Pharmacology for Nurses Padmaja Udaykumar
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to figure and t refer to table, respectively.
A
Abacavir 274, 275
Abciximab 125
Abortion 331
Absence seizures 147
Absorption of poison 351
Abuse in athletes 334
Acamprosate 145
Acarbose
acrab 341
diabose 341
Acebutolol 74
Acetazolamide 84
Acetylation of drugs 26
Acid resistant penicillins 241
Acid-base and electrolyte balance 172
Acidifiers 86
Acids 302, 303
Acne 249
Acquired tolerance 27
Acriflavine and proflavine 306
Acting muscle relaxants 59
Actinomycin D 295
Actinomycosis 240
Action of
acetylcholine 45, 47t
acyclovir 272f
aminoglycosides 251f
antiamebic drugs 281f
antiepileptics 148f
antifungal drugs 269f
antihypertensive drugs 106f
antitubercular drugs 260f
ascending limb of Henle's loop 79f
cardiac glycosides 92
collecting duct sparing diuretics 79f
distal tubule 79f
drugs 25
in myocardial infarction 104
early distal tubule—thiazides 79f
hormonal contraceptives 330f
insulin 337f
preparations 338t
loop diuretics 79f, 80f
macrolide antibiotics 254f
mannitol 79f
nitrates 100f
opioids 159f
osmotic diuretics 79f
proximal tubule 79f
succinylcholine 58
thiazide diuretics 82f
vasodilators 110
Active
immunization 364
transport 15
Activity of germicidal agents 302
Acute
alcohol intoxication 358
alcoholic intoxication 145
attacks 103, 279
barbiturate poisoning 143, 357
bronchial asthma 65
coronary syndrome 99
exacerbation 206
gout 321
hypercalcemia 82
lymphatic leukemia 298
myeloid leukemia 298
overdosage 140
prophylaxis 103
pulmonary edema 81
renal failure 81
rheumatic fever 175
salicylate intoxication 174
severe asthma 207
toxicity 51, 356
ulcerative gingivitis 282
Acyclovir 272
Addisonian pernicious anemia 117, 372
Additives 396
Adenosine 98
Adhesive units 12
Adjuvant to anesthesia 58
Administration of IV solutions 10
Adrenaline 63, 125, 206
and noradrenaline 65t
Adrenergic
agonists 47
antagonists 70
blockers 95
drugs 48, 61, 62
sympathomimetics 61, 62
neuron blockers 109
receptor blockers 109
Adult dose and duration of treatment with macrolide antibiotics 255t
Advantages of oral powders 393
Adverse
Drug
interactions 28
laws 28
reactions 28
effects of
glucocorticoids 319f
thrombolytics 124
rational drug use 28
Advisory agencies 35
Aeruginosa 228
Agents affecting bone mineral turnover 345
Albendazole 287
Alcizon reflin 244
Alcohol dilutions 405
Alcohols 144, 302, 303
Aldehydes 302, 303
Aliskiren 108
Alkalinizers 86
Alkanones 170, 180
Alkylating agents 293, 294
Allergic
conjunctivitis 207
diseases 321
reactions 28
rhinitis 207
Allergy 337
Alligation method 406
Alopecia 121
Alpha 2 agonists 68
Alpha
adrenergic blocking agents 70
chymotrypsin 364
Alpha-adrenergic blockers 75
Alteplase 124
Altering metabolic processes 23
Aluminum hydroxide 212
Alzheimer's disease 50
Amantadine 155
Amebiasis 281
A-methyl dopa 109
Amikacin
amicin 252, 253
kanamycin 263
Amiloride 83
Aminoglutethemide 297
Aminoglycosides 251
Aminopenicillins 238, 241
Aminosidine 285
Amiodarone 97
Amisulpride 191
Ammonium chloride 86
Amnesia 139
Amoxicillin 238, 242
Amphetamine 62, 67
ephedrine 63
tyramine 62
Amphotericin 268
Amphotericin B 285
Ampicillin 238
Amrinone, inamrinone 93
Amylin analogs 343
Amylnitrite 360
Anabolic steroids 333, 333t
Anaerobic infections 240, 250, 282
Analgesia 104
Analytical agencies 35
Anaphylactic
reaction 29
shock 65, 113
Androgens 323, 333
Anesthetics 131
Angina pectoris 74, 94
Angioneurotic edema 107
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 90, 106
Angiotensin II receptor blockers 108
Animals
antitoxic sera 4
gonadotrophins 4
heparin 4
insulin 4
Anistreplase 123
Anorectic agents, anorexiants 69
Antacid combinations 212
Antacids 211
Antagonism receptor level 25
Antagonists of sex hormones and uses 325t
Anterior pituitary hormones 309, 310
Anthelmintics 287
drugs used in scabies 287
pediculosis 287
Anthracis 227
Anthranilic acid
derivatives 179
fenamates 170
Anthrax 237, 255
Antiamebic drugs 281, 283
Antianxiety drugs, anxiolytics 191
Antiarrhythmic drugs 95
Antiarrhythmics 98
Antibacterial spectrum 224, 232, 234, 235, 238, 241, 245, 247, 249, 251, 254
Antibiotics 227t, 295
Anticancer drugs 292
Anticholinergic 156, 206, 214
actions 203
drugs 41, 51, 133
Anticholinesterases 48
Anticoagulants 104
Anticonvulsants 141
Antidepressants 191
Antidiuretic hormone 85
Antidote 146, 358
Antiemetics 216
Antiepileptics 147
Antiestrogens 297
Antifungal antibiotics 268
Antifungal drugs 268
Antifungal spectrum 268, 270
Anti-herpes virus agents 272
Antihistamines 53
Antihypertensive drugs 105
Anti-inflammatory
drugs 206
effects 316
Anti-influenza virus agents 272, 273
Antimalarial actions 276
Antimetabolites 268, 269, 293, 294
Antimicrobial agents 258
Antimicrobials 376
Antimotion sickness effects 203
Antimuscarinics 216
Antiplatelets drugs 104, 124
Antiprogestins 327
Antiproliferative drugs 378
Antipseudomonal penicillins 238, 242
Antipsychotics 187
neuroleptics 188
Antipyretic action 171
Antiseizure drugs 153t
Antiseptic 145, 302, 314
Antitoxic sera 4
Antitubercular action 261t, 262
Antitussives 207
Antiviral
agents 273
drugs 272, 273t
Anxiety 75
Anxiolytic or sedative effects 139
Apomorphine 216
Apothecaries system 400
Appetite stimulant 145
Aripiprazole 191
Aromatase inhibitors 297
Arrhythmias 94
Artemisinin 279
and derivatives 279
Arthus reactions 29
Arylacetic acid derivatives 170, 179
Asana 390
Ascorbic acid 86, 372
Aspirin 102, 124
and morphine 160t
Asthalin 23
Astringents 126
Atenolol 74
Atonic seizures 147
Atovaquone 280
Atropa belladonna 51
Atropine 4, 98
derivatives glycopyrrolate 53
poisoning 357
substitutes 53, 54t
Atypical
pneumonia 248, 255
pseudocholinesterase 26
Aureus 227
Autacoids 201
and drugs acting on respiratory system 201
Autonomic
ganglia 46, 56
innervation 44f
nervous system 41, 188
Avoirdupois system 400
Ayurveda 383
Azathioprine 181
Azidothymidine 275
Azlocillin 242
Azoles 268, 269
Aztreonam 246
B
B12
deficiency 372
neuropathies 117, 372
Bacampicillin 238, 242
Baclofen 59, 145
Bacterial
enzymes 363, 364
meningitis 250
prostatitis and cervicitis 237
Balanced anesthesia 134
Barbiturates 138, 141, 357
Basal ganglia 188
Beclate cream 320
Bedsores 145
Benefits of
combined pills 330
potentisation 387
Benign prostatic hypertrophy 72
Benserazide 155
Benzalkonium chloride, zephiran 304
Benzhexol 52
Benzimidazoles 287
Benznidazole 283
Benzodiazepine 133, 138, 145, 151
antagonist 141
