedo Blackhead, discoloured dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin, e.g., acne involving face, back and neck in adolescents.
Comma bacillus Vibrio comma, organism of cholera.
Comma tract of Schultze The fasciculus interfascicularis, a tract of descending fibers located between the fasciculus cuneatus and fasciculus gracilis in the posterior funiculus of spinal cord.
Commensal Organisms that live in an intimate non parasitic relationship.
Comminuted fracture A fracture where the bone is splintered or crushed.
Comminution Reducing a solid body to varying sizes by grating, pulverizing, slicing etc.
Commissure A transverse band of nerve fibers passing over the midline in the CNS. c. anterior cerebral Band of white fibers that passes across lamina terminalis connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. c. posterior Commisure just above the midbrain containing fibers that connect the superior colliculi.
Commissurotomy Surgical incision of any commisure. Commonly refers to mitral commissurotomy in mitral stenosis.
Communicable disease A disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another.
Compatibility Ability of two individuals or groups to live together without strife or tension.
Complement A series of enzymatic proteins in normal serum that once activated augment immune mechanisms by leukocyte chemotaxis, and bacterial opsonization.
Complement fixation Some antigen antibody reactions fix complement for completion of reaction. This process is the basis of Wasserman reaction for syphilis.
Compliance The property of altering size and shape in 161response to application of force, weight or release from such force, e.g. pulmonary compliance a measure of the force required to expand the lungs. Children have higher pulmonary compliance in comparison to adults.
Compound astigmatism Myopia/hypermetropia of differing diopters in both longitudinal and vertical axes.
Compound fracture Fracture with communication to exterior by breach in the skin.
Compress A soft pad that is applied on body parts with pressure to control hemorrhage or to supply heat, cold, or medication to relieve pain.
Compulsion Repetitive stereotyped act performed to relieve fear connected with obsession; dictated by patient's subconscious mind against his wishes and if not performed causes uneasiness.
Compulsion neurosis Obsession that compels one to perform an absurd act.
Compulsive ideas An idea that continues to haunt against one's will.
Computer An electronic device for storing and retrieving numerical or textural information.
Computer assisted design Computer use to assist in designing objects, e.g. reshape body parts in plastic surgery, artificial hip implant, crown preparation.
Concanavalin A A lectin that stimulates proliferation of T lymphocyte but not B lymphocytes.
Conceive To become pregnant, to form an idea, to form a mental image.
Concentration Strength of a substance in solution, fixation of mind on one subject with exclusion of all other thoughts.
Conception Union of male spermatozoa with ovum.
Concha The outer ear or pinna; the turbinate inside nasal cavity.
Conchotomy Surgical incision of nasal concha.
Concoction Mixture of two medicinal substance aided by heating.
Concomitant Occurring at the same time.
Concussion cerebral Transient loss of consciousness from external cranial trauma.
Conditioning Improving physical capability by an exercise programme. c. operant Learning of a particular action or type of behavior that is followed by reward.162
Conduction The transfer of electron, heat, ions or sound wave through a conducting medium or the process where by a state of excitation is transmitted.
Condyle A rounded protruberance at the end of a bone forming an articulation (see Figure).
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Condyloma A wart like growth in the skin around anus/external genitalia. c. acuminata Usually venereal, caused by virus. c. latum A mucous patch on the vulva or anus characteristic of syphilis.
Confabulation A form of memory loss in which the patient fills his memory gaps with inappropriate words.
Confluent Running together, merging together.
Confusion Disorientation in respect to time, place or person.
Congener Two or more muscles with same function, or two substances with similar origin, function or structure.
Congestion The presence of excessive amount of blood or tissue fluid in an organ or tissue. c. active Congestion arising out of increased blood flow or vasodilatation. c. passive Vascular congestion due to impaired pumping action by heart. c. pulmonary Pulmonary vascular congestion due to increased LA pressure (MS) or LVF.
Coniology The study of dust and its effects.
Coniotomy Cricothyrotomy.
Conization Excision of a cone of tissue as in chronic cervicitis.
Conjugate Paired or joined. c. deviation Deviation of both eyes to either side. c. diagonal Distance measured from center of sacral promontory to the back of symphysis pubis. True conjugate is 1.5 to 2 cm less than diagonal conjugate. c. true It is anterior - posterior diameter of pelvic inlet; the distance between the midline 163superior point of the sacrum and the upper margin of symphysis pubis.
Conjugation A coupling together. In biology, the union of two unicellular organisms accompanied by an interchange of nuclear material.
Conjunctiva Mucous membrane that lines eyelids and is reflected onto eyeball.
Conjunctivitis Inflammation of conjunctiva. c. actinic Conjunctivitis from exposure to actinic (ultraviolet rays). c. angular Conjunctivitis involving angles of eyes, due to Morax Axenfield bacillus. c. catarrhal Conjunctivitis with mucoid discharge due to foreign body, allergy, heat, cold etc., c. epidemic haemorrhagic Viral infection of eye with swollen eyelids, and subconjunctival haemorrhage. c. inclusion Purulent inflammation of conjunctiva due to Chlamydia trachomatis. c. phlyctenular Nodules around limbus, particularly in allergy to Koch's bacillus. c. vernal Allergic spring conjunctivitis.
Conn's syndrome Primary hyperaldosteronism with muscle weakness, polyuria, hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis.
Consanguinity Blood relationship, i.e, being descended from a common ancestor.
Consciousness A state of awareness, i.e., orientation in time, place and person. Stupor is a state from which only intense stimulus can arouse the patient. Normal motor reflex. In coma patient does not perceive the environment and intense stimuli produce only rudimentary response if any at all.
Consensual Reflex stimulation of another or opposite part.
Consensual light reflex Contraction of opposite pupil from focussing of light on one side.
Consent Granting permission by patient for a procedure. c. implied Consent presumed in certain circumstances, i.e., when patient sits on a dental chair thereby implying examination. c. informed The understanding between the person and institution conducting an experimental medical investigation involving human subjects.
Consolidation The act of becoming solid, especially solidification of lung due to pathological engorgement of the tissue as occurring in pneumonia.164
Constipation Infrequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry fecal material, sluggish action of bowels. c. obstructive Obstructive colonic/intestinal lesion causing constipation. c. atonic Constipation due to weakness of muscles of colon and rectum. c. spastic Constipation due to excessive tonicity of intestinal wall.
Consummation The completion of marriage by the first act of sexual intercourse.
Contact Mutual touching or apposition of two persons/objects or one who has recently been exposed to contagious disease.
Contact dermatitis Dermatitis due to an irritating or sensitizing chemical.
Contact lens Device, either rigid or flexible that rests on cornea to improve refractive error.
Contagious Communicable; transmitted readily from one person to another either directly or indirectly.
Contagium The agent causing infection or contagion.
Contamination 1. Introduction of disease germs, or infectious materials into normally sterile objects. 2. Radiation in or on a place where it is not wanted.
Continent Capable of controlling urination and defecation or sexual indulgence.
Continine Principal metabolite of nicotine excreted in urine.
Contortion A twisting into an unusual shape.
Contour Surface configuration of a part.
Contraception Prevention of conception.
Contraceptive Any process, device or method that prevents contraception. They include spermicides, estrogen-progesterone pills, and physical barriers like IUD.
Contract To contract a disease/infection, to shorten or reduce in size.
Contraction isometric Muscular exercise where muscle does not change its length.
Contraction isotonic Muscular contraction in which the muscle maintains constant tension by changing its length during contraction.
Contracture Permanent contraction of a muscle due to paralysis/ spasm/ischaemia. c. Dupuytrens Contraction of palmar fascia leading to deformity of fingers. c. Volkmann's Atrophy of forearm muscles with pronation and flexion of the hand resulting from constricting 165cast/bandage on brachial artery (see Figure).
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Volkmann's contracture
Contraindication Inadvisable form of therapy.
Contralateral Opposite side of body.
Contrast In radiology, radiopaque material to provide a contrast in density between tissue or organ being X-rayed.
Contrecoup injury Injury to one part of brain with lesion on opposite side. e.g., blow to the back of head causing injury to frontal lobes as they are forced against anterior portion of cranial valt.
Contusion A bruise, injury with subcutaneous hemorrhage but intact skin.
Conus Shaped like a cone. c. arteriosus The portion of right ventricle giving rise to pulmonary arteries. c. medullaris Lower conical portion of spinal cord.
Convalescence The period of recovery after an illness/operation.
Convection Heat transfer through liquids or gases.
Convergence The moving of two or more objects at same point.
Conversion reaction Hysterical neuroses denoting a psychological conflict translated into physical ailment.
Convolution A turn, fold or coil of anything that is convoluted. In anatomy, a gyrus, one of the many folds on the surface of cerebral hemispheres that are separated by grooves, (sulci or fissures).
Convulsion Paroxysms of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation.
Cooley's anemia Thalassemia major, an inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis.
Coombs’ test A test for detection of antiglobulins in blood, helpful in diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
Coordination Working together of various muscles for performing certain movements.
Copolymer A polymer composed of two different kinds of monomers.
Copper sulfate Deep blue crystals/granules, used as algicide/ astringent.
Coprolalia The use of vulgar, obscene language as in 166schizophrenia and Gilles dela Tourette syndrome.
Coprolith Hard feces.
Coprophilia Unusual preoccupation with feces, a perversion in adults.
Coproporphyria Excessive coproporphyrin excretion in feces, as in inherited porphyrias.
Coproporphyrin A porphyrin present in urine and feces.
Copula Any connecting part.
Copulation Sexual intercourse.
Coracoid Resembling in shape a crow's beak.
Coracoid process Process on anterior upper surface of scapula.
Cord A string like structure. c. spermatic The channel for sperms to pass from testes to seminal vesicle. c. spinal Extension of CNS, into the spinal canal upto upper border of first lumbar vertebra. c. umbilical Cord that connects fetal circulatory system to the placenta, consists of two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein.
Cordotomy Resectional of lateral spinothalamic tracts in the cord to relieve intractable pain.
Cori cycle In carbohydrate metabolism, the breakdown of muscle glycogen with formation of lactic acid which is converted to glycogen in liver. Liver glycogen is released as glucose which is taken up by muscles being then reconverted to muscle glycogen.
Corn Hardening or thickening of skin that has a conical shape extending into dermis causing pain.
Cornea The clear, transparent anterior portion of eye covering 1/6 the surface of globe functioning as an important refractive medium. It is composed of 5 layers: epithelium, Browman's membrane, substantia propria, Descemet's membrane and layer of endothelium (see Figure).
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Corneal reflex Closure of eye lid on touching the cornea: Afferent limb by trigeminal and efferent by facial nerves.
Corneal transplant Either partial thickness or full thickness 167transfer of cornea from a healthy cadaver, donor to treat corneal opacity obstructing vision.
Corneoblepharon Adhesion of eyelid to cornea.
Cornification The process by which squamous epithelial cells are converted into hard horny material, e.g., horns, hairs, nails, feathers etc.
Cornu Any projection like a horn.
Corona Any structure resembling a crown.
Corona radiata Ascending and descending fibers of internal capsule that above corpus collosum extend in all directions to reach cerebral cortex.
Coronal plane Plane dividing into front and back portions.
Coronary angiography Opacification of coronary arteries by injection of iohexol or urograffin or any such contrast agent.
Coronary arteries A pair of arteries, left and right arising from left and right coronary sinuses supplying blood to myocardium. The left artery is usually dominant.
Coronary bypass Surgically established shunt between root of aorta and involved coronary distal to block or diverting internal mammary to augment myocardial blood flow.
Coronary care unit A specially equipped unit in a hospital providing intensive care to patients of coronary artery disease, i.e., myocardial infarction, unstable angina, etc.
Coronary plexus A plexus of autonomic nerve fibers supplying the heart.
Coronary sinus The channel carrying venous drainage of heart into right atrium.
Coronavirus The virus particle surrounded by a crown, e.g., common cold virus.
Coronoid fossa An oval depression on anterior surface of distal end of humerus articulating with coronoid process of ulna.
Corpse A dead body; cadaver.
Corpulent Obese.
Corpulmonale Right heart failure secondary to pulmonary pathology.
Corpus The principal part of any organ or body. c. callosum The commissure joining two cerebral hemispheres. c. cavernosum Erectile tissue of penis, clitoris, bulb of vestibule etc. c. luteum The yellow body left on the surface of the ovary and formed from the remains of the graafian follicle after the discharge of 168the ovum. If it retrogresses, menstruation occurs, but it persists for several months if pregnancy supervenes. c. striatum The structures in cerebral hemispheres consisting of caudate and lentiform nuclei.
Corpuscle Any small rounded body, an encapsulated sensory nerve ending, blood cell. c. malphigian A renal corpuscle consisting of a glomerulous and Bowman's capsule. c. Meissner's An encapsulated touch receptor in the epidermis of skin esp of palm, hand and feet. c. pacinian A large ovoid sensory end organ consisting of concentric layers of connective tissue surrounding nerve ending acting as receptor of proprioception and deep pressure.
Corrigan's pulse A full bounding pulse of aortic insufficiency.
Corrosive poisoning Poisoning by strong alkalies, acid, antiseptics, e.g., hydroxides of sodium, ammonium, potassium.
Corrugator The muscle of eye drawing eyebrow medially and inferiorly, arising from frontal bone and inserted on the skin of medial half of eye- brows.
Cortex Outer layer of an organ like kidney, adrenal, ovary, lymphnode, thymus, cerebrum and cerebellum.
Corticoid Steroid hormone secreted by adrenal cortex.
Corticosterone Hormone of adrenal cortex influencing carbohydrate metabolism, Na+ and K+ homeostasis.
Corticotrophin (ACTH) The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates adrenals to secrete glucocorticoids.
Corticotrophin releasing factor The hypothalamic factor regulating secretion of corticotrophin.
Cortisone Adrenal hormone, largely inactive till converted to active cortisol. Influences metabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, N+ and K+
Corynebacterium Gram-positive nonmotile drum stick shaped rod, causing diphtheria.
Coryza Acute nasal catarrh with profuse watery secretion.
Cosmetic Agents or methods of improving physical appearance (appearance promoters).
Cosmetic surgery Commonly known as plastic surgery done to improve appearance, i.e., correction of ugly burns and scars, elephantiasis, localized 169obesity, pendulous breast, facial wrinkles.
Cosmic Universe.
Costen's syndrome Tempromandibular arthritis.
Cotton p. A round cotton ball having 1 cm diameter. It is used for applying medicines topically.
Cotton wool spots Soft wooly exudates in retina in hypertension and uremia, probably superficial infarcts.
Couching Forcible downward displacement of lens caused to improve vision in cataract patients.
Cough Forceful expiratory effort with closed glottis, to expectorate mucous and foreign body.
Counselling Providing of advice and guideline to a patient by health professional.
Counter Geiger Device for detection and counting of ionizing radiation.
Countercurrent exchanger The exchange of chemicals between two counter current streams separated by a membrane.
Counterimmunoelectrophoresis A process in which antigen and antibodies are placed in separate wells and an electric current is passed through diffusion medium. Antigens migrate to anode and antibodies to cathode. If the antigen and antibody correspond to each other, they upon meeting in the diffusion medium will precipitate and will form a precipitin band or line.
Counterincision A second incision made to facilitate drainage or to reduce tension on the stitches.
Counterirritant An agent applied locally to produce mild inflammatory reaction to relieve pain of adjacent or deeper structure.
Counter shock An electric shock applied to heart to correct arrhythmia.
Countertraction Application of a force in a direction opposite to the force of traction, usually in fracture reduction.
Couple To join together, to have sexual union.
Courvoisier's law Sudden obstruction of bile duct by gallstone does not cause enlargement of gallbladder as opposed to gradual obstruction as in malignancy of pancreas/ampulla of Vater which consistently causes marked enlargement of gall bladder.
Couvelaire uterus Extravasation of blood into uterine 170musculature often demanding hysterectomy.
Covalent Sharing of electrons between two atoms.
Cowden's disease Multiple hamartomas.
Cowling's rule Age of child on next birth day divided by 24 to give pediatric dose.
Cowper's gland A pair of compound tubular mucous glands beneath the bulb of male urethra, akin to Bartholin glands in female.
Coxalgia Pain in the hip.
Coxiella burnetti Causative organism of Q fever.
Coxsackie virus A member of picorna virus causing herpangina, aseptic meningitis, pleurodynia, epidemic conjunctivitis, myocarditis.
Crab louse Louse infecting pubic regions (phthirus pubis)
Cracked pot sound Percussion note resembling cracked pot as in pulmonary cavity, hydrocephalus.
Cramp Spasmodic painful contraction of a muscle.
Cranioclast Instrument for crushing foetal skull to facilitate delivery of large dead foetus.
Craniocleidodysostosis A congenital condition that involves defective ossification of bones of face, head, and clavicle.
Craniometry Measurement of skull bones.
Craniostenosis Contracted skull due to premature closure of cranial sutures.
Craniostosis Congenital ossification of cranial sutures.
Craniotabes Abnormal softening of skull bones.
Cranium The skull can be divided into two parts: 1. Cranium– The bony framework which supports the brain. 2. Mandible– The bony framework which supports the jaw and the lower part of the face. The cranium is composed of 8 bones namely: Two parietal bones, one frontal bone, two temporal bones, one occipital bone, sphenoid and ethmoid.
Cravat bandage Triangular bandage folded to form a band around the injured part.
Crazybone Name for medial epicondyle of humerus, as slight trauma to it causes pain and tingling in fingers due to stimulation of ulnar nerve. c. reactive protein Acute phase reactant, aserum globulin whose concentrations is increased in acute infections like rheumatic fever.
Creatine Methylglycocyamine, a colourless substance excreted in urine. Combines 171with phosphate to form creatine phosphate.
Creatine kinase Enzyme present in skeletal and cardiac muscles that acts in breakdown of ATP to ADP. Serum level is increased in myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle injury, and muscle dystrophy.
Creatinine Formed from creatine.
Crede's method Expulsion of placenta by putting downward pressure on the uterus through anterior abdominal wall and squeezing uterus but inversion is a danger.
Cremaster A fascia like muscle suspending and enveloping testicles and spermatic cord.
Cremasteric reflex Retraction of testes on stimulation of innerside of thigh, a superficial reflex mediated via L1, L2 segment.
Crepitation Crackling sound heard 1. in lungs in pneumonia, 2. movement of fractured bones, 3. in soft tissues in anaerobic gasforming infections and 4. in subcutaneous emphysema.
Crescent Shaped like sickle e.g., menisci of knee joint, choroid atrophy in myopics (myopic crescent).
Cresol Coal tar derivative disinfectant containing 5% phenol.
Cresomania Hallucination of possession of great wealth.
Crest Ridge or elongated prominence. e.g., alveolar crest that surrounds teeth whose resorption can be delayed by flurbiprofen.
CREST Syndrome Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dismotility, sclerodactily and telangiectasia, a variant of systemic sclerosis.
Cretin Hypothyroidism in babies manifesting as rough skin, mental subnormality, potbelly, coarse features, hypoactivity and delayed dentition.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease H.G. Creutzfeldt, German physician, 1885-1964. A. Jakob, German physician, 1884-1931. A rapidly progressive disease of the nervous system affecting middle-aged and elderly people; caused by a ‘slow’ virus. Transmission between humans is very unusual, although the disease has been reported in young people treated with human pituitary extract for short stature - now no longer used.
Crevice A small fissure or crack e.g., gingival crevice: a fissure 172produced by the marginal gingiva with tooth surface.
Crib A small bed with high legs and sides for infants and babies.
Cribiform Sieve like e.g., 1. Cribiform plate, the thin perforated medial portion of ethmoid bone perforated by olfactory nerve fibers. 2. Cribiform fascia, the part of deep fascia of thigh covering fossa ovalis.
Cricoid Shaped like a signet ring, e.g. cricoid cartilage; the lowermost cartilage of larynx, the broad portion being posterior and anterior portion forming the arch.
Cri-du-chat syndrome A chromosomal deletion disorder characterized by cry like a cat, microcephaly, mental retardation, dwarfism and laryngeal defect.
Crisis Critical period, e.g., 1. Addisonian crisis. (acute adrenal failure) 2. Sickle cell crisis (acute bone/abdominal pain of sickle cell anemia due to thrombotic infarcts) 3. Thyroid crisis: Fever, delirium and extreme tachycardia of sudden deterioration of hyperthyroidism. 4. Sudden fall in temperature in pneumonia.
Crista A crest or ridge, e.g. 1. Crysta ampularis, the localized thickening of membrane lining the ampulla of semicircular canals. 2. Crista supraventricularis of heart.
Crocodile tear Production of tear during mastication in patients with facial palsy due to abnormal regeneration, so named because crocodiles are believed to weep after eating their victims.
Crohn's disease Regional enteritis, a granulomatous inflammation involving all the three coats of small intestine and often colon.
Cromolyn sodium Disodium chromoglycate, useful in bronchial asthma, mast cell stabilizer.
Cross fertilization Fusion of male and female gametes from different persons.
Crossmatching A test for compatibility in blood transfusion where donor red cells are matched with recipient plasma and vice versa.
Cross over Reciprocal exchange of genetic material between chromosomes.
Crotamiton A scabicide used as 2% ointment.
Croup Laryngitis marked by barking cough, stridor, and respiratory difficulty usually due to formation of diphtheritic membrane.173
Crouzon's disease Congenital disease characterised by hypertelorism (wide spaced eyes) craniofacial dysostosis, exophthalmos, optic atrophy and divergent squint.
Crowning Showing of fetal head in vulva during parturition.
Cruciate Cross shaped as in cruciate ligament of knee.
Crura Divergent bands resembling legs. e.g., crura of diaphragm, connecting to spinal column; crura cerebri; cerebral peduncles.
Crush syndrome Renal failure following crush injury with myoglobinuria.
Crutch A device of wood or metal fitting the armpit; used for supporting body weight. C. axillary has long rigid vertical structure, a short padded horizontal bar fitting under axilla. c. conadian triceps crutch. C. forearm the top is at level of forearm with a hand bar as well as cuff. c. Lofstrand a form of forearm crutch. c. triceps two uprights extending halfway between elbow and shoulder, with a cross piece for the hand and a curved upper part (see Figure).
Crutch paralysis Crutch induced paralysis of brachial plexus/radial nerve.
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(A) Axillary crutch; (B) triceps crutch
Cryocautery Cold application for therapeutic objective.
Cryoextraction Use of liquid nitrogen/carbon dioxide probe to anterior lens aiding in its extraction.
Cryoglobulin An abnormal globulin that precipitates when cooled but dissolves on heating, found in multiple myeloma, leukemia and mycoplasma pneumonia.
Cryoprecipitate Precipitation of immunecomplexes in patients with autoimmune diseases when their serum is stored in cold.
Cryopreservation Preservation of biological material e.g., sperm, organs, tissue, plasma in subzero temperature.
Cryosurgery Tissue destruction by application of cold 174probe (–20°C or below) as to control pain, bleeding, e.g., haemorrhoidectomy, tonsillectomy, conization of cervix, thalamotomy.
Crypt Small cavity, i.e. anal crypts lying behind junction of anal skin and rectal mucosa, tonsillar crypts on tonsils surrounded by lymphnodules.
Cryptitis Inflammation of anal crypts.
Cryptococcosis SYN __ torulosis: Systemic fungal infection involving skin, brain, lungs caused by cryptococcus neoformans.
Cryptogenic Of unknown or indeterminate origin.
Cryptomenorrhoea Monthly subjective symptoms of menstruation without vaginal bleed usually due to unperforated hymen.
Cryptosporidiasis Acute diarrhoea caused by protozoa cryptosporidium usually in immunocompromised.
Crystal Small particles with definite pattern and angles, e.g., apatite crystals of calcium phosphate with other elements; Charcot-Leyden crystals found in sputum of patients with asthma where in there is eosinophilia.
Crystallography Study of crystals, pertains to study of renal and biliary calculi.
Crystalluria Appearance of crystals, in urine, commonly after administration of sulfa drugs. c. terminal The alpha carboxyl group of last amino acid.
Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) The area of medulla oblongata whose stimulation causes vomiting.
Cubital fossa The hollow anterior to elbow bounded medially by pronater teres and laterally by brachioradialis.
Cubitus Forearm c. valgus lateral deviation of forearms beyond 16-18o. c. varus medial deviation of forearm (see Figure on page 175).
Cuff Glove, structure encircling a part.
Cul-de-sac A blind pouch or cavity.
Culdocentesis Perforation of posterior upper vaginal wall for draining rectouterine pouch for diagnostic/therapeutic purposes.
Culdoscopy Examination of pelvic cavity by passing endoscope into posterior vaginal fornix.
Culex Mosquito responsibe for filariasis.
Culicide Agents that destroy gnats and mosquitoes.
Cullen's sign Bluish discoloration of periumbilical skin due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage, usually following pancreatitis, tubal pregnancy rupture.175
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(A) Cubitus valgus; (B) cubitus varus
Culmen Top or submit of a thing.
Cult People following an ideal or principle.
Culture Propagation of microorganisms or living tissue in special media.
Cumulus Small elevation.
Cupid's bow The normal bow shape of upper lip.
Cupola The dome at the apex of cochlea; the dome of pleura. covering apex of lung.
Cuprous Monovalent copper Cu+; Cupric is Cu++.
CUPS Critical, unstable, potentially unstable, and stable. Priority classification of patients used during the initial assessment of the patient.
Curarization Anticonvulsant medication, by administration of agents negating effects of acetylcholine, i.e., suxamethonium.
Curet A spoon-shaped scraping instrument used in dentistry, gynaecology and orthopedics.
Curie Unit of radiation equivalent to 1010 × 3.7 disintegration per second.
Curling ulcer Peptic ulcer following severe stress i.e., burn injury.
Current A flow, usually of electrical impulse. c. alternating Currrent that periodically flows in opposite directions. c. direct Unidirectionally flow of current.
Curriculum Course of study.
Curschmann's spirals Coiled spirals in sputum of asthmatic patients.
Curvilinear Concerning or pertaining to a curved line.176
Cushing's disease Hypersecretion of ACTH with hypercortisolism manifesting with trunkal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia purplish striae and osteoporosis.
Cushing's syndrome Symptoms arising out of hypercortisolism.
Cusp Points on crown of tooth, leaf like portions constituting heart valves.
Cutis The skin.
Cyanemia Blue colour of blood.
Cyanhemoglobin Cyanide haemoglobin compound where blood appears cherry red as in cyanide poisoning.
Cyanocobalamin Vit B12.
Cyanosis Bluish discolouration of skin due to raised (±4 gm%) of reduced hemoglobin in blood. c. central Occurring by admixture of venous and arterial blood in heart/lungs e.g.: pulmonary A-V fistula, fallot tetralogy and TGV c. peripheral Local cyanosis over cold parts due to increased oxygen extraction e.g. CHF c. differential Cyanosis of feet but not arms in Eisenmenger syndrome in patent ductus arteriosus.
Cyclamate Artificial sweetner 30 times more sweet than sugar.
Cyclandelate Vasodilator.
Cyclazocin Used in opioid addiction.
Cyclic AMP Adenosine 3’5' cyclic monophosphate, an intracellular messenger of end organ stimulation.
Cyclitis Inflammation of ciliary body.
Cyclizine Antihistamine for motion sickness.
Cyclodialysis Drainage operation for treatment of glaucoma in which communication is established between supra arachnoid space and angle of anterior chamber.
Cyclo-oxygenase Enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandin.
Cyclophosphamide Antineoplastic and immunosuppressant.
Cycloplegia Paralysis of ciliary muscles leading to dilatation of pupils.
Cyclopropane Gaseous anaesthetic agent.
Cycloserine Broad spectrum antibiotic used in tuberculosis.
Cyclosporine Immune suppressant used in transplant patients.
Cyclothymia The alteration of mood seen in manic depressive psychosis.
Cyclotron A particle accelerator in which the particle is rotated between the ends of 177a magnet, gaining speed with each rotation.
Cyesis Pregnancy. Pseudo c. Signs and symptoms suggestive of pregnancy arising when no fertilization has taken place. ‘Phantom pregnancy’.
Cylindroma Malignant tumor containing a collection of cells forming cylinders.
Cyproheptadine Antiserotonin drug used in allergy and dumping syndrome.
Cyproterone An antiandrogen used to treat male hypersexuality and prostatic carcinoma.
Cyst A closed sac or pouch with a definite wall containing fluid, semisolid material. c. alveolar Cyst at tooth apex, air containing cyst in lungs due to ruptured alveoli. c. colloid Cyst with gelatinous contents. c. dentigerous A fluid filled cyst around crown of an unerupted tooth. c. dermoid Cyst containing epidermal elements like hair, nail, teeth. c. Gartner Cyst developing from a vestigeal mesonephric duct (Gartner's duct) in female. c. meibomian Cyst of meibomian gland of eyelid, usually post-inflammatory. c. nabothian Retention cyst of nabothian glands of cervix. c. pilonidal Midline cyst over sacrum lined with stratified squamous epithelium. c. porencephalic Anomalous cystic cavity in cortex communicating with ventricular system.
Cystadenoma An adenoma containing cyst, may be serous when filled with clear fluid or pseudomucinous when contains thick viscid fluid.
Cystathionine An intermediate compound in the metabolism of methionine to cystine.
Cysticercosis Formation of cysts by encapsulation of larvae of tapeworm (T. solium).
Cystic fibrosis Inherited disease of exocrine gland affecting respiratory tract, pancreas and intestine characterized by dry viscid mucus, respiratory infection, pancreatic insufficiency, increased sodium content of sweat SYN__ mucoviscidosis.
Cystisis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystocele A prolapse of the bladder into the vagina (see Figure on page 178).
Cystoscopy The method of using cystoscope for the examination of bladder.
Cystotomy Incision of the urinary bladder for removal of calculi, etc. Suprapubic c. Incision above the pubes.178
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Cytarabine Compound of cytosine and D ribose.
Cytochrome A pigment important for cellular respiration.
Cytochrome oxidase Enzyme responsible for electron transfer from cytochromes to oxygen thus activating oxygen to combine with hydrogen to form water.
Cytochrome P450 A protein similar to Hb in the microsomes of liver cells, catalyzing metabolism of steroid hormones and detoxification of many chemicals.
Cytogenesis Origin and developments of cell.
Cytomegalic inclusion disease A viral disease that often affects fetus in utero and immunocompromised (AIDS victims) with hepatosplenomegaly, microcephaly, mental retardation.
Cytosine One of the pyrimidine bases found in Deoxyribonucleic acid. C. arabinoside an antimetabolite used in the treatment of acute leukaemia. Cytarabine.
D Symbol for dioptre.
Dacarbazine An alkylating agent used in treatment of malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's disease.
Dacryocystitis Inflammation of lacrymal gland.
Dacryostenosis Narrowing of lacrimal duct.
Dactylitis Chronic inflammation of phallanges and metatarsals.
Dactinomycin Antitumor antibiotic.
Dalteparin A factor Xa inhibitor, anticoagulant.
Dalton's law In a mixture of gases total pressure is equal to sum of partial pressure of each gas.
Danazol A progesterone used in endometriosis and fibroadenosis of breast.
Dance, Saint Vitus SYN—chorea, i.e., involuntary quasipurposive nonrepetitive jerky movements.
Dandruff Seborrhoea, exfoliation of epidermis of scalp with white greasy, dry scales.
Dandy-Walker syndrome Congenital hydrocephalus due to blockage of foramen of Luschka and Magendie.
Dane particle 42 nm sphere of hepatitis B virus.
Dantrolene A muscle relaxant.
Dapsone Diaminodiphenyl sulphone, a bacteriostatic antileprotic agent.
Daraprim Pyrimethamine, used in malaria.
Dariers disease (Keratosis follicularis) a congenital disorder characterized by verrucous papular growths that colaesce into plaques of various sizes on scalp, face, neck and trunk.
Darier's sign Burning and itching sensation in lesions of urticaria after stroking and it becomes red and raised.
Dark room Light tight room for processing X-ray films.
Dartos The subcutaneous muscle of scrotum.
Datura The plant, source of scopalamine and hyosciamine, the anticholinergic agents.
Daunorubicin Anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic used for leukemia and malignancies.
Dawn phenomenon A phenomena in diabetes mellitus with 180morning hyperglycemia due to growth hormone release.
DDT Dichlordiphenyl trichlorethane (chlorphenothane) an insecticide used in mosquito control.
Deafness Complete or partial loss of ability to hear d. conduction Resulting from obstruction to sound waves reaching the normal cochlea, e.g., otosclerosis, wax, eustachian catarrh. d. perceptive Deafness due to lesions of cochlea or cochlear nerve/nucleus.
Deamination Removal of NH2 radicals from amino compounds. The process being oxidative or hydrolytic.
Death Permanent cessation of all vital functions including that of brain, heart, lung.
Death rate Number of deaths per 1000 population in a given time.
Death rattle Rattle sound produced by passage of air through accumulated mucous in the bronchi in terminal patients due to want of cough reflex.
Debridement Removal of foreign material along with devitalized tissue.
Debrisoquin Antihypertensive agent.
Decadron Dexamethasone, a long acting corticosteroid.
Decadurabolin Nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic steroid.
Decameter A measure of 10 meters.
Decapitation Beheading.
Decarboxylase Enzyme catalyzing release of carbondioxide from compounds like aminoacids.
Deceleration Decrease in velocity.
Decibel The unit expressing degree of intensity or loudness of sound.
Decidua Endometrium of uterus during pregnancy with outer compact layer and inner spongy layer. d. basalis That unites with chorion to form placenta. d. capsularis That surrounds chorionic sac.
Deciduoma Uterine tumor containing decidual tissue, when malignant termed choriocarcinoma.
Deciduous teeth Primary dentition of 20 teeth that erupt between 6 months and 3 years.
Deciliter 100 ml or 10 centi liter.
Decimeter 10 cm or 1/10 of meter.
Decision analysis A logically consistent approach to the common clinical problem of needing to make a decision when its consequences cannot be foretold with certainty. The biological variation, inconsistent 181drug response and poor clinical outcome data on many drug/therapeutic procedures make decision analysis a charter so that patient can be foretold in advance all about the possible outcome of treatment and he can choose the one he thinks best.
Decision making The process of using all the informations available about a patient and arriving at a decision concerning therapeutic plan.
Declaration of Geneva The declaration adopted in 1948 by world medical association at Geneva which reads as “At the time of being admitted as a member of medical profession I solemnly pledge my life to the service of humanity…… cond.
Declaration of Hawaii The guidelines laid down by General Assembly of world psychiatric association for psychiatrists in 1976 at Hawaii.
Decline Progressively decrease.
Decoction A liquid medicinal preparation made by boiling vegetable substances with water.
Decompensation Failure of heart to maintain adequate circulation to meet oxygen demand of tissues.
Decomposition Decay, putrefaction.
Decompression illness Illness arising from rapid reduction of surrounding pressure as in sea divers suddenly coming to surface. Symptoms are due to release of dissolved nitrogen.
Decongestant Reducing congestion or swelling.
Decorticate posture The typical posture like flexed arms, clenched fists and extended legs in a comatose patient with lesion above upper brainstem.
Decortication Removal of surface layer of an organ, e.g., removal of pleura, renal capsule.
Decrudescence Decrease in the severity of symptoms of a disease.
Decubitus projection A radiographic procedure that helps in the demonstration of air-fluid levels, using decubitus position and central ray of X-ray beam placed horizontally.
Decubitus ulcer Skin ulceration due to prolonged pressure, commonly over bony prominences.
Decussation A crossing of structures in the form of X.
Dedifferentiation 1. The return of parts to a homogeneous state, 2. process by which 182mature differentiated cells or tissues at sites of origin of immature elements of the same type, as in some cancers.
Deduction Reasoning from general to particular.
Deep reflex Reflexes influenced by higher cortical centers, e.g., ankle, knee, supination, biceps jerks.
Deep vein thrombosis Formation of thrombus in the deep-seated veins, especially of legs, characterized by pain and tenderness in the thighs or calves; occurs primarily in patients who are immobilized for long periods, suffering from chronic debilitating diseases, cancer, or after surgery.
Defecation Bowel evacuation.
Defecation syncope Syncope occurring during or immediately after defecation.
Defeminization Loss of female sexual characteristics.
Defense Resistance to disease.
Deferens Carrying away.