Benzoic acid 303
Benztropine 52
Benzyl
benzoate 290
penicillin 238
peroxide 377
Beta-adrenergic
blockers 75
blocking agents 72
Beta-lactam antibiotics 238
Beta-lactamase inhibitors 242
Betnovate oint, cream 320
Bezafibrate 127
Biguanides, metformin 342
Bile acid binding resins 126, 127
Biliary
excretion 20
tract 52, 161
Bind to ribosomes synthesis 223
Bioequivalence 17
Biosynthesis of
catecholamines 61
uric acid 185
Biotin 371
Bisacodyl 217
Bismuth salts 215
Bisphosphonates 348
Bladder 64
Bleeding 245
Bleomycin 295
Blockade of actions of histamine 202
Blood 115
pressure 91
schizonticides 277
vessels 45
and BP 63
Blood-brain barrier 14, 17
Body temperature 326
Bone marrow depression 249, 292
Borax 303
Boric acid 303
Botulinum toxin 60
Bougie 13
BP and ventilation 358
Brain 84
Brainstem 188
Breast cancer 325
Bretylium 98
Broad spectrum 224
antibiotics 247
Bromocriptine 156
Bronchi 64, 161
Bronchial asthma 53, 54, 197, 321
Bronchodilators 208
Brucella 228
Brucellosis 248, 253
Buccal 13
Bulk laxatives 217
Bumetanide 81
Buprenorphine 158, 162, 168
Bupropion 194
Buspirone 191
Busulfan 294
Butoconazole 271
Butorphanol 158, 162, 168
C
Ca++ channel blockers 105
Calcipotriol 378
Calcitonin 348
Calcium 345, 345, 373
carbonate 212
channel blockers 90, 93, 99, 102, 110, 332
Calculation of pediatric dosage 407
Camptothecins 296
Campylobacter
gastroenteritis 255
jejuni 254
Cancer chemotherapy 292
Cancers 292, 322
Candida 269
albicans 231
Cannabis
charas 37
ganja 37
Carbamazepine 86, 150
Carbapenems 245
Carbenicillin 242
Carbenoxolone, gastriulcer 213, 215
Carbidopa 155
Carbimazole 313t
Carbohydrate metabolism 336
Carbonic anhydrase 80
inhibitors 47, 48, 83
Carboxypenicillins 238, 242
Carcinogenicity 30, 292
Carcinoma of
colon 298
lung 298
stomach 298
testis 298
Carcinoma prostate 324
Cardiac
action potential 96f
arrest 65
arrhythmias 58, 75
diseases 26
failure 101
glycosides 91
toxicity 92
Cardinal principles of homeopathy 385
Cardiogenic shock 113
Cardiovascular system 63, 89, 142, 160
Carvedilol 75
Castor oil 217
Catabolic states 333
Cataract and glaucoma 319
Catechol-o-methyltransferase 62f
inhibitors 156
Cationic surfactants 304
Causal prophylactics 277
Causes for food poisoning 362
Cefaclor 244
Cefadroxil 244
Cefamandole, kefadol 244
Cefazolin, alcizon reflin 244
Cefixime, cefspan cofinar 244
Cefobid magnamycin 244
Cefoperazone, cefobid magnamycin 244
Cefotaxime, omnatax biotax 244
Cefpirome, cefrom 244
Cefpodoxin proxetil, cepodem 244
Cefrom 244
Cefspan cofinar 244
Ceftazidime, ceftidin 244
Ceftibuten, procadax 244
Ceftidin 244
Ceftriaxone 244
Ceftum 244
Cefuroxime
axetil, ceftum 244
supacef 244
Celecoxib 180
Celiprolol 74
Cell cultures 4
Central
cough suppressants 207, 208
nervous system 158
stimulants 196
Centrally acting muscle relaxants 59
Cephalexin, sporidex sepexin 244
Cephalosporins 243, 244t
Cephalothin, kaflin 244
Cepodem 244
Cerebral edema 82, 322
Cervix 326
Cetrimide, cetavlon 304
Cetylpyridinium chloride 304
Chaga's disease 286
Characteristics of adrenergic receptors 63t
Charaka 3
Cheese reaction 194
Chemical
antagonism 24
interaction 23
Chemoprophylaxis 230, 267
Chemotherapy 223
of leprosy 260
of malaria 276
of tuberculosis 260
of urinary tract infection 259
Chickenpox 273
Chlamydia 256t
Chlamydia psittaci 229
Chlamydiae 254
Chlamydial infections 248
Chloral hydrate 143
Chlorambucil, leukeran 294
Chloramine 305
Chloramphenicol 249
Chlorhexidine, hibitane 305
Chlorinated lime 305
Chlorine 305
Chloroguanide 280
Chloroquine 183, 276, 284
resistant 278
sensitive strains 278
Chloroxylenol, dettol 304
Chlorpromazine 13, 188
Chlorpromazine 53
Chlorpropamide, diabinese 86, 341
Cholera 248
Cholinergic
drugs 42, 44, 47, 48
receptors 44
transmission 45
Cholinomimetic alkaloids 45, 47
Choriocarcinoma 298
Chronic
alcoholism 145
lymphatic leukemia 298
myeloid leukemia 298
organophosphate toxicity 51
prophylaxis 103
renal failure 107
Cimet 213
Cimetidine 213
cimet 213
Ciplox 236
Ciprofloxacin
ciplox 236
tinidazole 33
Cisplatin 296
Clarithromycin 255
Class
IB drugs 96
IC drugs 97
II drugs 97
III drugs 97
IV drugs 98
of drugs 34t
Classical angina
angina of effort 99
exertional angina 99
stable angina 99
Clavulanic acid inhibits 242
Clofazimine 266
Clonazepam 151
Clonidine 109, 145
Clopidogrel 125
Clostridium
botulinum 60
difficile 227, 231
tetani 227
Clotrimazole 270
CNS symptoms 262
Cobra 361
bite 50
Codeine 158, 162, 164
Cold extremities 73
Collagen diseases 321
Collecting tubule 79
Colloidal
bismuth subcitrate, pylocid 213
silver compounds 306
Colloids and crystalloids 113
Color 388
Coma cock tail 352
Combination of
antihypertensives 112
antimicrobials 226
drugs 32
in angina 103
in malignancies 298t
Competitive
blockers, nondepolarizing agents 55
neuromuscular blockers 56t
Complex partial seizures 147
Composition of oral rehydration salt 219t
Computerized miniature pumps 14
Concentration of drug and duration of contact 302
Congeners of
fentanyl 166
fentanyl 166
prazosin 71
Congestive
cardiac failure 72, 75, 89
heart failure 82
Contraindications to heparin therapy 121
Contrast phenoxybenzamine and prazosin 71t
Control of
autonomic nervous system 42f
hemorrhage 65
Conventional insulins 338
Converting strengths to percentage 404
Coronary
artery disease 107
circulation 94
dilation 99
Correction of acidosis 146, 358
Cortex 188
Corticosteroids 184
Corticotropin 310
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 254
Cotrimoxazole 232, 233
Cough center 159
Cox-2 inhibitors 180
Cresol 304
Cromolyn sodium 206
Cross tolerance 27
Crotamiton 291
Curare poisoning 50
Current index of medical specialties 6
Cushing's syndrome 318
Cyanide 360
poisoning 101
Cyclazocine 168
Cyclopentolate 52
Cyclophosphamide 181, 294
Cycloserine 263
Cyclosporine 299
Cytolytic reactions 29
Cytosine arabinoside 295
Cytotoxic
actions 294
drugs 299, 300
D
Daily requirement of
folic acid 117t, 372t
iron 115
vitamin B12 117t, 372t
Damage cell membranes 223
Danaparoid 121
Dangerous
drugs 33
Act, 1930 35
Dantrolene 59
Dapsone 266
Daptomycin 259
Daunorubicin 295
DDT 291
Decadron cream 320
Definitive therapy 226
Dehydration 81
Delayed
hypersensitivity reactions 29
wound healing 319
Dependence 161
Depolarizing blockers 55, 57
Deprenyl 156
Dequalinium chloride 304
Dermojet 9
Desflurane 132
Dettol 304
Dexfenfluramine 69
Dextrans 113
Dextromethorphan 164
Dextropropoxyphene 158, 162, 166
Dharana 390
Dhyana 390
Diabetes insipidus 83
Diabetes mellitus 336
Diabetic neuropathy 109
Diabinese 86, 341
Diacetyl morphine 163
Diacetylmonoxime 51
Diamorphine 163
Diarrhea 245
Diazepam 13, 59, 151
Diazoxide 111
Diclofenac 179
Dicyclomine 53
Didanosine 274, 275
Diet and environment 26
Dietary sources of iron 115
Diethylcarbamazine 289
Differences between
atropine and scopolamine 52t
heparin and dicoumarol/warfarin 123t
Diflunisal 176
Digitalis 98, 358
Digoxin 4
Dihydropyridine CCBs 94
Dihydropyridines 93, 94
Diloxanide furoate 283
Diltiazem 94
Diluents 397
Dilute solution from concentrated solutions 404
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors 343
Diphenhydramine 53
Diphenoxylate 158
Diphenylhydantoin 148
Diphtheria 227, 240, 255
Diphyllobothrium latum 288
Dipyridamole 102, 124
Directly
acting muscle relaxants 59
observed treatment 264
Disease
in Ayurveda 384
modifying drugs 181
Disinfectants 302
Disodium hydrogen citrate 86
Disposable syringes and needles 11
Distal convoluted tubule 79
Distribution in body 373
Disulfiram 145
Diuretics 90
and antidiuretics 79
DNA and supercoiled DNA 235f
Dobutamine 63, 66
Doctrine of drug
dynamization 386
proving 386
Docusate sodium 217
Dofetilide 98
Domestic measures 399
Domperidone 215, 216
Donepezil 49
Dopamine 62f, 63, 66
D2 antagonists 216
precursor 154
receptor agonists 156
Dopexamine 66
Dosage of
antithyroid drugs 314t
salicylates 174t
some tetracyclines 248t
Dose and
duration of
commonly use diuretics 83t
oral hypoglycemics 341t
some commonly use hypnotics 140t
preparations of some antihistamines 202t
route of administration of
aminoglycosides 252t
antihypertensives 108t
fluoroquinolones 236t
penicillins 239t
Dose of
antimicrobials 226
nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors 274t
Dose response relationship 24
Doses of antitubercular drugs 262t
Doses of some blockers 73t
Dots plus 265
Douche 13
Doxorubicin 295
Drainage of aqueous humor 46f
Dronedarone 98
Drotrecogin alpha 114
Droxyl 244
Drug 4
action 22
biotransformation reactions 19t
compendia 4
dependence 29
dosage 20
induced constipation 218
induced parkinsonism 156
information sources 4
interactions 19, 31, 53, 58, 93t, 95, 96, 98, 101, 144, 149, 255, 295, 339, 340
interactions with diuretics 85
laws 34
order, 1995 37
potency and maximal efficacy 24
reactions 30
standards 33, 34t
synergism and antagonism 24
toxicity 226
Drugs acting
by physical properties 23t
centrally 55, 109
on kidney 77
on mucous membrane 375
on parasympathetic nervous system 43
on renin-angiotensin system 105
on skin 375
on sympathetic nervous system 43
Drugs affecting various organ systems 30t
Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 33, 35
Drugs and Magic Remedies Act, 1954 36
Drugs control 33
Drugs converted to active metabolite 18
Drugs for
constipation and diarrhea 217
helminthiasis infection 288t
Drugs in
acne 377
affective disorders 192
amebiasis 281
angina pectoris 99
Ayurveda 384
congestive cardiac failure 89
disorders of
bone 348
coagulation 118, 119
food poisoning due to bacteria 362t
fungal infections 271t
leishmaniasis 281
leprosy 266
male sexual impotence 334
malignancies 295t
myocardial infarction 104
parkinsonism 154
pediculosis 290
peptic ulcer 211
psoriasis 378
psychiatric disorders and CNS stimulants 187
scabies 290
superficial mycosis 270t
treatment of
bronchial asthma 205
diarrhea 218
local muscle spasm 60
menopausal symptoms 327
migraine 204
trypanosomiasis 281
tuberculosis 260
Drugs
influence cholinergic system 156
inhibit dopamine metabolism 156
neutralize gastric acid 211
potentiate warfarin action 122
reduce acidity 134
reduce gastric acid secretion 211
release dopamine 155
Dry syrups 394
D-tubocurarine
D-tubocurarine and succinylcholine 57t
Ducreyi 228
Dusting powders 394
Duteplase 124
Dyes 306
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding 324
Dysgeusia 107
Dysmenorrhea 324
E
E. multilocularis 288
Econazole 271
Edema 81, 82
Edrophonium 49
Effect on
bones 248
teeth 248
Eflornithine 286
Elapid bite 361
Electroconvulsive therapy 58
Elixirs 395
Emesis 352
Emetics and antiemetics 215
Emetine 283
Empiric therapy 226
Endogenous
depression 194
opioid peptides 158
Endometrial carcinoma 326
Enema 13, 218
Enflurane 132
Entamoeba histolytica 276, 281
Enteral route 7
Enteric coated tablets 7
Enterochromaffin cell 212f
Enterococcus 227
Enzyme inhibition 19
Enzymes
and pumps 23
in biotransformation 18
in therapy 363
Ephedra 66
Ephedrine 63, 66, 206
Epidural anesthesia 136
Epilepsy 67, 147
Epipodophyllotoxins 296
Epirubicin 295
Epoprostenol 125
Epsilon aminocaproic acid 124
Eptifibatide 125
Ergometrine 331
Ergot alkaloids 71, 203
Erythromycin 254
Erythropoietin 118
Escherichia coli 228, 231
Esmolol 74, 97
Essential drugs 31
concept 31
Esters of choline 44, 46
Estrogen synthesis inhibitors 326
Estrogens 323
Eszopiclone 141
Etanercept 182
Ethacrynic acid 81
Ethambutol 263
Ether 132
Ethionamide 263
Ethoheptazine 158, 162, 166
Ethosuximide 151
Ethyl alcohol 146, 303, 358
ethanol 144
Ethyl stibamine 285
Etoposide and teniposide 296
Eucatropine 52
Euphoria 159
Evacuant enema 13
Everolimus 300
Exertional angina 103
Exocytosis 61
Expectorants 207, 208
Extracardiac actions 91
Eye 46, 64, 72, 84
diseases 321
infections 237, 250
F
Famotidine 213
famotin 213
Fat-soluble vitamins 368
Fecal
excretion 20
softeners 217
Felbamate 152
Fenfluramine 69
Fenoldopam 66, 111
Fenoterol 63
Fentanyl 158, 162, 165
Fetal
hydantoin syndrome 149
period 30
Fever 145, 175
Fibric acids, fibrates 126, 127
Fibrin 125
Fibrinolytics 123
Field block 136
Filaria
Brugia malayi 288
Wuchereria bancrofti 288
Filariasis 288
First
dose phenomenon 109
generation
agents 340
cephalosporins 243
line drugs 260
pass metabolism 16
Fish mouth 316
Flucort oint 320
Flucytosine 269
Flu-like syndrome 262
Flumazenil 141
Fluoroquinolones 235, 264, 267
Fluorouracil 295
Folate antagonists 279, 294
Folic acid 116, 117, 371, 372
Folinic acid 118, 294
Follicle stimulating hormone 323
Food poisoning 361
to microorganisms 362
Forced diuresis 82
Formaldehyde 303
Formoterol 63
Fosfomycin 258
Fourth generation cephalosporins 244
Functions of vitamin D 347f
Fundamental principles of homeopathy 385
Fungi 362
G
G6PD deficiency 26
Gabapentin 195
Gallamine 55
Gametocidal drugs 277
Ganciclovir 273
Ganglion blockers 109
Gastric
emptying time 16
lavage 146, 358
Gastrin receptors 212f
Gastrointestinal
diseases 321
disturbances 249
motility 16
therapeutic system 14