Deferroxamine Iron chelating agent used in thalassaemia major, haemosiderosis.
Deferiprone Iron chelating agent.
Defibrillation Stoppage of fibrillation of heart by drugs or electrical current.
Definition The precise.
Definitive Clear and final without ambiguity.
Deformity An alteration in the natural form or alignment of an organ. d. Akerlund X-ray deformity of duodenal cap in duodenal ulcer. d. boutonnière flexion of PIP joint and hyperextension of DIP. d. Madclung radial deviation of hand due to overgrowth of distal ulna or shortening of radius. d. Springel's congenital elevation of scapula. d. swan- neck hyperextension of PIP joint and flexion of DIP joint (see Figures).
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Boutonnière deformity
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Swan-neck deformity
Degeneration Deterioration in organ structure or function. d. fatty Deposition of abnormal amounts of fat replacing normal cells. d. calcareous Deposition of calcium salts. d. cystic Degeneration with cyst formation. d. hyaline The degenerated tissues assume a homogeneous and glossy 183appearance. d. hydropic Appearance of water droplets in cytoplasm. d. pigmentary Degenerated cells change their colour. d. spongy Familial demyelination of deep cerebral cortex. d. subacute combined Degeneration of lateral and posterior columns of spinal cord as in Vit.B12 deficiency.
Dehiscence 1. Splitting along a line or slit; 2. Separation of any suture layers of an operative wound.
Dehydration Excessive fluid loss or inadequate fluid intake resulting in haemoconcentration and renal failure.
Dehydrocholic acid A bile salt that stimulates production of bile from the liver.
Dehydrocholesterol Precursor of vit. D.
Dehydrocorticosterone Adrenal corticosteroid.
Dehydroepiandrosterone A 17 ketosteroid with androgenic activity.
Deiters’ cells Supporting cells in organ of corti.
Deiter's nucleus Cell collection behind auditory nerve nucleus.
Deja entendu The illusion or experience of hearing a thing which he has previously heard.
Deja vu The illusion or experience of seeing some thing which as if has seen/experienced previously (unreasonable familiarity with person/surrounding).
Deladelaphus Twins fused above thorax, but separated below.
Deleterious Harmful.
Deletion The loss of genetic material from one chromosome.
Delinquent One with antisocial/criminal behavior.
Delirium A state of mental confusion in which patient is disoriented for time and place with illusions and hallucinations. This may occur during fever, after head injury, drug intoxication etc. d. of persecution Delirium in which patient feels persecuted by others. d. tremens Delirium in patients of chronic alcoholism following abstinence or illness. Usually benign but convulsion is a danger.
Delivery Child birth.
Deltoid ligament Internal lateral ligament of knee joint.
Deltoid muscle The prominent muscle covering shoulder—attached to deltoid ridge of humerus.
Delusion A false belief inconsistent to ones knowledge and experience, and with evidence to contrary. d. nihilistic Victim believes 184that everything has ceased to exist. d. grandeur Victim feels himself wealthy, rich and extraordinary and behaves so. d. persecution Patient feels that every body around him are against him and may persecute him. d. reference Delusion that causes the victim to read a meaning not intended in the acts or words of others. d. systematized Logical correlation with false reasoning and deduction. d. unsystematized Delusion without any correlation between ideas and surroundings.
Demeclocycline An antibiotic of tetracycline group.
Dementia Global impairment of intellectual function (cognition) interfering with social and occupational activities. d. Alzheimer dementia of gradual onset, and slow progression with delusion, delirium, depressed mood, behavioral disturbance; not due to atherosclerosis or systemic disease occurs in age below 65 (persenile). d. subcortical dementia due to involvement of subcortical brain structures, basal ganglia, thalamus.
Demerol Meperidine hydrochloride, opium derivative.
Demilune A crescent shaped group of serous cells forming a caplike structure over a mucous alveolus, commonly present in submandibular gland.
Demineralization Loss of minerals: calcium and phosphorus from bone.
Demography Statistical and quantitative study of characteristics of human population like size, growth, density, sex, age, etc.
Demorphinization Gradual decrease in the dose of morphine in morphine addicts.
Demulcent Soothening agent acting on mucous membrane like honey, glycerin, olive oil.
de Musset's sign Head nodding with each cardiac contraction in severe aortic incompetence.
Demutization Overcoming mutism by teaching the patient to speak or use sign language.
Demyelination Destruction of myelin sheath.
Denaturation Addition of substances to ethyl alcohol to make it toxic and unfit for human consumption.
Denatured protein A protein that has lost some of its physical and chemical properties by treatment.
Dendrite A branched protoplasmic process of a neurone that conducts impulses to cell body (see Figure on page 185).185
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Dendrites in a multipolar neurons
Denervation Depriving a structure or organ from its nerve supply.
Dengue A group B arbovirus disease caused by bite of Aedis egypti mosquitoes, characterized by fever, myalgia, lymphadenopathy and often purpuric spots.
Densimeter An instrument for measuring optical density of a radiograph.
Densitometry Determining the amount of ionizing radiation to which a patient is being exposed.
Dental arch The arch formed by cutting and chewing surfaces of teeth.
Dental consonant A consonant pronounced with the tongue at or near the front upper teeth.
Dental disk The disk with abrasive powder for cutting or polishing teeth.
Dental formula A brief method of expressing the dentition of mammals.
Dental plaque A gummy mass of micro organisms and minerals that grows on the crown and causes dissolution of enamel and tooth substance.
Dental pulp The embryonic connective tissue rich in vessels and nerves occupying the central space within the tooth and its roots.
Denticle A small tooth like projection, A calcified structure within pulp of tooth.
Dental scalants Application of plastic films to the chewing surfaces of teeth to seal the pits 186and grooves where food and bacteria can be trapped.
Dentifrice A powder or other substance used for cleaning the teeth.
Dentin The calcified hard part of tooth surrounding the pulp chamber, covered by enamel in the crown and by cementum in the root area.
Dentinogenesis Formation of dentin in development of a tooth.
Dentition The type, number and arrangement of teeth in the dental arch (see Chart).
Dentulous Having one's natural teeth.
Denture Artificial teeth substituting natural teeth.
Denver development screening test Widely used assessment for screening cognitive and behavioral problems in children up to the age of 6 years.
Deodorant An agent that masks or absorbs fowl odour.
Deontology Study of professional obligations and commitments.
187Deoxycorticosterone A renal hormone with mineral corticoid activity.
Deoxycholic acid C24H40O4, a bile acid.
Deoxycoformycin Anti leukemic agent.
Deoxyribonuclease Enzyme causing hydrolysis of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid A protein consisting of deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, two purine bases (adenine and guanine) and two pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), principally present in cell nucleus; principal protein of genes and chromosomes (see Figure).
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Deoxyribose A phosphoric ester of a pentose sugar.
Dependence Psychic craving for a drug that may or may not be accompanied by physiological dependence.
Depersonalization disorder The belief that ones own reality is lost or altered.
Depilation The process of hair removal.
Depletion Removal of substances like water, electrolyte, blood from the body.
Depolarization Electrical change in excitable cell in which inside of cell becomes positive.
Depolymerization The breakdown of polymers into monomers.
Depomedrol Methyl prednisone acetate.
Depot Storage, e.g., fat depot.
Depressant Agent that depresses body function or nerve cell activity.
Depression 1. Altered mood with loss of interest in pleasurable activities, feeling of worthless, excessive guilt, self reproach, suicidal ideation. 2. lowering of a part, 3. Decrease in the activity of a vital organ. d. bipolar Depression with alternating periods of elation and grief. d. endogenous Depression without apparent cause. d. reactive depression Following adverse life situations. de. Quervain's disease 188Tenosynovitis involving tendon sheaths of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis.
Dercum's disease SYN—Adiposis dolorosa. Painful areas of fat accumulation in menopausal women.
Dereism In psychiatry, activity and thought based on fantasy and wishes rather than logic or reason.
Derivative Derived from another.
Dermatitis Inflammation of skin, may be allergic, actinic, infective, exfoliative, etc. characterized by redness, itching etc. d. atopic Dermatitis of unknown etiology, usually familial mostly self limited in children, often with lichenification. d. contact Secondary to contact with such agents like deodorants and perfumes, usually in hypersensitive skin. d. exfoliative Constitutional symptoms, desquamation and extensive involvement. Pigmentation is frequent. d. herpetiformis Chronic inflammatory disease with vesicular, bulbous or pustular eruptions with linkage to HLA-B8 and gluten. Responds to oral dapsone. d. seborrheic Rounded irregular or circinate lesions on scalp, eye brows, nasolabial folds with greasy, shiny yellow or yellow gray scales.
Dermatoglyphics Study of lines of hand and feet for drawing inference about one's susceptibility to disease.
Dermatome 1. Area of skin innervated by one segment of spinal cord, 2. Instrument to cut thin section of skin as in skin grafting (see Figure).
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Anterior and posterior views of the dermatomes
189Dermatomyositis A connective tissue disorder characterized by skin edema, dermatitis and inflammation/dysfunction of voluntary and involuntary muscles.
Dermatophobia Excessive fear about skin disease.
Dermatophyte A fungus that grows in skin or its appendage e.g., epidermophyton, trichophyton and microsporum.
Dermatophytosis Fungus infection of skin of hand and feet.
Drematosis Any disease of skin; inflammation may not be there.
Dermis The true skin below epidermis, containing nerve fibers and blood vessels.
Dermoid Resembling the skin.
Dermoid cyst A non malignant cystic tumor containing ectodermal elements like skin, hair and teeth.
Dermonosology The science of classification of skin disease.
Dermotropic Acting especially on the skin.
Dermodidymus A malformed foetus with two heads and neck but a single body and normal limbs.
Desalination Removal of salt, e.g., removal of salt from sea water to make the water drinkable.
Desaturation A process where by a saturated organic compound is converted into an unsaturated one.
Descemet's membrane Membrane between endothelial layer of cornea and substantia propria.
Desensitization Prevention of anaphylaxis usually by administering repeated small doses of the agent causing anaphylaxis/allergy.
Desert fever Coccidiodomycosis.
Desferrioxamine Iron chelating agent.
Desiccant Agent causing dryness.
Desipramine Antidepressant (tricyclic group).
Deslanoside Cardiac glycoside similar to lanatoside - C
Desmitis Inflammation of a ligament.
Desmocyte A supporting tissue cell.
Desmoid Resembling a tendon.
Desmoplasia An abnormal tendency to form fibrous tissue or adhesive bands.
Desmopressin Synthetic vasopressin analogue.
Desonide A locally acting steroid.
Desquamation Shedding of the epidermis.
Dessault's bandage Bandage for stabilizing fracture of clavicle.190
Destructive Causing ruin, opposite to constructive.
Detachment Becoming separate.
Detail In radiology, the sharpness with which an image is presented on a radiograph.
Detector An instrument for determining the presence of something. d. lie A polygraph, an instrument for determining minor physical changes assumed to occur understress of lying or any other emotion.
Detergent Cleansing agents, either anionic or cationic.
Deterioration Retrogression.
Determinant That which determines the character of any thing.
Determination Establishing the nature or precise identity of a substance, organism or event.
Detonation A violent noise caused by an explosive.
Detoxify To remove toxic quality of a substance. To treat toxic overdose of a drug/alcohol.
Detrition Wearing away of a part usually due to friction as that of teeth.
Detritus Degenerative matter produced by disintigration.
Detrusor External muscular coat of urinary bladder.
Detumscence Subsidence of swelling, esp. of erectile tissue like penis and clitoris.
Deuteranopia Green colour blindness.
Deuterium Heavy hydrogen with two atoms.
Developer In radiology, the solution used to make the latent image visible on the radiograph.
Developmental milestones Development of skills like crawling, sitting, laughing, walking in infants and children (see Table on page 191).
Deviant behavior Actions considered abnormal.
Deviation Departure from normal. d. conjugate Deviation of face and eyes to same side. d. standard In statistics, the measure of variability from the central tendency of any frequency curve. It is the square root of variance.
Device intrauterine contraceptive Devices placed in uterus to prevent contraception e.g., copper T.
Devitalization Loss of vitality; esp. anesthetizing the pulp of a tooth.
Devolution Degradation, or destructive process.
Dexamethasone Synthetic glucocorticoid.
Dexchlorpheniramine Antihistaminic (polaramine).
Dexterity Motor skill.191
Table   Developmental milestones
Ideal body wt.
Body surface
% adult dose
3.4 kg
50 cm
0.23 m
1 month
4.2 kg
55 cm
0.26 m
3 months
5.6 kg
59 cm
0.32 m
6 months
7.7 kg
67 cm
0.4 m
1 year
10 kg
76 cm
0.47 m
3 years
14 kg
94 cm
0.62 m
5 years
18 kg
108 cm
0.73 m
7 years
23 kg
120 cm
0.88 m
12 years
37 kg
148 cm
1.25 cm
Dextrality Right handedness.
Dextran A plasma volume expander, a polysachharide fermented from sucrose.
Dextrase Enzyme splitting dextrose into lactic acid.
Dextriferron Ferric hydroxide used in treating iron deficiency.
Dextrin (C6H10O5)11, a carbohydrate produced during digestion of starch.
Dextroamphetamine An isomer of amphetamine, a CNS stimulant.
Dextrocardia Heart positioned in right side of thoracic cavity (see Figure).
Dextrocardiogram Electrocardiogram representing right ventriclular forces.
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Dextroduction Movement of visual axis to right.
Dextromethorphan A cough suppressant.
Dextrophobia Abnormal aversion to objects on right side of body.
Dextropropoxyphene Analgesic with high addiction potency.192
Dextroposition Displaced to right.
Dextrose C6H12O6 (SYN-glucose), a simple monosachharose sugar.
Dextrothyroxine A thyroxine like drug used to treat type II hyperlipoproteinemia.
Diabetes A general term for diseases causing excessive urination. d. brittle Patient's glucose tolerance variable especially. in type I diabetes mellitus. d. bronze (hemochromatosis) iron storage disease with hepatomegaly, darkening of skin, pancreatic endocrine deficiency often with cardiac dysfunction. d. insipidus Polyuria and polydipsia due to inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion by posterior pituitary. d. mellitus A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to either insulin deficiency, insulin resistance or insulin antibodies characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria. d. nutritional Diabetes in malnourished with pancreatic calcification.
Diabetic tabes Diabetic neuropathy with neuritic leg pain and loss of knee jerk.
Diabinese Chlorpropamide, an oral sulphonyl urea.
Diacele Third ventricle of brain.
Diacetic acid Acetoacetic acid, a ketone found in urine in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diacerin Anti-inflammatory pain-killer.
Diacetyl morphine Heroin, strong addictive potential.
Diadochokinesia Ability to make antagonistic movements like pronation and supination in quick succession.
Diagnosis The term used to denote the name of disease or diseased process using scientific and skillful methods. d. antenatal Diagnostic procedures to determine the health of the fetus e.g., amniocentesis, biochemical profile (L: S ratio, estriol assay), amnioscopy, nonstress test, ultrasound, chorionic villous biopsy. d. differential Comparison of diseases having some what similar presentation.
Dialysate The dialysis fluid used to remove or deliver compounds or electrolytes that the failing kidney cannot excrete or retain in proper concentration.
Dialysis The process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials. d. continuous ambulatory peritoneal Patient is put on continuous peritoneal dialysis by an implanted 193peritoneal catheter and attached disposable dialysate bags; a substitute to chronic haemodialysis. d. dementia Neurologic disturbances like speech difficulties, dementia, seizure, myoclonus, etc. after chronic dialysis, probably related to increased aluminium concentration in brain. d. disequilibrium The symptoms of nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, headache and seizures that appear shortly after starting hemo/peritoneal dialysis. The cause is brain edema as urea in brain remains relatively higher in comparison to serum. d. haemo The patient's blood and dialysate are passed in opposite directions across a semipermeable membrane (a coil, plate) in a dialysis machine. More effective than peritoneal dialysis. d. peritoneal Dialysis in which the lining endothelium of peritoneal cavity is used as dialysis membrane. 2 liters of dialysis fluid are introduced into peritoneal sac in 20 minutes, is retained for 20 minutes and is then drained off in 20 minutes (one cycle), 8 cycles in a day.
Diameter Distance from one point to another diagonally opposite point on the perimeter of a sphere. d. antero-posterior of pelvic inlet Distance between posterior surface of symphysis pubis to sacral promontory usually 11 cm in adult female. d. antero-posterior of pelvic outlet Distance between tip of coccyx and lower edge of symphysis pubis. d. biparietal Transverse diameter between parietal eminences of both sides (about 9.25 cm). d. bitemporal Distance between two temporal bones (about 8 cm) d. bitrochanteric Distance between highest point of two trochanters (useful for breech delivery) d. bizygomatic Distance between most prominent points of zygomatic arches. d. cervicobregmatic Distance between anterior frontal and junction of neck with floor of mouth. d. diagonal conjugate Distance from the upper part of symphysis pubis to the most distant part of brim of pelvis. d. external conjugate Antero- posterior diameter of pelvic inlet measured externally, i.e., distance from the skin over the upper part of symphysis pubis to the skin over a point corresponding to the sacral promontory. d. mento bregmatic Distance from chin 194to the middle of anterior fontanel. d. occipitofrontal Distance from posterior fontanel to the root of nose. d. occipitomental Greatest distance between the most prominent portion of the occiput and point of chin (13.5 cm). d. of fetal skull In full term fetus, the various diameters are: suboccipitobregmatic: 9.5 cm, cervicobregmatic 9.5 cm, frontomental: 8.1 cm, occipitomental: 12.7 cm. Occipitofrontal: 11.4 cm, biparietal: 9.5 cm. bitemporal: 8.1 cm (see Figure on page 195).
Diamox Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Diapedesis Passage of blood cells esp. leukocytes by amoeboid movement through the intact wall of capillary (see Figure).
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Diapedesis of leukocytes
Diaphane A very small electric light utilized in transillumination.
Diaphanography Transillumination of breast.
Diaphanometer A device for estimation of the amount of solids in a fluid by its transparency.
Diaphanoscope Device for transillumination of body cavities.
Diaphoresis Profuse sweating.
Diaphoretic Agents that increase sweating/perspiration.
Diaphragm The musculo- membranous wall separating abdomen from thoracic cavity. It contracts with each inspiration permitting descent of base of lung. The attachment is to 6th rib anteriorly and 11-12th ribs posteriorly.195
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SOB – Suboccipito-bregmatic – 9.4 cm
SOF – Suboccipito-frontal – 10 cm
OF – Occipito-frontal – 11.3 cm
MV – Mentovertical – 13.8 cm
SMV – Submentovertical – 11.3 cm
SMB – Submento-bregmatic – 9.4 cm
Diameters of the pelvis and foetus
196Diaphragmatic contraction aids in defaecation, parturition and urination by increasing intraabdominal pressure. It becomes spasmodic in hiccough and sneezing. Contribution of both diaphragms to respiratory inflow is 40% and nerve supply is by phrenic nerves. d. pelvic Formed by levator ani and coccygeus muscles pierced in midline by vagina, urethra and rectum. d. urogenital Urogenital trigone or triangular ligament that lies between ischiopubic rami. It lies superficial to the pelvic diaphragm and in the male surrounds the membranous urethra; in females it surrounds vagina. d. contraceptive A rubber or plastic cup that fits on to the cervix to prevent entry of sperms into uterus. d. of microscope The apparatus controlling illumination in the instrument.
Diaphysis The middle part of long bone (see Figure).
Diapophysis An upper articular surface of transverse process of vertebra.
Diarrhea Frequent passage of unformed watery stool due to inflammation, irritation, retention, emotion, etc. d. traveler's Diarrhoea in travellers due to E. coli.
Diascope A glass plate held against the skin for examining superficial lesions. Erythematous lesions blanch but not haemorrhagic lesions.
Diastage The enzyme converting starch to sugar.
Diastasis The last part of diastole, of 0.2 second duration and is immediately followed by atrial contraction.
Diastole That period of cardiac cycle (usually of 0.5 sec) during which the heart dilates, ventricles fill with blood.
Diastolic pressure The period of least pressure in the arterial vascular system.
Diathermy The therapeutic use of a high frequency current to generate heat within somepart of body. d. shortwave Employs wavelengths of 3-30 meters. d. surgical Diathermy of high frequency for electrocoagulation or cauterization.
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197Diathrosis A hinge joint.
Diatom One group of unicellular microscopic algae seen in lungs of patients with antemortem drowning.
Diatrizoate meglumine Radioopaque dye for arterial use (gastrograffin).
Diatrizoate sodium Radio-opaque dye for visualisation of bladder, urinary tract, reproductive system.
Diaxon A neurone having two axons.
Diazepam Antianxiety benzdiazepine useful in treatment of cocaine poisoning, status epilepticus, convulsion and a variety of anxiety disorders valium.
Diazo reaction A deep red colour in urine produced by action of ammonia and p-diazobenzene sulfuric acid on aromatic substances of urine.
Diazoxide Drug used IV to treat hypertensive crisis and hypoglycemia.
Dibasic Substance with two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule replaceable by a base.
Dibenzyline Trade name for phenoxybenzamine.
Dibucaine hydrochloride Local anaesthetic similar to cocaine.
Dicalcium Phosphate Dibasic calcium phosphate, used for calcium supplement.
Dichloramine A germicide, disinfectant containing chlorine.
Dichlorphenamide Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used for glaucoma.
Dichotomy Dividing into two parts.
Dichromation Ability to distinguish only two primary colours, i.e., red and green.
Dick test A skin test for susceptibility to scarlet fever similar to shick test for diphtheria.
Diclofenac Analgesic-anti inflammatory agent.
Dicloxacillin sodium A semisynthetic penicillin for treatment of penicillinase resistant staphylococci.
Dicophane DDT.
Dicrotic Relates to a double pulse.
Dicrotic notch The notch on descending limb of pulse wave.
Dicrotic wave The positive wave following dicrotic notch.
Dicumarol An anticoagulant that increases prothrombin time.
Dicyclomine An anticholinergic agent.
Didactic Pertains to teaching by lectures or texts as 198opposed to clinical or bedside teaching.
Didactylism Congenital condition in which there are only 2 digits on a hand or foot
Didelphic Pertains to double uterus.
Didymitis Inflammation of testicle.
Didymodynia Pain in the testicle.
Dieldrin A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as insecticide.
Diencephalon The portion of brain encompassing epithalamus, thalamus, metathalamus and hypothalamus.
Dienestrol Synthetic estrogen.
Dientamoeba fragilis Parasitic ameba inhabiting small instestine and causing diarrhoea.
Diet Food substances normally consumed in the course of living. d. balanced Diet adequate in energy providing all tissue building materials, vitamins and proteins. Bland d. One that is free from any irritating or stimulating foods. Elemental d. One consisting of a well-balanced, residue-free mixture of all essential and non-essential amino acids, combined with simple sugars, electrolytes, trace elements and vitamins. Elimination d. One for diagnosis of food allergy, based on omission of foods that might cause symptoms in the patient. High-calorie d. One that furnishes more calories than needed to maintain weight, often more than 3500-4000 kcal/day. High-fibre d. One relatively high in dietary fibre, which decreases bowel transit time and relieves constipation. High-protein d. One containing large amounts of protein, consisting largely amounts of protein, consisting largely of meats, fish, milk, legumes and nuts. Hospital d. a routine diet plan, provided in a hospital, that includes general, soft and liquid diets and modifications of them to suit the needs of specific patients. Ketogenic d. One containing large amounts of fat (see also ketogenic (diet). Liquid d. A diet limited to liquids or to foods that can be changed to a liquid state (see also liquid (diet)). Low-calorie d. one containing fewer calories than needed to maintain weight, e.g. less than 1200 kcal/day for an adult. Low-fat d. One containing limited amounts of fat. Low-residue d. One with a minimum of cellulose and fibre and restriction of the connective tissue found in certain cuts of meat. It is prescribed for irritations 199of the intestinal tract, after surgery of the large intestine, in partial intestinal obstruction, or when limited bowel movements are desirable, as in colostomy patients. Called also low-fibre diet.
Dietetics The science of applying the principles of nutrition to the feeding of individuals or groups.
Diethazine hydrochloride Anticholinergic used in treatment of Parkinsonism.
Diethylcarbamazine Antifilarial agent.
Diethylpropion An adrenergic drug with actions similar to amphetamine.
Diethylstilbestrol Synthetic estrogen.
Diethyltoluamide Insect repellant.
Diethyltryptamine Hallucinogenic agent.
Dietitian A person experienced in field of nutrition and dietetic advice.
Dietl's crisis Renal colic from partial obstruction of ureter.
Dieulafoy's triad Tenderness, muscular rigidity and skin hyperesthesia at Mc Burney's point in acute appendicitis.
Differential blood count Determination of number of each variety of leukocytes in one micro litre of blood.
Diffraction The deflection that occurs when light rays are passed through crystals, prisms or other deflecting media.
Diffusion A process by which various gases intermingle as a result of incessant motion of their molecule i.e., there is always a tendency of molecule or substances (gas, liquid, solid) to move from a region of high concentration to a low concentration.
Diflunisal A salicylic acid derivative that, like aspirin, has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, but fewer side-effects than aspirin, does not affect bleeding time or function and has a long half-life that permits twice daily dosage.
Digestion The process by which food is broken down by enzymatic action into absorbable forms.
Digital radiography Radiography using computerized imaging instead of conventional film or screen imaging.
Digital reflex Sudden flexion of terminal phalanx when nail is suddenly tapped.
Digitalis Cardiotonic glycoside that increases myocardial contraction and refractory period of A-V node.200
Digitoxin Cardiotonic glycoside.
Dihydroergotamine Vasoconstrictor used in migraine.
Dihydrosphingosine An amino alcohol present in sphingo lipids.
Dihydrotachysterol A sterol obtained by irradiation of ergosterol and functions as Vit D.
Dihydroaluminium aminoacetate An antacid.
Dihydroxycholecalciferol Sterols with hormonal properties akin to vit D e.g., calcitrol.
Diiodohydroyquin Iodoquinol.
Diktyoma Tumor of ciliary epithelium.
Dilantin A derivative of glyceryl urea (diphenyl hydantoin sodium) used as antiepileptic, best for clonic/toxic clonic seizure.
Dilatation Expansion of a vessel or an orifice.
Dilation and Curettage Cervical canal dilatation and scraping of uterine cavity.
Dilation and evacuation Cervical canal dilatation and evacuation of product of conception by suction/forcep.
Dilators Instruments used to dilate canals, cavities or openings (see Figure).
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Hegar uterine dilators
Diltiazem Calcium channel blocker, useful for ischaemic heart disease.
Dimenhydrinate A drug for control of dizziness, vomiting and nausea.
Dimercaprol Used as an antidote for gold, arsenic, mercury etc. injected IM mixed with benzyl benzoate and alcohol.
Dimethicone A silicone oil used to protect the skin against water soluble irritants.
Dimethindene maleate Antihistamine.
Dimethisterone Progesterone compound.
Dimethylphthalate An insect repellant.
Dimethyl sulfoxide A solvent used to facilitate absorption of medicines through the skin.201
Dimethyltryptamine An agent with properties similar to hallucinogens like LSD.
Dimple sign A sign used to differentiate dermatofibroma from malignant nodular melanoma. Upon application of lateral pressure, the dermatofibroma will dimple or become indented, but melanoma protrudes above plane of skin.
Dinoprost tromethamine A drug causing uterine contraction hence used to induce abortion.
Dioctyl calcium, sodium/potassium/sulfosuccinate A stool softner.
Diopter Refractory power of lens with focal length at l meter.
Diosmin Antithrombotic, anticoagulant.
Dioxybenzone Chemical for protecting skin from sun.
Dipeptidase An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dipeptides to amino acids.
Diphemanil methyl sulfate An anticholinergic agent used for treatment of peptic ulcer.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride Antihistamine, (Benadryl).
Diphenoxylate Antidiarrheal agent smooth muscle relaxant (Lomotil).
Diphenyl hydantoin sodium Anti convulsant.
Diphenyl pyraline An antihistamine.
Diphonia Simultaneous production of two voice tones. 2-3 diphosphoglycerate An organic phosphate that effects affinity of haemoglobin for RBC and is depleted in stored blood.
Diphtheria Acute infectious disease, characterized by fever, sore throat, cervical lymphadenopathy and formation of gray pseudomembrane at the site of infection i.e. tonsil, pharynx larynx nose etc. Causative agent is club shaped bacillus, coryne bacterium diphtheriae.
Diphtheroid Resembling diphtheria or diphtheria bacillus.
Diphyllobothrium Genus of tape worm, D-latum is fish tapeworm infesting humans, causing B12 deficiency.
Diplegia Paralysis of legs and hands of one side.
Diploe Spongy tissue between the two layers of compact bone.
Diploid Having two sets of chromosomes.
Diplomyelia Doubling of spinal cord due to a length wise fissure, often seen in patients of spina bifida.
Diplopia Double vision. d. binocular Double vision 202occurring when both eyes are used due to diseases of cranial nerves, cerebrum. d. monocular Double vision with one eye open (hysterics). d. uncrossed SYN __ homonymous diplopia; each image appears on the same side as the eye that sees the image. d. crossed Images are on the side opposite to the eye that sees the image. d. vertical Diplopia with one of the two images higher than other.
Dipole Two equal and opposite charges separated by a distance.
Dipsomania A morbid craving for alcohol.
Dipstic A chemical impregnated paper strip used for analysis of chemical constituents in urine.
Direct current An electric current flowing continuously in one direction only.
Direct light reflex Contraction of pupil on focussing a light beam on it.
Directly observed therapy Strategy for ensuring a patient's compliance with a therapy in which there is oral administration of a drug to a patient and observing that each dose of prescribed drug is swallowed.
Dirofilaria A genus of micro filaria.
Disaccharidase Carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides e.g., sucrose.
Discitis Inflammation of inter vertebral disk.
Disconnection syndrome Disturbances of visual and language functions due to section of corpus callosum or occlusion of anterior cerebral artery, manifesting as inability to match an object held in one hand with that in the other when eyes are closed.
Discordance In genetics, the expression of a trait in only one of the twin pair.
Discrete Separate, distinct.
Discrimination The process of distinguishing or differentiating. d. tonal Ability to distinguish one tone from the other, a function dependent upon integrity of transverse fibers of the basilar membrane in organ of Corti. d. two point Ability to localize two points of pressure when applied to skin as separate sensations.
Disdiadochokinesia Inability to make quick alternating movements like pronation and supination common to cerebellar disease.
Disease Literally the lack of ease, or illness/suffering. d. autoimmune A state of immune aberration where body 203produces antibodies against healthy host tissues as in some cases of glomerulonephritis, haemolytic anaemia, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, thyrotoxicosis, SLE, scleroderma etc. d. heavy chain Diseases in which heavy chain production of immunoglobulins is in excess. IgA chain excess manifests with abdominal lymphoma and malabsorption, IgM with repeated bacterial infections, lymphadenopathy and Ig D chain with picture similar to multiple myeloma. d. hereditary Where disease is transmitted from parent to offspring. d. motor neurone There is degeneration of anterior horn cells of spinal cord, cranial nerve nuclei in the brain stem, and pyramidal tracts. e.g., progressive muscular atrophy, amyotropic lateral sclerosis. d. psychosomatic Psychological factors contribute to initiation or exacerbation of the disease e.g., asthma, tension headache, neurodermatitis, peptic ulcer, etc.
Disengagement The emergence of foetal head from within the maternal pelvis.
Disinfectant A substance that prevents infection by killing pathogenic organisms.
Disinfection The process of making rooms/linens/organs germ free. The common methods of disinfection are by autoclaving, boiling in water, ethylene oxide/formal dehyde gas, alcohol, iodine, phenols etc.
Disinfestation The process of killing infesting insects/parasites.
Disintegration The falling apart of constituents of a substance.
Disk A circular or rounded flat plate. d. articular pad of fibrocartilage in synovial joints. d. Bowman's disk like plates that make up striated muscle fibers. d. intercalated dense bands running between myocardial cells both transversely and longitudinally (see Figure on page 204).
Dislocation Displacement of any part. d. monteggia Dislocation of the hip in which the head of femur lies near anterosuperior spine of ileum. d. Nelaton's Dislocation of ankle in which talus is forced up between the end of the tibia and fibula (see Figure on page 205).
Dismutase superoxide An enzyme that destroys superoxide (O2-) formed by flavo enzymes.204
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The enzyme protects aerobic bacteria from superoxide being present in them. Now being used for myocardial protection soon after infarction.
Disodium edetate A chelating agent used to treat hypercalcemia.
Disopyramide phosphate Antiarrhythmic agent of class II.
Disorientation Inability to be aware of time, place and person.
Dispensary Place for dispensation of drugs.
Disperate Suspension of finely divided particles in liquid.
Dispersion Dissipation or disappearance of colloid in a fluid.
Dispersonalization Mental state in which individual denies presence of some of his bodyparts or personality.
Displacement Removal from normal place. In psychiatry, transference of emotion from the original idea with which it was associated to a different idea.
Disposition Individuals aptitude, behavior as sum total of such evident characteristics.
Disproportion A part being different in size from that considered to be normal.
Dissect To split, to go into detail, to separate various parts of cadaver.
Dissection The cutting of parts for purpose of separation and study.205
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Various types of dislocation
206Disseminated Scattered or widely distributed.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation A coagulation disorder with bleeding tendency due to consumption of clotting factors and platelets due to thrombin generation in blood stream (see Figure).
Dissipation Dispersion of matter.
Dissociation Separation of complex compounds into simpler ones.
Dissociation AV Atria and ventricles beat independently as sinus node impulse does not reach the ventricle. d. of personality Split in consciousness resulting in two different phases of personality, neither being aware of words, acts or feelings of others.
Dissolution Breaking up the integrity of anatomical entity.
Dissolve Dispersion of a solid within a liquid.
Dissonance Disagreement.
Distal Farthest from the center, from a medial line.
Distance Space between two objects. d. focal Distance from the optical center of lens to focal point.
Distend To stretch; to inflate.
Distensibility The property of being stretchable.
Distichiasis Maldirection of eye lashes, commonly directed inwards.
Distillate Substance obtained by distillation.
Distillation Condensation of vapor that has been obtained from a liquid heated to volatilization point.
Distome A fluke with two suckers.
Distomiasis Infestation with flukes.
Distortion Change from regular to irregular/altered shape.
Distractibility Inability to focus ones attention or mental wandering.
Distraction State of mental confusion.
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Disseminated intravascular coagulation
207Distraught The mental state of being deeply troubled, having conflicting thoughts.
Distress Physical or mental agony.
Distribution The lay out pattern, or spreading/supply of nerve, blood vessels, etc.
Districhiasis Two hairs growing from the same hair follicle.
Disulfiram Drug used to create aversion from alcohol.
Diuresis Passage of large amounts of urine.
Diuretic An agent that increases formation of urine.
Diurnal Daily.
Divalent A molecule with two electric charges.
Divalproex Antiepileptic.
Divergence Separation from a common center.
Diverticulum A pouch or sac in the wall of a hollow organ. d. false Diverticulum without muscular coats in the wall of the pouch. d. Meckel's Diverticulum due to persistence of omphalomesenteric duct. d. of colon Most are asymptomatic and cause symptom when inflammed. d. of jejunum and duodenum Diverticulum commonly located near entrance of common bileduct and pancreatic duct into duodenum. Jejunal diverticula are usually symptomatic and cause severe bleeding. d. Zenker: See: Zanker's diverticulum (see Figure).
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Meckel's diverticulum
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Colonic diverticulum
Diving reflex Emersion in cold water or sprinkling of cold water on body causes parasympathetic stimulation with reduced cardiac output and increasing A-V block. Hence used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.
Division Separation into parts.
Divulsion Forcibly pulling apart.208
Dizygotic twins Twins who are products of two ova.
Dizziness A sensation of unsteadiness or whirling.
DNA probe A method of identifying defective genes and genetic constitution of a cell through employment of recombinant DNA technology.
Dobutamine A betadrenergic agonist, used in hypotension.
Doctor To teach, A person qualified to practice medicine. d. bare foot A practitioner of traditional or native medicine in China who have not attended any medical school.
Doctrine The system of principles taught or advocated.
Docusate sodium A stool softner.
Dohle bodies Inclusions in neutrophils as seen in burn, trauma, infection and neoplastic diseases.