tract 45, 160, 172
Gastrokinetic agents 134
Gatifloxacin 236
Gelatin foam 125
Gels or jellies 396
Gemcitabine 295
General anesthetics 131
Genetic factors 26
Gentamicin 253
Gentamicin, garamycin 252
Gentian violet
aniline dye 306
crystal violet 306
medicinal gentian violet 306
Giardia lamblia 276
Giardiasis 282
GIT and liver 144
Glass syringes 11
Glaucoma 47, 50, 65, 75
Glibenclamide
daonil 340, 341
euglucon 340, 341
Gliclazide
d-glic 341
glix 341
Glimepiride
amryl 341
glimz 341
glypride 341
Glipizide
d-glip 341
glibetic 341
Glucagon 344
like peptide 1 analogs 343
Glucocorticoids 50, 206, 296, 299, 300, 377
Glutaraldehyde 303
Glycerol 85
Glycopeptides 257
Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA receptor antagonists 125
Glycopyrrolate 54, 134
GnRH
analogs 297
antagonists 310
Gold salts 183
Gonadotrophins 4
Gonadotropin releasing hormone 310, 323
Gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone 311
Gondii 256t
Gonococcus 227
Gonorrhea 245, 255
and syphilis 241
Gramicidin 376
Gram-negative infections 245
organisms 227
Grand mal epilepsy 148
Granisetron 216
Gray Baby syndrome 249
Greenish tint 283
Griseofulvin 269
Growth
hormone 310
releasing hormone 309
stimulation in children 333
Gugulipid 127
Guinea worm
dracunculosis 283
dracunculus medinensis 288
Gum guggul 127
Gut decontamination 352
H
H. influenza 256t
H. nana 288
H. pylori 256t
H2 receptor blockers 213
Halofantrine 278
Halogens 302, 305
Halothane 132
Hamycin 269
Heart 45, 93
rate 91
regulation 160
Helicobactor pylori infections 282
Hematinics 115
Hematologic disorders 321
Hematopoietic growth factors 118, 297
Hemodialysis 358
Henle's loop 79
Heparan sulfate 121
Heparin 4, 119, 359
and LMW heparin 120t
antagonist 121
Heparinoids 119, 121
Hepatitis 261
Heroin 158, 163
Herpes zoster 273
Hexachlorophene 304
Hibitane 305
High efficacy 80
Highly
protein bound drugs 17
purified insulins 338
Hirudin 121
Histamine
and antihistamines 202
H2 receptor 212f
release 56
HMG COA reductase inhibitors 127
Hodgkin's
disease 298
lymphoma 296
Hormonal contraceptives 323, 328
Hormone
antagonists 297
replacement therapy 324t, 326
Hormones 293
in cancer chemotherapy 296
Host defense status 226
HSV infections 273
Human albumin 113
Hydatid disease 288
Hydralazine 110
Hydrochlorothiazide and frusemide 81f
Hydrogen peroxide 305
Hydrophids 361
Hydroxychloroquine 183
Hydroxyethyl starch 113
Hymenalepis nana 283
Hyosine 216
Hypercalcemia in malignancies 348
Hyperglycemia 81
Hyperkalemia 58, 82, 107, 354
Hyperlipidemia 81
Hypernatremia 354
Hyperphosphatemia 346
Hypersensitivity reactions 249
Hypertension 72, 82, 94
in pregnancy 112
Hypertensive emergencies 112
Hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs 312
Hypertonic fluids 220
Hyperuricemia 81
Hypervitaminosis 368
Hypoaldosteronism 121
Hypocalcemia 81
Hypoglycemia 337
Hypokalemia 81, 354
Hypolipidemic drugs 126
Hypolipidemics 127t
Hypomagnesemia 81
Hyponatremia 81, 354
Hypophosphatemia 346
Hypotension 67, 81, 106
Hypothalamic
hormones 309
regulatory hormones 309
Hypothalamus 188
Hypothyroidism in adults 312
Hypotonic fluids 220
Hypovolemia 81
Hypovolemic shock 113
I
Iatrogenic diseases 29
Ibuprofen 179
Idiosyncrasy 28
Ifosfamide 294
Imatinib 296
Imidazoles 269
Imipenem 245
Imipramine 53
Immediate adverse effects 292
Immunoglobulins 301
Immunopharmacology 299
Immunostimulants 299, 301
Immunosuppressant 181, 185, 299
antibodies 299, 300
Immunosuppressive effects 316
Imperial system 399, 400
Indian drug review 6
Indications for iron 116
Indole acetic acid derivatives 170, 177
Indomethacin 13
Infiltration anesthesia 136
Inflammatory conditions 175
Infliximab 182
Influence iron absorption 115
Influenzae 228
Inhalational anesthetics 131
Inhibit
cell wall synthesis 223
DNA function 223
DNA gyrase 223
protein synthesis 223
Injections 9
Insomnia 138, 140
Insulin 4, 337, 338t, 343, 359
analogs 336, 339
delivery devices 339
Interferons 274
Intestines 160
Intravenous
anesthetics 132
fluids 219
Introduction to autonomic pharmacology 41
Iodine 305
overdosage 360
Iodoquinol 283
Ipecacuanha 216
Ipratropium bromide 54
Iron 115, 359
Irreversible
antagonism 25
anticholinesterases 50
Isoflurane 132
Isoniazid 260
Isoprenaline 63, 206
isopropyl arterenol 65
isoproterenol 65
synthetic 62
Isopropyl alcohol 303
Isotonic fluids 220
Isoxsuprine 63, 69
Istaroxime 91
Ivermectin 290, 291
J
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction 240
Jejuni 229
Jet injection 13
Jiroveci 229
K
Kaflin 244
Kanamycin 253
Keflor distachlor 244
Keratolytics 376
Ketamine 133
Ketoconazole 270, 285
Ketolides 256
Kidney 91
functions 226
Krait 361
L
Labetalol 75
Lactated ringer's solution 220
Lactic acid 376
Lamivudine 274, 275
Land of quacks 33
Lansoprazole, lanzol 213
L-asparaginase 296
Law of
minimum dose 386
similia 385
simplex 385
Laxative abuse 218
Ledercort oint 320
Leflunomide 182, 300
Legionella 229
Leishmaniasis 285
Lepirudin 121
Leprosy 266
Leptospira 229
Lethal dose 20
Leukeran 294
Leukotrienes in body 205
Levamisole 289
Levetiracetam 152
Levodopa 154
Levofloxacin 236
Levorphanol 164
Levosimendan 91
Lignocaine 96
Linctuses 395
Lindane or gamma benzene hexachloride 291
Lipid
metabolism 337
solubility 16
Lipodystrophy 337
Liposomes 14
Liquid paraffin 217
Liquids 394
for external application 395
to instilled into body cavities 395
Liver
diseases 26, 321
functions 226
Local anesthetics 134
Location of cholinergic receptors 44t
Lomefloxacin, lomef 236
Loop diuretics 80
Losartan 108
Low
efficacy diuretics 80
molecular weight heparins 121
WBC count 245
Lung diseases 322
Lycortin oint 320
Lymphogranuloma venereum and chancroid 233
Lysol 304
M
M. catarrhalis 256t
M. leprae 267
Macrolides 254
Magnesium 373
salts 212
sulfate 98, 332
Maintenance dose 21
Major reactions of blood coagulation 118t
Mala 388
Malabsorption 26
Malaria 233, 276, 279
Male contraceptives 334
Malignant hyperthermia 26, 58
Mammalian enzymes 363
Mammary gland 326
Management of
circulatory failure 354
fluid and electrolyte imbalance 354
respiratory failure 353
Mandelic acid 86
Mandl's paint 305
Manganese 375
Mannitol 84
Manufacture and distribution of drugs 35
Mast cell stabilizers 206
Materia medica 385
Maximal efficacy 24
Maximum dose 20
Mazindol 69
MDR strains 278
Measures of capacity 400
Mebendazole 287
Mechlorethamine 294
Medicinal and Toilet Preparations Act, 1955 37
Medicoal 353
Medroxalol 75
Mefloquine 278
Megakaryocyte growth factors 118
Megaloblastic anemia 149
Meglumine antimoniate 285
Melarsoprol 286
Melatonin 143
Meningitis 241, 245
Meningococcal infections 240
Meningococcus 228
Mental disturbances 319
Mephenesin 59
Mephentermine 68
Meprobamate 143
Mercaptopurine 294
Mercury compounds 306
Metabolic
acidosis 354
alkalosis 81
effects 64
Metabolism 16, 18
Metallic salts 302
Metals 306
Metaraminol 63, 68
Metformin
diaformin 341
glyciphage 341
Methadone 158, 162, 166
Methamphetamine 67
Methanol 358
poisoning 145
Methenamine mandelate 259
Methotrexate 181, 294
Methoxamine 63, 68
Methyl alcohol
methanol 146
wood alcohol 146
Methylxanthines 80, 85, 206
Metoclopramide 215, 216
Metoprolol 74
Metric system 399
Metronidazole 282
Mezlocillin 242
Mianserin 194
Miconazole 270
Mifepristone 327
Miglitol 341
Mild hypertension 111
Milk 20
ejection 331
Milrinone 93
Mineralocorticoid action 317
Minerals 373
aluminium hydroxide 4
iron 4
magnesium sulfate 4
radioactive isotopes 4
sulfur 4
Minerals needed in large quantities 373
Minimum inhibitory concentration 226
Mini-pill 328
Minoxidil 111
Mirtazapine 194
Mirtazapine 194
Miscellaneous antibiotics 256
Misoprostol 213
Misuse of antibiotics 230
Mitomycin C 295
Mitoxantrone 295
Moclobemide 194
Moderate hypertension 112
Modification of immune status 22
Monoamine oxidase 62f, 192
inhibitors 156
Monobactams 246
Monoclonal antibodies 14, 297
Mood stabilizers 195
Moon face 316
Morphine 4, 158, 162, 165
and opioids poisoning 356
Motion sickness 53
Mouth washes 395
Movement of drug in body 15
Mucolytics 208
Multidrug regimen for leprosy 267t
Multiple myeloma 298
Muromonab CD3 300
Muscarinic
actions 45
receptor 212f
Muscle relaxant 141
action 139
Musculoskeletal disorders 59
Mushrooms 362
Mutagenicity 30
Myasthenia gravis 50
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 260
Mycophenolate mofetil 300
Mycoplasma 254, 256t
Mydriasis 67
Mydriatric and cycloplegic 53
Myeloid growth factors 118
Myleran 294
Myocardial infarction 75, 101, 107
Myoclonic seizures 147
N
Nalbuphine 158, 162, 168
Nalidixic acid 235
Nalmefene 169
Nalorphine 168
Naloxone 169
Naltrexone 158, 169
Narcine 158
Narcolepsy 67
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 37
Narrow spectrum 224
Nasal 13
decongestants 68
decongestion 67
Nateglinide, glinate 341
Natural
alkaloids 52
opium alkaloid 165
penicillins 238, 239
products 293, 295
tolerance 27
Nausea and emesis 159
Necator americanus 288
Needles 11
Nefazodone 194
Neomycin 253
Neonatal jaundice 143
Neostigmine 49
Nerve block 136
Nervous system 41
Netilmicin, netromycin 252, 253
Neuralgias 145
Neurocysticercosis 288, 289
Neuroendocrine effects 161
Neurogenic shock 114
Neuroleptanalgesia 133
Neuroleptics 217
Neuromuscular blockers 55
Neuroses 187
Neurotransmitters 42, 61
Neutropenic patients 237
Newer
agents 138
antiepileptics 151, 152
drugs 343
Niclosamide 289
Nicorandil 102
Nicotinic
acid 127
and nicotinamide 370
actions 46
receptor 45f
Nifedipine 94
Nimesulide 180
Nimorazole 283
Nitazoxanide 283
Nitrates 99
and sildenafil 101
in angina pectoris 100t
Nitrofurantoin 259
Nitrous oxide 131
Niyama 390
Nizatidine 213
Nocardiosis 233
Nocturnal enuresis 67, 194
Noncardiac 96
Noncatecholamines 66
Noncompetitive antagonism 25
Nondepolarizing agents 55
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 298
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 275
Non-official compendia 5
Nonpharmacological measures 112
Nonselective cox inhibitors 170
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs rheumatoid arthritis and gout 170
Nonsystemic antacids 212
Nontoxic goiter 312
Nootropics 197
Noradrenaline 62f, 63, 65
Norflox 236
Norfloxacin 236
Normal saline solution 220
Noscapine 158, 164
Nurse's responsibilities 14
Nursing implications 137
Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia 348
Nystatin 269
O
Obesity 67
Obidoxime 51
Obsessive compulsive disorders 194
Obstructive cardiomyopathy 75
Octreotide 310
Ocusert 14
Official compendia 4
Olanzapine 190
Omalizumab 207
Omeprazole
lomac 213
omez 213
Omnatax biotax 244
Oncovin 296
Ondansetron 145
emeset 216
Opioid
analgesics 157
antagonists 169
withdrawal 109
Opioids 134
Orabase HCA 320
Oral
anticoagulant activity 122t
anticoagulants 121
antidiabetic drugs 336, 339
contraceptive preparations 329t
contraceptives 324
ingestion 7
Organ transplantation 322
Organic mental disorders 187
Organophosphorus poisoning 51, 53, 356
Ornidazole 283
Orthopedic 59
Oseltamivir 273
Osmotic
diuretics 80, 84
pumps 14
purgatives 217
Osteoarthritis 321
Osteogenic sarcoma 298
Osteoporosis 121, 324, 348
Ototoxicity 81, 252
Ovarian suppression 326
Over counter drugs 33
Oxantel pamoate 289
Oxicams 170, 179
Oxiconazole 271
Oxidizing agents 305
Oxygen 104, 353
in anesthesia 132
Oxymetazoline 63
Oxymorphone 158
Oxytocin 331
P
P. carinii 229
Paclitaxel 296
Paget's disease 348
Pallidum 229
Palm leaf manuscripts 387
Pancreatic dornase 364
Pancuronium
Panic attacks 194
Pantothenic acid 371
Papaver somniferum 157
Papaverine 158, 164
Para-aminophenol derivatives 170, 176
Para-aminosalicylic acid 263
Paracetamol, acetaminophen 176
Paracetamol poisoning 356
Paraldehyde 13, 143
Paramomycin 285
Parathyroid hormone, parathormone 346
Parenteral
iron 116
route 8
Parkinsonism 53
Paromomycin 283
Partial
agonist 24
seizures 147
Pashanam 388
Passive
transport 15
tubular reabsorption 19
Pathophysiology of parkinsonism 155t
PDE inhibitors 91
Pediculosis 291
Pediculus humanus 291
Pefloxacin, peflox 236
Pellet implantation 9
Penicillin G 238
Penicillins 238
Pentamidine 285
Pentazocine 158, 162, 168
Peptic ulcer 53, 319
Perbuterol 63
Perfringens 227
Pergolide 156
Period of organogenesis 30
Periodicals 6
Peripheral
neuritis 261
vascular disease 72, 94
Permethrin 290
Persistent dry cough 106
Personality disorders 187
Pessary 13
Pethidine 158, 162, 165
Pethidine, meperidine 164
PG analogs 47
pH and ionization 16
Pharmacodynamics 22
Pharmacon 3
Pharmacopeia 5
Pharmacotherapy of gout 184
Pharmacy Act, 1948 36
Pharyngeal demulcents 207
Phenmetrazine 69
Phenobarbitone 150
Phenol 302, 304
derivatives 304
Phenolphthalein 217
Phenoxybenzamine 70
Phentolamine and tolazoline 71
Phenylbutazone 177
Phenylephrine 63, 68
dopamine 63
Phenytoin 148, 149
Pheochromocytoma 72, 75
Pholcodeine 158, 164
Phosphorus 345, 375
Phototherapy or psoralen ultraviolet therapy 379
Physiological antagonism 24
Physiology of urine formation 79
Physostigmine 4, 49
and neostigmine 49t