Dolicocephalic Having a skull with long anteroposterior diameter.
Dolicomorphic A long and slender body (ectomorph).
Doll's head maneuver A test to know brainstem damage in comatose patients. Normally eyes more together to the opposite side of head rotation.
Dolophine hydrochloride Methadone.
Dolor Pain, principal component of inflammation. Other are rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), color (heat) and loss of function.
Dolorimeter Device for measurement of degree of pain.
Domiciliary Carried on in a house.
Dominance 1. Genetic quality through which one gene of pair of allele expresses, while the other is suppressed. 2. Preferred hand or side of body. 3. In psychiatry the tendency to control others.
Domperidone Antiemetic increases gastric motility, useful in dyspepsia.
Donath-Landsteiner phenomenon A test for paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria where cold haemolysin combines to RBCs at 5°C and upon warming these red cells haemolyze.
Donnan's equilibrium A equilibrium is established between two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane so that the sum of anions and cations on one side is equal to that on otherside.
Donor One who donates blood, tissue or an organ for use in another person. d. universal One with blood group ‘O’ which is compatible with blood of all other persons, though this is not universally true as there are many other blood antigens besides A, B, and O.209
Donovan body Organism of granuloma inguinale. i.e., Chlamydia trachomatis.
Dopa 3:4 dihydroxy phenylalanine, produced by oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase.
Dopamine hydrochloride A vasopressor catecholamine and neurotransmitter, also implicated in some forms of psychosis and abnormal movement disorder.
Doping In sports medicine, use of drugs to improve sports performance; commonly androgenic anabolic steroids.
Doppler A method to measure blood flow in arteries and veins.
Doraphobia Aversion to touching the hair or fur of animals.
Dorllo's canal A bony canal in the tip of temporal bone enclosing abducens nerve.
Dorsal Pertains to back, opposite of ventral.
Dorsal nerves Branches of spinal nerves that pass dorsally to innervate structures near to vertebral column.
Dorsal slit A surgical method of making the foreskin of penis easily retractable. The foreskin is cut in dorsal midline but not far enough to extend to mucous membrane next to glans.
Dorsiflexion Bending a part towards posterior aspect of body (see Figure).
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Dorsiflexion of foot
Dosage Pertains to quantity, frequency and number of doses of a drug/radiation.
Dose Amount of medicine/radiation to be given at one time. d. absorbed Dose of ionizing radiation imparted to a tissue or target. d. cumulative Total dose of radiation resulting from repeated exposures. d. maximum permissible The maximum amount of radiation exposure permitted to person whose occupation requires working with radioactive agents. d. therapeutic Dose required to produce therapeutic effect.
Dose calculation for children
Young's formula
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Body surface area of child/1.7 × adult dose.210
Dose response curve A graph showing the degree of effect of a drug in relation to its doses.
Dosimeter Device for measuring radiation.
Dothiepin Antidepressant.
Double blind technique A method of scientific investigation in which neither the subject nor the investigator knows what treatment the subject is receiving. The code is only broken at the end of completion of treatment.
Double contrast examination Radiographic examination in which both a radio-opaque and a radioluscent contrast medium are used simultaneously to visualize internal anatomy.
Double personality Dual personality seen in hysteria and schizophrenia.
Douche A current of vapour or - stream of hot/cold water directed against a part. d. vaginal Douche of vagina is used for deodorant, antiseptic, stimulating or haemostatic purposes. Douching in healthy women is not warranted as it may alter vaginal pH and flora predisposing to vaginitis.
Douglas fold The arcuate line of the sheath of rectus muscle.
Douglas pouch Peritoneal space lying between uterus and front of rectum.
Down's syndrome Congenital anomaly due to trisomy 21 manifesting with mental retardation, skeletal anomalies and light yellow spots at periphery of iris (see Figure).
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Down's syndrome
Doxapram Respiratory stimulant.
Doxepin Tricyclic-antidepressant.
Doxorubicin Anthracycline antitumor antibiotic.
Doxycycline Broad spectrum tetracycline used in b.i.d dose.
Doxylamine A sedative.211
Dracontiasis SYN__ Dracunculiasis i.e., infestation with d. medinesis.
Drain To draw off a fluid, exit or tube for discharge of body fluid.
Drainage The free flow of fluid from a wound/cavity. d. closed Drainage without access of air into drained site via the tube. d. negative pressure Drainage where negative pressure is maintained within the tube, e.g., pneumothorax drainage. d. open Drainage without exclusion of air. d. postural Drainage of sinuses and bronchi by gravity (see Figure on page 212).
Dramamine Diphenhydramine, an agent for vertigo.
Dramatism Dramatic behavior and lofty speech as in lunatics.
Drastic Acting strongly.
Draught A liquid medicinal dose to be gulped at once; drink.
Draw sheet The rubber cloth spread on the bed to protect the mattress and linen from drainage and soilage.
Drawer sign Sign of cruciate ligament rupture of knee.
Drepanocyte Resembling sickle cell.
Dressing Protective or supportive covering for injured part. d. occlusive Dressing that seals the wound completely thus preventing infection and also preventing moisture from the wound escaping through the dressing. d. pressure Dressing that applies pressure on the wound, e.g., following skin grafting.
Drift Movement due to an external force, in an aim less fashion.
Drill (SYN-burr) Device for rotating sharp cutting instrument e.g., cavity preparation in dentistry.
Drip Infusion of a liquid drop by drop. d. post nasal Post nasal discharge as in chronic sinusitis.
Dromostanolone An antineoplastic agent.
Dromotropic Fibers in cardiac nerves influencing conduction.
Dronabinol Synthetic tetrahydrocanabinol, a psychoactive substance.
Droperidol A neuroleptic, sedative and tranquilizer.
Droplet infection Infected particles coming as spray from patient's mouth and nose.
Dropsy Generalized edema.
Drotaverine Antispasmodic.
Drowning Asphyxiation due to immersion in liquid.
Drowsiness The state of almost falling asleep.
Drug abuse Self administered drug overuse.212
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Postural drainage of lungs
213Drug addiction A condition caused by excessive or continued use of habit forming drugs.
Drug dependence A psychic and often physical dependence upon a drug.
Drug fever Fever caused by drugs.
Drug interaction Interaction between drugs taken concurrently.
Drug rash Rash produced in some individuals by intake or application of drugs.
Drug reaction Adverse and undesired reactions to a substance.
Drug receptors The protein molecules on cell surface that bind to a particular drug and then activate a series of reactions through which the drug produces the desired pharmacological effect.
Drunkenness Alcoholic intoxication with blood ethyl alcohol level exceeding 0.3-0.4%.
Drusen Small hyaline, globular pathological growths formed on Descemet's membrane.
Duazomycin Glutamine antagonist, anticancer drug.
Dubin-Johnson syndrome Inherited defect of bile metabolism with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
Dubowitz score A method to assess a newborn clinically, up to 5 days after birth, to determine infant's maturity and gestational age by neurological and other physical criteria.
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy Most common fatal genetic disorder caused by the mutation of gene that code for dystrophin and is characterized by muscular dystrophy that worsens quickly.
Ducrey's bacillus Small rod shaped organism found in pairs, causative agent of soft sore.
Duct A narrow tubular vessel or channel to convey secretions from gland. d. alveolar A branch of respiratory bronchiole that leads to alveolar sacs of lungs. d. commonbile Duct formed by joining of hepatic duct with cystic duct and draining to duodenum at ampulla of vater. d. endolymphaticus Duct connecting endolymphatic sac with the utricle and saccule. d. Gartner A remnant of wolfian duct extending from parovarium through the broad ligament into vagina. d. lacrymal Two ducts, superior and inferior draining tear from eye into lacrymal sac. d. mesonephric Duct in embryo connecting mesonephros with the cloaca. In the male, it develops into reproductive ducts. d. 214mullerian Ducts in the embryo that form the uterus, vagina and fallopian tubes. d. right lymphatic Duct draining lymph from right side of body above diaphragm into right innominate vein. d's of Skene's Two slender ducts of skene's glands that open on either side of female urethral orifice. d. thoracic The left lymphatic duct that drains the lymph from body below diaphragm and the left thorax into left innominate vein (see Figure).
Ductus arteriosus The channel communicating ascending aorta to left pulmonary artery in the fetus.
Ductus venosus The duct through which the umbilical vein drains into inferior vena cava in fetus.
Duffy system A blood grouping system.
Duloxetine Antidepressant.
Dumping syndrome Dumping of stomach contents into the intestine manifesting with weakness and sweating soon after food in patient's of gastrojejunostomy.
Duodenal bulb First part of duodenum beyond pylorus.
Dupuytren contracture Contracture of palmar fascia causing flexion deformity of ring and fifth fingers.
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215Dura mater The outer membrane covering the brain and spinal cord.
Duritis SYN—pachymeningitis, inflammation of dura.
Duroziez murmur Systolic and diastolic murmur heard over an artery when pressure is applied just distal to stethoscope.
Dust Minute fine particles of earth. d. ear Fine calcareous bodies found in gelatinous substance of otolith membrane of ear. d. house Matters included in house dust are mites, hairs, pollen, and smoke particles.
Dutasteride Antiandrogen for prostatic hypertrophy.
Dwarf An abnormally short or undersized person. d. achondroplastic Normal trunk, small extremities, large head and prominent buttocks.
Dyclonine hydrochlorides A topical anaesthetic.
Dye Any colored or colouring agent, employed for staining slides for histopathological examination or manifacturing test reagents.
Dynamic Pertains to vital force or inherent power; opposite of static.
Dynamograph Device for recording muscular strength.
Dyne Force needed for imparting acceleration of 1 cm. per second to a 1 gm mass.
Dynorphins An endogenous opioid peptide.
Dysacusis Difficulty in hearing, dycomfort caused by loud noise.
Dysarthria Difficulty in articulation or speech.
Dysautonomia A hereditary disease involving autonomic nervous system characterized by motor inco-ordination, fluctuating blood pressure, mental retardation, etc.
Dysbasia Difficulty in walking.
Dyscalculia Inability to solve mathematical problems.
Dysdiadochokinesia Inability to perform quick alternating movements.
Dysentery Inflammation of mucosal lining of GI tract with passage of blood, pus and mucus in stool. The causative agent may be chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, viruses or parasitic worms. Amoebic d. common in tropical countries; caused by protozoon Entamoeba histolytica. Spread is decreased in placed with high standards of hygiene and sanitation. A notifiable disease in the UK. Called also amoebiasis. Bacillary d. The most common and acute form of the disease, caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella.
Dysesthesia Abnormal sensation on the skin with 216tingling, numbness, burning etc.
Dysgammaglobulinemia Disproportion in the concentration of gammaglobulins in blood.
Dysgenesis Defective development.
Dysgerminoma Malignant neoplasm of ovary.
Dysgeusia Impairment or perversion of gustatory sense so that normal taste is interpreted as being unpleasant.
Dysgraphia Difficulty in writing.
Dyshidrosis Disorder of sweating; recurrent vesicular eruption on the limbs with intense itching (pompholyx).
Dyskeratosis Altered keratinization of epithelial cells of epidermis, characteristic of many skin disorders.
Dyskinesia Defect in voluntary movement. d. tardive Slow rhythmical, involuntary stereotyped movements especially with use of psychotropic drugs.
Dyslexia Inability to interpret written language even though vision is normal.
Dyslogia This refers to difficulty in expression of ideas or impairment of the ability to reason or think logically. This is usually due to a lesion of central nervous system.
Dysmaturity SYN — small-for-date infants, intrauterine growth retardation; infant's weight is less for his length or age.
Dysmyelia This refers to a group of disorders associated with congenital malformation of the upper and lower extremities. These disorders are usually characterized by hypoplasia or partial and total aplasia of the tubular bones of the extremities or complete loss of an extremity.
Dysmenorrhoea Painful menstruation. d. congestive Caused by pelvic congestion. d. membranous Passage of uterine casts causing pain. d. spasmodic Spasmodic uterine contractions causing pain.
Dysmetria Rapid jerky movement as patient is unable to control range and strength of muscular contraction, as seen in cerebellar disease.
Dysmorphia Dysmorphia refers to a deformity or an abnormality in shape.
Dysostosis Defect in ossification.
Dysoxia Inability of mitochondria to utilize oxygen properly.
Dyspareunia Painful sexual intercourse.
Dyspepsia Imperfect digestion with abdominal bloating, 217heart burn, flatulence, anorexia nausea etc. can be gastric, hepatic, biliary, alcoholic in origin.
Dysphagia Difficulty in deglutition, can be due to spasm of pharyngoesophageal musculature, stricture, neoplasm, paralysis.
Dysphasia Impairment of speech both articulation and comprehension.
Dysphonia Difficulty in speaking but comprehension is normal; hoarseness.
Dysphoria Excessive depression feeling without apparent cause.
Dysplasia Abnormal tissue growth/differentiation. d. ectodermal Absence of sweat glands, hair follicles and abnormality of nail, teeth, and mental development. d. monostotic Replacement of bone by fibrous tissue. d. polyostotic fibrous Replacement of bone by vascular fibrous tissue with bone deformity and fracture.
Dyspnea Labored or difficulty in breathing either due to vigorous physical activity, anemia, cardiac or pulmonary disease.
Dyspraxia A disturbance in the programming, control and execution of volitional movements.
Dyssynergia Difficulty in proper muscular co-ordination.
Dystocia Difficult labor, can be due to abnormal passage (small outlet), passenger (large foetus) or power (uterine inco-ordination).
Dystonia Increased muscle tone. d. musculum deformans Progressive disorder of childhood with distorted twisting body movements.
Dystopia Displacement of any organ.
Dystrophy Defective muscle power, nutrition and metabolism. d. Landouzy-Dejerine Childhood progressive muscular dystrophy involving muscles of shoulder girdle, face characterized by myopathic facies, inability to raise arms above head, inability to whistle. d progressive muscular Familial disease with atrophy of muscles, occurring at early childhood. d pseudohypertrophic muscular Affected muscles are bulky but weak at the beginning but ultimately become atrophic.
Dysuria Painful micturition either due to concentrated acid urine, urinary crystals/concretions, urinary infections, pelvic pathology and prolapse uterus.
Eales’ disease Retinal vein thrombophlebitis with recurrent hemorrhages into retina and vitreous.
Ear The organ of hearing and of equilibrium (see Figures). It consists of three parts: (a) the external e., made-up of the expanded portion, or pinna, and the auditory canal, separated from the middle ear by the drum, or tympanum; (b) the middle e., an irregular cavity containing three small bones (incus, malleus and stapes) that link the tympanic membrane to the internal ear; it also communicates with the pharyngotympanic tube and the mastoid cells; (c) the internal e., which consists of a bony and a membranous labyrinth (the cochlea and semicircular canals).
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Structure of ear
Ear dust Calcareous concretions in the membranous labyrinth.
Ear plug Device for plugging the external auditory canal, there by preventing access of sound to internal ear.
Earwax Sticky honey coloured cerumen secreted by glands at outer one-third of ear canal mixed with dust.
Eaton agent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Ebastine Antiallergic agent.
Ebola virus disease A central African viral haemorrhagic fever with acute onset and characteristic morbilliform rash. The incubation period is 2-21 days. It has no known source, although it is probably a zoonosis. Person-to-person spread in hospitals and laboratories by accidental inoculation of blood and tissue fluids has occurred.
Ebstein's anomaly Downward displacement of septal leaflet of tricuspid valve with gross tricuspid regurgitation (see Figure below).
Ecchondroma Cartilaginous tumor.
Ecchymosis Escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel into the sub-cutaneous tissue, characterized by a purple, blue, or black discoloration of skin.
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Ebstein's anomaly
220Eccrine sweat glands Sweat glands of skin with density of over 400 per sq. cm. on the palms and about 80 per sq. cm. on thigh.
Eccyclomastopathy Lesion of breast made-up of connective tissue and epithelial cells.
Echeosis Mental disturbance caused by noise.
Echinococcosis Infestation with T. echinococcus.
Echinococcus A genus of tape worm. Consisting of scolex and three or four proglottids. e. granulosus A species of tape worms infesting carnivores causing hydatid cyst in liver or lungs.
Echinocyte Abnormal erythrocyte with multiple spiny projections from surface.
Echinostoma A genus of fluke found in aquatic birds.
Echo A reverberating sound produced when sound waves are reflected back to their source.
Echocardiography The technique of imaging the cardiac structures non-invasively through passage of ultrasound.
Echoencephalogram Recording of midline shift of brain structures by ultrasound waves.
Echokinesia Involuntary repetition of another's gestures.
Echopraxia Imitation of actions of others.
ECHO virus Enterocytopathogenic human orphan virus causing viral meningitis, enteritis, pleurodynia, myocarditis, etc.
Eclampsia Coma and convulsion occurring after 28th week of pregnancy and in immediate postpartum.
Eclecticism An old system of medicine where treatment is dependent upon individual signs and symptoms rather than the disease as a whole.
Econazole A topical antifungal agent.
Economo's disease Encephalitis lethargica.
Ectasia Dilatation of any tubular structure.
Ecthyma A shallow skin lesion with crusting, often followed by pigmentation and scarring.
Ectocervix The portion of cervical canal outlined by squamous epithelium.
Ectoderm The outer layer of cells in developing embryo giving rise to skin, teeth, nervous system, organs of special sense, pituitary, pineal and suprarenal glands.
Ectomorph Linear slender body build with poor musculature.221
Ectoparasite Parasite living on outer surface of body e.g., lice, fleas, ticks.
Ectopia Malposition or displacement. e. cordis Malposition of heart with the organ lying outside the thorax. e. lentis Displacement of lens in the eye. e. vesicae Displacement of bladder e.g., extrophy.
Ectopic In an abnormal position e.g., ectopic heart beat.
Ectopic pregnancy Implantation of fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity; can be abdominal, tubal, or ovarian with liability for rupture and hemorrhage (see Figure).
Ectopic rhythm Any abnormal or irregular cardiac rhythm.
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Ectopic pregnancy
222Ectoplasm The outer most layer of cell protoplasm.
Ectostosis Formation of bone beneath periosteum.
Ectothrix Fungus growing on hair shafts.
Ectotrichophyton Fungi causing hair and skin infection.
Ectozoon Parasite living on another animal.
Ectromelia Hypoplasia of long bones of limbs.
Ectropion Eversion of eyelid margin (see Figure).
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Eczema Acute or chronic cutaneous lesion with erythema, papule, vesicles and crusts leading to itching, lichenification and pigmentation; mostly atopic or allergic. e. marginatum Eczema caused by ringworms. e. numular Coin or oval shaped eczema lesions. e. pustular Follicular or impetiginous form of eczema. e. seborrheic Eczema with seborrhea. e. vaccinatum Generalized vaccinial lesion or local lesions elsewhere in persons with eczema who receive vaccination.
Edema Excessive tissue accumulation water, either localized or generalized, can be due to poor venous drainage, lymphatic obstruction, increased venous pressure (CHF), hypoalbuminemia, or increased water retention. e. angioneurotic Local edema due to hypersensitivity to drugs food, physical agents (cold) or idiopathic. e. brain Brain swelling due to water accumulation as following injury, toxemia or infection. e. cardiac Dependent edema of congestive heart failure. e. high altitude Pulmonary edema of mountaineers related to low partial pressure of oxygen. e. larynx Usually of allergic origin but life threatening. e. of glottis Usually follows infection with cough, hoarseness and dyspnea. e. nonpitting Myxomatous tissue accumulation appearing as edema without any dimple on pressure, e.g., myxedema. e. pulmonary Increased fluid accumulation in lungs following left heart failure, toxic gas inhalation, or ARDS.223
Edge A margin or border.
Edrophonium chloride A cholinergic drug (anticholinesterage).
Edrophonium test A test for myasthenia gravis. A positive test demonstrates brief improvement in the muscle strength.
Efavirenz Anti-HIV agent.
Effacement Dilatation of cervix and stretching of birth passage (see Figure).
Effect Result of an action or force. e. cumulative Drug effect on repeated administration of a drug.
Effector One of the nerve endings having the efferent process and in a gland or muscle cell. Also applied for effector organs (muscle and glands).
Effeminate A male having physical characteristic or mannerism of a female.
Efferent Carrying away from a central organ.
Efferent nerve Nerves that carry impulses away from the nerve cell (motor nerve).
Effervescence Formation of bubbles of gas rising to surface of fluids.
Effluent Fluid discharged from sewage treatment or industrial plant.
Effusion Escape of fluid/air into a cavity, e.g., hydropneumothorax, chylothorax, pleural effusion.
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224Ego 1. In psychoanalysis, the three divisions are id, ego and superego. The ego possesses consciousness and memory and serves to mediate between the primitive instinctual or animal drives (the id), internal social prohibitions (super ego) and reality. 2. Selfishness or self love.
Egoism An inflated estimate of one's value or effectiveness.
Egophony A nasal sound like bleating of a goat, present on lung tissue above effusion.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome An inherited disorder of elastic connective tissue characterized by fragile hyperelastic skin, hyper mobile joints.
Eicosanoids Metabolites of arachidonic acid metabolism like prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes.
Eisenmenger's complex In a case of congenital heart disease with left to right shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA etc) when the pulmonary vascular resistance equals or exceeds systemic resistance it is called Eisenmenger complex.
Ejaculation Ejection of seminal fluid from male urethra. e. retrograde Lax internal sphincter due to autonomic dysfunction in diabetics or following prostatectomy, the ejaculation occurs retrogradely to bladder.
Ejaculatory duct The terminal portion of seminal duct formed by the union of the ductus deferens and excretory duct of the seminal vesicle.
Ejection fraction The percentage of blood ejected from LV into aorta with each cardiac contraction.
Elastase Proteolytic pancreatic enzyme.
Elastic Stretchable.
Elastic bandage Bandage that can be stretched to exert continuous pressure.
Elastic cartilage Yellow cartilage of epiglottis, pharynx, external ear, auditory tubes.
Elastic stocking Stocking applied to aid in return of blood from the extremity to heart. (e.g., in varicosity).
Elastic tissue Connective tissue supplied with elastic fibers as in tunica media of vessels.
Elastin The protein of elastic tissue.
Elastometry The measurement of elasticity of tissues.
Elbow Joint between arm and forearm, consisting of humeroulnar, humeroradial and proximal radioulnar articulations. e. tennis Tendinitis of lateral forearm muscles near their origin from lateral 225epicondyle of humerus (lateral epicondylitis).
Elective therapy A planned convenient therapy/operation.
Electra complex In psychoanalysis, a group of symptoms due to suppressed sexual love of daughter for father.
Electric shock Tissue injury from passage of electricity.
Electricity A form of kinetic energy having magnetic, chemical, mechanical and thermal effects; formed from interaction of positive and negative charges.
Electroanalgesia Pain relief by use of low intensity electric currents.
Electrocardiogram Record of electric activity of heart (see Figure).
Electrocardiograph The machine used to record electrocardiogram.
Electrocautery Cauterization by an arc heated by electric current.
Electrocoagulation Coagulation of tissue by means of a high-frequency current.
Electroconvulsive therapy The use of shock to produce convulsion, indicated for acute psychosis and depression with suicidal tendency.
Electrocution Death by electric current.
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Normal electrocardiogram
226Electrode A medium intervening between an electric conductor and the object to which the current is to be applied.
Electrodesiccation Drying of cells or tissues by means of high frequency electric spark used for achieving hemostasis following bleeding from small capillaries and veins during surgery.
Electrodialysis A method of separating electrolytes from colloids by passing current through the solution.
Electrodynamometer Instrument used to measure strength of current.
Electroejaculation Production of ejaculation by electrical stimulation from a probe placed in rectum, e.g. in paraplegics for artificial insemination.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) Recording of electrical activity of brain through surface electrodes.
Electroencephalograph The machine recording EEG.
Electrogoniometer Electrical device for measuring angles of joints and their range of motion.
Electrology The branch of science dealing with properties of electricity.
Electrolysis Dissolution of tissue by electric current e.g., destruction of hair follicle.
Electrolyte 1. A solution which conducts electricity. 2. Ionised salts in blood, tissue fluids and cells.
Electrometer An instrument for measuring differences in electric potential.
Electromotive force (EMF) The difference in potential that causes the flow of electricity. It is measured in volts.
Electromyography Preparation, study and interpretation of electromyograms.
Electromyogram A graphic record of the contraction of muscle on electric stimulation.
Electron The negatively charged particle of an atom.
Electronics The science of all systems involving use of electric devices e.g., communication, data control and processing.
Electronystagmography A method of recording nystagmus from electrical activity of extraocular muscles.
Electrooculogram Recording of electric currents produced by eye movements.
Electrophoresis The movement of charged colloidal particles as a result of changes in electric potential.227
Electrophysiology Branch of physiology dealing with relationships of body functions to electrical phenomena.
Electroretinogram (ERG) A record of action currents of retina produced by visual or light stimuli.
Element A substance that cannot be further broken down to substances different from it, e.g. carbon, sodium, calcium, etc.
Elephantiasis Hypertrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue due to lymphatic stasis e.g., in filariasis that involves scrotum, penis, legs, breasts and hands (see Figure).
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Elephantiasis of the legs and of the scrotum
Elevator Surgical instruments used to raise depressed fractures (e.g., skull), extracting teeth.
Eliminate To expel, to get rid of body waste product.
Elimination diet A diet regime used to determine which foods cause allergic response. Offending food then is discovered when one by one food is gradually introduced into diet.
Elixir Sweetened hydro-alcoholic liquid.
Ellipsoid Spindle shaped.
Elliptocyte Oval shaped redblood cell. Normally, 15% of human RBC are oval and bird and reptiles have normally all RBC in elliptocytic form.
Elliptocytosis Benign hereditary disease, causing haemolytic anaemia.
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome Congenital syndrome consisting of polydactyly, chondrodysplasia and congenital heart defects (ASD).
Emaciation To become excessively lean.
Emasculation Castration; excision of entire male genitalia.
Embalming Use of antiseptics and preservatives to prevent premature biodegradation of dead body.
Embarrass To interfere with or compromise function.
Embden-Meyerhof pathway Anaerobic metabolism of glucose to lactic acid in humans.
Embolectomy Removal of embolus from a vessel, e.g., in stroke, pulmonary embolism.
Embolism Obstruction to blood flow by mass of red 228blood cells and fibrin mesh. Atrial fibrillation and pelvic-leg vein thrombosis predispose to embolism.
Embolus A mass of undissolved matter in blood vessel, may be clot, fat, air bubble, clumps of bacteria, amniotic fluid.
Embramine Antiallergic agent.
Embryo 2nd through 8th weeks of fetal development (see Figure).
Embryogeny The growth and development of an embryo.
Embryology The science that deals with origin and development of an organism.
Emergency cardiac care (ECC) Care necessary to deal with an acute cardiopulmonary event like infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism.
Emesis Vomiting, due to gastric, CNS, systemic or metabolic factors.
Emetic Agent producing vomiting, e.g., apomorphine.
Emetine Ipecac derivative, used for extraintestinal amebiasis.
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Human embryo at various stages of development. The relative size has been distorted to emphasize correspondence of parts
229Emigration Passage of WBC through walls of capillaries.
Eminence Prominence or projection esp. on a bone.
Emissary An outlet.
Emission Discharge. e. nocturnal Involuntary discharge of semen during sleep.
Emmetropia When the eyes are at rest parallel rays are focussed exactly on retina; i.e., normal refraction.
Emmetropic Normal vision.
Emolient An agent that smoothens and softens the skin when applied.
Emotion A mental state or feeling such as fear, hate, grief, joy with some change in cardio-respiratory function.
Empathy Objective awareness of and insight into the feelings, emotions and behavior of another person and their meaning and significance.
Emphysema 1. Pathological distension of tissues by air/gas. 2. Chronic pulmonary disease with dilatation of airspaces beyond terminal bronchioles (see Figure).
Empirical Based on experience rather than scientific principle.
Emprosthotonus A form of spasm in which body is flexed forward opposite to opisthotonus.
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Centrilobular emphysema (CLE)
Empyesis Any pustular skin lesion.
Empyocele Suppurating hydrocele.
Emulsification Breaking down of large fat globules into smaller ones by bile acid that lower surface tension.
Emulsion A mixture of two liquids not mutually soluble.
Enalapril Converting enzyme inhibitor, used in heart failure, hypertension.
Enamel Hard dense glistening white substance forming a covering on crown of teeth.
Enamel organ A cup shaped structure that forms on the dental lamina of an embryo.
Enantiopathy Treatment of one disease by using another disease that produces symptoms antagonistic to former.
Enathem Eruption on mucous membrane.230
Encapsulation The process of formation of a capsule around a structure.
Encephalagia Deep seated headache.
Encephalitis Inflammation of brain parenchyma, manifesting with changes in level of consciousness, increased intracranial pressure, sensory motor dysfunction.
Encephalocele Protrusion of brain substance through a cranial defect (see Figure below).
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Encephalogram (air) X-ray of brain with air injected into ventricular system.
Encephalomalacia Softening of brain.
Encephalomeningocele Protrusion of membrane and brain parenchyma through cranial defect.
Encephalomyelitis Inflammation of brain and spinal cord. e. acute disseminated That following acute exanthema but fewer symptoms.
Encephalopathy Any dysfunction of brain.
Enchondroma A benign cartilaginous tumor occurring within a bone and expanding the diaphysis.
Encopresis Condition associated with constipation and passage of watery colonic content across the hard fecal mass, mimicking diarrhoea.
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of lining endothelium of an artery.
Endarteritis Inflammation of intima of an artery resulting from syphilis, trauma, infective thrombi.
Endemic A disease occurring repeatedly in a particular population confering some immunity and hence low mortality.
Endocarditis Inflammation of endothelial lining of heart chambers and heart valves; may be due to invasion of microorganisms or abnormal immunologic response. e. verrucous Nonbacterial endocarditis associated with wasting diseases, e.g., SLE. SYN — Libman - Sack. e. subacute bacterial Caused by streptococcus viridans group. e. ulcerative Rapidly 231destructive acute bacterial endocarditis.
Endocervicitis Inflammation of mucus lining of endocervix.
Endocrine glands Glands secreting directly into blood stream.
Endocytosis A method of ingestion of a foreign substance by a cell.
Endodontics A branch of dentistry concerned with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of dental pulp and its surrounding tissue.
Endogenous Produced or arising from within a cell or organism.
Endolymph Pale transparent fluid within the labyrinth of ear.
Endometer Electronic device used to determine the length of tooth root canal.
Endometriosis Proliferation of endometrium at ecopic sites, i.e. sites other than ulterine cavity (see Figure).
Endometritis Inflammation of endometrium. e. dissecans Endometritis accompanied by development of ulcers and shedding of mucous membrane.
Endomorph Body build characterized by predominance of tissues derived from endoderm.
Endomysium A thin layer of connective that tissue surrounds each striated muscle fiber.
Endoneurium A delicate connective tissue sheath that surrounds nerve fibers.
Endonuclease Enzyme that clears ends of polynucleotides.
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232Endopelvic fascia The downward continuation of the parietal peritoneum of abdomen that supports pelvic viscera.
Endopeptidase Proteolytic enzyme that cleaves peptides.
Endophthalmitis Inflammation within substance of eye.
Endorgan The expanded end of a nerve fiber in a peripheral tissue.
Endorphins Polypeptides produced in the brain tissue that bind to opioid receptors and block them, there by producing analgesia. The most important is beta endorphin.
Endosalpingitis Inflammation of lining of fallopian tubes.
Endoscope A device containing optical system for observing or conducting surgery in hollow structures like abdomen, pelvis.
Endosome The vacuole formed when material is absorbed in the cell by process of endocytosis. The vacuole fuses with lysosome.
Endosteitis Inflammation of the endosteum of medullary cavity.
Endothelioma Malignant tumor of endothelial cells lining any cavity, blood vessel lumen.
Endotheliosis Increased growth of endothelial cells.
Endothrix Fungus growth within hair.
Endotoxemia Toxemia due to presence of endotoxin in blood.
Endotoxin Bacterial toxin released after death of bacteria.
Endotracheal tube Tube that provides an airway through trachea while preventing aspiration by its inflated cuff.
Endplate The terminal end of nerve fibre to a muscle.
End product The final product of a chemical/metabolic process.
Enema Stimulation of bowel activity by introduction of soothning, cleansing and chemical agents into rectum. Drugs can be given as enema, e.g., steroids in ulcerative colitis, paraldehyde. e. double contrast Enema of barium and air for colonography. e. retention e.g., saline or steroids for purpose of nutrition/medication.
Energy The capacity of a system in doing work.
Energy Expenditure Basal (BEE) Harris Benedict equation.
For women 6.55 + (9.6 × W) + (1.8 × H) - (4.7 × A)
For men 66 + (13.7 × w) + (5 × H) - (6.8 × A).233
Where A = Age in years H = Height in cm and W = Weight in kg.
Energy expenditure is increased by 13% over basal needs for each °C rise in temperature than normal. Stress, burn, trauma increase the need of calories to the extent of 40- 100%.
Enflurane Anaesthetic agent (volatile).
Engagement In obstetric descent of presenting part into true pelvic cavity, i.e. the part is immobile.
Engorgement Vascular congestion.
Enkephalins Polypeptides produced in brain that bind to opioid receptors to produce analgesia.
Enolase An enzyme present in muscle tissue that converts phosphoglyceric acid to phosphopyruvic acid.
Enophthalmos Recession of eyeball into orbit.
Enoxaparin Factor Xa inhibitor, anticoagulant.
Enriched Addition of something extra.
Entameba A genus of parasitic ameba found in human digestive tract, e.g., E. coli, E. gingivalis, E. histolytica E. undulans.
Enteral tube feeding Feeding patient with a tube passed into stomach.
Enteric coated Tablet or capsule coated with special coating that only dissolves in intestine.
Enteritis Inflammation of intestine.
Enterobacteriaceae Gram -ve nonspore bearing rods which include Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus, Escherichia.
Enterobiasis Infestation with pinworms.
Enterococcus Any species of streptococcus inhabiting human intestine.
Enterocolitis Inflammation of intestine and colon. e. necrotizing Unknown necrotizing fatal disease of newborn.
Enterocolostomy Surgical joining of small intestine to colon.
Enterocystoplasty Use of a portion of small intestine to enlarge the bladder.
Enteroenterostomy Establishing communication between two intestinal segments that are not continuous.
Enterogastrone A hormone secreted by intestinal mucosa that decreases gastric emptying. Fat stimulates its secretion.
Enterolith Concretions in intestine.
Enteromyiasis Disease caused by maggots (larva of flies) in the intestine.234
Enteron The elementary canal.
Enteropathogen Microorganism that causes intestinal infection.
Enteropeptidase Enzyme of duodenal mucosa that helps conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin.
Enteropexy Fixation of intestine to abdominal wall.
Enterovirus A class of picornavirus, that includes polio, coxsackie and Echo viruses.
Enterozoon Any intestinal parasite.
Enthesis The use of metallic or other inert substances to substitute or replace lost tissue.
Enthesitis Inflammation at site of attachment of a tendon to bone.
Entoderm Innermost primary germ layer giving rise to epithelium of digestive tract, and associated glands, the respiratory tract, bladder, vagina and urethra.
Entomology Study of insects and their relationship to disease.
Entoptic phenomena Visual phenomena like seeing floating bodies, circles of light, black spots, transient flashes of light.
Entropion Inward turning of an edge, e.g., margin of eyelid. e. cicatricial Inversion resulting from scar tissue (e.g., trachoma) e. spastic Inversion resulting from spasm of orbicularis oculi.
Enucleate To remove eyeball, to remove a part of mass or entire mass.
Enuresis Involuntary passage of urine in bed after the age of 5 years, often a familial tendency.
Envenomation Introduction of poisonous venum into body by bite or sting.
Enzootic Endemic disease confined to animals.
Enzyme Complex proteins catabolizing reactions but without being changed themselves; can be synthesizing, coagulating, branching, debranching, digestive, fermenting, glycolytic, lipolytic, mucolytic. e. mucolytic Enzyme that depolymerizes mucus by splitting mucoproteins, e.g., mucinase, hyaluronidase. e. respiratory Enzymes acting within cells catalyze oxidative reactions with release of energy (ATP), e.g., cytochromes, flavoproteins.