Pilocarpine 4, 47
Pilocarpus microphyllus 47
Pinacidil 102
Pinworm, enterobius vermicularis 288
Pioglitazone
glita 341
piozone 341
Piperacillin 242
Piperazine citrate 289
Pirenzepine 53
Placental barrier 18
Plague 248, 253
Plant enzymes 363, 364
Plasma
expanders 112
and drugs used in shock 112
half-life 20
of drug given intravenously 20f
lipid levels 126t
protein binding 17
Plasmodium
falciparum 276
knowlesi 276
malariae 276
ovale 276
vivax 276
Plastic syringes 11
Platelets 100
Pneumocandins, echinocandins 271
Pneumococcal infections 240
Pneumococcus 227
Pneumocystis jiroveci 280, 284
pneumonia 226
Pneumocystosis 285
Pneumoniae 228, 229
Poisoning to anticholinergic drugs 50
Poisons Act, 1919 35
Polypeptide antibiotics 257
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone 113
Positive inotropic
agents 91
drugs 93
Postmenopausal syndrome 324
Postoperative
muscle pain 58
paralytic ileus 50
Postpartum hemorrhage 331
Post-traumatic stress disorders 194
Potassium 373
channel openers 99, 102
permanganate 305
sparing diuretics 80, 83
Pralidoxime 51
Pranayama 390
Pratyahara 390
Praziquantel 289
Prazosin 90
Preanesthetic medication 53, 133
Preferred drugs 153t
Premenstrual syndrome 194
Preoperative preparation for thyroidectomy 314
Prescription drugs 33
Presence of
food 16
other drugs 27
Preterm labor 95
Prevention of cruelty to Animals Act 37
Primaquine 279
Primary immunization 368
Principles
in treatment of cancers 297
of Ayurveda 383
Prinzmetal's angina 99
Probiotics 231
Probucol 127
Procadax 244
Procarbazine 296
Progestasert 14
Progestins 323
Projestin injections 328
Prokinetics 216
Prolactin 311
Proliferating cells 292
Proparacaine 136
Properties of aminoglycosides 251
Prophylaxis of
bronchial asthma 207
malaria 278t
migraine 75
Propionic acid derivatives 170, 179
Propiverine 52
Propofol 133
Propranolol 97
and atenolol 74t
Propylene glycol 376
Propylthiouracil and methimazole 313t
Prostaglandin analogs 47
Prostaglandins 215, 332
Protamine sulfate 121
Protect eyes 146, 358
Protein metabolism 337
Proteus mirabilis 228
Proton pump inhibitors 213
Proximal tubule 79
Pseudoephedrine 63
Pseudomembranous colitis 282
Pseudomonas 231
aeruginosa 246
Psychoses 187
Psychosomatic disorders 195
Pulmonary excretion 20
Pulse 388
Pupils 159
Purgatives 217, 218t
Pylocid 213
Pylori 229
Pyrantel pamoate 289
Pyrazinamide 263
Pyrazolone derivatives 170, 177
Pyridoxine 371
Pyrimethamine 279
Pyrimidine analogs 295
Q
Quetiapine 190
Quick and prolonged effect 212
Quinidine 95
Quinine 4, 60, 277
Quiniodochlor 283
Quinolones 232, 235
R
Rabeprazole 213
Radical curatives 277
Radiophosphorus 297
Raloxifene 325, 348
Ramelteon 143
Ranitidine 213
Ranolazine 103
Rantac 213
Rasagiline 156
Rastinon 341
Rational drug use 32
Redman syndrome 257
Reduction of
afterload 90
preload 90
Referred pain 157
Registered medical practitioner 36
Regulation of
gastric secretion 212f
plasma calcium level 346f
secretion of gonadal hormones 323f
thyroid hormone secretion 311f
Relative potency of some corticosteroids 318t
Release of neurotransmitters 44f
Renal
angiotensin system 106
antagonists 108
diseases 321
dysfunction 26
excretion 19
stones 82
Repaglinide
eurepa 341
repa 341
Repeated dosing 26
Replacement therapy 312, 324
Resistance to antimicrobial agents 224
Resistant 227
tuberculosis 265
Respiration 159
Respiratory
system 142
tract 72
infections 241
Result of biotransformation 18
Retention enema 13
Retinoids 377
Reversible competitive antagonism 25
Reversing compensatory changes 90
Reye's syndrome 173
Rheumatic
carditis 321
valvular disease 123
Rheumatoid arthritis 175, 181, 321
Ribavirin 273
Riboflavin 370
Rickettsiae 229
Rickettsial infections 248, 250
Rifampicin 261, 266
Risperidone 190
Ritodrine 63
Rivastigmine 49
Role of glucocorticoids 265
Rosiglitazone
rosicon 341
ross 341
Rotane 213
Roundworm, ascaris lumbricoides 288
Routes of
administration 26
drug administration 7
excretion 20
Roxatidine 213
Roxithromycin 255
R-steroid receptor 317f
S
Salbutamol 63, 205, 332
Salicylates 171
poisoning 356
Salicylic acid 303, 376
derivatives 170
Salmeterol 63, 206
Salmonella 228
Samadhi 390
Schistosomiasis 289
Schizophrenia 187
Scleroderma renal crisis 107
Sea snakes 361
Secnidazole 283
Second generation
agents 340
cephalosporins 243
line drugs 263
Secondary immunization 368
Secretory glands 46
Sedation and hypnosis 139, 143, 159
Sedative hypnotics 133
and alcohols 138
Seizures 147
Selection of antibacterial agent 226
Selective
COX-2 inhibitors 170
estrogen receptor modulators 325
Selegiline 156
Semisolid dosage forms 396
Semisynthetic
derivatives 52, 247
penicillins 239, 241
Senile
osteoporosis 333, 348
vaginitis 324
Septic shock 113
Sequential blockade in folic acid synthesis 234, 279
Serotonin 203
agonists 204t
reuptake inhibitors 192
Sevoflurane 132
Sex 25
Sexually transmitted diseases 249
Shigella 228
Short course chemotherapy 264
Sialistic implants 9
Siddha
medicine 387
system 387
Sildenafil 335
Silver
compounds 306
sulfadiazine 306
Simple
partial seizures 147
powders 393
Sirolimus 300
Sisomicin 253
Skeletal
muscle relaxants 55
muscles 56, 57, 64, 197
Skin
diseases 321
rashes 107
Sleeping sickness 285
Smoking withdrawal 194
Smooth muscles 45, 64, 93, 100, 161
Sodium 373
bicarbonate 86, 212
borate see borax 303
channel blockers 95
nitroprusside 90, 111
stibogluconate 284
Solids for insertion into body cavities 394
Somatic pain 157
Sotalol 98
Sources of drugs 4
Sparfloxacin 236
Sparlox 236
Spastic
disorders 59
neurological disorders 59
Special
drug delivery systems 14
syringes 11
Species and race 25
Specific antidotes for drugs and chemicals 355t
Spectrum penicillins 241
Spinal anesthesia 136
Splenic capsule 64
Split mind 187
Sporidex sepexin 244
Stage of
analgesia 131
delirium 131
general anesthesia 131
medullary paralysis 131
surgical anesthesia 131
Staphylococcal infections 240, 255
Staphylococci 231
Staphylococcus
aureus 32, 256t
pneumoniae 256t
pyogenes 256t
Status
asthmaticus 207
of oral antidiabetics 343
Stavudine 274, 275
Steam inhalation 208
Steroid molecule 317f
Stevens Johnson syndrome 29
Stimulant purgatives 217
Stokes Adam's syndrome 67
Stomach 160
wash 353
Stop TB 265
Storage and release of catecholamines 61
Streptococcal infections 240, 255
Streptococcus 227
Streptodornase 364
Streptokinase 123, 364
Streptomyces roseosporus 259
Streptomycin 252, 263
Streptonex 252
Strongyloides stercoralis 288