Enzyme induction Increase in enzyme level due to its increased production or decrease degradation. Drugs commonly causing hepatic enzyme induction are barbiturates.235
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) A test to detect antigen or antibody, hormones.
Eosin Synthetic rose colored dye used for staining tissues/body fluids for microscopic examination.
Eosinophil Granular leukocyte staining with acid stain eosin.
Eosinophilia Increased blood eosinophil count beyond 6-8% or 300/cmm.
Ependyma Membrane lining the cerebral ventricles and central canal of spinal cord.
Ependymitis Inflammation of ependyma.
Ependymoma A tumor of ependymal elements.
Ephebiatrics Adolescent medicine.
Ephebology Study of puberty and its changes.
Ephedrine Sympathomimetic agent used locally as decongestant and systemically for bronchodilation and raising blood pressure.
Epiandrosterone Androgenic hormone normally present in urine.
Epiblast SYN__Ectoderm; outer layer of cells of blastoderm.
Epiblepharon A fold of skin passing across either lids so that eyelashes are pressed against eye.
Epicanthus A vertical fold of skin extending from root of nose to the median end of eyebrow covering inner canthus and caruncle (see Figure).
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Epichordal Dorsal to notochord.
Epichorion The portion of decidua of placenta that covers the ovum.
Epicondyle Bone element above the condyle, i.e. articular surface of bone.
Epidemic Appearance of a disease in a high proportion not expected for a community in a geographical area.
Epidemiology Science concerned with study and analysis of interrelationship of factors that determine disease frequency.
Epidermis Outer layer of skin, avascular, consists of 4 layers from inwards to outwards, i.e., stratum germinatum, stratum granulosum, stratum luciderm and stratum corneum.236
Epidermization Conversion of deeper germinative layers of cells into outer layers of epidermis.
Epicyte An epithelial cell.
Epididymis A small long convoluted organ lying behind testes and containing the ducts of testes. It ends in spermatic duct.
Epididymitis Inflammation of epididymis, usually as a complication of gonorrhoea, syphilis, tuberculosis, mumps, filariasis, etc.
Epididymography Radiographic examination of epididymis after introduction of contrast.
Epididymoorchitis Inflammation of epididymis and testes.
Epidural Outside dura.
Epigastric reflex Contraction of upper portion of rectus abdominis when skin of epigastric region is scratched.
Epigastrium Region over pit of the stomach.
Epiglottis Leaf shaped flat membrane covering entrance of larynx during swallowing (see Figure).
Epiglottitis Inflammation of epiglottis, usually bacterial, often threatens airway obstruction if treatment is delayed.
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Epiglottis in a sagittal secretion of the head and neck
237Epilate To extract hair by the roots.
Epilation Extraction of hair.
Epilemma Neurilemma of small branches of nerve filament.
Epilepsy Recurrent, paroxysmal electrical dysfunction of brain characterized by altered consciousness and motor/sensory phenomena. Focal or jacksonian e. A symptom of a cerebral lesion. The convulsive movements are often localized and close observation of the onset and course of the attack may greatly assist diagnosis. Temporal lobe e. Characterized by hallucination of sight, hearing, taste and smell, paroxysmal disorders of memory and automatism. Caused by temporal or parietal lobe disease.
Epileptic Concerning epilepsy.
Epileptiform Mimicking epilepsy.
Epiloia A syndrome of mental retardation, convulsion, hypertrophic sclerosis of brain, adenoma sebaceum, tumors of kidneys.
Epimorphosis Regeneration of a part of organism by growth from cut surface.
Epimysium Outermost sheath of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle.
Epinephrine Hormone of adrenal medulla, synthesized from phenylalanine having ionotropic, bronchodilator and sympathomimetic effects.
Epinephritis Inflammation of adrenal gland.
Epinephroma Lipomatoid tumor of kidney.
Epineurium Connective tissue sheath of a nerve.
Epiphora Abnormal overflow of tears either due to excess secretion or blockage of lacrimal duct.
Epiphylaxis Increase in defensive power of body.
Epiphysiolysis Separation of an epiphysis.
Epiphysis An ossification center separated from parent bone by a cartilage in infants and children; an indicator for assessment of bone age.
Epiphysitis Inflammation of an epiphysis especially that of knee, hip, shoulder in infants.
Epiplocele Hernia containing omentum.
Epiploic Pertains to omentum.
Epipygus A developmental anomaly where accessory limb is attached to the buttocks.
Epirubicin Antitumor antibiotic.238
Episcleral Overlying sclera of eye.
Episiotomy Incision of perineum to facilitate delivery and avoid laceration (see Figure).
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Epispadius Congenital opening of urethra on dorsal aspect of penis or clitoris (see Figure).
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Episplenitis Inflammation of splenic capsule.
Epistasis Suppression of any discharge.
Epistaxis Bleeding from Kiesselbach's area of nose.
Epitendon The connective tissue holding a tendon within its sheath.
Epithelial cells Cells irregular in shape, having a single nucleus.
Epithelial tissue Those tissues covering outer surface of body and lining the internal passages or cavities. The cells lie in close proximity of each other with little intercellular substance.
Epithelioid Resembling epithelium.
Epithelioma Malignant tumor arising from epithelium. e.g., skin or mucous membrane. e. adamantinum Tumor of jaw arising from enamel organ usually of lowgrade malignancy, may be cystic.
Epoprostinol PGI2.
Epsilon-aminocaproic acid Synthetic substance, antifibrinolytic, used to check bleeding.
Epsom salt = MgSO4 a, cathartic.
Epulis A fibrous sarcomatous tumor of lower jaw.
Eradication Complete elimination of disease.
Erben's reflex Slowing of pulse when head and trunk are forcibly bent forward.239
Erb's paralysis Paralysis of muscles supplied by C5 and C6.
Erectile tissue Spongy vascular tissue which when filled with blood becomes erect and rigid e.g., penis, clitoris, nipple.
Erection Swelling, hardness and stiffness of penis on sexual arousal/physical handling.
Erector spinae reflex Irrigation of skin of back causes hardening due to contraction of erectorspinae.
Erethism Excessive excitation or irritation.
Erg In physics, the amount of work done when a force of 1 dyne acts through a distance 1 cm.
Ergasthenia Weakness due to overwork.
Ergocalciferol Vit D2.
Ergocristine An ergot alkaloid.
Ergograph An apparatus for recording contractions of muscles and measuring the amount of work done.
Ergometer An apparatus for measuring amount of work performed.
Ergonomics The science concerned with how to fit a job to man's anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics in a way that will enhance human efficiency and well-being.
Ergonovine maleate An ergot derivative used in treatment of migraine. It also stimulates contraction of uterus.
Ergosterol The sterol of plant and animal tissue that can be converted to Vitamin D2 on irradiation.
Ergotamine tartarate Ergot alkaloid used to treat migraine or to enhance uterine contraction.
Ergotism Ergot poisoning.
Erode To wear away.
Erosion Destruction of surface layer. e. dental Enamel loss. e. cervix Alteration of the epithelium, squamous cells replacing columnar cells following low grade infection.
Erotism Sexual desire. e. auto Self-gratification of sexual instincts by manual stimulation of erogenous areas like penis, clitoris.
Erotology The study of love and its manifestations.
Erotomania Pathological exaggeration of sexual behavior.
Erotophobia Aversion to sexual love or its manifestations.
Erratic Fluctuating, unpredictable.
Error Mistake, miscalculation.
Eructation Belching, bringing out gas from stomach.
Eruption Appearance of a lesion such as redness or spotting on 240the skin or mucous membrane. e. creeping A skin lesion characterized by a tortuous elevated red line that progresses at one end while fading at the other usually caused by migration of larva of Ankylostomas. e. drug Drug ingestion causing skin eruption.
Erysipelas Spreading inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissue accompanied by systemic disturbance.
Erysipeloid An infective dermatitis resembling erysepalas.
Erythema Diffuse macular redness of skin. e. induratum Chronic vasculitis of skin occurring in young adult females; often breaking down with formation of atrophic scar. e. multiforme A macular erruption with darkred papules or tubercles that appear as rings, disc shaped patches, figured arrangements. e. marginatum A form of erythema multiforme with central fading area but elevated edges. e. nodosum Red and painful nodules on legs, often caused by drugs, toxins.
Erythrasma Red brown eruption in patches in axillae and groin caused by Corynebacterium minitissimum.
Erythrityl tetranitrate Anti anginal agent.
Erythroblast Nucleated red blood cell, may be pronormoblast, basophilic normoblast, polychromatic normoblast, orthochromatic normoblast (see Figure).
Erythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic disease of newborn usually due to Rh incompatibity or ABO mismatching.
Erythrocyanosis Red or bluish discolouration of skin with swelling, burning and itching.
Erythrocyte The non-nucleated bi-concave disc of 7.7 micron. matured red blood cell containing hemoglobin, involved in oxygen transport. e. crenated RBC with serrated or crenated edge.
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Erythrocytoid development in bone marrow
241Erythrocyte sedimentation rate The rate at which erythrocytes sediment in a given blood sample in one hour.
Erythrocythemia Increased red cell mass.
Erythrocytopenia Decrease in number of red cells.
Erythrocytosis Increase in red cell mass.
Erythrodema An infantile disease characterized by itchy lesions of hands and feet, and polyarthritis.
Erythroderma Abnormal redness of skin.
Erythrodontia Reddish-brown staining of teeth.
Erythroid Concerning red blood cells.
Erythroleukemia A variant of acute myeloid leukemia with anaemia, bizarre red cell morphology, erythroid hyperplasia in bone marrow.
Erythromelia Painless erythema of extensor surface of arm.
Erythromelalgia Burning and throbbing in feet that come and go.
Erythromycin Antibiotic from Streptomyces erythreus effective for many gm + ve and few gram –ve organisms.
Erythropoitin An alfaglobulin secreted by kidney that stimulates erythropoisis.
Erythropsin Pigment in external portion of rods of retina.
Erythrosine Sodium A dye (2%) used as dental disclosing agent.
Eschar Slough cast off by from the surface of skin produced after a burn, gangrene, corrosive application, or ulcer.
Esmarch's bandage Narrow hard rubber tourniquet to limit the blood flow (see Figure).
Esculent Suitable for use as food.
Esophagoenterostomy Making communication between esophagus and intestine following resection of stomach as in gastric malignancy.
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Esmarch's bandage
242Esophagomyotomy Incision of muscular coat of esophagus as in achalasia cardia.
Esophagoplication Reduction of dilatation of esophagus by taking tucks in its walls.
Esophagotomy Surgical incision into the esophagus as in achalasia cardia.
Esophagus The musculomembranous tube extending from pharynx to stomach (see Figure).
Esophoria Amount of inward turning of eye, SYN-esotropia.
ESP Extrasensory perception.
ESR Electron spin resonance, a newer medical technique for imaging e.g., NMR studies.
ESRD End-stage renal disease.
Essence Alcoholic solution of volatile oil.
Essential Indispensable.
EST Elctroshock therapy.
Ester Compound formed by organic acid with alcohol.
Esterase Enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of esters.
Esthesia Perception, feeling, sensation.
Esthesiometer Device for measuring tactile sensibility.
Estradiol C18H24O2. Steroid hormone of ovary with estrogenic properties.
Estriol C18H24O3 Metabolic product of estrone and estradiol.
Estrogen Substance having estrogenic activity, i.e. development of female sex characteristics, cyclic changes in endometrium and vaginal epithelium, breast changes.
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243Estrone C18H22O2. Natural estrogenic hormone less active than estradiol but more active than estriol.
Estrus The cyclic period of sexual activity in mammals; during estrus animal is said to be ‘in heat’.
Etanercept TNFa receptor antagonist, used in rheumatoid arthrtitis.
Etching Application of corrosives material to a glass/metal to create a pattern or design.
Ethambutol Antitubercular bacteriostatic agent.
Ethamsylate Procoagulant agent.
Ethanol Ethyl alcohol.
Ethaverine hydrochloride Mild coronary artery dilator.
Ethchlorvynol Hypnotic agent.
Ether diethyl C4H10O inflammable anaesthetic agent.
Ethics Moral principles or standards governing conduct.
Ethinamate Mild sedative - hypnotic agent.
Ethinyl estradiol An estrogenic hormone.
Ethionamide Bacteriostatic second line antitubercular drug.
Ethionine Progestational agent used in contraceptive.
Ethoheptazine Analgesic agent.
Ethomoid bone Sieve like spongy bone forming roof of nasal fossa and partly floor of anterior cranial fossa containing ethmoidal air cells.
Ethmoiditis Inflammation of ethmoidal air cells causing pain in between eyes, headache and nasal discharge.
Ethnic Groups of people with one cultural system.
Ethnology Comparative study of cultures using ethnographic data.
Ethopropazine Anticholinergic used in parkinsonism.
Ethosuximide Anticonvulsant, principally used for absence seizure.
Ethotoin Sparingly used anticonvulsant.
Ethyl chloride C2H5Cl. Volatile liquid used for topical anaesthesia.
Ethyl cellulose Ether of cellulose, used for drug preparation.
Ethylene glycol Antifreeze, poisonous.
Ethylene oxide C2H4O a fumigant. Also used for sterilizing articles that cannot withstand heat.
Ethylenediamine Solvent for theophyline.
Ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) A chelating agent.244
Ethylmorphine Used as cough suppressant.
Ethylnorepinephrine Adrenergic drug used in asthma.
Etidronate Drug used in Paget's disease.
Etofamide An intraluminal amoebicide.
Etoposide Podophylotoxin for malignant diseases.
Etopride GI prokinatic agent.
Etoricoxib Anti-inflammatory, analgesic.
Etretinate Retinoid used for acne.
Eucalyptus oil Oil distilled from eucalyptus leaves, used as an expectorant.
Eucapnia Normal CO2 concentration in blood.
Eudiometer Instrument for testing purity of air and making analysis of gases.
Eugenics The science dealing with genetic and prenatal influences that affect the expression of certain characteristic in offsprings.
Eugenol A topical analgesic used in dentistry. Used with zinc oxide to make temporary filling.
Eunuch Castrated male; male without secondary sexual characteristics.
Eunuchoidism Deficient male sexual characteristics.
Euphoria Exaggerated feeling of well-being.
Euploidy In genetics, a state of having complete sets of chromosomes.
Eustachian tube 4 cm long mucus lined tube extending from middle ear to pharynx.
Eustachian valve Valve at the entrance of inferior venacava.
Euthanasia Mercy killing; dying easily, quietly and painlessly; ending ones life with an incurable disease.
Euthenics The science of improvement of population through modification of environment.
Euthyroid Normal thyroid function.
Evacuate To discharge especially bladder and bowel; to transfer patient from one site to another.
Evaluation Assessment.
Evanescent Not permanent, brief duration.
Evans blue A dye used IV as diagnostic agent.
Evaporation Change from liquid to gaseous state.
Evenomation Removal of venom from biting site.
Eventration Removal of contents of abdominal cavity, partial protrusion of abdominal contents through an opening in the abdominal wall.245
Eversion Turning outwards (see Figure).
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Evisceration Removal of viscera.
Evoked response Study of function of sense organs even though patient is unconscious by giving sensory stimuli and recording the electric response along the propagation pathway to brain.
Ewing's tumor Diffuse endothelioma causing a fusiform swelling of long bone.
Exacerbation Aggravation of symptoms.
Exanthem Eruption of skin rash.
Excavator 1. an instrument for hollowing out something. 2. A scoop for surgical use. e. dental a hard cutting instrument for removal of carious dentia (see Figure).
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Exchange transfusion Transfusion and withdrawal of small amounts of blood until blood volume is entirely replaced; used in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, hyperbilirubinemia.
Excipient The vehicle for the drug.
Excise Removal by surgery.
Excitability Property of muscle or nerve fiber to contract or produce action potential on stimulation respectively.
Excitation wave The wave of irritability originating in sinoatrial node and moving across atria and conduction system to ventricular muscles.
Excoriation Abrasion of epidermis by chemicals, burns, irritation.
Exenteration Evisceration.
Exercise Performed activity of muscles. e. isometric Active contraction of muscle without shortening of muscle length. e. isotonic Active muscle contraction where muscle length is decreased. e. static Alternate contraction and relaxation of muscle without movement of joint.246
Exercise e. isokinetic dynamic exercise performed at a constant angular velocity, the torque and tension remaining constant. e. Frenkel's movements performed by ataxic patients for improving coordination. e. Kegel's exercises to strengthen pubococcygeal muscles to prevent stress incontinence. e. William's flexion back exercises.
Exercise electrocardiogram SYN—Stress test.
Exercise tolerance test A test to determine the efficiency of cardiorespiratory system, e.g., treadmill testing.
Exflagellation The formation of microgametes (flagellated bodies) from microgametocytes. Occurs in plasmodia in the stomach of mosquito.
Exfoliation The shedding of cells.
Exhalation The process of breathing out.
Exhaustion Fatigue. e. heat A state of salt and water deficit on constant exposure to high temperature.
Exhibitionism Tendency to attract attention to oneself by any means.
Exhumation Removal of a dead body from grave.
Exner's nerve Nerve from pharyngeal plexus to cricothyroid membrane.
Exocrine Secretion of a gland to exterior/lumen.
Exodontology Branch of dentistry dealing with dental extraction.
Exoerythrocytic Occurring outside RBC.
Exomphalos Umbilical hernia.
Exophoria Tendency of visual axes to diverge outwards.
Exophthalmos Abnormal excessive protrusion of eyeballs due to thyrotoxicosis, retro orbital tumors, aneurysm, secondary to leukemic deposit (see Figure).
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Exoplasm Outer protoplasm of a cell.
Exostosis Outgrowth from bone surface.
Exotic Not native.247
Exotoxin Toxins produced by micro organism to surrounding medium.
Exotropia Divergent squint.
Expectoration The act of expulsing sputum.
Expiration Breathing out of inhaled air. It may be active or passive.
Explode To burst.
Exponent The mathematical method of indicating the power.
Exposure The amount of radiation delivered/received.
Exsanguination Excessive blood loss to the point of death.
Extrophy Congenital turning inside out of an organ.
Extension Movement by which both ends of a part are pulled apart.
Extinction The process of extinguishing or putting out.
Extirpation Excision of a part.
Extorsion Rotation of a part outward.
Extracapsular Outside the joint capsule.
Extracorporeal Outside the body.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) A device for oxygenation of blood used for patients of acute respiratory failure.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: (ECSWL) shock wave dissolution of renal and gallstones.
Extract To pull out forcibly e.g., teeth; Active principle of a drug obtained by distillation or chemical process. It can be alcoholic, aqueous.
Extradural Outside dura matter.
Extramural Outside the wall of an organ or vessel.
Extraocular eye muscles Muscles attached to the capsule of eye controlling its movements.
Extrapyramidal Outside the pyramidal tracts of CNS.
Extrapyramidal syndrome Syndrome arising out of disease or degeneration of basal ganglia and their connections manifesting with tremor, rigidity, in coordination.
Extrasensory perception Perception of external events by other than the five senses.
Extrasystole Premature contraction of heart muscle by a stimulus originating in the conduction system or musculature. It can be atrial, junctional, nodal or ventricular. e. atrial Normal QRS complex with altered P waves. e. ventricular Wide bizarre QRS without P waves.
Extravasation Fluid escaping from vessel.248
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Extremity The terminal part of any thing, an arm or leg.
Extroversion Eversion, turning inside out.
Extrovert Opposite of introvert. One who is interested mainly in external objects and actions.
Extrusion In dentistry, position of a tooth when pushed forward from line of occlusion.
Extubation Removal of tube, e.g., laryngeal.
Exuberant Excessive growth of tissue, joyful, happy.
Exudate A protein rich fluid, high in cell count can be pus, catarrhal, haemorrhagic, fibrinous.
Exude To pass out slowly through the tissues.
Eye Organ of vision consisting of outer layer (cornea and sclera), middle layer (choroid, ciliary body and iris) and inner retina. e. aphakic Eye without lens. e. black Ecchymosis of tissue surrounding eye. e. dominant Eye which one preferentially uses as in seeing through mono-ocular microscope, while using a gun (see Figure above).
Eye bank An organization that collects corneas and stores them for transplantation.
Eyelids Movable protective folds closing the anterior surface of eyeball; the upper is the larger and more movable, raised by contraction of levator palpebrae superioris.
Eye muscle imbalance Incoordinate action of extraocular muscles causing esophoria or exophoria.
Eye strain Tiredness of eye due to errors of refraction, overuse, debility, anaemia.
Ezetimibe A lipid lewering agent.
FABERE test Flexion, abduction, external rotation, and extension of hip test for the identification of hip arthritis.
Fabrication Deliberately false statement told as if it were true, present in Korsakoff's syndrome.
Fabry's disease An inherited disorder of metabolism with accumulations of glycolipid in tissues.
Face Anterior part of head from forehead to chin, composed of 14 bones.
Facet A small smooth area on a bone or hard surface.
Facetectomy Excision of articular facet of vertebra.
Facial center Brain center responsible for facial movements.
Facial nerve Seventh cranial nerve supplying facial muscles, platysma, submandibular and sublingual glands, and carrying taste sensations from anterior two thirds of tongue.
Facial reflex Contraction of facial muscles following pressure on eyeball.
Facial spasm Involuntary contraction of muscles supplied by facial nerve.
Facies The expression or appearance of face (see Figure). f. adenoid Dull lethargic appearance with open mouth due to chronic mouth breathing. f. aortica Seen in aortic insufficiency; with bluish sclera, sunken cheeks and sallow face.
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Adenoid face
250f. hepatica Shunken eyes, yellow conjunctiva. f. hippocratic Face of long continued illness with hollow cheeks, sunken eyes, lead complexion and relaxed lips. f. leonine Lion like face of lepromatous leprosy with thick inelastic skin, depressed bridge of nose and leprosy nodules. f. masklike Expressionless face with little or no animation/blinking as seen in parkinsonism. f. mitralis Face of mitral insufficiency with dilated capillaries, pink and often cyanotic cheeks. f. myopathic Facies due to muscular atrophy and relaxation, lids drop and lips protrude.
Facilitation Hastening of an action.
Factitious False, not natural, artificial.
Factitious disorder Disease not genuine, produced voluntarily for gain, etc: Munchhausen syndrome.
Factor 1. any of several substances necessary to produce a result. 2. a coefficient or conversion factor 3. one of two or more quantities that multiplied together form a product. f. B. lymphocyte growth/differentiation factors derived form activated T-cells that stimulate B-cells to differentiate into antibody secreting plasma cells. f. C3 nephritic an auto-antibody that binds the C3 causing alternative pathway activation. f. colony stimulating a group of glycoprotein lymphokine growth factors produced by monocytes, tissue macrophages and activated lymphocytes that induce stem cell differentiation into granulocyte and monocyte cell colonies. f. decay accelerating CD55, a protein that protects cell membranes from attack by autologous complement. f. endothelium derived relaxant nitric oxide, a vasodilator. f eosinophil chemotactic released by basophils and mast cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. f. epidermal growth a factor essential in embryogenesis and wound healing. f. granulocyte colony stimulating factor secreted by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages that stimulates production of neutrophils form precursor cells. f. insulin like growth include somato- medin C and A that mediate cell growth and replication. f. myocardial depressant a peptide produced in shock which has negative inotropic effect on heart. f. nerve 251growth factor that stimulates growth of sensory and sympathetic nerves. f. osteoclast activating a lymphokine that stimulates bone resorption. f. platelet activating factors (phospholipid) secreted by basophils, mast cells, macrophages and neutrophils that cause bronchoconstriction, platelet aggregation. f. rheumatoid IgM antibodies directed against IgG in rheumatoid arthritis (80% cases). f. transforming growth TFG a stimulates endothelial cell growth and TGF-beta stimulates growth of haematopoitic tissues and wound healing. f. tumor necrosis a macrophage secreted lymphokine that can cause necrosis of tumour cells; can induce shock when bacterial endotoxin's cause its release. f. von Willebrand a glycoprotein synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes promoting platelet adhesion to damaged vascular surfaces.
Facultative In biology and bacteriology, having the ability to live under certain condi–tions. Thus, a bacteria can be facultative with respect to O2 and be able to live with or without O2.
Faculty A normal mental attribute or sense; teaching staff.
Faget's sign A slower pulse than expected for the rise in temperature, a feature of enteric fever and viral infections.
Fahrenheit A temperature scale with freezing point of water at 32o and boiling point at 212o point.
Failure Loss of function of an organ. f. heart Poor pump function secondary to myocardial anoxia, necrosis, abnormal pre/after load or electrical disturbance. f. renal Loss of kidney function with uremia due to infection, diabetes, hypertension, glomerulo-nephritis etc. f. respiratory Inability of lungs to oxygenate the blood and expel carbon dioxide, occurring due to disease of diaphragms/intercostal muscles or lung parenchyma (ARDS, COPD). f. hepatic Liver failure with cholemia due to cirrhosis, acute hepatic necrosis, etc.
Faint syncope About to lose consciousness.
Faith healing Healing through divine power, without medical aid.
Falciform Sickle shaped.
Falciform ligament Triangular ligament attached to sides of sacrum and coccyx by its base.
Falciform ligament of liver Sickle shaped reflection of 252peritoneum attaching liver to diaphragm and separating right lobe from left lobe (see Figure on page 253).
Falciform process That portion of falciform ligament along the inner margin of ramus of ischium.
Fallopian tube The 4½” long tube joining peritoneal cavity near the ovary to lateral side of fundus of uterus. It serves to convey ovum from ovary to uterus. It has three parts: the infundibulum, isthmus and ampulla.
Fallot's tetralogy Congenital cyanotic heart disease characterized by overriding of aorta, infundibular stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and a ventricular septal defect (see Figure below).
Fallout Settling of radioactive fission products from atmosphere after nuclear explosion.
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Tetralogy of Fallot
False-positive A test indicating that the disease is present when in fact it is not.
False-negative A test indicating that the disease is not present when actually it is present.
False ribs The lower five pairs of ribs that do not unite directly with the sternum.
Falx Any sickle shaped structure. f. cerebelli A vertical fold of dura partitioning the two halfs of cerebellum. f. cerebri A fold of dura mater lying in longitudinal fissure, separating the two cerebral hemispheres. f. inguinalis The conjoint tendon that forms the origin of transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles.
Famciclovir Antiviral agent for herpes.
Familial Disease occurring more frequently in a family than would be expected by chance.
Familial Mediterranean fever Inherited autosomal recessive disorder in persons of Irish or Italian descent manifesting with periodic fever, chest/abdominal pain and a propensity for amyloidosis.
Familial periodic paralysis Paralysis occurring at awakening with hypokalemia or even normokalemia.253
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Falciform ligament of the liver
254Family 1. A group of individuals descending from a common ancestor. 2. A group of people living in a household who share common attachments, such as mutual caring, emotional bonds, common goal, etc. 3. In biology the division between an order and genus.
Family planning Planning and spacing of childbirth according to wishes of the couple rather than to chance.
Famotidine H2 receptor blocker, used for peptic ulcer disease.
Fanconi syndrome Rickets with aminoaciduria, hypoplastic anaemia, growth failure.
Fang A sharp pointed tooth.
Fantasy The mechanism of creating in one's mind.
Farad A unit of electrical capacity. The capacity of a condenser that charged with 1 coulomb, gives a difference of potential of 1 volt.
Faradism Therapeutic use of an interrupted current to stimu–late muscles and nerves.
Farmer's lung Hypersensitive alveolitis on exposure to moldy hay.
Farsightedness An error of refraction in which parallel rays are focussed at a point behind retina, so that near objects are not seen clearly.
Fartan's procedure Palliative surgical procedure in children with single effective ventricle either because of heart valve defects, abnormality in pumping of the heart, or a complex congenital heart disease where it not possible or advisable to do bi-ventricular repair.
Fascia Fibrous membrane covering, supporting or separating muscles, uniting skin with underlying tissue. f. Buck's Facial covering of penis derived from Colle's fascia. f. Cloquet's Femoral fascia. f. cribriform Fascia of thigh covering saphenous opening. f. pelvic It maintains strength of pelvic floor. f. Scarpa's The deep layer of superficial fascia of abdomen. f. transversalis Fascia located between the perineum and transversalis muscle.
Fascicle A fasciculus.
Fasciculation Involuntary contraction or twitching of muscle fibers.
Fasciculus A small bundle especially of muscle or nerve fibers. f. cuneatus Triangular shaped bundle of nerve fibers in the dorsal column carrying 255sense of proprioception and deep touch. Syn __ column of Burdach. f. gracilis It lies medial to f. cuneatus SYN __ Column of Goll.
Fasciectomy Excision of a portion of fascia.
Fasciolopsis buski A fluke infesting intestinal tract of certain mammals including man.
Fascitis Inflammation of fascia.
Fastigium The highest point; The most posterior portion of fourth ventricle in brain.
Fasting Accepting no food.
Fat Adipose tissue of body serving as energy reserve, providing fat soluble vitamins.
Fatigue Feeling of tiredness resulting from continuing activity.
Fatty acids Omega - 3 Unsaturated fatty acids present in fish and certain vegetables, not synthesized in body. They reduce platelet adhesiveness and lower serum triglyceride; hence used in coronary artery disease prevention.
Fatty change Abnormal accumulation of fat within the cell.
Fauces The constricted opening leading from mouth to the pharynx bounded by soft palate, base of the tongue and palatine arches.
Faucial reflex Sensation of vomiting resulting from irritation of fauces.
Favism Hereditary hypersensitivity to a kind of bean, vicia faba characterized by fever, hemolytic anemia, vomiting; common to patients of G-6- PD deficiency.
Favus Fungal infection of skin characterized by yellowish crusts over hair follicle with itching and musty odor.
Fc Fragment A part of antibody.
Fc Receptor A receptor on phagocyte that binds to Fc fragment of IgG and IgE.
Fear Emotional reaction to external or internal threat, a feature of depression.
Febrile convulsion Convulsion precipitated by fever.
Feces Excreta, stool.
Feculent Having sediment.
Fecundation Fertilization, impregnation.
Fecundity Fertility, ability to produce children.
Feedback Return to original place, can be positive or negative.
Feeder A device permitting independent eating by severe neurologically disabled person. f. artificial Tube feeding, the tube passed through esophagus or rectum.256
Feeling The conscious phase of nervous activity. Emotions are centrally stimulated feelings.
Fehling's solution A solution for testing urine sugar; prepared by dissolving 34.66 gm of copper sulfate in 500 ml. of water to make solution A and 173 gm. potassium iodide and 50 gm of sodium hydroxide in 500 ml. of water to make solution B. When urine containing sugar is boiled after addition of both the solutions, a red precipitate of cuprous oxide is formed.
Felbamate A newer antiepileptic agent.
Felodipine A calcium channel blocker used in hypertension.
Felon Abscess of soft tissue in terminal portion of finger.
Felty syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis associated with splenomegaly, neutropenia, anemia and often thrombo- cytopenia.
Female Woman, sex that produces ova.
Feminism Male developing secondary sexual characteristic of female.
Feminization testicular An apparent female with genetic characteristic of male due to tissue resistance to androgenic hormones secreted by testes.
Femoral artery A branch of external iliac artery.
Femur The longest and largest bone of the body extending from pelvis to knee (see Figure).
Fenestra An aperture frequently closed by membrane.
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Posterior view of the femur
257Fenfluramine An adrenergic agent.
Fenofibrate Lipid lowering agent.
Fenoprofen calcium Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent.
Fenoterol Beta-adrenergic agonist used in bronchial asthma.
Fenoverine Antispasmodic agent.
Fentanyl citrate Synthetic potent analgesic.
Ferment To decompose.
Fern A flowerless plant, whose extracts are used as anthelmintic.
Fern pattern Palm leaf (arborization) pattern of cervical mucus when allowed to dry on a glass slide; dependent on salt concentration in mucus which is further dependent upon amount of estrogen in the mucus. This test is only positive in midcycle. If positive in late cycle, indicates lack of progesterone.
Ferritin Iron-phosphorus protein complex containing about 23% iron, the principal tissue storage form of iron.
Ferrokinetics Study of absorption, utilization, storage and excretion of iron.
Ferroprotein Important oxygen transferring enzyme.
Ferrous Bivalent iron.
Ferric Trivalent iron, oxidized form.
Ferule A bond or ring of metal applied to the end of the root or crown of tooth in order to strengthen it.
Fertilization Union of ovum with spermatozoa or union of male and female gametes in plants (see Figure on page 258).
Fervescence Increase of fever.
Festinant Increase in speed, accelerating.
Fetal alcohol syndrome Birth defects and mental retardation in babies born to alcoholic mothers who continued alcohol ingestion during first trimester.
Fetal circulation Oxygenated blood from placenta passes via umbilical vein and ductus venosus to inferior vena cava bypassing liver and thence to right atrium and then via foramen ovale to left atrium, left ventricle and aorta. Some blood from right atrium also enters right ventricle and pulmonary artery to be shunted to aorta via ductus arteriosus. Blood to placental villi are returned via the two umbilical arteries which are continuation of hypogastric arteries (see Figure on page 259).
Feticide Killing of the fetus.
Fetish An object thought to have magical supernatural power.258
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Fetal circulation
Fetoprotein A fetal antigen often present in adults. Amniotic fluid fetoprotein level can indicate about fetal wellbeing and maturity. Level is increased in defects of neuroaxis. Increased level in adults indicates hepatoma.
Fetoscope An flexible optical device of fiberoptic material used for direct visualization of fetus in utero.
Fetotoxic Materials toxic to developing fetus, e.g., alcohol sedatives, tetracycline, tobacco.
Fetus Child in utero from third month to birth. f. amorphus Shapeless fetus, barely recognizable as fetus. f. calcified Fetus dyeing in utero with calcification. f. in fetu A small imperfect fetus is contained within body of another fetus 260(e.g., desmoid). f. mummified A dead fetus that has assumed mummified form. f. papyraceus In twin pregnancy, the dead fetus is pressed flat by living fetus.
FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 second. After full inspiration patient exhales as hard and as fast as possible into spirometer and the amount of air exhaled in 1 second is recorded. FEV1 is reduced in obstructive lung disease.
Fever Elevation of body temperature above 37oC (98.6oF). Rectal temperature is 0.5-1oF higher than oral temperature. Body calorie expenditure is increased by 12% for each 0oC of fever. f. continuous Fever with diurnal variation of below 2oF as in enteric, typhus. f. drug Almost any drug can cause fever as a side effect. f. of unknown origin (FUO) Fever above 38oC on several occasions continuing for more than 3 weeks but without a diagnosis even with 1 week of hospital investigation. Common causes are neoplasms, collagen vascular diseases, pulmonary embolism, drug fever. f. periodic Inherited disease of unknown etiology manifesting with joint pain, abdominal pain, pleurisy etc. f. blister Herpes simplex (type I) eruption of lips.
Fexofenadine H1 receptor blocker, antiallergic.
Fiber Thread like element, can be nerve fiber, muscle fiber or a cellular product like collagen fiber, elastic fiber, reticulin fiber. f. afferent Fiber carrying impulses towards nerve cell. f. dietary Undigestible elements of food, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin that add bulk to stool. Foods rich in fiber include whole grain, fruits, leafy vegetables, and their skin. High fiber intake prevents constipation, prevents diverticulosis, lowers cholesterol and sugar and possibly prevents colon cancer. f. efferent Nerve fiber carrying information away from nerve cell. f. medullated Nerve fiber whose axis cylinder is covered by myelin sheath.
Fibril A small fiber, often the component of a cell or a fiber; can be myofibril or neurofibril.
Fibrillation Spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers. f. atrial Rapid, irregular and incomplete contraction of atria. f. ventricular Similar to above, with ineffectual contraction of ventricles. 261May result from mechanical injury to heart, coronary artery disease, drugs, electrocution, electrolyte imbalance, etc. Life-threatening unless immediately treated.
Fibrin Whitish filamentous protein formed by action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Fibrin entangles RBC and platelets to produce the clotting. f. foam A sponge like substance prepared from human fibrin used as hemostatic in surgery.
Fibrinogen A coagulation protein of plasma that is precursor of fibrin.
Fibrinogenolysis Dissolution of fibrin.
Fibrinogenopenia Reduction in blood fibrinogen.
Fibrinoid Resembling fibrin.
Fibrinoid change Change in connective tissue with immunologic injury, the tissue becoming homogeneous, swollen and band like.
Fibrinokinase Enzyme of animal tissue that activates plasminogen.
Fibrinolysin SYN—Plasmin that dissolves fibrin.
Fibrinolysis The process of dissolution of fibrin by plasmin.
Fibrinopeptide The substance removed from fibrinogen during blood coagulation; fibrin degradation product.
Fibrinosis Excess fibrin in blood.
Fibroadenoma Adenoma with fibrous tissue stroma.
Fibroangioma A fibrous tissue angioma.
Fibrocartilage A type of cartilage in which the matrix contains thick bundles of white or cartilaginous fibers. Found in the intervertebral disks.
Fibrocyst A fibrous tumor having undergone cystic degeneration.
Fibrocystic disease of breast Painful lump in breast, the pain and size fluctuating with menstrual cycle; 50% of women in reproductive age have this problem and carry a 2-5% greater risk of developing breast cancer.
Fibrocystic disease of pancreas Cystic fibrosis.
Fibroid Fibromyoma of uterus which may grow inwards or outwards to become subperitoneal (see Figure on page 262).
Fibroma Encapsulated, irregular, firm slow growing connective tissue tumor. Can arise within muscle, breast, uterus (causes menorrhagia) (see Figure on page 262).
Fibromatosis Simultaneous development of multiple fibromas. f. gingivae An inherited condition in which there is hypertrophy of gums prior to eruption of teeth.262
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Fibromyomata of uterus
Fibromyositis Inflammation of muscle and surrounding connective tissue, a nonspecific illness characterized by pain, tenderness, stiffness of joint capsule.
Fibromyxoma A fibroma that has undergone partial myxomatous degeneration.
Fibromyxosarcoma A sarcoma containing fibrous and myxoid tissue or sarcoma that has undergone mucoid degeneration.
Fibronectin A group of proteins whose presence in cervical secretion may act as marker for preterm labor.
Fibropapilloma Mixed fibroma and papilloma seen in bladder.
Fibrosarcoma A spindle celled sarcoma containing abundant connective tissue.
Fibrosis Abnormal fibrous tissue formation. f. diffuse interstitial pulmonary SYN __ Hamman rich syndrome, causing respiratory distress 263of new born. f. of lungs Formation of scar tissue in lungs following pneumonia, lung abscess, tuberculosis. f. retroperitoneal Of unknown etiology, causes obstruction of ureter and great vessels.
Fibula The outer and smaller bone of leg, often sacrificed in bone grafting (see Figure below).
Fick method A method to determine cardiac output.
Field A specific area in relation to an object.
Fifth cranial nerve Trigeminal nerve, a mixed nerve with its sensory - motor nuclei in Pons- medulla.
Fifth disease Parvovirus infection with rash mimicing rubella.
FIGO staging system Staging system for gynecological cancers developed by International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
FIGLU excretion test Test for folic acid deficiency. When histidine is administered to a patient with folic acid deficiency formiminoglutamic acid excretion in urine is increased.
Filament Thread like coil of Tungsten found in X-ray tube.
Filaria A long filiform nematode found in lymphatics, serous cavities and connective tissue, e.g., W. bancrofti.
Filariasis A chronic disease due to filaria species.
Filiform Hair like, filamentous.
Film A thin membrane/covering; photographic film usually cellulose coated with a light sensitive emulsion. f. bitewing Technique used for taking film of several teeth at the same time.
Film badge A badge containing a film to calculate the total exposure of an individual to X-rays.
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Anteromedial view of right fibula
264Filter Device for filtering light, liquid, radiation, etc. f. Berkefeld A diatomaceous earth filter designed to remove bacteria from solutions passed through it (excepting viruses). f. infrared Filter that permits only passage of infrared waves of certain wave lengths. f. optical Device that only permits a portion of the visible light spectrum. The filter absorbs the unwanted wave length. f. umbrella Filter placed in blood vessels in order to prevent passage of emboli, e.g., inferior vena cava umbrella filter placement to reduce pulmonary embolism in patients of pelvic or deep leg vein thrombosis. f. Wood's A glass screen allowing passage of ultraviolet rays and absorbing rays of visual light, useful for diagnosis of fungus infection of hair.
Filtrate The fluid that has been passed through a filter. f. glomerular The protein free plasma filtered while passage of blood through glomeruli.
Filum A thread like structure. f. coronaria A fibrous band extending from the base of the median cusp of tricuspid valve to the aortic annulus. f. terminale A long slender filament at the terminal end of cord terminating in coccyx.
Fimbriate Having finger like projections (see Figure).
Finasteride Antiandrogen used for prostatic hypertrophy.
Fine motor skills Skills pertaining to synergy of small muscles of hand.
Finger One of the five digits of hand. f. clubbed Enlarged terminal phalanx of the finger.
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265Present in cyanotic heart disease, pulmonary suppuration and malignancy, bacterial endocarditis. f. hammer Permanent flexion of terminal phalanx due to damage of extensor tendons. Finger f. mallet partial permanent flexion of terminal phalanx from rupture of extensor tendon. f. trigger momentary arrest of finger flexion/extension followed by snapping into place due to stenosing tenovaginitis or nodule on flexor tendon.
Fingerprint An imprint made by the cutaneous ridges of fingers, used for the purpose of identification.
First aid Emergency assistance to injured/sick individuals prior to physician's care or transportation to hospital. Common situations necessitating first aid are: foreign body, coma, convulsion, burn, poisoning, etc.
First cranial nerve Nerve carrying smell sensation from olfactory mucosa.
First degree A.V. block Partial block of conduction in A-V node characterized by prolonged P-R interval. When occurring independently does not need treatment but if with anterior myocardial infarction or bundle branch block, it may progress to complete heart block and hence needs permanent pacemaker.
Fish skin disease A disease of skin characterized by increase of the horny layer and deficiency of the skin secretion.
Fission Splitting into two or more parts; a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria, protozoa and other lower forms of life.
Fissiparous Reproducing by fission.
Fissure A groove or natural division, cleft or slit, break in enamel of tooth, crack like sore, deep furrow in an organ like brain, liver, spinal cord. f. anal Linear painful ulcer at anal margin. f. auricular Fissure of petrous part of temporal bone. f. Broca Fissure encircling the third left frontal convolution of the brain. f. inferior orbital Fissure at the apex of orbit, through which pass the infraorbital blood vessels and maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve. f. of Rolando Fissure separating frontal and parietal lobes. f. of Sylvius Fissure separating frontal and parietal lobes from temporal lobe. f. transverse 1. Fissure between cerebrum and cerebellum of brain. 2. Fissure on the lower surface of liver serving as the hilum for entrance of hepatic vessels and exit of ducts.
Fistula An abnormal free passage from cavity/or inner organ to exterior/another organ. f. arteriovenous Direct communication between artery and vein. f. horseshoe Perianal 266fistula in which the tract goes round the rectum and communicates with skin at one or more point. f. thyroglossal A midline fistula about thyroid that connects the persistent embryonic thyroglossal duct to exterior.
Fixation point The fovea or the point on the retina where the visual axes meet for clearest vision. f. external external pin fixation, the pins connected to metal bar for maintaining alignment of open fracture. f. internal open reduction and fixation by plate, nail, screw or wire. f. complement the consumption of complement when reacting with immune complexes containing complement fixing antibodies. f. nitrogen traping of atmospheric nitrogen as nitrate or amino group by bacteria of genus Rhizobium. f. ossicular chain fixation of one or more auditory ossicles.
Flaccid Paralysis with loss of muscle tone, reduction or loss of tendon reflexes, atrophy of muscles, usually due to lesion of lower motor neurone.
Flagellate A protozoon with one or more flagella.
Flagellation Whipping, massage by strokes, a form of sexual aberration in which sexual urge is brought about by being whipped or whipping the partner.
Flagellin Protein of flagella, resembling myosin
Flagellum A hair like motile process on a protozoon.
Flail chest A condition arising from fracture of a number of ribs, or ribs at many points, resulting in the flail rib segment moving in paradoxically with inspiration and out with expiration.
Flail joint Joint with excessive mobility due to paralysis of acting muscles.
Flange In dentistry, the part of an artificial denture that extends from embedded teeth to the border of denture.
Flank The part of body between ribs and upper border of ilium.
Flap A mass of partially detached tissue used in plastic surgery. f. pedicle Flap made by suturing the edges to form a tube. Then one end of the tube is severed and sutured to another site. By use of this jump flap technique, such a flap may be moved in several stages, a great distance. f. periodontal Gingival flap removed or repositioned to eliminate periodontal pockets or to correct mucogingival defects.267
Flare A spreading area of redness that surrounds a line made by drawing a pointed instrument across the skin. It is due to dilatation of blood vessels.
Flashbacks The return of imagery and hallucinations after the immediate effect of hallucinogens is worn off.
Flash point The temperature at which substance will burst into flames spontaneously.
Flat foot Abnormal flatness of sole and loss of arch on innerside of foot.
Flatness Resonance heard on percussion over solid organs or when there is fluid in the thoracic cavity.
Flatulence Excessive formation or passage of gas from GI tract.
Flatus Expulsion of gas from anus. Average person excretes 400-1200 cc of gas everyday, containing hydrogen, methane, skatoles, indoles, carbon dioxide, small amounts of oxygen and nitrogen. Flatulogenic foods are milk, legumes, fried items.
Flatus tube A rectal tube which is pushed to facilitate expulsion of gas.
Flavi virus Previously called group B arbo virus responsible for yellow fever, dengue fever and encephalitis.
Flavin One of a group of natural water soluble pigments occurring in milk, yeast, bacteria and some plants.
Flavism Having a yellow tinge.
Flavobacterium A group of bacteria producing orange- yellow pigments in culture. Flavobacterium meningosepticum causes virulent meningitis in prematures.
Flavoprotein A group of conjugated proteins that constitute yellow enzyme for cellular respiration.
Flavour The quality that affects the sense of taste.
Flavoxate Urinary antispasmodic.
Flaxedil Gallamine triethiodide.
Flea Wingless blood sucking insects that have legs adapted for jumping. Xenopsella species transmit plague from rats to humans. Fleas may transmit tularemia, endemic typhus and brucellosis. f. chigger Sand flea.
Fleccainide acetate Antiarrhythmic agent.
Fleece of Stilling Meshwork of white fibers that surrounds the dentate nucleus of cerebellum.
Fleming Alexander Scottish physician who in 1945 was awarded Nobel prize for discovering penicillin.268
Flesh Soft tissues of animal body, esp. the muscles.
Fletcher factor A blood clotting factor, prekallikrein.
Flexibility Adaptibility, quality of being bent without breaking.
Flexion The act of bending forward.
Flexor Muscle that bends a part in proximal direction. f. left colic Bend in colon where transverse colon continues as descending colon SYN __ splenic flexure. f. right colic Bend in colon where ascending colon becomes the transverse colon SYN __ hepatic flexure.
Flicker The visual sensation of alternating intervals of brightness caused by rhythmically interrupting light stimuli.
Flight of ideas Continuous but fragmentary stream of talk may be seen in acute mania.
Floaters Translucent specks of various sizes and shapes that float across the visual field; usually small bits of protein or cells.
Flocculation The gathering together of fine dispersed particles in a solution into larger visible particles.
Flocculus 1. A small tuft of wool like fibers. 2. Lobes of cerebellum behind the middle cerebral peduncle.
Floppy-valve syndrome Mitral valve prolapse.
Floss To use dental floss or tape to remove plaque or calculus.
Flour Ground wheat powder.
Flowmeter Device for measuring flow of gas or liquid, i.e. flow of anesthetic gases.
Flow state An altered state of consciousness in which the mind functions at its peak, time may seem to be distorted and a sense of happiness seems to pervade that period.
Floxuridine An antimetabolite used in cancer treatment.
Fluconazole Benzimidazole antifungal for candidiasis, cryptococcosis.
Fluctuation A wavy impulse felt in palpation and produced by vibration of body fluid.
Flucytosine Antifungal agent.
Fludrocortisone Synthetic corticosteroid with high mineral retaining property.
Flufenamic acid Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent.
Flufenazine enathate A phenothiazine type antipsychotic drug.
Fluid amniotic Clear yellowish fluid of specific gravity 1.006 composed of albumin, urea, water mixed with lanugo, 269epidermal cells, vernix caseosa, and meconium.
Fluid cerebrospinal Fluid found in central canal of spinal cord, in the ventricles of brain and in the subarachnoid space.
Fluid synovial Fluid contained within synovial cavities, bursae and tendon sheaths.
Fluid Balance Regulation of water homeostasis in body.
Fluke A parasite belonging to class trematoda. f. blood Schistostoma hematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum belong to this group inhabiting mesenteric and pelvic veins. f. hepatica Fasciola hepatica, chlorosis sinensis. f. intestinal Fasciolopsis buski. f. lung Paragonimus westermani.
Flumethasone Synthetic corticosteroid.
Flunarizine Calcium channel blocker for migraine.
Fluocinolone acetonide Synthetic corticosteroid.
Fluorescein sodium A red crystalline powder, used for corneal staining and angiography.
Fluorescence Property of certain substances to emit light when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
Fluorescent Luminous when exposed to other light rays.
Fluorescent antibody A body tagged with fluorescent material, for diagnosis of various kinds of infections.
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTAABS) Test for syphilis using fluorescent anti-body.
Fluoridation Addition of fluorides to water to prevent dental caries in the concentration of 1 mg/1000 ml of water drinking to assure daily fluoride intake of 0.25 to 0.5 mg.
Fluoroapatite A compound formed when the enamel of teeth is treated with appropriate concentration of fluoride to form hydroxyapatite which is less acid soluble, hence resistant to caries.
Fluorometer Device for determining amount of radiation produced by X-rays.
Fluoroscope A radiological tool consisting of a fluorescent screen by means of which the shadows of objects interposed between the tube and screen are made visible.
Fluoroscopy Patient examination by fluoroscope.
Fluorosis Chronic flourine poisoning causing mottling of tooth enamel, and hyperluscency of bone.270
Fluorouracil Antimetabolite, anticancer agent.
Fluoxetine 5HT antagonist, antidepressant.
Fluoxymesterone An anabolic and androgenic hormone.
Flupenthixol Antipsychotic agent.
Flurandrenolide A corticosteroid.
Flurazepam Sedative - hypnotic agent.
Flurbiprofen Propionic acid derivative NSAID.
Flurogestone A progestational drug.
Fluroxene An anesthetic agent administered by inhalation.
Flush 1. Sudden redness of skin. 2. Irrigation of cavity with water. f. hot Flush accompanied with sensations of heat, common in menopausal syndrome and neuroses.
Flutamide Antiandrogen used for BPH.
Fluticasone Steroid inhaler for asthma.
Flutter A tremulous movement. f. atrial Rapid atrial contraction (200-400/ min.) but with a regular heart beat due to 1:2/1:3 AV block. f. diaphragmatic Rapid diaphragmatic contraction. f. mediastinum Abnormal side to side motion of diaphragm.
Fluvoxamine SSRI antidepressant.
Flux An excessive flow or discharge from an organ or cavity of body.
Foam Production of gas bubble interspersed with fluid.
Foam solubility test Procedure for determining the presence or absence of surfactant active material in amniotic fluid. Surfactant deficit is diagnostic of respiratory distress syndrome.
Focus The point of convergence of light rays or waves of sounds.
Fog Water droplets in air.
Fogging 1. A method of testing vision used particularly in testing astigmatism and in postcycloplegic examination. 2. Unwanted density on the radiographic film resulting from exposure to secondary radiation, light, chemicals, heat, etc.
Foil A thin pliable sheet of metal. Gold foils are used in dental restoration work.
Fold A doubling back. f. aryepiglottic The ridge like lateral walls of the entrance to larynx. f. gastric Gastric mucosal folds; mostly longitudinal. f. rectum Transverse mucosal folds of rectum, SYN—valves of Houston.271
Foley's catheter A urinary tract catheter with balloon attachment at the end (see Figure).
Foliaceous Resembling leaf.
Folic acid C19H19N7O6, chemically pteroyl glutamic acid, found in green plant tissue, liver and yeast. Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia.
Folinic acid The active form of folic acid.
Follicle A small secretory sac or cavity. f. aggregated Syn—Peyer's patch. An aggregation of solitary nodules or group of lymph nodules at the junction of ileum with colon at the anti- mesenteric border. f. graffian Developing primary oocyte in the cortex of ovary. f. hair An invagination of the epidermis from which hair develops. f. lymphatic The densely packed collection of lymphocytes and lymphoblasts that make up cortex of a lymph node. f. nabothian Dilated cyst of glands of uterine cervix. f. ovarian A spherical structure in the cortex of ovary consisting of an oocyte and surrounding follicular cells. f. primordial Follicle of ovary with ovum enclosed in a single layer of cells. f. of thyroid Spherical structure lined with a single layer of cuboidal epithelium secreting thyroid hormones.
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Foley's catheter
272Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Hormone of anterior pituitary stimulating spermatogenesis in male and maturation of graffian follicle in female.
Follicular tonsillitis Inflammation of follicles on surface of tonsils which become filled with pus.
Folliculitis barbae Ringworm of beard.
Folliculoma A tumor of ovary originating in graffian follicle in which cells resemble the cells of stratum granulosum.
Folliculosis Presence of an abnormal quantity of lymph follicles.
Follow-up The continued care or monitoring of a patient after the initial visit or examination.
Fomentation A hot, wet application for the relief of pain or inflammation.
Fomes (fomite) Any substance that adheres to and transmits infectious material.
Fontana's spaces Spaces between the processes of ligamentum pectinatum of iris, conveying aqueous humor.
Fontanel Unossified space lying between cranial bones of the skull. f. anterior Lying at the junction of coronal, frontal and sagittal sutures. f. posterior Lying at the junction of sagittal and lambdoid sutures (see Figure).
Food additives Substances other than basic food stuffs that are present in food during production, processing, storage or packaging.
Food adulterants Substances making food impure or toxic like toxic organisms, pesticide residues, poisonous substance or substances added to increase weight or bulk of food.
Food allergies Allergic reaction resulting from ingestion of food to which one has become sensitized.
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The fontanelles
273Common offenders are: milk, egg, shellfish, chocolate, oranges.
Food and drug administration (FDA) In USA, an official regulatory body for food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices, a part of Department of Health and Human Services.
Foodball Gastric stone made up of fruit and vegetable skins, seeds and fibers. SYN __ phytobezoar.
Food chain Sequential transfer of food energy from green plants to herbivorous animals and then to man through animal flesh. Interruption of this chain can result in ecological disaster.
Food poisoning Illness resulting from ingestion of foods containing poisonous substances, e.g., mushroom poisoning, insecticides contaminating food, milk from cows that have eaten some poisonous plants, ingestion of putrefied or decomposed food.
Food requirement Requirement of calorie and protein depending upon age, muscular work and environment. Average active healthy (70 kg) man requires 2700 cal/day and average healthy woman 2000 cal/day. Persons in sedentary work require less calories. Protein requirement of adult is 1 gm/kg of their ideal weight. Pregnancy and lactation demand 15-25% extra calories. In growing children protein requirement is 2-3 gm/kg/day.
Foot Terminal portion of lower extremity. f arches Four arches: internal longitudinal, outer longitudinal, and two transverse arches. f. athlete's Fungus infection of interdigital spaces. f. cleft A condition where cleft extends between the digits to the metatarsal region, usually due to a missing digit. f. flat The inner longitudinal and anterior transverse metatarsal arches are depressed and flat; very often asymptomatic. f. immersion Resulting from prolonged immersion of foot in cold water or exposure of foot to extreme cold swampy atmosphere resulting in impaired circulation and anesthesia. f. madura Bone hypertrophy and degeneration, frequently followed by suppuration and gangrene, causative agents are—mycetomas. f. splay Flat wide foot.
Foot and mouth disease A viral disease of cattle and horses.
Foot board A device that helps to prevent foot drop.274
Foot candle An amount of light equivalent to one lumen per square foot.
Foot drop Plantar flexion of foot due to paralysis of muscles in anterior compartment of leg. (lateral popliteal palsy).
Foot plate The flat part of stapes, the bone of middle ear.
Foot print An impression of foot used for identification of infants.
Forage Creating a channel through enlarged prostate by use of an electric cautery.
Foramen A passage; opening; an orifice; a communication between two cavities. f. apical Opening at the end of root canal transmitting blood, lymph and nerve supply to dental pulp. f. condyloid Opening above the condyle of occipital bone for passage of hypoglossal nerve. f. epiploic Opening connecting the peritoneal cavity to lesser sac SYN __ foramen of Winslow. f. internal auditory The opening in the petrous portion of sphenoid bone through which 7th and 8th cranial nerves pass. f. intervertebral Opening between adjacent articulated vertebrae for passage of nerves. f. jugular Opening at base of skull permitting passage of sigmoid and inferior petrosal sinus and 9th, 10th, and 11th cranial nerves (see Figure). f. magnum Opening in the occipital bone through which passes the spinal cord. f. of Monro Communication between third and lateral ventricles of brain. f. optic Opening in the lesser wing of sphenoid bone permitting passage of optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. f. ovale Opening between the two atria in fetal heart which often continues into adulthood. f. rotundum Opening in greater wing of sphenoid in which maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve passes.
Forbe's disease Type III glycogen storage disease.
Force A push or pull exerted upon an object, measured in newtons.
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Inferior view of the base of the skull, showing the foramen magnum
2751 newton is equivalent to 0.225 pound force. f. electromotive Energy that causes flow of electricity in a conductor.
Forceps Pincers for holding/extracting. f. alligator Toothed forceps with a double clamp. f. artery Forceps for holding ends of an artery in order to perform ligation. f. clamp Any forcep with automatic lock. f. dental Forceps of varying shapes for grasping teeth during extraction. f. obstetrics Forceps used to extract the fetal head from pelvis. f. towel/tissue Forceps for clipping towels to operation site or grasping delicate tissue (see Figure).
Fordyce's disease Enlarged ectopic sebaceous glands in mucosa of mouth and genitals.
Fordyce-Fox disease A disease similar to prickly heat in which itchy follicular papules are present in axilla, areola of breast, labia, etc.
Forensic Pertains to legal.
Forensic dentistry Application of science of dentistry for the purposes of law, e.g., establishing identity.
Forensic medicine Medicine in relation to law, legal aspects of medical ethics and standards.
Foreskin Prepuce; loose skin covering end of penis/clitoris.
Fore waters Mucus discharge from vagina during pregnancy.
Fork turning An elongated instrument that bifurcates at one end, used for testing hearing, bone conduction and vibration.
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Some types of forceps—(A) Alligator forceps, (B) Tissue forceps, (C) Halsted mosquito forceps (straight and curved), (D) Allis forceps, (E) Schoeder tenaculum forceps, (F) Schoeder vulsellum forceps (with side view of blade)
276Formaldehyde A colorless pungent irritant gas formed by oxidation of methyl alcohol, used as disinfectant, preservative in histology and for sterilizing feces, urine, sputum.
Formalin Aqueous solution of 37% formaldehyde.
Formation A structure, shape or figure. f. reticular Found in medulla oblongata between the pyramids and floor of the fourth ventricle, supposed to be the activating or arousal system for consciousness.
Forme fruste An aborted or incomplete form of disease arrested before running its course.
Formestane Antiestrogen.
Formic acid A clear pungent acid obtained from oxidation of formaldehyde or wood alcohol, responsible for pain and swelling following stings and bites.
Formication Sensation of insects creeping upon the body.
Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) A chemical intermediate in the metabolism of histidine to glutamic acid. In folic acid deficiency states FIGLU excretion is increased in urine.
Formoterol Inhaled steroid.
Fornication Sexual intercourse between unmarried partners.
Fornix Anything of arched or vault like shape. f. conjunctivae Loose fold connecting palpebral and bulbar conjunctivae. f. uteri Anterior and posterior spaces into which upper vagina is divided.
Fosinopril ALE inhibitor.
Forskolin Cardiac stimulant for congestive failure.
Fortification spectrum Appearance of dark patch with zigzag outline in the visual field causing temporary blindness in that portion of eye.
Fossa A shallow depression.
Fourchette Transverse band of mucus membrane at the posterior commissure of vagina.
Fourth cranial nerve Trochlear nerve emerging from dorsal surface of midbrain, supplying superior oblique.
Fovea A pit or cup like depression. e.g., fovea centralis of eye (see Figure).
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277Fowler's position Semisitting position with angulation of upper portion of body at 45o-60o; knees may or may not be bent.
Foxglove Common name for plant digitalis purpurea.
Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) The concentraction of O2 in the inspired air.
Fractional testmeal Fractional examination of stomach contents for free and total hydrochloric acid.
Fracture Dissolution in continuity of bone (see Figure). f. avulsion Tearing of a piece of bone away from the main bone by force of muscular contraction. f. comminuted Fracture where bone is broken into many pieces. f. compound Fracture where bone fragment protrudes through skin or there is communication between fracture site and exterior. f. compression Fracture of vertebra by pressure along long axis of the vertebral column. f. epiphyseal Separation of epiphysis from bone, occurs only in young patients. f. fissured A narrow split in the bone, the split not extending to other side of bone. f. gree stick
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Various types of fractures
278Fracture when one cortex fractures, the other being intact. f. hair line A thin narrow incomplete fracture line not extending through the entire bone. f. impacted Fracture where one end is wedged into the interior of other. f. pathologic Fracture of a weakened bone produced by a force, that would not have fractured a healthy bone. f. pingpong Depressed fracture of skull resembling indentation made on pingpong ball by compression. f. Pott's Fracture of lower end of fibula with outward displacement of the ankle and foot.
Fragile-X syndrome Mutation in X-chromosome manifesting with mental retardation and greatly enlarged testicles after puberty.
Fragilitas Brittleness as of the hair.
Fragility State of brittleness. f. erythrocyte Rupture of RBC in various strengths of salt solution. Normal blood starts hemolyzing at about 0.44% and complete at 0.35%.
Frambesia Infectious disease caused by a spirochete.
Frambesioma Primary lesion of yaws in the form of a protruding nodule.
Franceschetti's syndrome Mandibulofacial dysostosis SYN—Treacher-Collin's syndrome.
Francisella tularensis Non-motile, encapsulated, gram –ve organism causing plague.
Fratricide Murder of one's brother or sister.
Freckle Small brownish or yellowish pigmentation of skin.
Freiberg's infarction Osteochondritis of head of second metatarsal bone.
Fremitus Vibrating tremors esp. those felt through the chest wall by palpation or auscultation.
French scale A system indicating outer catheter diameters. Each unit of scale is equivalent to 1/3 mm.
Frenkel exercise These exercise involve teaching patient muscle and joint sensation in order to restore the lost co-ordination. Especially useful in cases of tabes dorsalis and other ataxic conditions.
Frenotomy Cutting of the frenum esp. of tongue.
Frenulum linguae A fold of mucus membrane that extends from floor of mouth to the inferior surface of tongue along midline.
Frenzy A state of violent mental agitation or excitement. f. response In electrodiagnostic study of spinal reflexes, the time required for a stimulus applied to a motor nerve to 279travel in the opposite direction up the nerve to the spinal cord and return.
Fretum A constriction.
Freud Sigmund Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst.
Frey's syndrome A rare condition affecting young children characterized by facial flushing and sweating after eating.
Freudian Freud's theories of unconscious or repressed libido on past experiences or desires as the cause of various neuroses, and cure for which is the restoration of such conditions to consciousness through psychoanalysis.
Friable Easily breakable.
Friction Rubbing, massage.
Friction rub The sound produced by friction of two dry surfaces.
Friedlander's bacillus Klebsiella pneumonae causing pneumonia, sinusitis.
Friedrich's ataxia An inherited disease involving degeneration of dorso-lateral columns of spinal cord, kyphoscoliosis and muscular weakness of lower limbs.
Fright Extreme sudden fear.
Frigid Cold, irresponsive to emotions or lack of sexual desire in women.
Frigidity Partial or complete inhibition of sexual excitement.
Frogbelly Flaccid atonic abdomen of children with rickets.
Frog face Facies of chronic sinusitis.
Frohlichs syndrome Obesity, hypogonadism, due to hypothalamic disturbance.
Froin's syndrome High CSF protein content that rapidly coagulates and is yellow caused by spinal canal obstruction.
Fromet's sign Flexion of distal phalanx of thumb when a sheet of paper is held between thumb and index finger, a feature of ulnar nerve palsy.
Frontal lobe 4 main convolutions infront of central sulcus of cerebrum.
Frontal plane Plane parallel with the long axis of body and at right angles to the median sagittal plane.
Frontal sinus A pair of hollow asymmetrical spaces in the frontal bone above the orbits, filled with air and lined by mucus membrane.
Front tap reflex Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles when stretched muscles of extended leg are percussed.
Frost uremic Deposit of urea crystals on skin in uremia patient.280
Frostbite Freezing and death of a body part due to cold exposure.
Frottage Orgasm produced by pressing against somebody, massage technique using rubbing.
Frozen section A technique of examining and reporting on pathological tissue cut from a patient while on surgical table, thus deciding future course of action in the theatre itself.
Fructokinase Enzyme that transfers high energy phosphate from a donor to fructose.
Fructose C6H12O6, fruit sugar, monosachharide akin to glucose.
Fructose intolerance Inability to metabolize fructose in absence of enzyme aldolase thus producing nausea, vomiting, sweating, tremor, hypoglycemia on fructose consumption.
Frustration Disappointment.
Fucose A mucopolysaccharide present in blood group substances and in human milk.
Fucosidosis Hereditary disease with thick skin, heart disease, hyperhydrosis and poor neural growth resulting from improper metabolism of fucose.
Fugitive Inconstant symptoms, transient, wandering.
Fugue A dissociative disorder in which a person acts in normal manner but has complete amnesia for that period of action.
Fulguration Destruction of tissue by high frequency electric sparks.
Full term In obstetric child born between 38-41 weeks of gestation.
Fulminant Coming like flashes of pain, as in tabes dorsalis. Synofulgurant.
Fumaric acid One of the organic acids in the citric acid cycle.
Fumigation Use of poisonous gases for destroying living organisms like insects, rats, mice, etc; root disinfection.
Functional disease Emotional response to physical disease, taking the form of conversion or hysterical response.
Fundoplication Surgical reduction in size of opening into fundus of stomach, used in treating reflux esophagitis.
Fundoscopy Visual examination of fundus of eye.
Fundus The portion of an organ most remote from its opening (see Figure on page 281).
Fungus Plant like organism including yeasts and molds but without chlorophil, hence of having parasitic or saprophytic existence.281
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Fundus gastricus (gastric fundus)
Furgemia Presence of fungi in blood.
Fungiform papillae Small rounded eminences on the tongue.
Funicular process That part of tunica vaginalis covering spermatic cord.
Funiculitis Inflammation of spermatic cord.
Funiculopexy Suturing the spermatic cord to tissues in cases of undescended testes.
Funiculus Any small structure resembling cord.
Funnel Conical wide mouthed device for pouring through it with a tubular end.
Funnel chest Sternal depression resembling funnel.
Funny bone Medial epicondyle of humerus.
Fur fur Dandruff scales.
Furor Extreme violent outbursts of anger.
Furosemide Loop diuretic, kaliuretic.
Furrow A groove.
Furuncle A boil.
Furunculoid Resembling boil.
Furunculosis Condition resulting from boil.
Fuscin A dark brown pigment present in pigment epithelium of retina.
Fusiform Spindle shaped, i.e., tapering at both ends.
Fusion Meeting and joining together (see Figure below).
Fusobacterium A genus of nonspore forming, nonmotile, non encapsulated gram –ve rods causing gingivitis, and seen in necrotic lesions. f. waves Flutter waves in atrial fibrillation.
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Spinal fusion
GABA Gamma amino butyric acid a, neurotransmitter.
Gabapentin An antiepileptic agent.
Gadolinium A rare element used as NMR contrast agent.
Gag An instrument placed between the teeth to keep the mouth open.
Gag reflex Gagging and vomiting resulting from irritation of fauces.
Gail score An indicator for assessing the risk of a woman to develop breast cancer in the next 5 years.
Gait Manner of walking. g. ataxic Staggering unsteady gait, e.g., alcoholics. g. cerebellar Staggering broad based gait. g. double step Gait in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate. g. equine High stepping gait of peroneal nerve palsy. g. festinating Walking on toes as if pushed from behind. Starts slowly and then accelerates till he holds on to something that stops him e.g., parkinsonism. g. hemiplegic The paralyzed limb abducts and makes a circle to come to front to touch the ground. g. scissor Gait in which legs cross while walking, e.g. cerebral palsy. g. slapping High stepping ataxic gait due to loss of proprioception as in tabes dorsalis. g. Waddling Walk resembling that of a duck as in muscular dystrophy.
Galactan A complex carbohydrate that forms galactose on hydrolysis.
Galactase A proteolytic ferment of milk.
Galactocele A tumor caused by occlusion of a milk duct; hydrocele containing milk like fluid.
Galactogogue Agent promoting secretion of milk.
Galactokinase Enzyme transferring high energy phosphate groups from a donor to D-Galactose.
Galactometer Device for measuring specific gravity of milk.
Galactorrhoea Excessive flow of milk, continuation of lactation even without childbirth.283
Galactose C6H12O6 a monosacc-haride, isomer of glucose converted to glycogen in liver.
Galactosemia An autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by inability to convert galactose to glucose due to absence of enzyme galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase. Symptoms are diarrhoea and vomiting with failure to thrive afterbirth. Infants urine contains high galactose. Intrauterine diagnosis possible from amniocentesis.
Galactosuria Excretion of galactose in urine.
Galeazzi's sign A clinical test for determining presence of congenital hip dislocation in infants and toddlers; with the child lying supine, knees and hips flexed to 90o; dislocation is evidenced if one knee is higher than other.
Galen's veins These veins run through the telachorodiae formed by the joining of the terminal and choroid veins. They form venacerebra magna, that empties into straight sinus.
Gallamine triethiodide A drug that inhibits transmission of nerve impulses across myoneural junction of voluntary muscles. Trade name Flaxedil.
Gallbladder Pear shaped sac on under surface of right lobe of liver holding bile and discharging it into common bile duct through cystic duct during digestion (see Figure).
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Gallium Radionucleide of gallium used in bone scan.
Gallon Measure of liquid equivalent to 4.55 liters.
Gallstone Concretion formed in the gallbladder or common bile duct, commonest being cholesterol stone. Excess of cholesterol or decreased bile acid concentration in bile help to precipitate cholesterol leading to stone formation.
Galvanic current Direct electric current from battery.
Galvanometer An instrument for measurement of current.
Galvanoscope An instrument that shows presence and direction of galvanic current.284
Gamete A mature male or female reproductive cell.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) The process involves obtaining ova through laparoscope and mating it with sperms and then placing in fallopian tube for completion of fertilization and transfer to uterus.
Gametes The sexually differentiated form of protozoa that when enters mosquito reproduces into sporozoites.
Gametocide Agents that destroy malaria gametocytes.
Gametogenesis Development of gametes.
Gamma benzene hexachloride Scabicidal agent and insecticide.
Gamma globulin Immunoglobulin fraction in plasma containing IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE.
Gamma knife surgery A modality of treatment of brain tumor, where radiation bean is focused on tumor tissue with stereotoxic precison.
Gamma rays Electromagnetic waves of extremely short wave length emitted by radioactive substances having high tissue penetration.
Gammopathy Diseases with high gammaglobulin, e.g., multiple myeloma.
Gamna's disease This is a form of chronic splenomegaly characterised by thickening of the splenic capsule and presence of multiple, small, dense, rustlike densities containing iron. These bodies are known as gamna–gandy bodies.
Gamophobia Neurotic fear of marriage.
Gangliocyte A ganglion cell.
Ganglioma Tumor of lymphatic gland.