Subacute bacterial endocarditis 252
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 95
Subcutaneous injection 9
Sucrace 213
Sucralfate 213, 214
Sufentanil 162
Sulbactam 242
Sulfonamides 232
Sulfonylureas 340
Sulfur 291, 376
Sulphasalazine 183
Sulphinpyrazone 186
SUPACEF 244
Superinfection 230
Supportive therapy 352
Suramin sodium 286
Surfactants 302
Surgical prophylaxis 245
Susceptibility of organism 302
Sushruta 3
Sweat and saliva 20
Sweetening agents 398
Sympathetic nervous system 61
Sympatholytics 109
Sympathomimetics or adrenergic drugs 205
Synergism 24
Synthesis of
acetylcholine 42
adrenal steroids 316
prostaglandins 205
vitamin D 347f
Synthetic competitive blockers 57
Syphilis 240, 255
Syringes and needles 11
Syrups 395
Systemic antacids 212
T
Tachyphylaxis 27
Tacrolimus 300
Tadalafil 335
Taenia saginata 288
Taenia solium 288
Tamoxifen 325
Tapeworms 289
Tarivid 236
Taxanes 296
Tazobactam 243
T-cell inhibitors 299
Teicoplanin 257
Telenzepine 52, 53
Telithromycin 256
Teratogenicity 30, 107, 292
Terbinafine 271
Terbutaline 63, 205
Terconazole 271
Tetanus 59, 255
and gas gangrene 240
Tetmosol 291
Tetracyclines 247, 248, 283
Tetrahydrofolate 294
Thalidomide 301
Thanga pashpam 387
Thebaine 158
Theory of
chronic diseases 386
vital force 386
Therapeutic
dose of antiepileptic drugs 152t
index 24
uses of
CCBs 94
estrogens 324t
progestins 324t
Thiabendazole 288
Thiacetazone 263
Thiamine
aneurine 370
vitamin B1 370
Thiazide related agents 80
Thiazide-like diuretics 82
Thiazides 80, 82, 86
Thiazolidinediones 341
Thionamides 312
Thiopentone sodium 133
Third generation cephalosporins 244
Threatened or habitual abortion 326
Thrombin 125
Thrombolytics 104, 123
Thromboplastin powder 126
Thromboxanes 205
Through ion channels 23
Thyroid carcinoma 312
Thyroid hormones 309, 311
Thyroid storm 314
Thyroid-stimulating hormone 310
Thyrotoxicosis 75
Thyrotropin releasing hormone 310
Tiagabine 152
Ticlopidine 125
Tigecycline 250
Timolol 74
Tincture iodine 305
Tinidazole 283
Tioconazole 271
Tirofiban 125
Tissue binding 17
Tissue plasminogen activator 124
Tizanidine 59
TNF blocking agents 185
Tobramycin 252, 253
Tobraneg 252
Tocolytics 332
Tolbutamide 3541
Tolerance 19
and dependence 140, 142
Tolterodine 52
Tonic-clonic seizures 148
Topical
antifungal
agents 271
drugs 377
antiviral drugs 377
glucocorticoid preparations 320t
preparations 283
of NSAIDs 175t
Topifort cream 320
Topiramate 152
Torsemide 81
Touch 388
Toxic
dose 20
effects 28
epidermal necrolysis 29
to suckling infant 20t
Toxicity 19
Toxicon 4
Toxoplasmosis 233
Trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis 233
Trachomatis 229
Tramadol 162, 164
Transdermal
adhesive unit 12f, 14
route 12
therapeutic systems 12
Transfer of
genetic material 225
resistance 225f
Transmission of impulse 42
Transmucosal 13
Trazodone 194
Treatment of
alcohol dependence 145
diabetes mellitus 343
diabetic ketoacidosis 344
epilepsies 153
H. pylori infection 215
leishmaniasis 284
leprosy 267
malaria 278t
poisoning 351
shock 114
snake bite 361
some common poisoning cases 356
status asthmaticus 207
toxicity 92, 358
trypanosomiasis 285
tuberculosis 264
Treatment principles in Ayurveda 385
Triamterene 83
Triazoles 269
Trichomonas vaginitis 282
Trichuris trichiura 288
Tricyclic antidepressants 53, 192
Trihexyphenidyl 52
Trimetazidine 102
Trimethaphan 109
Triple dye lotion 306
Tropicamide 52, 53
Trovafloxacin 236
Truncal rigidity 160
Trypanosomiasis 285
Tuberculin syringe 11
Tuberculocidal agents 260
Tuberculosis 237, 252
Tuberculosis Control Program 264
Tuberculostatic agents 260
Tubocurarine 56
molecules 56f
Tularemia 253
Types of
allergic reactions 29
arrhythmias 95
pain 157
seizures 147, 153t
Typhoid 241
fever 250
U
Ulcer protectives 211, 214
Ulcerative colitis 233
Unani
medicine 388
system 388
Unani-tibb 388
Units of
capacity (volume) 399
mass (weight) 399
Unstable angina 99, 101, 103
Urea 376
Ureidopenicillins 238, 242
Ureter 161
Uricosuric drugs 185
Urinary
antiseptics 259
bladder 46, 52, 161
disorders 54
retention 50
tract infections 233, 241
Urine (neer) 388
Urokinase 124
Use in hypertension 110
Uses of
adrenaline 65
alkylating agents 294t
anterior pituitary hormones 311t
anticoagulants 122
antidepressants 194
antiplatelet drugs 125
Belladonna alkaloids 53
BZDs 140
cephalosporins 245
hypothalamic hormones 310t
iodine 305
K+ sparing diuretics 83
peripherally acting skeletal muscle relaxants 58
plasma expanders 113
PP inhibitors 214
reversible anticholinesterases 50
some local anesthetics 135t
tocolytics 333
α-blockers 72
β-blockers 74
Uterine
relaxants 332
stimulants 331
Uterus 64, 161, 326
V
Vaccines
and antisera 364
in common use and recommended schedules 365t
Vagina 326
rings 329
Vagus 160
Valacyclovir 273
Valproic acid 151
Valvular heart diseases 241
Vancomycin 257
Vascular beds 64
Vasodilators 104
Vasopressin
analogs 86
antagonists 85
receptors 85
Vasopressors 67
Vasospastic angina 101, 103
Vedas 3
Venlafaxine 194
Verapamil 94, 98
and nifedipine 94t
Vernakalant 98
Viagra 335
Vibrio cholerae 228
Vigabatrin 152
Vinblastine 296
Vinca alkaloids 296
Vincristine 296
Vinorelbine 296
Viper bite 361
Viruses 272
Visceral pain 157
Vitamins
A 368
B12 116, 371
deficiency 117
B2 370
B3 370
B6 371
B-complex 370
C 372
D 347
deficiency rickets 345, 348
resistant rickets 348
E 370
K 126
Voice (svara) 388
W
W. bancrofti 287
Warfarin 359
Water-soluble vitamins 370
Weight in volume solutions 401
Weights and measures 399
Whipworm 288
Wilms’ tumor 296, 298
Worm 287
X
Xylometazoline 63
Y
Yama 390
Yersinia pestis 228
Yoga 389
Yohimbine 71
Ystems internationale D units 399
Z
Zalcitabine 274, 275
Zaleplon 141
Zanamivir 273
Zidovudine 274, 275
Zinc 375
salts 306
Ziprasidone 191
Zolpidem 141
Zopiclone 141
×
Chapter Notes

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1General Pharmacology
  • ❖ Introduction, Sources of Drugs and Drug Information Sources
  • ❖ Routes of Drug Administration
  • ❖ Pharmacokinetics
  • ❖ Pharmacodynamics
  • ❖ Adverse Drug Reactions, Drug Interactions, Rational Drug Use and Drug Laws2

Introduction, Sources of Drugs and Drug Information Sources1

Pharmacology is the science that deals with the study of drugs and their interaction with the living systems. The word pharmacology is derived from Greek—‘Pharmacon’ means drug and ‘logos’ means study.
 
HISTORY
Man knew the useful and toxic effects of many plant and animal products even in ancient times.