Ganglion 1. A mass of nervous tissue composed principally of nerve cell bodies lying outside brain and spinal cord. 2. Cystic tumor developing in a tendon or aponeuroses. g. cardiac Tiny ganglion towards which converge the fibers of superficial cardiac plexus, lying on the right side of the ligamentum arteriosum. g. carotid Ganglion formed by filamentous threads from the carotid plexus beneath the carotid artery. g. celiac One pair of paravertebral or collateral ganglia located near the origin of celiac artery. g. dorsal root Ganglia located in dorsal nerve root containing cell bodies of sensory nerves. g. geniculate Ganglion on the pars intermedia, the sensory root of facial nerve. g. jugular Ganglion located on the root of vagus nerve lying in upper portion of jugular foramen. g. otic A small ganglion located 285in zygomatic fossa below the foramen ovale. g. sphenopalatine Ganglion associated with the great superficial petrosal nerve and maxillary nerve, transmitting both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers to nasal mucosa, palate, pharynx and orbit. g. spiral A long coiled ganglion in the cochlea of ear containing bipolar cells whose peripheral processes terminate in organ of corti. The central processes form the cochlear nerve to terminate in medulla. g. vestibular A bipolar ganglion located in the vestibular branch of 8th cranial nerve at the base of internal acoustic meatus. Its incoming fibers arise from macules of utricles and saccules and cristae of ampullae of semicircular canals (see Figure).
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Ganglion of wrist arising from a tendon
Ganglioneuroma A nerve cell tumor containing ganglion cells.
Ganglionic blockade Blockage of neurotransmission in autonomic ganglia by drugs that occupy receptor sites for acetylcholine or stabilize post synaptic membrane against action of acetylcholine liberated in presynaptic nerve endings.
Ganglioside A particular class of glycosphingolipid present in nerve tissue and in the spleen.
Gangrene Necrosis or death of tissue, usually due to deficient blood supply. g. dry Aseptic gangrene due to cessation of blood supply, the veins remaining patent. g. diabetic Infected gangrene in diabetics. g. traumatic Gangrene following extensive injury severing blood supply (see Figure below).
Ganser's syndrome A factitious disorder in which individual mimics symptoms of psychosis.
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286Gardnerella vaginalis A bacteria causing vaginitis.
Gardner's syndrome Familial polyposis of colon, an autosomal dominant condition with propensity for development of carcinoma.
Gargoylism A congenital condition characterized by dwarfism, kyphosis, and skeletal abnormalities with mental retardation.
Garlic An edible strongly flavoured bulb containing chemical allicin, possessing antithrombotic properties.
Garment (pneumatic-antishock) an inflatable garment used to combat shock, stabilize fracture, promote haemostasis, increase peripheral vascular resistance (see Figure).
Garre's disease Chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis.
Gärtner's bacillus It is another name for the bacillus, Salmonella enteritidis which is responsible for causing gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
Gartner's duct A vestigial structure representing the persistent mesonephric duct.
Gas mustard Dichlorethyl sulfide, a poisonous gas used in warfare.
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Pneumatic antishock garment
Gasoline A distillation product of petroleum often containing toxic additives like tetraethyl lead or tricresyl phosphate.
Gastrectomy Surgical removal of a part or total stomach.
Gastric analysis Analysis of gastric contents to determine quality of secretion, amount of free and combined hydrochloric acid, absence or presence of blood, bile acid, etc. The test is particularly helpful in cases of Zollinger- Ellison syndrome and gastric malignancy.
Gastric digestion Pepsin secreted in stomach hydrolyzes proteins to proteoses and 287peptones. HCl is essential for activity of pepsin. It also dissolves collagen, splits nucleoproteins, hydrolyzes disaccharides and kills bacteria. Gastric lipase reduces fat to fatty acids and glycerol.
Gastric glands Tubular glands lying in gastric mucosa that contain peptic cells secreting pepsinogen, oxyntic cells secreting HCl and mucus cell lying at the neck of gland secreting cytoprotective gastric mucin.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) A polypeptide in the cells of duodenum and jejunum which inhibits secretion of gastric juice.
Gastric juice Digestive juice of gastric glands containing HCl, pepsin, mucin, small amount of inorganic salts, intrinsic factor. pH is 0.9 to 1.5, total acidity being equivalent to 30 ml of 1/10 N HCl.
Gastric lavage Emptying out of stomach contents to relieve hiccup; before anesthesia for fear of aspiration and in intestinal obstruction, removal of ingested poisons.
Gastric ulcer Ulcer in the stomach.
Gastrin A group of hormones secreted by antral mucosa that circulating via blood stimulate gastric HCl secretion. Gastrins also affect secretory activity of pancreas, small intestine.
Gastrinoma Tumor of gastrin secreting cells causing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Gastritis Inflammation of stomach characterized by epigastric pain, vomiting and dyspepsia. Gastric mucosa may be atrophic or hypertrophic. Dietary indiscretion, excessive indulgence in alcohol, campylobacter are responsible. g. acute Manifesting with fever, epigastric pain, vomiting with red angry hyperemic mucosa. g. hypertrophic SYN __ Menetrier's disease; gastric folds are hypertrophic.
Gastrocnemius Larger superficial muscle in the back of lower leg that helps to plantarflex the foot and flex the knee upon the thigh.
Gastrocolic reflex Peristaltic wave in colon induced by entrance of food into stomach.
Gastroduodenoscopy Visual examination of stomach and duodenum by endoscope.
Gastroenteritis Inflammation of stomach and intestinal tract manifesting with epigastric pain, vomiting, fever and dysentery.288
Gastroenterology The branch of medical science dealing with diseases of digestive tract and related structures like esophagus, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
Gastroepiploic Pertains to stomach and greater omentum.
Gastroesophageal reflux Reflux of acid contents of stomach into lower esophagus due to obesity, hiatus hernia, anticholinergic use, pregnancy, etc.
Gastrografin Diatrizoate meglumine used for radiological examination of G.I. tract.
Gastroileal reflex Physiologic relaxation of ileocecal valve resulting from food in stomach.
Gastrointestinal decompression Removal of gas and fluids from G.I. tract through Ryle's tube.
Gastrojejunostomy Surgical anastomosis between stomach and jejunum.
Gastrolysis Surgical breaking of adhesions between the stomach and adjoining structures.
Gastroptosis Downward displacement of stomach.
Gastrostomy Surgical creation of a stoma in stomach for purpose of introducing food into stomach as in gastroesophageal malignancy.
Gate theory The hypothesis that painful stimuli can be prevented from reaching higher centers for recognition by stimulation of sensory nerves, a key mechanism explaining acupuncture analgesia.
Gatifloxacin A quinolone antibiotic is given once daily.
Gaucher cells Large reticuloendothelial cells with eccentric nucleus seen in Gaucher's disease.
Gaucher's disease A disease due to glycosphingolipid accumulation in RE cells with splenomegaly, bone lesions, skin pigmentation, etc.
Gault's reflex Blinking of eye following a loud noise close to ear, a test helpful in people malingering deafness.
Gauss sign Unusual mobility of uterus in early pregnancy.
Gauze Loosely woven cotton.
Gay's glands Large sebaceous circum anal glands.
Geiger counter Instrument for detecting ionizing radiation.
Geiger reflex Contraction of muscles of lower abdomen on stimulation of inner aspect of thigh in females. It corresponds to cremasteric reflex.
Gel Jelly like semisolid state.289
Gelasmus Spasmodic laughter of insane.
Gelatin A protein derivative of collagen, used in X-ray films to suspend silver halide crystals, used in capsule making.
Gelatinase An enzyme present in bacteria, molds, and yeasts that liquefies gelatin.
Gelatinous Having consistency of gelatin.
Gelfoam Absorbable gelatin foam, a hemostatic.
Gemcitabine Anticancer agent.
Gemfibrozil Lipid lowering agent (mainly triglycerides).
Gemifloxacin Quinolone antibiotic given once daily.
Gemination Development of two teeth or two crowns within a single root.
Gemistocyte Swollen astrocyte with eccentric nucleus seen adjacent to areas of infarct/edema.
Gemmation Cell reproduction by budding.
Gender Sex of an individual.
Gene Basic unit of heredity lying in chromosomes. Their mutation gives rise to new characters. g. allelic Pairs of genes located at same site on chromosome pair. g. dominant Gene that expresses without assistance from its allele. g. histocompatible Gene that controls the specificity of antigenic expression by tissues. g. recessive Gene that expresses its effect only when present in both chromosomes.
Gene amplification The duplication of regions of DNA to form multiple copies of a specific portion of the original region.
Gene map A map of the human genome i.e., a map of each cromosome. Man has 100000 genes that determine the amino acid structure of proteins.
General adaptation syndrome Organism's nonspecific response to stress occurring in 3 stages 1. Alarm reaction with pituitary adrenal hyperactivity to face the stress by fight or flight 2. Stage of adaptation when the physical symptoms diminish and 3. Stage of exhaustion when body can no longer respond to stress but manifests with stress related emotional disturbances, cardiovascular problems, etc.
Generation 1. The act of forming a new organism 2. Period of time between birth of parents and birth of their children.
Generator pulse Device producing stimuli intermittently, e.g., cardiac pacemaker.290
Generic Distinctive, general.
Genesiology The science of reproduction.
Genesis Act of reproducing, generation, origin of any thing.
Gene splicing In genetic molecular bilogy, the substitution of a portion of a DNA is spliced into the DNA of another gene.
Gene therapy Inserting a normal gene into an organism in order to correct a genetic defect.
Genetic code The information system in living cells that determines the amino acid sequence in polypeptides.
Genetic counselling The application of knowledge of genetics in providing advice to parents to have off springs free of hereditary disease.
Genetic engineering The synthesis, modification or repair of genetic DNA by synthetic means.
Genetics The study of heredity and its variation.
Gene transfer Transfer of gene from one person to another for repair of inherited defect in the recipient.
Geneva convention 1864 declaration in Geneva that the sick and wounded victims of war including persons involved in their care like doctors, nurses, ambulance drivers, stretcher bearers are neutral and would not therefore be target of military action.
Genioplasty Plastic surgery of cheek or chin.
Genitalia Reproductive organs. g. ambiguous External genitalia do not clearly conform to that of male or female. (see Figure on page 291) g. female Labia majora/minora, clitoris, fourchet, vestibular gland, Bartholin's gland, vagina, uterus, two fallopian tubes and two ovaries. g. male Penis, two seminal vesicles, two ductus deferens, two testes, two bulbourethral glands.
Genitourinary system Organs and parts concerned with urine formation and excretion and reproductive organs (see Figure on page 292).
Genius An individual with exceptional mental or creative capability.
Genome A complete set of chromosomes.
Gentamicin An antibiotic from fungi of genus micromonospora.
Gentian Dried rhizome roots of plant Gentian lutea. g. violet A dye derived from coaltar.291
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Female external genitalia
Widely used as a stain in histology, cytology and bacteriology. Also is anti-infective and antifungal.
Genu The knee. g. valgum Knock knee, a condition in which knees are close to each other and ankles are wide apart (> 5 cm). g. varum Bowleg, curving out of the legs. g. recurvatum Hyperextension at the knee joint (see Figure on page 293).
Genus In biology, taxonomic division between species and family.
Geographic tongue Numerous denuded areas on dorsal surface conforming to geographical pattern.
Gerdy's fibers Superficial transverse ligament of palm.
Geriatrics The study of various aspects of aging including physiology, pathology, economic and social problems.
Gerlach's valve Inconstant valve at the opening of appendix into the cecum.
Germ An organism that causes disease.
Germicidal Agent destructive to germs.
Germinal center A light area of lymphocytopoietic cells that occupies the center of lymphatic nodules, of spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes.292
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Male genitourinary system
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Female genitourinary system
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(A) Genu varum; (B) Genu valgum
Germinal epithelium The epithelium that covers the surface of the genital ridge of an embryo.
Germination Development of impregnated ovum into an embryo or sprouting of spore.
Germinoma Neoplasm arising from germ cells of testes or ovary.
Geroderma Appearance of senility brought about by premature loss of hair, wrinkling of skin, general body atrophy.
Gerontology The study of social, psychological, and biological aspects of aging in humans and the effects of age-related diseases on them.
Gerotophilia Fondness or love for old.
Gerota's capsule The perirenal fascia.
Gerstmann's syndrome Neurological disorder caused by brain lesions near temporal and parietal lobe junction, characterized by inability to write and calculate, inability to distinguish fingers on hand, and left-right side disorientation.
Gestation Time span from conception to birth, usually 259-287 days. g. ectopic Fetus develops outside the uterus. g. interstitial Tubal gestation in which ovum develops in a portion of fallopian tube. g. secondary Gestation in which the ovum becomes dislodged from the original seat of implantation and continues to develop at new site (see Figure on page 294).
Gestation assessment Assessment of fetal age and maturity by ultrasound.
Gesture A body movement that assists in expression of thoughts (body language).
Ghon's focus Sharply defined peripheral lesion in X-ray chest with hilar lymphadenitis, a feature of primary kochs.
Ghrelin A 28-amino acid hormone produced by stomach cells and responsible for fat storage and stimulation of hunger.
Giant cell A large cell with several nuclei.
Giant cell tumor 1. A connective tissue tumor of bone marrow 2. Tumor of tendon sheath 3. Epulis 4. chondroblastoma.294
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Ectopic gestation
Gibney's bandage Used to treat sprain in the ankle or support ankle (see Figure).
Gigantism Excessive physical development due to increased growth hormone secretion, late fusion of bones (eunuchoid gigantism)
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Gibney's bandage
Giardia A flagellated protozoa inhabiting intestinal mucosa (see Figure).
Giardiasis Infestation with Giardia lamblia.
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Giardia lamblia: (A) trophozoite, (B) cyst
295Gibbus Humped back, commonly due to compression fracture, collapse.
Gibson's murmur Murmur of patent ductus arteriosus.
Giddiness Light headed sensation.
Giemsa's stain A stain for staining blood smears for differential count and detection of parasitic microorganisms.
Gilbert's syndrome Hereditary deficiency of glucuronyl transferase with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome A neurological disorder manifesting with muscular incoordination, ticks and barks.
Gimbernant's ligament The lateral portion of inguinal ligament forming medial portion of femoral ring.
Gingiva The tissue surrounding the neck of tooth in maxilla and mandible. Gingiva has free edge surrounding anatomic crown of tooth, a labial surface and lingual surface (see Figure).
Gingivectomy Excision of gingiva in periodontal disease.
Gingivitis Inflammation of gums characterized by redness, swelling and tendency to bleed. g. necrotizing ulcerative Ulcerative and necrotic gingivostomatitis, usually by fusiform organisms.
Giralde's organ A remnant of wolffian body at posterior side of testicle.
Girdle Structure that resembles a circular belt or band. g. pelvic Composed of the ileosacral and femoral articulation. g. shoulder Two clavicles, scapulae and humeral articulation.
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Gingiva of an incisor, in cross-section
296Girdle symptoms Feeling of constriction in the chest, as in tabes dorsalis, or cord compression.
Gitter cell A honey combed cell packed with lipid granules.
Gitalin A cardiac glycoside.
Glabella That portion of frontal bone lying between the superciliary arches just above root of nose.
Glacial Resembling ice.
Gland A secretory organ. g. acinous Glands with secreting units in shape of sacs each possessing a narrow lumen. g. apocrine Glands in which the secreting cells lose some of their cytoplasmic contents in the form of secretion, e.g., some sweat glands, mammary gland. g. Bartholin Numerous glands that open into the vestibule of vagina akin to bulbourethral glands of male. gs. ceruminous Glands in external auditory canal, secreting cerumen. gs. Ebner's Serous glands of tongue located in the region of valate papillae whose ducts open into the furrows surrounding the papillae. g. mammary A compound alveolar gland secreting milk. It has 15-20 lactiferrous ducts each one discharging milk through a separate orifice on the surface of the nipple. The dilatation of these ducts form the milk reservoir during lactation. g. mixed 1. Glands having both exocrine and endocrine function, e.g., pancreas 2. Salivary glands secreting mucus and serous secretions. g. pineal Tiny conical body lying between two superior quadrigeminal bodies, connected with thalamus. g. parathyroid 4 in number of size 6 mm × 4 mm lying at the lower edge of thyroid gland secreting parathormone. g. prostate Gland surrounding neck of bladder and upper urethra, consists of a median lobe and two lateral lobes, weighing about 20 gm. Secretes thin opalescent slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of semen. g. salivary consist of parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. g. sebaceous A simple or branched alveolar gland secreting sebum, the ducts opening into hair follicle. gs. of Skene Two glands at the margin of female urethra, opening into lower urethra on either side. 297g. thyroid A ductless gland located in the base of neck; below consists of two lateral lobes connected by isthmus. Histologically consists of large number of closed vesicles called follicles lined with tall columnar cells synthesizing T3 and T4. gs. Tyson's Tiny sebaceous glands in the inner surface of perpuce and on the glans penis. g. Zuckerkandl's Accessory thyroid gland between genioglosus muscles (see Figure).
Glander Contagious disease of horses caused by Pseudomonas mallei, transmitted often to man.
Glans The head of the clitoris/penis.
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia Congenital abnormality of platelets with easy bruising, prolonged bleeding time and poor clot retraction.
Glasgow coma scale A scale for evaluating and quantitating the degree of coma by determining the best motor response, verbal and eye opening to standard stimuli.
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Salivary glands
298A score of 9 or greater excludes diagnosis of coma. It also has prognostic significance in head injury patients.
Glass photochromatic The glass becoming dark on exposure to light and regaining transparency on being away from light. g. bifocal Glasses in which the refractory power of lower portion of glass is for near vision and the upper portion for distant vision.
Glaucoma Raised intraocular pressure which can end in blindness. Narrowing of filtration angle, and sclerosis of canal of Schlemm, ocular diseases are responsible.
Gleet Chronic gonococcal urethritis marked by a transparent mucous discharge.
Glenoid cavity The socket in scapula that receives head of humerus.
Glenoid fossa The fossa of temporal bone that receives the condyle or capitulum of the mandible.
Glia Neuroglia; the connective tissue of the brain and spinal cord.
Gliadin A water insoluble protein present in the gluten of wheat.
Glibenclamide An oral hypoglycaemic agent of the sulphonylurea group used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Glioblastoma A malignant tumor of neurological cells.
Glioma A sarcoma of neurological origin.
Gliomatosis Formation of glioma.
Glipizide Sulphonyl urea compound for diabetes.
Globulin Simple protein present in blood. g. antihemophilic A clotting component of plasma, deficient in hemophiliacs. g. gamma That fraction of globulin responsible for body immunity. g. antilymphocyte Globulin from a person who has become immunized to lymphocytes; used as immunosuppressants.
Globus hystericus Sensation of lump in throat in hysterics.
Glomangioma A benign tumor developing from an arteriovenous glomus of skin.
Glomerular disease A group of disorders mostly autoimmune but some secondary (systemic disease, infectious disease, metabolic disease, hypertension, poison, etc) that involve the glomerulus manifesting with proteinuria, hematuria and hypertension.299
Glomeruli Cluster of capillary vessels enveloped in Bowman's capsule in cortex of kidney.
Glomerulonephritis A form of nephritis where lesions are confined primarily to glomeruli.
Glomerulopathy Any disease of glomeruli.
Glomerulosclerosis Fibrosis of glomeruli.
Glomoid Similar appearance to glomeruli.
Glomus A small round mass made-up of tiny blood vessels and found in stroma containing many nerve fibers.
Glossina Tsetse flies that transmit trypanosomes, agents of trypanosomiasis.
Glossitis Inflammation of tongue; can be acute, painful or chronic, due to infection or avitaminosis (B complex group).
Glossodynamometer Device for measuring contractile power of tongue muscles.
Glossograph An instrument for measuring tongue's movement during speech.
Glossopharyngeal nerve Ninth cranial nerve carrying taste sensation from posterior third of tongue and distributed to pharynx, meninges, parotids and ears.
Glottis Larynx with the two vocal cords and the intervening space, the rime glottides (see Figure).
Glucagon Polypeptide hormone secreted by alfa cells of pancreas that raises blood sugar and relaxes smooth muscles of G.I. tract.
Glucagonoma A malignant tumor of alpha cells of pancreas.
Glucocerebroside A cerebroside with glucose in the molecule, present in tissues in patients of Gaucher's disease.
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Glottis, comprising the vocal folds (cords) and rima glottidis, seen in a laryngoscopic view of the larynx. The trachea is visible through the rima glottidis
300Glucocorticoid A class of adrenal hormones that are released in response to stress and effect carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Glucogenesis Formation of glucose from glycogen.
Glucokinase An enzyme in liver that converts glucose to glucose 6 phosphate.
Gluconeogenesis Formation of glycogen from noncarbohydrate sources like amino or fatty acids.
Glucosamine An amino saccharide present in chitin and mucus.
Glucose Called D-glucose, the primary fuel of human body; in tissue either converted to glycogen, or fat or is oxidized to CO2 and H2O (see Figure).
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase An essential enzyme for pentose-phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism that generates reduced glutathione.
Glucose tolerance test A test performed by giving 1.5 gm/kg wt of glucose to a patient orally in empty stomach and then examining blood samples every ½ hr for 2 hours.
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Glucose tolerance test
301The test helps to assess ability of patient to metabolize glucose and is of primary importance in diagnosis of prediabetic states and hyperinsulinemia.
Glucoside A glycoside that upon hydrolysis yields glucose and additional products. e.g., digitalin, present in digitalis.
Glucosuria Abnormal amount of sugar in urine.
Glucoronic acid An acid that possesses detoxifying action.
Glucuronide Combination of glucuronic acid with phenol, alcohol, etc.
Glue ear The accumulation of sticky material in the middle ear resulting in impaired hearing, most common in young school children.
Glue sniffing Solvent abuse
Glutamic acid An amino acid formed during hydrolysis of proteins. It is the only amino acid metabolized by brain.
Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase An enzyme found in the liver. Measurement of serum levels (SGPT) is used in the study and diagnosis of liver diseases.
Glutaminase An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of glutamine into glutamic acid and ammonia.
Glutamine The monoamide of aminoglutaric acid, essential for hydrolysis of proteins.
Glutaraldehyde A sterilizing agent effective against all microorganisms.
Glutathione A tripeptide of glutamic acid, cystine and glycine, important for cellular respiration.
Gluten Vegetable albumin, a protein obtained from wheat and other grain.
Gluten free diet Elimination of gluten from the diet by exclusion of all products prepared from wheat, rye, barley and oats.
Gluten induced enteropathy Adult celiac disease manifesting with malabsorption and diarrhea.
Gluburide Sulphonyl urea compound for diabetes mellitus.
Glybenclamide Sulphonyl urea for NIDDM.
Glyceride An ester of glycerin compounded with an acid.
Glycerin C3H8O3. A trihydric alcohol present in chemical combination in all fats used extensively as a solvent, preservative and emolient.
Glyceryl The trivalent radical of glycerol. g. monostearate An emulsifying agent used in preparing creams and ointments. g. trinitrate Nitroglycerin, agent used in angina pectoris.302
Glycocholic acid Bile acid present in bile, a conjugate of cholic acid and glycine.
Glycogen Polysaccharide; the storage form of carbohydrate in the body (liver and muscle).
Glycogenase An enzyme in the liver that hydrolyzes glycogen to glucose.
Glycogenesis Formation of glycogen from glucose.
Glycogenolysis Conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Glycogen storage disease Inherited disease with abnormal storage of glycogen in the liver. gsd type I (von Gierke's disease) Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. gsd type II - Lysosomal alfa glucosidase deficiency gsd type III - Deficiency of debranching enzymes. gsd type IV - (Anderson's disease) brancher enzyme deficiency with hepatic failure. gsd type V - (McArdle's disease) Muscle phosphorylase deficiency. gsd type VI - Deficiency of liver phosphorylase with growth retardation, hepatomegaly, acidosis and hypoglycemia. gsd type VII - Deficiency of muscle phosphofructokinase with weakness and cramping.
Glycolipid Lipid with carbohydrate and nitrogen, but no phosphoric acid; Found in myelin sheath of nerves.
Glyconeogenesis SYN __ gluconeogenesis
Glycophorin Glycoprotein that spans the bilipid layer of erythrocyte membrane, functioning as a channel for passage of anions in and out of red cells.
Glycopyrrolate An anticholinergic drug used in preanesthetic medication to reduce G.I. and bronchial secretions.
Glycoside A plant product which on hydrolysis yields sugar and additional products.
Glycosphingolipids Carbohydrate containing fatty acid derivatives of ceramide, e.g., cerebrosides, gangliosides and ceramide oligosaccharides. Abnormal accumulation of them in nervous tissue due to deficiency of metabolizing enzymes leads to death.
Glycosuria Presence of glucose in the urine resulting from insulin deficiency, reduced renal threshold, excessive glycogenolysis or adreno pituitary disorders.
Glymidine A drug of the sulphonylurea group used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Gnat Insects smaller than mosquitoes that include black flies, sandflies and midgets.303
Gnathion Lowest point on the median line of mandible.
Gnathostoma A genus of nematodes that inhabit alimentary tract of domestic animals and occasionally infest man.
Goblet cells A unicellular gland seen in intestinal and respiratory tract, that secretes mucus by rupture of cell wall.
Godfrey's test Test for identifying tearing of posterior cruciate ligament.
Goiter An enlargement of thyroid gland. g. adenomatous Thyroid enlargement due to adenoma. g. colloid Thyromegaly with great increase in follicular contents. g. cystic Cystic thyromegaly; cyst formation being due to degeneration within an adenoma. g. diffuse Diffuse increase in thyroid tissue in contrast to its nodular form as in adenomatous goiter. g. endemic Thyromegaly due to iodine deficiency in water in some geographical areas. (see Figure) g. exophthalmic Grave's disease where antithyroid receptor antibodies play the dominant role with increased TSH and stimulation of thyroid. g. lingual Hypertrophied aberrant thyroid tissue forming a mass on dorsum of tongue posteriorly. g. toxic Goiter with excessive production of thyroxine and triodothyronine.
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Exophthalmic goiter
Gold Yellow metal used as alloy (mixed with copper, silver, platinum for dental use (crown, inlays, orthodontics); sodium thiomalate and thioglucose used in rheumatoid arthritis.
Golden hour The initial 60 minutes after a major traumatic injury during which the definitive care and surgical intervention must be given to the patient for counter-acting long-term and irreversible damage to vital organs.
Gold standard A standard with which other tests or procedures are compared.304
Golgi apparatus A lamellar membranous structure near the nucleus. In secretory cells it functions to concentrate and package the secretory products.
Golgi cells Multipolar nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and posterior bones of spinal cord.
Golgi corpuscle A sensory nerve ending or receptor found in tendons and aponeureses.
Goll's tract SYN __ fasciculus gracilis, posterior white column of spinal cord.
Gonad A generic term referring to male and female sex glands (testes and ovary).
Gonadal dysgenesis Congenital disorder with failure of ovaries to respond to pituitary gonadotropin stimulation resulting in amenorrhea, failure of sexual maturation and short stature. Webbing of neck, cubitus valgus may be present. Genetic pattern is 45 XO (SYN __ Turners’ syndrome).
Gonadotrophic Relates to stimulation of gonads.
Gonadotropin g.s. anterior pituitary Secreted by anterior pituitary as FSH and LH, called interstitial cell stimulating hormone in male (ICSH) g. chorionic Produced by chorionic villi of placenta.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone Produced in hypothalamus, it acts on pituitary to cause release of gonadotropic hormones.
Goniometer Apparatus to measure joint movement and angles.
Gonioscope Device for inspecting the angle of anterior chamber of eye and determining ocular mobility and rotations.
Goniotomy Incision at angle of anterior chamber to promote free flow of aqueous into canals of schleim.
Gonococcus Neisseria gonorrhae, causative organism of gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea Contagious inflammation of genital mucous membrane manifesting with burning micturition, painful induration of penis in males, vaginitis and cervicitis in females. Can cause salpingo oophoritis ending in tubal blockage and sterility in female and chronic prostatitis in male. Can spread to blood to involve principally the joints.
Goodell's sign Softening of the cervix during pregnancy (see Figure on page 305).
Goodpasture's syndrome IgA nephropathy with hemoptysis and hemosiderosis.305
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Goodell's sign
Good Samaritan law Legal stipulation for protection of those who give first aid in emergency situation.
Goose flesh Transient roughness of skin with contraction of arrector pili muscles, as a reaction to cold or shock.
Gordon's reflex Extension of great toe on pressure to calf muscles, a sign of pyramidal tract disease.
Gorget An instrument grooved to protect soft tissues from injury as pointed instrument is inserted in a body cavity.
Goserelin Gn RH analog.
Gossypol A toxic chemical of cotton seed.
Gouge Instrument for cutting away hard tissue of bone.
Goundou Bilateral hyperostosis of nasal bones.
Gout Hereditary metabolic disease of uric acid metabolism with hyperuricemia and arthropathy. g. tophaceous Gout marked by development of tophi (deposits of sodium urate) in the joints, external ear and about the finger nails.
Gower's sign Clinical sign of muscular dystrophy in childhood. Affected children use their arms to push themselves erect by moving their hands up their thighs.
Gower's tract Spinocerebellar tract.
Graafian follicle A mature follicle of ovary which on rupture discharges the ovum. Within the ruptured graffian follicle, the corpus luteum develops that secrets estrogen and progesterone to help in implantation of fertilized ovum (see Figure).
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Graafian follicle
306Gracile Slender, thin built.
Gracile nucleus Nucleus in medulla oblongata where fasciculus gracilis ends.
Gracilis A long slender muscle on the medial aspect of thigh.
Gradenigo's syndrome Suppurative otitis media with abducens nerve palsy.
Gradient A slope or grade.
Graefe's sign Failure of the upper eyelids to follow a downward movement of the eyeball, a feature of Grave's disease.
Graft Transplanted tissue in a part of body for repair of a defect. g. allogeneic Graft from genetically non identical donor of the same species as the recipient. (allograft) g. cadaver Grafting tissue taken from cadaver like cornea, bone, heart, lungs, kidney, etc., soon after molecular death. g. fascicular Nerve graft with each bundle of nerve stitched separately. g. full thickness Graft of entire layer of skin without the subcutaneous fat. g. homologous The donor is of same species as the recipient. g. isologous Graft in which the donor and recipient are genetically identical, i.e., identical twins. g. lamellar Very thin corneal graft used to replace superficial opaque corneal layer. g. pedicle A skin graft that is left attached at one end until the free end has begun to receive blood supply from grafted site. g. sieve Graft in which a section of skin is removed except for small regularly spaced areas that grow to cover the donor site. g. Thiersch's Graft in which only epidermis and small amount of dermis is used.
Graham's law The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.
Gram A unit of weight (mass) of metric system equal to 1000 mg.
Gram's method A method for staining bacteria, a heat fixed blood film is stained with gentian violet, rinsed off and then iodine solution is put and rinsed off and decolorized in 90% ethyl alcohol or acetone. Then the slide is counterstained with carbolfuschsin or safranine. Gram-positive organisms retain violet stain while gram-negative organisms become red.
Grandiose In psychiatry, unrealistic and exaggerated concept of self worth, importance, ability, power and wealth.
Granisetron Antiemetic.307
Granular Of the nature of granules, rough.
Granular cast Coarse or fine granules or casts, sometimes yellowish, soluble in acetic acid; seen in inflammatory and degenerative nephropathies (chronic renal failure).
Granulation Formation of granules, often by outgrowth of capillaries g. arachnoidal Villus like projections of subarachnoid layer of the meninges that project into the superior sagittal sinus and other venous sinuses of brain. Though these CSF is absorbed into venous systems.
Granule A minute mass in a cell that has an outline but no apparent structure.
Granulocyte A granular leukocyte, i.e. neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil.
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) a naturally occurring glycoprotein cytokine that stimulates production of neutrophils. It is helpful in cancer chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant.
Granulocyte-Macrophage-colony stimulating factor-(GMCSF) Like G-CSF, this factor stimulates production of macrophages and monocytes in addition to neurophils.
Granulocytopenia Reduction in blood granulocyte count.
Granulocytosis Presence of increased numbers of granulocytes in the peripheral blood film.
Granuloma A granular tumor or growth of lymphoid and epithelioid cell. It occurs in various infectious diseases like leprosy, yaws, syphilis, etc. g. dental Granuloma developing at root of a tooth, secondary to pulp infection. It contains chronic inflammatory cells, debris and bacteria. g. eosinophilic A form of xanthomatosis with eosinophilia and cystic degeneration of bone. g. inguinale Granulomatous ulcerative disease caused by Donovania granulomatis, a gram –ve cocobacillus. g. Wegener's A rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread granulomatous lesions of the bronchi, necrotising arteriolitis, and glomerulonephritis.
Granulomatosis The development of multiple granulomas.
Granulopoiesis Formation of blood granulocytes.
Granulosa cell tumor Tumor of ovary secreting estrogens, hence feminizing in nature.
Graphesthesia The ability by which outlines, numbers, 308words, symbols, traced or written upon skin are recognized.
Grasp To hold.
Grattage Removal of morbid growth by rubbing with a brush.
Grunt Abnormal sound heard during labored exhalation.
Gravel Coarse sand; concretions in kidneys, made-up of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid.
Graves’ disease Exophthalmic goiter (see Figure).
Gravid Pregnant.
Gravitation Force that draws every particle of matter.
Gravity Property of possessing weight. The force of earth's gravitational attraction. g. specific Weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water.
Gray Colour between extremes of black and white.
Gray matter Nervous tissue lying peripherally in brain and somewhat centrally in spinal cord where myelinated fibers do not predominate.
Gray syndrome of the newborn Ashen gray colour, vomiting, cyanosis and flaccidity of newborn when treated with chloramphenicol.
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Graves’ disease
309Grinder's disease Chronic lung disease due to dust inhalation (SYN-pneumoconiosis).
Gripes Spasmodic bowel pain, intestinal colic.
Griseofulvin An antifungal antibiotic given orally.
Grits Coarsely ground corn.
Groin Inguinal region, area between thigh and trunk.
Grommet Ventilation tube placed across the tympanic membrane for equalization of pressure in treatment of retracted tympanic membrane secondary to eustachian block/catarrh.
Groove Long narrow channel.
Ground itch Skin inflammation in foot due to invasion by larva of hookworm.
Ground substance The material that occupies the intercellular spaces in fibrous connective tissue, cartilage or bone.
Grouping Classification of individual traits according to shared characteristics. g. blood Classification of blood of different individuals according to agglutinating and hemolyzing properties.
Group therapy A form of simultaneous psychotherapy involving many patients by psychotherapist.
Growing pain Pain in the musculoskeletal system in growing children.
Growth The progressive increase in size or development both physical/mental in a living thing.
Growth hormone Anterior pituitary secretion that regulates human growth; SYN—__ somatotropin.
Guaiacol O-methoxyphenol used as antiseptic, germicidel, intestinal antiseptic and expectorant.
Guanabenz A vasodilator.
Guanadrel Adrenergic blocking agent.
Guanase Enzyme that converts guanine into xanthine.
Guanethidine A sympatholytic drug used in hypertension.
Guanidine A protein product.
Guanine C5H5N5O. An organic compound of animal and vegetable nucleic acids. Uric acid is its metabolic end product.
Guanosine A nucleoside formed from guanine and ribosome. It is a major constituent of RNA and DNA.
Gubernaculum A structure that guides, a cord like structure linking two structures. g. dentis A connective tissue band connecting unerupted tooth with overlying gum. g. 310testis A fibrous band extending from caudal end of fetal testis through the inguinal canal to scrotal sac; playing no role in descent of testis.
Gudden's law In division of a nerve, degeneration in the proximal portion is towards nerve cell.
Gugeelipid Lipid lowering agent.
Guide wire Wire helpful in positioning and manipulating an intravenous or intraarterial catheter.
Guillain-Barre syndrome Polyneuritis with flaccid muscular palsy following an infectious disease.
Guillotine Instrument for excising tonsils and laryngeal growth.
Guilt Feeling grief for doings what is thought to be wrong.
Guinea pig A small rodent used in laboratory research.
Guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis.
Gum The fleshy tissue covering the alveolar process of jaw.
Gumma Encapsulated granulomatous tumor with central necrosis, characteristic of tertiary syphilis seen in skin, liver, testis, brain and bone.
Gustatory Pertains to sensation of taste.
Gustometry Measurement of sense of acuteness of taste.
Gut The bowel or intestine.
Gutta-percha Purified dried latex of certain trees, used in dentistry for root canal treatment.
Guttering Groove in bone.
Guyon's canal A space at wrist between flexor retinaculum and palmar carpal ligament through which ulnar artery and ulnar nerve enter into the hand (see Figure on page 311).
Guyon's sign Ballotment of kidney.
Gymnophobia Abnormal aversion to seeing a naked body.
Gynandroid Individual having hermaphroditic sexual characteristics to be mistaken for a person of opposite sex.
Gynecoid Resembling female.
Gynecology The study of disease of female reproductive organs including breast.
Gynecomastia Abnormally large mammary tissue in male (> 2.5 cm in dm) often secreting milk.
Gypsum Hydrated calcium sulfate, used for plaster, dental casting.
Gyrus Convolution of the cerebral hemispheres (see Figure on page 311).311
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Guyon's canal
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HAART therapy Highly active antiretroviral therapy involving a combination of various antiretroviral drugs which aim to treat patients of HIV.
Habenula A whip like structure; A stalk attached to pineal body of brain; a narrow band like structure.
Habenular commissure A transverse band of fibers connecting the two habenular areas.
Habenular trigone A depressed triangular area located on the lateral aspect of the posterior third ventricle.
Habilitation The process of education and training persons with disability both physical and mental to improve their ability to function in society.
Habit A motor pattern following frequent repetition or an involuntary act that comes as a reflex action h. spasm Involuntary spasmodic muscle contraction; SYN-tic
Habituation Act of becoming accustomed to anything from frequent use.
Habitus A physical appearance that indicates a tendency to certain diseases or positioning of internal organs in certain planes.
Hacking cough Recurrent non-productive cough.
Halsted's operation An operation for inguinal hernia; operation for breast cancer.
Halsted's suture Interrupted suture for intestinal wounds.
Hemogogus A genus of mosquitoes which serves as a vector for yellow fever.
Hailey Hailey disease Benign familial pemphigus.
Hageman factor Blood coagulation factor, helps in kinin synthesis.
Hair A thin keratinized and cornified structure arising from hair follicle. The shaft of hair has 3 layers, the outer cortex containing the pigment melanin. Hair of eyebrow has life of 3-5 months and that of head 2-5 years with continuous turnover (see Figure on page 313).
Hair analysis Investigation for chemical composition of hair to exclude toxic chemical intoxication, state of nutrition and monitoring course of certain diseases.313
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Structure of a hair
Hair bulb The lower expanded portion of a hair
Hair follicle An invagination of the epidermis that forms a cylindrical depression extending into subepidermal layer. Sebaceous glands and arrectores pili muscles are attached to these hair follicles.
Hair papilla A projection of dermis extending into hair bulb at the bottom of hair follicle. It contains capillaries through which hair receives its nourishment.
Hair transplantation Technique of transferring skin containing hair follicles from one place to another; done to treat alopecia.
Hairy tongue Tongue covered with hair like papilla with threads of aspergillus or candida.
Halazone A chloramine water disinfectant.
Halcinonide A corticosteroid.
Half-life 1. Time required for radioactive substance to reduce to one-half its energy due to metabolism or excretion. 2. Time required for radioactive nuclei undergoing decay to lose half their 314radioactivity 3. Time taken by body to inactivate half of the administered drug/chemical (biological half-life).
Halfway house A facility to house mental patients who do not need hospitalization but who are not ready for independent living.
Halibut liver oil An oil obtained from liver of halibut fish rich in vit A and vit D.
Halide Compound containing a halogen i.e., bromine, chlorine, fluorine or iodine.
Halitosis Bad breath, offensive breath.
Hallervorden-Spatz disease An inherited progressive degenerative disease beginning in childhood manifesting with rigidity, athetotic movements and mental retardation.
Hallucination A sense of false perception. h. auditory Imaginary perceptions of sounds, usually voices. h. gustatory Sense of tasting. h. hypnagogic Pre-sleep phenomena having the same practical significance as a dream but experienced while consciousness persists. h. olfactory Hallucination involving smell. h. tactile False sensation of insects creeping under skin. h. visual Sensation of seeing objects that are not real.
Hallucinogen Drugs that produce hallucination e.g., LSD.
Hallucinosis The state of having hallucinations.
Hallux The great toe. h. rigidus Painful restricted mobility of great toe. h. valgus Displacement of great toe toward other toes. h. varus Displacement of great toe away from other toes (see Figure).
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Hallux valgus
Halo 1. A circle of light surrounding a shining body. 2. A ring surrounding the macula. h. glaucomatous Visual perception of rainbow like colors due to glaucoma induced edema of cornea.
Halofantrine Antimalarial agent.
Halogen A substance forming salt like chlorine, iodine, bromine and fluorine which 315combine with metals to form salt and with hydrogen to form acid.
Haloperidol Antipsychotic agent used in schizophrenia
Haloprogin Halogenated phenolic ether, fungicidal.
Halothane Fluorinated hydrocarbon used as general anesthetic.
Halsted's operation Operation done for radical correction of inguinal hernia.
Halsted's suture Suture placed through the subcuticular fascia that is used for exact skin approximation (see Figure).
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Halsted's suture
Hamartoma Disorganized self-limited, benign growth of normal tissue; when occurring in blood vessels called haemangioma; common to lungs and kidneys.
Hamate bone The medial bone in the distal row of carpal bones of wrist.
Hammer An instrument with rubber cap to tap muscle, tendon or nerve to initiate reflex response.
Hammer finger Flexion deformity of the distal joint of a finger, caused by avulsion of extensor tendon.
Hamstrings The group of three muscles on the posterior aspect of thigh comprised of semimembranous, semitendinosus and biceps femoris that flex the leg, extend and adduct the thigh.
Ham test Test for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The red cells lyse in acidic medium.
Hand That part of body attached to forearm at the wrist consisting of 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpals and 14 phallanges.
Hand-foot-mouth disease Highly infectious coxsackie virus causing painful ulcerative and vesicular lesions of hand and feet.
Handicap Mental or physical impairment preventing or interferring with normal physical and mental activities.316
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease A lipid storage disease manifesting with histiocytic granuloma in skull, skin and viscera often with exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus.
Hangman's fracture Fracture dislocation of upper cervical spine due to judicial hanging.
Hang nail Partly detached piece of skin at root or lateral edge of finger or toe nail.
Hangover Headache, depression, fatigue and irritability present some times after consumption of alcohol or CNS depressant.
Hansen bacillus Lepra bacillus
Hansen's disease Synonym for Leprosy.
Haploid Presence of half the number of chromosomes (i.e., 23) as found in ovum and sperm.
Hapten That portion of an antigen determining its immunological specificity.
Haptephobia Aversion to being touched by another person.
Haptoglobin Mucoprotein accepting hemoglobin in plasma on release in hemolytic conditions. Hence haptoglobin is decreased in hemolytic disorders and increased in certain inflammatory conditions.
Hardness Water with less cleansing action due to presence of soluble salts of calcium and magnesium. These compounds precipitate with soap.
Hare lip A cleft in the upper lip due to faulty fusion of median nasal process and the lateral maxillary processes.
Hare lip suture A twisted figure of eight suture used in surgical correction of harelip.
Harlequin fetus Newborn with skin features of ichthyosis with deep red fissures.
Harpoon A device with a hook on the end for obtaining small pieces of tissue.
Harris-Benedict equation Equation for calculating basal body energy expenditure.
Hartman's solution A solution of 0.6 gram NaCl, 0.03 gram KCl, 0.02 gram CaCl2 and 0.31 gram sodium lactate in 100 ml of water used for fluid and electrolyte replacement.
Hartnup disease A disorder of tryptophan metabolism manifesting with pellagra.
Harvey, William British physician who described circulation of blood.
Hashimoto's struma Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Hashish An extract from flower, stalk and leaves of cannabis sativa, smoked or chewed for its euphoric effect.
Hassal's corpuscle Spherical bodies with central area of 317degeneration with surrounding flattened cells, seen in thymus gland.
Haunch The hips and buttocks.
Haustra The sacculated pouches of colon, formed because the longitudinal bands are shorter than the gut.
Haversian canal Minute vascular canals in bone transmitting nutrient vessels.
Haversian gland Minute projections from the surface of synovial tissue into the joint space.
Haversian system Architectural unit of bone consisting of haversian canals, with alternate layers of intercellular matrix surrounding it in concentric cylinders.
Hay fever Allergic rhinitis usually caused by airborne pollens, fungal spores.
Head 1. The part of animal body containing brain and organs for vision, hearing, smell and taste. 2. Proximal end of bone.
Headache Acute or chronic pain over the skull not confined to any nerve distribution. h. cluster Headache occurring in cluster usually in male soon after falling asleep; akin to migraine. h. exertional Headache of short duration, appearing after strenuous physical activity, relieved by rest. h. histamine Headache resulting from ingestion of histamine containing foods. h. post lumbar puncture Leakage of CSF after lumbar puncture leading to CSF hypotension and headache. h. tension Contraction of musculo-tendinous structures of scalp giving rise to a band line compressing around head in situations producing mental strain.
Healing Restoration to normal mental or physical state
Health A state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing, not being mere absence of disease or infirmity.
Health certificate An official statement signed by a physician attesting to state of health.
Health education Educational program aimed for improving and maintaining good health.
Health hazard Any substance, condition or circumstances not conducive to good health.
Hearing aid An apparatus amplifying sound, worn by persons with impaired hearing.
Heart A hollow muscular 4-chambered contractile pump in the chest cavity, the principal organ of circulating system (see Figure on page 318).
Heartburn Indigestion marked by a burning sensation in the oesophagus, often with regurgitation of acid fluid. Pyrosis.318
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Heart lung machine A machine that takes over functions of heart and lung during open cardiac surgery (see Figure on page 319).
Heat Warmth. A form of energy, which may cause an increase in temperature or a change of state, e.g. the conversion of water into steam. H. exhaustion A rapid pulse, anorexia, dizziness, cramps in arms, legs or abdomen and sometimes followed by sudden collapse, caused by loss of body fluids and salts under very hot conditions. Prickly h. Miliaria; heat rash. Acute itching caused by blocking of the ducts of the sweat glands following profuse sweating. H.-stroke A severe life-threatening condition resulting from prolonged exposure to heat. (See Sunstroke).
Hebephrenia A form of schizophrenia characterized by thought disorder and emotional incongruity.319
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Heart lung machine
Delusions and hallucinations are common.
Heberden's nodes W. Heberden, British physician, 1710-1801. Bony or cartilaginous outgrowths causing deformity of the terminal finger joints in osteoarthritis.
Hebetude Emotional dullness. A common symptom in dementia and schizophrenia.
Hedonism Excessive devotion to pleasure.
Hegar's dilators A. Hegar, German gynaecologist, 1830-1914. A series of graduate dilators used to dilate the uterine cervix.
Heimlich maneuver H.J. Heimlich, American physician, b. 1920. A technique for removing foreign matter from the trachea of a choking person. Wrap the arms around the person and allow his or her torso to hang forward. Make a fist with one hand and grasp it with the other, then with both hands against the victim's abdomen (above the navel and below the rib cage), forcefully press into the abdomen with a sharp upward thrust. The manoeuvre may be repeated several times if necessary to clear the air passages. If unconscious or prone, turn the victim on to back, kneel astride the torso and with both hands use the manoeuvre as described.
Heinz bodies Inclusions in erythrocytes consisting of damaged aggregated hemoglobin and is associated with 320some forms of hemolytic anemia.
Heliotherapy Treatment of disease by exposure of the body to sunlight.
Helium Symbol He. An inert gas sometimes used in conjunction with oxygen to facilitate respiration in obstructional types of dyspnoea and for decompressing deep-sea divers.
Helix 1. A spiral twist. Used to describe the configuration of certain molecules, e.g. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). 2. The outer rim of the auricle of the ear.
HELLP syndrome Life-threatening complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count and considered to be a variant of preeclampsia.
Helminthiasis An infestation with worms.
Hemangioma Common benign tumor of blood vessel; hemangioblastoma occurs in cerebellum, retina and spinal cord; hemangioendothelioma is malignant, hemangio- pericytoma can be benign or malignant usually occurring in kidney, lower extremity or retroperitoneum. h. cavernous composed of large dilated blood vessels usually not present at birth. h. capillary the most common type, contain closely packed blood vessels, often present at birth. h.strawberry firm red dome shaped.
Hemarthrosis Bleeding into a joint.
Hematemesis Vomiting of blood which may be associated with peptic ulcers, tumors of upper gastrointestinal tract, varices, gastritis, etc.
Hematin Formed from oxidation of free heme of hemoglobin.
Hematochezia Passage of bloody stool.
Hematocrit Red blood cells volume in blood.
Hematoidin A yellow-brown or red pigment formed from hemoglobin under reduced oxygen tension.
Hematoma Localized collection of blood. h. epidural blood collected in epidural space due to tear of middle meningeal artery. h. subdural blood collected in subdural space due to tearing of venous sinuses; can be acute or chronic.
Hematometra Accumulation of blood in uterus.
Hematuria Passage of blood in urine.
Heme A protoporphyrin with 4 pyrrole groups that binds to oxygen for its carriage to tissues.321
Hemianesthesia Anaesthesia (loss of sensation) of one-half of body due to lesion in internal capsule
Hemianopia Partial blindness, in which the patient can see only half of the normal field of vision. It arises from disorders of the optic tract and of the occipital lobe.
Hemiballismus Involuntary chorea-like movements on one side of the body only.
Hemiplegia Paralysis of one-half of body h. capsular Lesions of internal capsule producing hemiplegia
Hemisacralization Abnormal development of one half of fifth lumbar vertebra fusing with the sacrum.
Hemispasm Spasm of one side of body or face.
Hemisphere Either half of the cerebrum or cerebellum. h. dominant Cerebral hemisphere controlling speech usually the left in 90% right handed persons and 15% of left handed persons.
Hemithorax One-half of the chest.
Hemivertebra Congenital absence or failure of development of half of vertebra.
Hemoagglutination Clumping of RBC.
Hemoagglutinin An agglutinin that clumps RBC.
Hemobilia Blood in bile duct.
Hemochromatosis A congenital disorder of iron metabolism leading to excess iron accumulation in liver, pancreas, and heart. SYN—bronze diabetes.
Hemoconcentration A relative or a absolute increase in RBC mass; can be secondary to fluid loss.
Hemocyanin An oxygen carrying blue pigment in the plasma of arthropods and moluscus.
Hemocytoblast The primitive reticuloendothelial stem cell of bone marrow differentiating into various blood components.
Hemocytogenesis Formation of blood cells.
Hemocytology Study of structure and function of blood cells.
Hemodialysis A method of removing poisonous substances, urea, creatinine, etc. from plasma by passing the patient's blood across semipermeable membranes. SYN—hemoperfusion.
Hemodialyzer Device used in performing hemodialysis.
Hemodilution Reduction in relative concentration of RBC due to plasma volume expansion.
Hemodynamics Study of blood circulation.322
Hemoflagellate Any flagellate protozoan of the blood e.g., trypanosoma, leishmania.
Hemofuscin A brown pigment derived from hemoglobins.
Hemoglobin The iron containing protoporphyrin IX, responsible for carriage of oxygen from lungs to tissues. h. fetal Fetal hemoglobin contains 2 alfa and 2 gamma chains in globin unit, constitutes the total Hb in fetus and is replaced by adult Hb after birth. Normal concentration in adults is 2%, level is increased in thalassemia minor. Hb S The hemoglobin of sickle cell anemia which polymerizes on exposure to hypoxic conditions, causes hemolysis and organ dysfunction due to vascular occlusion. Hb M The iron in HbM is in ferric form and is not able to combine with oxygen (hence called methemoglobin). There is diffuse cyanosis. Hb AIC Glycosylated Hb where glucose is attached to terminal amino acid of betaglobin chain. Normal level is < 6%. Value above 6% indicates poor blood sugar control.
Hemoglobinemia Presence of free hemoglobin in plasma.
Hemoglobinometer Apparatus for estimating blood Hb.
Hemoglobinuria Presence of hemoglobin in urine.
Hemogram Differential blood count.
Hemolysin Agents destroying blood corpuscles.
Hemolysis Destruction of RBC.
Hemolytic anemia Anemia resulting from haemolysis of red blood cells.
Hemolytic disease of newborn ABO or Rh incompatibility resulting in haemolysis, anemia, jaundice, edema and hepatic enlargement.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome Characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute nephropathy and thrombocytopenia in children usually preceded by upper respiratory illness or G.I. upset.
Hemoperfusion Perfusion of blood through substances, such as activated charcoal or ion exchange resins, to remove toxic material. The blood is not separated from the chemical or solution by semipermeable dialysis membrane unlike hemodialysis.
Hemopericardium Accumulation of blood in the pericardial sac.
Hemoperitoneum Accumulation of blood in peritoneal cavity.
Hemopexin A glycoprotein of beta-globulin that binds to hemin but not hemoglobin.323
Hemophilia A sex-linked hereditary disorder of coagulation with prolonged clotting time, repeated hemarthrosis and bleeding from nose or after trivial trauma. There is deficiency of factor VIII.
Hemophilus A genus of bacteria, gram –ve, nonmotile, requiring blood factors X or V for their growth.
Hemopneumopericardium Blood and air in pericardial cavity due to the injury to trachea or mediastinum.
Hemopneumothorax Blood and air in pleural cavity.
Hemopoiesis Formation of blood cells (see Figure).
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Hemoptysis Expectoration of blood or coughing up of blood.
Hemorrhage Bleeding, either external or internal. h. antepartum Bleeding after 28 weeks of gestation and before onset of labor. h. accidental Retroplacental bleeding. h. post partum Bleeding in excess of 500 ml. after childbirth.
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn Bleeding from nose, umbilical stump in newborn due to inadequate prothrombin synthesis (premature fetal liver/poor bacterial flora).
Hemorrhagic fevers A group of diseases due to arthropod-borne viruses like yellow fever, Kyasanur Forest disease.
Hemorrhoid Dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectal region. h. external Dilated vein or veins at the junction of anal mucosa with the anal skin. h. prolapse Prolapse of internal hemorrhoids through the anus. h. strangulated Painful prolapsed hemorrhoids with cessation in their blood supply by pressure from anal sphincter.
Hemorrhoidectomy Removal of hemorrhoids by surgery, ligation or cryo, etc.
Hemosalpinx Bleeding into fallopian tube.
Hemosiderin Iron containing pigment derived from hemoglobin 324liberated from disintegrated RBC.
Hemosiderosis Deposition of iron in reticuloendothelial cells of liver principally after multiple blood transfusion as in hemoglobinopathy and hemolytic diseases.
Hemostasis Arrest of bleeding.
Hemothorax Blood in the pleural cavity, either due to trauma, tumor of lungs and pleura, connective tissue disease, etc.
Henderson Hasselbalch equation An equation for expression of pH.
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura Allergic purpura with erythema, urticaria accompanied by gastrointestinal and joint symptoms.
Henry's law The weight of a gas dissolved by a given volume of liquid at a constant temperature is directly proportional to the pressure.
Heparin A polysachharide produced by mast cells of liver and basophils, inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
Hepatic coma Impaired CNS function due to liver dysfunction. Coma results from increased serum ammonia, false neurotransmitters and middle molecules, the toxic products of protein metabolism. Common precipitating factors are high protein diet, bleeding into GI tract (varices), infections, electrolyte imbalance, diuretics and drugs. Mousy odor, flapping tremor and EEG changes are characteristic.
Hepatic duct The bile channel from liver that joins with cystic duct to form common bile duct.
Hepatic veins The three veins draining right and left lobes of liver into inferior vena cava.
Hepatitis Inflammation of liver; causative agents include viruses (Hepatitis A, B, C, delta agent), bacteria, alcohol, drugs and autoimmune diseases. Common symptoms and signs are nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fever and hepatomegaly. h. A Average incubation period 4 weeks, acute onset, transmitted by feco oral route. Rarely leads to chronic liver diseases. h. B Average incubation period 60 days, slow onset, usually progresses to chronic active hepatitis, spread is by blood and blood product and sexual contact. h. C. Previously designated non A, non B, acute onset, usually spreads through blood and blood 325products, mild course. h. delta Onset may be acute, usually occurs in those having hepatitis B. Usually self limited. h. amebic The liver dysfunction is due to a nonspecific reaction to amebic colitis, not true invasion of ameba into liver. Right subcostal pain, tender hepatomegaly, fever and leukocytosis are present. h. alcoholic History of excessive indulgence in alcohol, with tender hepatomegaly, icterus and marked elevation of SGOT and SGPT. h. fulminant Rapidly progressive hepatitis with deepening jaundice, liver cell failure and coma.
Hepatitis-associated antigen It was originally applied to hepatitis B surface antigen or Australia antigen. Now other antigens like core antigen (Hbc), ‘e’ antigen are also identified for diagnosis of hepatitis B infection.
Hepatitis B immunoglobulin Derived from blood plasma of human donors who have high titers of antibodies against hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B vaccine A recombinant vaccine with hepatitis B surface antigen given as 20 µg. Dose-3 doses, to persons at high-risk.
Hepatoblastoma Malignant teratoma of liver.
Hepatogenic Having its origin in the liver.
Hepatogenous Originating in the liver.
Hepatojugular reflex Pressure on the liver or right upper abdomen causes a rise in jugular venous pressure in patients of congestive heart failure.
Hepatolenticular degeneration An autosomal recessive trait with copper deposition in liver, cornea, kidney and brain due to decrease in plasma copper binding protein, the ceruloplasmin.
Hepatology Study of liver.
Hepatoma A primary malignant tumor of liver.
Hepatomegaly An enlargement of liver; may be upward or downward. Commonly due to alcohol, hepatitis, amebiasis, congestive failure, infectious fevers, etc.
Hepatorenal syndrome Kidney dysfunction with uremia secondary to acute or chronic hepatic catastrophe.
Hepatosis Non-inflammatory disease of liver.
Hepatosplenomegaly Enlargement of both liver and spleen; commonly due to enteric fever, malaria, kala-azar, leukemia and lymphoproliferative 326disorders, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, etc.
Herb A plant with soft stem containing little wood, usually seasonal.
Hereditary Genetic characteristic transmitted from parent to offspring.
Heredofamilial Any disease recurring in family members due to inherited defect or other familial factors.
Hering-Breuer reflex Reflex inhibition of inspiration resulting from stimulation of lung receptors following lung inflation.
Hering's nerve Affarent nerve fibers from carotid sinus passing to brain via glosso- pharyngeal nerve. A rise in blood pressure stimulates these nerves to reflexly diminish heart rate.
Heritage The genetic and other characteristics transmitted from parents to offsprings.
Hermaphrodite One possessing genital and sexual characteristic of both male and female. The clitoris is usually enlarged to resemble penis of male.
Hermaphroditism Existence of ovarian and testicular tissue in same individual.
Hernia Protrusion of an organ or part of it through a defect in the wall surrounding it. h. complete One in which the organ along with its sac has passed completely through the opening. h. epigastric Hernia of intestine through an opening in the midline above umbilicus. h. fascial Protrusion of muscular tissue through its covering fascia. h. femoral Hernia through femoral ring. h. hiatal Hernia of fundus of stomach through the esophageal hiatus of diaphragm. h. incarcerated Hernia with complete obstruction of herniating bowel segment. h. inguinal Herniation of abdominal content (intestine or omentum) through inguinal rings. h. direct inguinal The hernial sac protrudes through the external inguinal ring in the region of Hesselbach's triangle. h. indirect inguinal The hernial sac protrudes through internal inguinal ring and descends along inguinal canal to protrude in external inguinal ring. h. labial Protrusion of a loop of bowel into the labium majus. h. mesocolic Herniation between the layers of mesocolon. h. obturator Hernia through obturator foramen. h. retroperitoneal Hernia into peritoneal sac extending behind the peritoneum 327into the iliac fossa. h. Ritcher's A portion of the wall of the intestinal loop protrudes, the lumen remaining patent. h. sliding The herniating organ slides in and out of hernial sac. h. strangulated Irreducible hernia where there is complete cut-off blood supply to herniating organ with threatening gangrene. h. tonsillar Protrusion of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, causing often compression of medulla oblongata. h. transtentorial Herniation of uncus and part of temporal lobe through tentorium cerebelli (see Figure).
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Sliding hiatal hernia
Hernial sac The pouch of peritoneum pushed before the hernia and into which it descends.
Herniated disc Rupture of nucleus pulposus through annulus fibrosus to protrude into spinal canal.
Herniorraphy Surgical repair of hernia.
Herniotomy Surgical correction of irreducible/strangulated hernia by incision over constricting ring.
Heroin An extract of morphine with strong analgesic and addictive potential. Acute intoxication produces euphoria, respiratory depression, hypotension and hypothermia.
Herpangina A coxsackie virus infection with fever, sore throat, and increased salivation. The throat is covered with vesicles.
Herpes Vesiculated eruptions caused by herpes virus. h. simplex Thin walled vesicles occurring at mucocutaneous junctions (lips, vagina) or over oral mucous membrane. h. simplex encephalitis Caused by herpes simplex virus ‘B’, predominantly involving temporal lobes and is hemorrhagic. h. zoster Caused by varicella zoster virus with inflammation of posterior root ganglia of cranial or spinal nerves. Painful vesicular eruptions, usually unilateral, distributed over few spinal segments or forehead and eye (trigeminal nerve) are characteristic.328
Herring bodies Neurosecretory granules in the terminal nerve endings of hypothalamus and hypophyseal tract.
Hertz An unit of frequency equivalent to one cycle per second.
Hesperidin A chemical present in orange and lemon peel that is hemostatic by strengthening the capillaries.
Hesselbach's hernia Hernia passing through cribiform fascia.
Hesselbach's triangle Triangular space bounded by Poupart's ligament below, outer border of rectus sheath and epigastric artery.
Heterogeneous Composed of different kinds of substances.
Heterogenesis Production of offsprings that have different characteristics in alternate generations.
Heterogeusia Perception of an inappropriate quality of taste when food is chewed.
Heterograft Graft from another individual.
Heterolalia The use of meaningless words.
Heterologous 1. Composed of tissue not normal to the part. 2. A tissue, cell or blood obtained from a different individual/species.
Heterometropia Two eyes with different refraction.
Heterophil An antibody reacting with other than specific antigen.
Heterophonia Change of voice occurring esp. at puberty.
Heterophoria Tendency of the eyes to deviate from their normal position for visual alignment due to imbalance or insufficiency of ocular muscles.
Heterosexual One whose sexual orientation is to members of opposite sex.
Heterosmia Perception of inappropriate smell.
Heterotopia Development of normal tissue at an abnormal location or displacement of an organ from its normal location.
Heterotrichosis Growth of different kinds or colors of hairs on the scalp or body.
Heterotroph An organism like man who requires complex organic food for growth and development.
Heterozygote An individual with different alleles for a given characteristic.
Heubner's disease Syphilitic end arteritis in brain.
Hexachlorphene Polychlorinated phenol, antiseptic disinfectant.329
Hexokinase An enzyme catalyzing phosphorylation of glucose; present in muscle tissue and yeast.
Hexose Any monosaccharide of formula C6 H12 O6.
Hexylresorcinol Anthelmintic agent.
Hiatus An opening. h. semelunaris Groove in the external wall of middle meatus of nose into which frontal sinus, maxillary sinus and anterior ethmoidal cells drain.
Hibernation Condition of remaining asleep and immobile for the winter, especially in animals.
Hibernoma A rare multilobular encapsulated tumor containing fetal fat tissue closely resembling fat stored in the foot pads of hibernating animals.
Hiccough Intermittent spasmodic contraction of diaphragm with closure of glottis, causing a short sharp inspiratory cough.
Hick's sign Intermittent painless uterine contraction occurring after third month of pregnancy.
Hidradenoma Adenoma of sweat glands.
Hierarchy In order of importance.
High blood pressure Blood pressure above the normal range for age. Usually 140/90 mmHg if below 50 years and above 160/90 if above 60 years.
High residue diet High fiber/cellulose diet (above 30 gm/day) beneficial for colorectal diseases, diabetes and obesity.
Hilton's law A nerve supplying a muscle also supplies the joint that muscle moves and the skin overlying the insertion of that muscle.
Hilton's line A white line at the junction of skin of the perineum and anal mucosa.
Hilton's sac A pit along the external portion of false vocal cord.
Hilum (SYN __ hilus) 1. The root of lungs at the level of 4th and 5th dorsal vertebra. 2. Depression or recess at exit or entrance of a duct into a gland or nerves and vessels into an organ.
Hind gut The caudal portion of entodermal tube giving rise to ileum, colon and rectum.
Hinge joint A joint permitting only flexion and extension in a single axis.
Hip Upper part of thigh formed by femur, ilium, ischeum and pubis.
Hip joint The ball and socket articulation between head of femur and acetabulum.330
Hippocampal commissure A thin sheet of fibers passing transversely under posterior portion of corpus callosum.
Hippocampal formation Olfactory structures including hippocampus, dentate gyrus, supracallosal gyrus, diagonal band of Broca and hippocampal commisure.
Hippocampus major Elevation of floor of inferior horn of lateral ventricle.
Hippocampus minor Small elevation on the medial wall of lateral ventricle formed by end of calcarine fissure.
Hippocrates Greek physician who first established the scientific basis of medical practice; hence known as father of medicine.
Hippocratic facies The appearance of face at the time of impending death.
Hippocratic oath The oath Hippocrates exacted from his students which reads like “I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked nor suggest any such counsel, and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary for abortion. With purity and holiness I will pass my life and practise my art, into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and I will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption, and further from seduction of females or males, of free men and slaves. Whatever in connection with my professional practice, or not in connection with it, I see or hear in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret.
“While I continue to keep this oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of this art, respected by all men in all times. But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot”.
Hippuric acid Endogenous acid formed in the human body from combination of benzoic acid and glycine and excreted by kidneys.
Hippus Rhythmical and rapid dilatation and contraction of pupil.
Hirschberg's reflex Adduction of foot when sole at base of great toe is stimulated.331
Hirschsprung's disease A dynamic megacolon due to failure of development of myenteric plexus in the rectosigmoid area of colon.
Hirsutism Excessive hair growth in women.
Hirudicide Any substance that destroys leeches.
His bundle Atrioventricular bundle arising in AV node and ending in the ventricles.
Histamine A derivative of histidine that is secreted by mast cells and is responsible for triple response.
Histamine blocking agents H1 receptor blocking agents are antiallergic and H2 receptor blockers reduce gastric acid production.
Histamine headache Headache after taking histamine containing foods.
Histidine An amino acid obtained by hydrolysis from tissue proteins.
Histiocyte A phagocytic cell with ameboid activity, present in most connective tissues.
Histiocytosis Abnormal presence of histiocytes in the blood.
Histiocystosis-X A granulomatous destructive disease.
Histochemistry Light and electron microscopy and special chemical tests and stains done to study chemistry of cells and tissues.
Histocompatibility The ability of cells to survive without any immunological influence or interference; important in blood transfusion and tissue transplantation.
Histocompatibility antigens A number of antigens expressed by all nucleated cells which are controlled by genes located in major histocompatibility gene complex (mhc) in chromosome 6.
Histogenesis Origin and development of tissue.
Histoid Resembling one of the tissues.
Histology Study of microscopic structure of cells and tissues.
Histone A class of simple proteins present in cell chromatin.
Histonomy The law governing development and structure of tissues.
Histoplasmosis A systemic fungal infection with histoplasma capsulatum, manifesting as fever, anemia, splenomegaly, leukopenia and pulmonary infiltrations.
Histotomy Cutting of thin sections of tissue for microscopic study.
Histozyme A renal enzyme that converts hippuric acid into benzoic acid and glycine.332
Histrionic Theatrical, dramatic.
Hives Eruption of itchy wheals due to allergy; local or systemic.
Hoarseness A rough quality of voice due to simple chronic laryngitis, vocal cord palsy, or infiltration of vocal cords.
Hobnail liver Liver with an irregular surface, usually cirrhosis.
Hodgkin's disease A lymphoproliferative disease with painless lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and often relapsing fever. Reed-Sternberg's giant cells in lymph node biopsy are characteristic.
Hoffman's sign Flicking the terminal phalanx of finger causes reflex flexion of other fingers of same hand in pyramidal damage.
Holistic medicine Comprehensive and total care of a patient, taking into account his physical, mental, social, economic and spiritual needs.
Holodiastolic Covering entire diastole i.e., closure of aortic valve to closure of mitral valve.
Holoendemic A disease affecting almost all population in a given area. In malaria epidemiology, spleen index rate of > 5% in children under 10 implies the disease to be holoendemic.
Holography A method of producing 3 dimensional pictures. The picture obtained is called hologram.
Holoprosencephaly Deficiency in fore brain with CSF accumulation due to trisomy of 13, 14, 15, or 18 chromosomes.
Holorachischisis Complete spina bifida.
Holosystolic Related to entire period of systole.
Holter monitor An ECG recording system capable of recording ECG for 24 hours, particularly useful for recording arrhythmias, and silent ischemia.
Homan's sign Pain in the calf on passive dorsiflexion of great toe, an evidence of deep vein thrombosis.
Homatropine Anti-muscarinic agent used to dilate pupil.
Homeopathy A system of medicine developed by Hahnemann based on the theory “like cures likely”, i.e., large doses of a drug that produces symptoms of disease in healthy people will cure the same symptoms in small doses.
Homeostasis. State of equilibrium of internal environment of the body.333
Homicide Murder.
Homoblastic Developing from a single type of tissue.
Homocystine A homologue of cystine formed during catabolism of methionine.
Homocystinuria An inherited metabolic disease due to absence of an enzyme essential in the metabolism of homocystine. Clinical features include marfanoid features, mental retardation, subluxation of lens, etc.
Homogeneous Uniform in structure, composition or nature.
Homogenesis Reproduction by same process in succeeding generations.
H1 and H2 receptor blockers Agents that block H1 and H2 receptors e.g., terphenadrine and ranitidine respectively.
Homologue Similar in position, origin and structure.
Homonymous In ophthalmology pertains to corresponding vertical halves of visual field.
Hookworm An intestinal blood sucking nematode ancylostoma duodenale and necator Americanus.
Hormone A chemical substance produced in body subserving specific function h. adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) 39 amino acid peptides secreted by adrenal cortex. h. follicle stimulating (FSH) secreted by anterior pituitary causing growth and maturation of ovarian follicle. h. gonadotropin releasing (GnRH) hypothalamic hormone causing FSH, LH release. h. growth secreted by anterior pituitary affecting metabolism and thus control of skeletal and visceral growth. h. luteinizing (LH) anterior pituitary hormone causing ovulation and secretion of progesterone. h. melanocyte stimulating secreted by anterior pituitary causing skin pigmentation h. parathyroid secreted by parathyroid glands promoting release of calcium from bone by stimulation of osteoclasts and increases gut calcium absorption.
Horn Cutaneous outgrowth composed chiefly of keratin. horn anterior Gray substance in anterior portion of spinal cord SYN-ventral horn. horn dorsal Posterior projection of gray matter in spinal cord. horn of Ammon Hippocampus.
Horner's syndrome Myosis, ptosis, enopthalmos and loss of sweating over affected 334side of face due to paralysis of cervical sympathetic trunk.
Horse power A unit of power equals to 33.000 foot pounds per minute or 745.7 watts.
Horse-shoe shaped kidney A congenital renal abnormality in which both the kidneys are united at their lower poles.
Hospice Palliative and supportive care services for terminally ill.
Hospital Institution for treatment of sick and injured.
Hospitalization Admission of a patient into hospital.
Host 1. The organism which nourishes the parasite. 2. The individual receiving the graft in transplantation program. host definitive The final host in which parasite has sexual maturity and sexual union for reproduction. host intermediate Host in which parasite undergoes sexual development.
Hostility Manifestations of anger, animosity or antagonism directed towards oneself or others. It may be a symptom of depression.
Hotline A continuously functioning telephone connection.
Hot water bag A rubber or plastic bag for application of dry heat or keeping moist applications warm.
Hour-glass contraction Excessive contraction of an organ at its center resembling hourglass e.g., in malignancy of stomach or gastric ulcer.
House maid's knee Patellar bursitis in house maid due to prolonged kneeling.
House physician An intern or resident responsible for patient care under direction of a senior staff.
Houston's valves Crescent shaped folds of mucous membrane in the rectum.
Howell-Jolly bodies Spherical granules in the erythrocytes seen in asplenia, thalassemia, leukemia, etc.
Howship's lacunae Grooves or pits occupied by osteoclasts during bone resorption.