In early days there was a close relationship between religion and treatment of diseases. The knowledge of the use of drugs often rested with the priest or holyman. Drugs were thought to be magical in their actions. Though medicine developed simultaneously in several countries, the spread of knowledge was limited because of poorly developed communication across the world.
Several cultures like the Chinese, Greek, Indian, Roman, Persian, European and many others contributed a great deal to the development of medicine in early times. The drug prescriptions included preparations from herbs, plants, animals and minerals. In the middle ages, many herbal gardens were cultivated particularly by the monasteries.
The earliest writings on drugs are the Egyptian Medical Papyrus (1600 BC). The largest of them, Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC) lists some 800 preparations.
India's earliest pharmacological writings are from the ‘Vedas’. An ancient Indian Physician Charaka and then Sushruta and Vagbhata described many herbal preparations included in ‘Ayurveda’ (meaning the science of life). Indians practiced vaccination as early as 550 BC.
Various other traditional systems of medicine were practiced in different parts of the world—like Homeopathy, Unani, Siddha system and Allopathy.
Allopathy means ‘the other suffering’. This word still being used for the modern system of medicine, is not correct (a misnomer). Homoeopathy meaning ‘similar suffering’ was introduced by Hannemann. The principles of this system are ‘like cures like’ and ‘dilution increases the potency of drugs’.
Thus several systems of medicine were tried but only a few survived. The basic reason for the failure of many systems is that man's knowledge of diseases were incorrect and baseless in those days. By the end of the 17th century the importance of experimentation and observation and scientific methods of study became clear. Francois Magendie and Claude Bernard popularized the use of animal experiments to understand the effects of drugs. Simultaneous development of other branches of science like botany, zoology, chemistry and physiology helped in the better understanding of pharmacology.
The last century has seen a rapid growth of the subject with several new drugs, new concepts and techniques being introduced. We now know much more about receptors and molecular mechanisms 4of action of many drugs. Several diseases which were considered incurable and fatal can now be completely cured with just a few tablets.
 
DEFINITIONS
Drug (Drogue means a dry herb in French) is a substance used in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a disease. WHO definition, “A Drug is any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.”
Pharmacokinetics is the study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, i.e. what the body does to the drug (in greek Kinesis = movement).
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the effects of the drugs on the body and their mechanisms of action, i.e. what the drug does to the body.
Therapeutics deals with the use of drugs in the prevention and treatment of disease.
Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of drugs and also the study of poisons, i.e detection, prevention and treatment of poisonings. (Toxicon = poison in Greek).
Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals for the treatment of infections. The term now also includes the use of chemical compounds to treat malignancies.
Pharmacy is the science of identification, com-pounding and dispensing of drugs. It also includes collection, isolation, purification, synthesis and standardization of medicinal substances.
 
SOURCES OF DRUGS
The sources of drugs could be natural or synthetic.
Natural sources: Drugs can be obtained from:
  1. Plants, e.g. atropine, morphine, quinine, digoxin, pilocarpine, physostigmine.
  2. Animals, e.g. insulin, heparin, gonadotrophins and antitoxic sera.
  3. Minerals, e.g. magnesium sulphate, aluminium hydroxide, iron, sulphur and radioactive isotopes.
  4. Microorganisms: Antibacterial agents are obtained from some bacteria and fungi. We thus have penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines and other antibiotics.
  5. Human: Some drugs are obtained from man, e.g. immunoglobulins from blood, growth hormone from anterior pituitary and chorionic gonadotrophins from the urine of pregnant women.
Synthetic: Most drugs are now synthesized, e.g. quinolones, omeprazole, sulfonamides, pancuro- nium, neostigmine.
Many drugs are obtained by cell cultures, e.g. urokinase from cultured human kidney cells. Some are now produced by recombinant DNA technology, e.g. human insulin, tissue plasminogen activator and some drugs by Hybridoma Technique, e.g. monoclonal antibodies.
 
DRUG INFORMATION SOURCES
 
Drug Compendia
Books that are sources of information on drugs, i.e. Pharmacopeias and formularies are together known as Drug Compendia. Drug compendia are of two types.
  1. Official compendia
    • Pharmacopeia
    • Drug formulary
  2. Non-official compendia
    • Textbooks
    • Journals
    • Periodicals
  3. Medline
 
1. Official Compendia
Official compendia include information sources (or books) on drugs which are recognized by the 5government of that country as ‘legal standard’. Thus, Indian Pharmacopeia, National formulary, British Pharmacopeia, British Pharmaceutical codex, United States Pharmacopeia and such other Pharmacopoeias are official compendia.
Pharmacopeia: Pharmacopoeia is the official publication containing a list of drugs and medicinal preparations. In Greek ‘Pharmacon’ means drug and ‘poeia’ is to make. It contains a list of drugs and related substances that are approved for use, their source, formulae and other information needed to prepare the drugs, their physical properties, tests for their identity, purity and potency. Each country may follow its own pharmacopeia. We thus have Indian Pharmacopeia, British Pharmacopeia, United States Pharmacopeia, USSR and Japanese Pharmacopeia. The European Pharmacopeia was published by the Public Health Committee and the European Pharmacopeia commission. The International Pharmacopeia is published by WHO in many languages like English, French, Spanish and Russian.
The first pharmacopeia of India was published in 1868. But later under the British rule, the British Pharmacopeia was followed. After independence, a committee was set up and Indian Pharmacopeia was released in 1955. Experts from pharmaceutical industry, drug control laboratories and research and teaching institutions helped the committee.
All pharmacopeias are revised at regular periods to delete old useless drugs and to include newly introduced ones.
Drug formulary also provides information on drugs. The National formulary is a smaller book that contains information on formulations which are used therapeutically. It is prepared by the National formulary committee set up by the ministry of health, Government of India. Expert opinion is also taken from medical associations, hospitals, teaching institutions and pharmaceutical industry in preparing this book.
 
2. Non-official Compendia
The books other than the official compendia which provide information on drugs are known as non-official drug compendia. These include the textbooks of pharmacology, journals and periodicals.
 
Textbooks
Textbooks like—the pharmacological basis of therapeutics by Goodman and Gilman, Merck Index, The United States Dispensary, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences and others are quite informative. Many Indian textbooks are also available.
 
Journals
Several journals are published by local, national and international medical organizations. They provide updated information on drugs with research and review articles.
Local: Several regional (e.g. Sourthern, northern) and state level medical societies release journals at regular intervals.
National: Indian pharmacological society, Indian society of clinical pharmacology and other similar national level organizations bring out journals at regular intervals.
Some National Journals
  1. Indian Journal of Pharmacology
  2. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  3. Indian journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  4. Journal of Association of Physicians of India
  5. Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy.
International: WHO and other international associations publish journals.
Some International Journals
  1. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
  2. Anti-Cancer Drugs
  3. British Medical Journal6
  4. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  5. Drug Resistance updates
  6. International Clinical Psychopharmacology
  7. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
  8. International Journal of Drug Policy
  9. The Lancet
  10. Neuropsychopharmacology.
 
Periodicals
Periodicals are published at regular intervals like monthly or annually. Some of them are:
Indian Drug Review: It is a private publication released every 2 months.
Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS, India): It is published every month. It is an independent professionally edited list of preparations available in India. It is updated every month. When full product information is required, it may be obtained from the editor of MIMS.
Current Index of Medical Specialties (CIMS): It is published every three months. It contains information on the list of drugs and medicinal preparations from different manufacturers and the information is updated every three months.
 
Medline
With the advancement of technology, we now have e-sources of information like the medline. Several books also provide soft copies or CDs for use on the computer.
Medline or medical literature analysis and retrieval system online is a literature data base of life sciences and biomedical information. Medline includes literature in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, health care and veternery medicine. It also includes literature in biology including molecular biology. Medline is compiled by the National library of medicine USA. It is freely available on the internet and can be searched via Pubmed.
The Medline contains database with more than 17 million records from 1950 onwards. For indexing, Medline uses medical subject headings (MeSH) to retrieve engines like Entrez to search medline. Medline includes about 5000 leading biomedical journals. There are thousands of references in the journals database.