Hubbard tank Tank of suitable size and shape for active and passive underwater exercises.
Huguier's canal Canal in the base of skull through which chorda tympani nerve exits from brain
Huhner's test Aspiration of vagina within an hour of coitus to test for sperm motility in investigation of infertility.
Hum Soft continuous sound.
Human immunodeficiency virus. (See AIDS).335
Human insulin Insulin prepared by recombinant DNA technology using E. coli.
Human placental lactogen Placental secretion that helps to prepare the breast for milk secretion.
Humerus Bone of upper arm that articulates with scapula above and radius, ulna below (see Figure).
Humidity Moisture in the atmosphere.
Humor Any fluid or semifluid substance in the body. h. aqueous The secretion of cilliary body occupying anterior and posterior chambers of eye. It is absorbed to venous system through canal of Schlemm. h. vitreous The transparent jelly like substance occupying the space between lens and retina.
Humpback Curvature of spine or kyphosis.
Hunchback Kyphosis with prominent rounded deformity of back.
Hunger A desire to eat with dull pain in epigastrium. Appetite in contrast is pleasant sensation of seeking food to eat to enjoy it.
Hunter's canal Adductor canal.
Hunter's disease Mucopoly- saccharidosis II.
Hunterian chancre Indurated syphilitic chancre.
Huntington chorea Inherited disease of CNS manifesting with chorea, progressive dementia.
Hurler's syndrome A form of mucopolysaccharidosis with skeletal abnormality, cloudy cornea, and often mental deficiency.
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Anterior view of the right humerus
336Hürthle cells Eosinophilic staining cells of thyroid gland.
Hutchinson Sir British surgeon.
H.'s pupil Widely dilated pupil in CNS disease.
H.'s teeth A feature of congenital syphilis in which the lateral incisors are peg shaped and the central incisors are notched.
H.'s triad In congenital syphilis this diagnostic triad consists of deafness, interstitial keratitis and Hutchinson's teeth.
Hyaline It refers to any alteration within cell or in the extracellular space, which gives a homogeneous, glassy, pink appearance in histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Hyaline Bluish-white glassy translucent cartilage, e.g. semilunar cartilage of knee, thyroid cartilage.
Hyaline cartilage Smooth, pearly true cartilage covering articular surface of bone.
Hyaline casts Pale, transparent casts with homogeneous rounded ends seen in urine in nephropathy.
Hyaline membrane disease A respiratory disease of newborn with poor gas transfer.
Hyalinization The development of an albuminoid mass in a cell or tissue.
Hyalinosis Waxy or hyaline degeneration.
Hyalitis Inflammation of vitreous humor; can be asteroid, punctate and suppurative.
Hyalogen A protein substance in vitreous humor and cartilage.
Hyaloid artery A fetal artery supplying nutrition to the lens. It disappears afterbirth.
Hyaloid canal Lymph channel in vitreous extending from optic disk to posterior capsule of lens; contains hyaloid artery in fetus.
Hyaloid membrane Membrane that envelops the vitreous humor.
Hyaluronic acid An acid mucopolysaccharide forming the ground substance of connective tissue; functioning as a binding and protective agent.
Hyaluronidase An enzyme that depolymerizes hyaluronic acid, thereby increases permeability of connective tissues.
Hybrid The offspring of parent that are of different species.
Hybridization Production of hybrids by cross-matching.
Hybridoma It is the cell produced by fusion of an antibody 337producing cell and a multiple myeloma cell. The hybrid cell thus formed can be a source of continuous monoclonal antibodies.
Hydantoin A colorless base, glycolyl urea.
Hydatid A cyst formed in internal organs, commonly lungs or liver by developing larva of E. granulosus.
Hydatid disease The disease produced by the cysts of larval stage of echinococcus (see Figure).
Hydatidiform mole Degenerative process of chorionic villi with formation of multiple cysts within uterus (see Figure).
Hydatid of Morgagni Cyst like remnant of mullerian duct that is attached to fallopian tube.
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Hydatid disease
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Hydatidiform mole
338Hydradenitis Inflammation of sweat glands.
Hydradenoma Tumor of sweat gland.
Hydragogue Drug promoting watery evacuation of bowel like sodium sulphate or magnesium sulphate.
Hydralazine Antihypertensive acting through vasomotor center in CNS.
Hydramnios An excess of liquor amnii around the developing fetus.
Hydranencephaly Hydrocephalus due to congenital absence of cerebral hemispheres.
Hydrarthrosis Serous effusion into a joint cavity.
Hydraulics The science of fluids.
Hydriatrics Application of water for treatment SYN__hydrotherapy.
Hydrocarbon Compound made of only hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrocele Fluid accumulation in tunica vaginalis testes or in any sac like cavity (see Figure). h. cervical Hydrocele of neck resulting from accumulation of fluid in persistent cervical duct or cleft. h. congenital Hydrocele present since birth resulting in failure of tunica vaginalis to close. h. encysted Hydrocele in the processus vaginalis with closure of its abdominal and scrotal ends.
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Hydrocephalus Increased content of CSF within the ventricles resulting from decreased absorption of CSF, its increased production or blockage to its circulation resulting from developmental anomalies, infection, injury or tumor. h. communicating Hydrocephalus in which normal communication between 4th ventricle and subarachnoid space is maintained. h. normal pressure Hydro-cephalus with normal CSF pressure and without demonstrable block, to CSF circulation.
Hydrochloric acid Produced by oxyntic cells of gastric 339glands, serves to convert pepsinogen into pepsin, dissolves and disintegrates nucleoproteins, precipitates caseinogen, hydrolyzes sucrose, inhibits bacterial multiplication, etc.
Hydrochlorothiazide Diuretic.
Hydrocodone Opioid alkaloid, analgesic and hypnotic.
Hydrocolpos Retention cyst of vagina.
Hydrocortisone Corticosteroid hormone produced by adrenal gland.
Hydroflumethazide A diuretic.
Hydrogen A colorless, odorless and tasteless gas with atomic weight of 1. Three isotopes of hydrogen, e.g. protium, deuterium and tritium have (appx) atomic weights of 1,2, 3 respectively.
Hydrogenase An enzyme that catalyzes reduction by molecular hydrogen.
Hydrogenation Addition of hydrogen to convert unsaturated fat to solid fat.
Hydrogen donor In oxidation- reduction reactions a substance that gives up hydrogen to another substance.
Hydrogen ion The positively charged hydrogen particle.
Hydrogen ion concentration The pH value is the negative logarithm of H. ion concentration of a solution, expressed in gram ions (moles) per liter. A solution with pH of 1 is ten times more acid than one with pH of 2 and 100 times more acid than one with pH of 3. A pH above 7 means alkalinity. The blood pH is around 7.35.
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 colorless greasy liquid with irritating odor and acrid taste, decomposes easily liberating oxygen in presence of light. 3% solution is a mild antiseptic, germicide and cleansing agent. Used commercially as a bleaching agent.
Hydrogen sulfide H2S. A poisonous, gas with pungent odor of rotten egg.
Hydrolase An enzyme causing hydrolysis.
Hydrolysis Combination of water with salt to produce acid and base or a chemical decomposition in which a substance is split into simpler compounds by addition or the taking up of the elements of water.
Hydrometer An instrument that measures density of liquid.
Hydromorphone An analgesic, opium derivative.
Hydromyelia Distention of central canal of spinal cord with fluid.340
Hydromyelocele Protrusion of spinal CSF sac through spina bifida.
Hydromyoma Cystic uterine fibroid.
Hydronephrosis Collection of fluid in renal pelvicalicyeal system usually due to obstruction to urine flow, ultimately causing atrophy of renal parenchyma (see Figure).
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Hydropericarditis Inflammatory condition of the pericardium along with the accumulation of sevous fluid inside the pericardial sac.
Hydroperitoneum Also known as ascites in which there is accumulation of serous fluid inside the peritoneal cavity.
Hydrophobia Morbid fear for water, synonym for rabies in which attempt to drink water causes spasm of pharynx due to CNS irritation.
Hydrophilic ointment Topical ointment that absorbs water and hence is emollient.
Hydropneumatosis Liquid and gas in tissues producing combined edema and emphysema.
Hydropneumopericardium Fluid and gas in pericardial cavity.
Hydropneumothorax Gas and fluid in pleural sac.
Hydrops Edema. h. endolymphaticus Edema of labyrinth.
Hydropyonephrosis Dilatation of renal pelvis with pus and urine.
Hydroquinone A depigmenting agent.
Hydrorrhoea Production of profuse watery discharge from any part or organ of the body, e.g. Hydrorrhoea gravidarum refers to discharge of watery fluid from the vagina during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Hydrostatic densitometry An underwater weighing technique for determination of body components, usually percentage of fat.
Hydrostatic test A test to know if the dead infant has breathed prior to death. If the infants lungs float in water, breathing had been established prior to death.
Hydrotherapy Scientific application of water in treatment of 341diseases for following therapeutic objectives. Brief hot tub and shower baths relieve fatigue, cold bath to constrict blood vessels, to reduce tissue edema after injury. Hot bath dilates blood vessels, encourages perspiration.
Hydrothorax Accumulation of noninflammatory fluid within thorax.
Hydroureter Distension of ureter due to obstruction.
Hydroxocobalamin A chemical with activity similar to B12.
Hydroxyapatite Calcium phosphate in combination with calcium carbonate present in the bones; when it combines with fluorine, it becomes decay resistant fluoroapatite.
Hydroxybenzene Phenol.
Hydroxybutyric acid A component of ketone body produced by abnormal metabolism of fat in diabetic ketosis.
Hydroxychloroquin Antimalarial agent.
Hydroxyproline An amino acid found in collagen.
Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose A substance used to increase viscosity of solutions.
Hydroxystilbamidine isethionate Antiprotozoal antimonial. 5 hydroxy tryptamine Serotonin.
Hydroxyurea Cytotoxic agent used in leukemia.
Hydroxyzine An antihistamine.
Hygiene Study of methods and means of preserving health.
Hygroma A sac containing fluid. h. cystic A rapidly growing cystic swelling in neck of lymphatic origin.
Hygrometer Instrument for measuring moisture in air.
Hymen A fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance to vagina. h. annular Hymen with ring shaped opening in the center. h. biforis Hymen with two parallel openings with a thick septum in between. h. cribiform Hymen with many small openings. h. denticulatus Hymen opening has serrated edges.
Hymenolepsis A genus of tapeworm. h. nana Dwarf tapeworm, average length 1”. capable of completing lifecycle within one host.
Hymenology Science of the membranes and their diseases.
Hymenoptera An order of insects that includes ants, bees, hornets and wasps.
Hymenorrhaphy Plastic surgery of hymen to restore it to preruptured state.342
Hyoglossus Muscle arising from hyoid bone and inserted into dorsum of tongue. It draws sides down and retracts the tongue.
Hyoid bone Horse-shoe shaped bone lying at the base of tongue (see Figure).
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Hyoid bone
Hyopharyngeus Middle pharyngeal constrictor.
Hyoscine hydrobromide Belladona alkaloid having atropine like effect.
Hyper Prefix meaning excessive, beyond.
Hyperacidity Excess of acid in stomach.
Hyperactivity Excessive activity of an organ or entire organism.
Hyperacusis Abnormal sensitivity to sound, e.g., in hysteria.
Hyperalgia Excessive sensitivity to pain.
Hyperalimentation IV infusion of hypertonic solution that contains sufficient amino acids, electrolytes and glucose to sustain life and achieve normal growth and development.
Hyperammonemia Excess of ammonia in blood, e.g., cirrhosis can be congenital either due to deficiency of carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase that metabolize ammonia.
Hyperamylasemia Increased blood amylase.
Hyperbaric oxygen Oxygen on increased pressure to treat gas gangrene, air embolism, decompression sickness, CO poisoning, nonhealing ulcers, etc.
Hyperbetalipoproteinemia Excessive amount of betalipoprotein in blood.
Hyperbilirubinemia Excessive amount of bilirubin in blood.
Hypercalcemia Excessive amount of calcium in the blood (12.2 mg%) either idiopathic, or secondary to malignancy, prolonged recumbency, vit D intoxication, etc.
Hypercalciuria Excessive excretion of calcium in urine.
Hypercapnia Excess CO2 in blood.
Hyperchloremia Increased chloride content of blood e.g., hyperchloremic acidosis.
Hyperchlorhydria Excess secretion of HCl in stomach.343
Hypercholesterolemia Excessive (>250 mg%) cholesterol in blood; often familial, but usually dietary.
Hyperchromatic Overpigmented.
Hyperchromatopsia Defect of vision in which all objects appear colored.
Hypercorticism Excessive production of adrenocortical hormones.
Hypercyesis Presence of more than one fetus in uterus.
Hyperdontia Presence of more than normal number of teeth.
Hyperemesis Excessive vomiting.
Hyperemesis gravidarum Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy threatening dehydration, and acidosis.
Hyperemia Vascular congestion; can be active as in increased blood flow or passive due to venous stasis.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome Idiopathic persistent hyper- eosinophilia often with CNS and cardiac involvement.
Hyperesthesia Increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli especially pain and touch.
Hyperextension Excessive degree of extension movement in a joint, a feature of collagen disorder.
Hyperferremia Increased iron content of blood.
Hyperfibrinogenemia Increased blood fibrinogen, often threatening spontaneous coagulation.
Hyperglycemia Increased blood sugar as in diabetics.
Hyperglycinemia Accumulation of amino acid glycine in blood manifesting with mental and growth retardation.
Hypergnosia Distorted or exaggerated perception.
Hypergonadism Excessive secretion of sex hormones.
Hyperhidrosis Unusually high sweating, often due to fever, drugs, anxiety.
Hyperhydration Excess amount of water in the body.
Hyperinsulinism Excess of insulin in the body causing hypoglycemia that manifests with hunger, sweating, weakness, convulsion and often coma.
Hyperkalemia Serum potassium exceeding 5 mEq/lit.
Hyperkeratosis Thickening of horny layer of epidermis often due to vitamin A deficiency.
Hyperkinesia Increased muscular movement and physical activity. In children often due to brain dysfunction and phenobarbitone.344
Hyperlipemia Excessive quantity of fat in the blood.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Increased lipoprotein content in blood due to increased synthesis or decreased breakdown.
Hypermelanosis Increased melanin content of skin either in epidermis (melanoderma) in which the coloration is brown, or in the dermis in which skin color is blue or slate grey. Conditions responsible for hypermelanosis are ACTH producing tumors, Wilson's disease, biliary cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, etc.
Hypermenorrhea Abnormal increase in duration or amount of menstrual blood loss.
Hypermetabolism Increased metabolic rate seen in hyperthyroidism, fever, following trauma and surgery.
Hypermetria Unusual range of movement as in cerebellar disease.
Hypermetropia Far-sightedness, i.e., the parallel rays fall behind the macula.
Hypermimia Making great number of gestures while speaking.
Hypermnesia Great ability to remember or memorize minute details as in mania or in conditions of temporal lobe stimulation.
Hypermobility Increased range of joint movement due to lax surrounding structures as in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marafan's syndrome.
Hypermorph Large limb length causing high standing height in comparison to sitting height.
Hypernatremia Excess sodium content of blood (150 mEq/lit).
Hypernephroma Renal cell carcinoma.
Hypernormal Abnormal.
Hyperosmia Abnormal sensitivity to odors.
Hyperosmolarity Increased osmolarity of blood (300 mOsms/lit.)
Hyperostosis Abnormal and excessive growth of osseous tissue. h. frontalis interna Multiple osteomas arising from frontal bone internally into nasal sinuses. h. infantile cortical Excessive subperiosteal bone growth in the mandible or clavicles.
Hyperoxaluria Increased oxalic acid excretion in urine. h. enteric Caused by disease or surgical removal of ileum. h. primary Defective oxalate metabolism causing oxlate calculi in urinary system.
Hyperparathyroidism Increased parathormone secretion, causing osteitis fibrosa cystica, 345bone pain, renal stone and fracture.
Hyperpathia Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli.
Hyperphasia Abnormal desire to talk.
Hyperphenylalaninemia Increased phenylalanine in blood.
Hyperphonia Explosive speech in stammerers.
Hyperphoria Tendency of one eye to turn upward.
Hyperphosphatasemia Raised alkaline phosphatase in blood either due to biliary obstruction or bone destruction.
Hyperphosphatemia Increased blood phosphorus content.
Hyperphosphaturia Increased amount of phosphates in urine.
Hyperphrenia Excessive mental ability as in mania.
Hyperpituitarism Overactivity of pituitary, commonly the anterior lobe producing gigantism/ acromegaly.
Hyperplasia Excessive growth of normal cells with normal tissue architecture.
Hyperploidy Condition having one extra chromosome, e.g., Down syndrome (trisomy 21).
Hyperpnea Increased rate and depth of breathing.
Hyperpraxia Excessive activity and restlessness.
Hyperprolactinemia Amenorrhea, galactorrhea produced by increased serum prolactin due to hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction.
Hyperprolinemia Excess blood proline level due to inherited metabolic defect.
Hyperproteinemia Excess of protein in plasma, as in multiple myeloma.
Hyperproteinuria Protein excretion in urine exceeding 150 mg/24 hours.
Hyperptyalism Excess salivary secretion.
Hyperpyrexia Body temperature exceeding 1060F. (41.1oC). h. malignant Hyperpyrexia occurring with inhalant anesthetics and muscle relaxants.
Hyperreflexia Increased tendon reflexes.
Hyperresonance Increased resonance to percussion especially over cavity, bullae, pneumothorax and emphysematous lung tissue.
Hypersensibility Hypersensitivity to a foreign protein or drug.
Hypersomnia Prolonged sleepiness, usually pathological, i.e. narcalepsy.
Hypersplenism Enlarged spleen with enhanced removal 346of blood components from circulation.
Hypersthenia Abnormal strength or excessive tension of the entire body or part of it.
Hypersthenuria Passage of abnormally concentrated urine.
Hypersusceptibility Unusual susceptibility to a disease, pathological process, parasite or chemicals.
Hypertelorism Abnormal width between two paired organs, usually the eyes.
Hypertension Blood pressure considered abnormally high for an age. h. essential Hypertension without apparent cause. h. malignant Severe hypertension with diastolic pressure exceeding 130-140 mmHg with papilledema. h. portal Increased portal vein pressure caused by obstruction to portal flow as in cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis/compression and Budd-Chhiari syndrome. h. renal Hypertension secondary to renal artery occlusion leading to hyperreninemia.
Hyperthecosis Hyperplasia of theca interna of ovary often leading to amenorrhea and hirsutism.
Hyperthelia Presence of more than 2 nipples.
Hyperthermia Unusual high fever; a treatment modality by which foreign protein is introduced into body to raise body temperature.
Hyperthrombinemia Increased thrombin concentration in blood.
Hyperthyroidism Over production of thyroxine by thyroid gland with tachycardia, tremor, anxiety, weight loss, increased appetite.
Hypertonia Increased vascular/muscle tone.
Hypertonic Having higher osmotic pressure or having greater than normal tension.
Hypertrichosis Excess growth of hair due to endocrine disease.
Hypertrophy Nontumorous enlargement of an organ or structure due to increase in size or number of cells. h. concentric The walls of the organ become symmetrically thick without increase in size of cavity. h. eccentric Regional hypertrophy with dilatation. h. pseudomuscular An inherited disease affecting boys where the muscles commonly of calf, thigh, buttocks enlarge due to deposition of fat and fibrous tissue. The involved muscles are weak and atrophied with waddling 347gait and increased spinal curvature.
Hyperuricemia Increased serum uric acid (8 mg%).
Hypervascular Excess vascularity.
Hyperventilation Increased rates and depths of inspiration and expiration.
Hyperviscosity Excess adhesiveness or stickiness property of fluid, commonly blood.
Hypervitaminosis Excessive vitamin content of body tissues, commonly involves fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K; usually secondary to excess ingestion.
Hypervolemia Abnormal increase in volume of circulating blood.
Hypesthesia Lessened sensibility to touch.
Hyphema Bleeding into anterior chamber of eye.
Hypnagogic Induced by sleep; inducing sleep; in psychiatry relates to hallucinations and dreams just before loss of consciousness.
Hypnodontics The application of controlled suggestions and hypnosis to practice of surgery.
Hypnology Scientific study of sleep.
Hypnosis A subconscious condition in which the patient responds to suggestions made by the hypnotist, useful for treatment of phobias, anxiety and chronic pain disorder.
Hypnotics Drugs that cause insensitivity to pain by inducing hypnosis.
Hypnotism An induced sleep like state during which the patient is peculiarly susceptible to the suggestions of the hypnotist.
Hypoacusis Decreased sensitivity to sound stimuli.
Hypoalbuminemia Decreased plasma albumin manifesting with edema, usually due to malnutrition or cirrhosis.
Hypoaldosteronism Decreased plasma aldosterone with hypotension and hyperkalemia.
Hypoalimentation Insufficient nourishment.
Hypob aric Decreased atmospheric pressure.
Hypocalcemia Decreased plasma calcium manifesting with stridor and tetany.
Hypocalciuria Decreased calcium excretion in urine.
Hypocarbia Decreased CO2 in blood.
Hypocapnea Decreased CO2 in blood.
Hypocellularity Decreased cell population in any tissue.348
Hypochloremia Decreased chloride content in blood.
Hypochlorhydria Decreased HCl secretion in stomach often indicative of malignancy of stomach.
Hypochlorous acid HClO, used as disinfectant/bleaching agent.
Hypochondriac Abnormal and excessive fear of disease.
Hypochondrium Part of the abdomen below the lower ribs.
Hypochromasia Lack of hemoglobin in RBC SYN—hypochromia.
Hypocomplementemia Decreased complement concentration in blood.
Hypocorticism Decreased cortical hormone.
Hypodermic Inserted under the skin.
Hypodontia Absence or poor tooth development.
Hypofunction Decreased function.
Hypogammaglobulinemia Decreased gammaglobulin concentration in blood leading to frequent infections; can be congenital or acquired (AIDS).
Hypogastrium Region below the umbilicus, between the right and left inguinal regions.
Hypogeusia Blunting of taste sensation.
Hypoglossal Situated below the tongue.
Hypoglossal nerve 12th cranial nerve originating in medulla and supplying intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue.
Hypoglottis Under surface of tongue.
Hypoglycemia Decreased blood glucose below 50 mg% manifesting as tremor, sweating, weakness, etc.
Hypoglycemic agents Sulphonyl urea compounds causing a decrease in blood sugar.
Hypoglycemic shock Shock produced by hypoglycemia induced by insulin injection to treat schizophrenia.
Hypokalemia Decreased blood potassium (> 3mEq/l) manifesting with weakness, paralysis and hypotension.
Hypokinesia Decreased motor activity.
Hypolipidemic Reducing lipid concentration.
Hypomagnesemia Decreased plasma magnesium with neuromuscular excitability.
Hypomelanosis Decreased melanin in epidermis, e.g. vitiligo, burn.
Hypomenorrhea Decreased menstrual flow.
Hypomorph Individual with disproportionately short legs.349
Hyponatremia Decreased blood sodium concentration. (< 130 mEq/L).
Hypoparathyroidism Insufficient parathormone production with hypocalcemia and tetany.
Hypopharynx Lowermost portion of pharynx leading to esophagus and larynx.
Hypophonia Weak voice.
Hypophoria Tendency of one visual axis to fall below the other.
Hypophosphatasia Decreased alkaline phosphatase in serum, usually an inherited metabolic disease manifesting with rickets, osteomalacia, poor dentition, etc.
Hypophosphatemia Decreased plasma phosphate concentration.
Hypophyseal Pertains to hypophysis or pituitary.
Hypophysectomy Excision of hypophysis.
Hypophysis The pituitary gland occupying sella turcica.
Hypophysitis Inflammation of pituitary body.
Hypopituitarism Diminished pituitary hormone secretion secondary to pituitary destruction by tumor, infarction, compression resulting in secondary dysfunction of thyroid, adrenal, testis/ovary and growth disturbance in children.
Hypoproteinemia Decreased plasma protein.
Hypopyon Pus in anterior chamber usually secondary to corneal ulcer.
Hypospadius Abnormal urethral opening, either in the under surface of glans, penile shaft or in perineum.
Hypostasis Diminished blood flow or circulation.
Hyposthenia Weakness, subnormal strength.
Hyposthenuria Secretion of low specific gravity urine.
Hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure.
Hypothalamus The portion of diencephalon comprising the ventral wall of third ventricle and adjacent structures responsible for regulation of body temperature, sugar and fat metabolism, and secretion of releasing and inhibiting hormones. It is the principal center for integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities (see Figure on page 350).
Hypothenar The fleshy prominence at the base of little finger along innerside of palm.
Hypothermia Subnormal (below 96°F) body temperature, induced for open heart surgery and neurological procedures.350
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Hypothesis An assumption not proved by experiment or observation.
Hypothrombinemia Deficiency of thrombin in blood.
Hypothyroidism Deficiency of thyroid hormones causing thick coarse hair, dry thick inelastic skin, hoarse voice, obesity, depressed muscular activity, slow pulse and hypercholesterolemia. Mental retardation and growth failure may occur in children (cretinism).
Hypotonia Loss of muscle or arterial tone.
Hypotrichosis Sparse hair.
Hypotrophy Degeneration and atrophy of tissues.
Hypotympanum The part of middle ear below the level of tympanic membrane.
Hypoventilation Reduced rate and depth of breathing.
Hypovitaminosis Condition arising from lack of vitamins.
Hypovolemia Diminished circulating blood volume.
Hypoxanthine A purine derivative formed during protein decomposition to form urea and uric acid.
Hypoxemia Insufficient oxygen content of blood.
Hypoxia Decreased O2 concentration in inspired air.
Hypsarrhythmia An abnormal EEG pattern in which there is persistent generalized slowing and very high voltage discharge; characteristic of infantile epilepsy.
Hypsiloid U or Y shaped.
Hypsiloid ligament Iliofemoral ligament.
Hypsokinesis Tendency to fall backwards when standing as seen in Parkinson's disease.
Hypsophobia Fear of being at great heights.
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of uterus either by abdominal or vaginal route. It can be subtotal, total or radical. In radical hysterectomy (Wertheim's operation) uterus, tubes, ovaries, adjacent lymphnodes and part of vagina are removed; usually done in stage I and II cancer cervix.351
Hysteresis Failure of the manifestation of an effect to keep up with its cause.
Hysteria A conversion disorder in which patient transforms longstanding mental conflict into somatic symptoms. There is no organic disease to account for the symptoms. Patient is amnesic for the period of illness as the primary consciousness reasserts itself.
Hysteric chorea A form of hysteria with choreiform movements.
Hysterography Recording of frequency and intensity of uterine contractions.
Hysterogram X-ray of uterus.
Hysteroid Resembling hysteria.
Hysteromania Nymphomania.
Hysterometry Measurement of size of uterus.
Hysteromyemectomy Excision of uterine fibroid.
Hystero-oophorectomy Excision of uterus and ovaries.
Hysteropia Hysteric visual defect.
Hysterorrhexis Rupture of pregnant uterus.
Hysterosalpingectomy Excision of uterus and tubes.
Hysterosalpingography X-ray visualization of uterus and the tubes by introduction of contrast media.
Hystero salpingostomy Anastomosis of uterus with the remaining healthy portion of fallopian tube after excision of diseased part.
Hysteroscope Instrument for examination of inside of uterus.
Hysterotomy Incision of uterus as in evacuation of mole, dead fetus or cesarian section.
Hysterotrachelectomy Amputation of uterine cervix.
Hysterotrachelorrhaphy Repair of torn cervix.
Iatrogenic Adverse body effect induced by drug, procedure or the doctor.
Ibuprofen A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent.
Ice Solid form of water at temperature of 0oC or below.
Icebag A water tight bag to hold ice for cold sponging over bruised or sprained area.
Ichnogram A footprint taken while standing.
Ichor Fetid discharge from an ulcer.
Ichthammol A reddish brown viscous fluid acting as an antiseptic, often used in ear-dressing and skin applications.
Ichthyosis Condition in which skin is dry, scaly resembling fish skin. Ichthyosis vulgaris is hereditary.
Ichthyotoxin Any toxin present in fish.
Ictal Pertains to acute attack of epilepsy or stroke.
Icteric Pertains to jaundice.
Icteroid Resembling jaundice.
Icterus Yellow pigmentation of sclera, mucous membrane and skin due to excess bile salts in blood.
Id. In psychiatry one of the three divisions of psyche, the other two being ego and super ego. The id is the obscure, inaccessible part of our personality that serves as a repository of instinctual drives continually striving for expression.
Idarubicin Anthracycline antinerplastic antibiotic.
Idea A mental image, concept. i. compulsive A persistent obsessional thought. i. dominant Idea that controls one's thought and action. i. fixed Idea dominating one's mind and not amenable to change irrespective of evidence to contrary. i. of reference An impression that the conversations or actions of others have reference to oneself.
Ideal A goal regarded as a standard of perfection.
Ideation The process of thinking or formation of ideas. 353It is quick in mania but slow in depression, and dementias.
Identical Exactly alike.
Identification 1. The process of determining the sameness of a thing or person with that described or known to exist 2. A defense mechanism operating unconsciously, by which a person patterns himself after some other person. This plays a major role in personality development. i. dental The use of dental charts, radiographs or records to establish a person's identity. i. palm and soles Prints of palm and sole used for one's identification.
Identity The physical and mental characteristic by which an individual is known and recognized.
Ideology A philosophy, the science of ideas and thoughts.
Ideomotor Muscular automatic movement regulated by a dominant idea.
Idiocy Severe mental deficiency due to defective mental development, the cause of which may be genetic, vascular or birth asphyxia.
Idioglossia Inability to articulate properly so that the language is not comprehensible.
Idiogram Graphic representation of chromosome karyotype.
Idiopathic A disease without recognizable cause.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A form of interstitial lung disease with diffuse fibrosis and rapid deterioration.
Idiophrenic Pertaining to or originating in the mind alone.
Idiosyncrasy A peculiar or individual reaction to an idea, action, drug, food or some other substance. Special characteristic by which one person differs from another or reacts differently from another.
Idiot Person with severe mental deficiency.
Idiotropic In psychology turning inward mentally and emotionally, i.e. introvert who is satisfied with his own emotions and is content to live apart from social contacts.
Idiotype In immunology, the specific Fab region of the immunoglobulin to which the specific antigen binds.
Idioventricular A heart rhythm arising from conduction tissue or ventricular muscle without any influence from sinus node.
Idoxuridine Antiviral agent; used for herpes infection of eye in the form of ointment 2%.
Ifosfamide Anticancer drug.
IgA Principally present in exocrine secretions like milk, 354saliva, intestinal secretions and tear. Hence it protects against mucosal invasion by pathogenic organism. IgE is secreted by mast cells and is responsible for allergy, asthma, eczema, etc. IgG is the principal immunoglobulin and is the major antibody against bacteria, viruses and fungi. IgM is formed during early period of antigenic stimulation or infection.
Ileal bypass A method of treating obesity whereby absorption of nutrients from intestine is decreased from anastomosis of one portion of upper small intestine to another portion down below.
Ileal conduit Method of diverting the urinary flow by transplanting the ureters into an isolated segment of ileum opening into the abdominal wall.
Ileitis Inflammation of ileum. i. regional A nonspecific chronic granulomatous lesion involving terminal ileum giving rise to pain, weight loss, intestinal obstruction and often fistula formation.
Ileocecal valve A muscular ring at the terminal ileum that regulates passage of food from small intestine to large intestine and prevents re-entry of food back into small intestine.
Ileocecostomy Surgical formation of an opening between ileum and cecum.
Ileocolostomy Anastomosis between the ileum and colon.
Ileoileostomy Surgical formation of an opening between two parts of ileum.
Ileorrhaphy Surgical repair of ileum.
Ileostomy Surgical opening of ileum through external abdominal wall.
Ileum Lower 3/5 of small intestine from jejunum to ileocecal valve. Average length 15-31 feet.
Ileus A form of intestinal obstruction due to intestinal muscle paralysis, spasm or obstruction in intestinal lumen, e.g., meconium ileus of newborn.
Iliac crest Upper free margin of hip bone or ileum.
Iliac fascia Transversalis fascia over the anterior surface of iliopsoas muscle.
Iliac region Inguinal region on either side of hypogastrium.
Iliac spine One of the four spines of ilium namely the anterior and posterior inferior spines, and the anterior and posterior superior spines.355
Iliotibial band A thick wide fascial layer from the iliac crest to knee joint.
Ilizarov method A method of bone lengthening by distraction using external fixators.
Illness Sickness, ailment.
Illumination Lighting up of a part for examination or of an object under microscope. i. darkfield A method used to observe spirochetes or colloid particles in which the central or axial light rays are stopped and the object is illuminated by light rays coming from sides.
Illusion Inaccurate perception, misinterpretation of sensory impressions; when an illusion becomes fixed, it is called delusion.
Image A mental picture representing real object or the picture of an object produced by lens or mirror.
Image intensifier Device that increases brightness of an image and permits discrimination of much smaller objects in the image.
Imagery The calling up of events or mental pictures pertaining to sound, smell, taste, etc.
Imagination Formation of mental images of things, persons or situations.
Imaging Production of image of an object by X-ray, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, etc.
Imbalance Loss of balance usually between opposing body forces. i. autonomic Sympathetic- parasympathetic imbalance. i. vasomotor Excessive vasoconstriction or dilatation.
Imatinib Anticancer agent for CML.
Imbecile Severe mental deficiency.
Imbed In histology, to surround with a firm substance such as paraffin or colloidium.
Imbibition The absorption of fluid by a solid.
Imbricated Overlapping as tiles.
Imidazole An organic compound with heterocyclic ring as in histamine and histidine.
Imipenem An antibiotic, betalactamase resistant.
Imipramine A tricyclic antidepressant, also used in migraine and enuresis.
Immature Not fully developed or mature.
Immedicable Incurable.
Immersion Placing body or object under water or fluid; in microscopy the act of immersing the objective (lens) in oil.356
Immersion foot A form of cold injury due to dampness and cold.
Immiscible Which cannot be mixed, e.g. oil and water.
Immobilization To make a part or limb immovable by splint, traction, plaster cast.
Immune Protected from or resistant to disease due to development of antibodies.
Immune reaction Reaction of host cells to antigenic stimulation.
Immune response The response of body to substances that are foreign or are interpreted as foreign. Immune response can be cell mediated, humoral or nonspecific.
Immunifacient Making immune.
Immunity State of being protected against disease either by previous infection or by vaccine. i. acquired Immunity due to active or passive immunization. i. cell mediated The T-cells interact with antigen with a delayed response as seen in graft rejection or infection with tuberculosis, leprosy. i. natural Immunity conferred by natural inherent factors like race, species. i. passive Immunity due to transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies, antibodies secreted in milk or injection of hyperimmune specific sera.
Immunization The process of rendering a person immune by active (toxoid, inactivated, killed organisms) or passive process.
Immunoassay Assay of concentration of a substance by using the reaction of an antigen with specific antibody.
Immunobiology Study of immune phenomena in biological systems.
Immunochemistry The chemistry of antigen, antibodies and their relation to each other.
Immunocompetence Being capable of developing antibody response stimulated by an antigen.
Immunocompromised Unable to have adequate immunological response because of genetic defect of T and B-cells, immunosuppressive drugs or AIDS virus infection.
Immunodiagnosis Use of specific immune response in diagnosing medical conditions.
Immunodiffusion A test method in which antigen and antibody are placed in a gel where they diffuse towards 357each other and when they meet a precipitate is formed.
Immunoelectrophoresis A method of investigating the amount and character of antibodies and immunoproteins present in body fluids.
Immunofluorescence The use of fluorescein stained or fluorescein labeled antibodies to locate antigen in tissues. The sample is examined in fluorescent microscope.
Immunogen A substance that stimulates formation of antibody.
Immunogenetics The study of genetics by use of immune responses.
Immunogenic Capable of inducing immunity.
Immunogenicity The capability to stimulate antibody formation.
Immunoglobulin Proteins capable of acting with antigens; can be IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgM.
Immunology Study of immunity to disease.
Immunopathology Study of tissue alterations resulting from immune or allergic reactions.
Immunoselection Selective survival of cell populations due to their having least amount of cell surface antigenicity.
Immunostimulant Agent capable of stimulating antibody production.