Essentials of Operative Dentistry I Anand Sherwood
INDEX
A
Abfraction 133, 446, 447
Abrasion/erosion lesion 38, 132, 436, 446, 447
Abrasive cutting 192
Absorbents and throat shields 62
Abutment teeth 304
for partial dentures 259
for removable partial denture 270
Access and visibility 58
Access cavity preparation 480, 481
Accessory instruments 168
Accidents and injuries 17
Acidogenic theory 115
Acrylic resins 327
Activator-initiator system 330
Active caries 31
Adhesion 311
tooth structure 311
Adhesives 316
Adjoining restorations 270
Adjunctive special tests 42
Adjusting and polishing the casting 417
Admixed alloys 233, 236
Agate spatula 168
Air abrasives 179
Air emphysema 17
Air turbine handpieces 175
Airotor 175
Airway protection 15
Allergic manifestations 23
Alloy composition 232
Alloyed metals 233
Amalgam 34, 244
blues 34
bonding 322
carriers 166
class I preparation and restoration 247
class II preparation and restoration 259
class V and VI preparations and restorations 304
class VI preparation 309
waste management 245
Amalgam class I preparation and restoration 247
carving procedure 251
cavity preparation for extensive caries 250
common pitfalls 257
conservative cavity preparation 247
facial pit of mandibular molar 253
final cavity preparation 250
finishing and polishing procedures 251
finishing enamel walls 250
from left to right 257
initial cavity preparation 247, 250
insertion and carving procedures 253
insertion of amalgam 250
isolation of operating site 247
lingual pit in maxillary incisors 253
local anesthesia 247
occlusal pits of mandibular first premolar 253
occlusion of restoration 251
occlusolingual cavity preparation and restoration 251
outline form, resistance form, retention form 247
postcarve burnishing 251
precarve burnishing 250
preparation procedures 251
pulp protection 250
removal of any defective enamel 250
restoration 257
Amalgam class II preparation and restoration 259
cavity preparation 270
abutment teeth 270
contact and contours 272
design 274
embrasures (spillways) 272
facial surfaces 272
general considerations 274
height of contour 272
interproximal spaces 272
lingual surfaces 272
mandibular first premolar 271
maxillary first molar 271
procedure for distal cusp 271
proximal contact areas 272
reduction of cusps for capping 271
final cavity preparation 266
final procedures 267
four characteristics 267
old restorative material 266
procedure for finishing enamel walls 267
pulp protection 267
removal of any remaining caries 266
secondary resistance and retention form 267
general principles of cavity preparation 259
condition of marginal ridge 260
convenience form 263
convexity of proximal surfaces 260
design features 261, 262
extension for convenience or access 259
isthumus 261
location and condition of gingiva 260
margins 261, 262
modifying factors 260
occlusal surface 262
outline form 259
proportional size 259
resistance form 260
retention form 262
two surface cavity preparation 263
indications and contraindications 259
abutment teeth for partial dentures 259
age of patient 259
economics 259
esthetics 259
galvanism 259
incidence and extent 259
isolation of operating site 259
local anesthesia 259
occlusion 259
initial cavity preparation 263
completion of proximal extensions 264
occlusal outline form (occlusal step) 263
primary resistance form and retention form 266
proximal ditch cut 263
proximal outline form (proximal box) 263
modifications in cavity design 269
adjoining restorations 270
rotated tooth 269
simple box preparation 269
slot preparation 269
unusual outline form 270
variations of single proximal cavity preparations 268
maxillary first molar 268
maxillary first premolar 268
Amalgam class V and VI preparations and restorations 304
amalgam class VI preparation 309
tooth preparation 309
armamentarium 308
from left to right 308
common pitfalls 308
designs of class V preparation 307
features of class V preparation 308
indications and contraindications 304
abutment teeth 304
caries 304
economics 304
erosion or abrasion 304
esthetics 304
isolation 305
local anesthesia 305
sensitive areas 304
service 304
insertion of amalgam 307
carving and contouring 307
principles of outline form 305
extended restoration 306
final cavity preparation 306
final procedures 306
finishing enamel walls 306
initial cavity preparation 305
mandibular canine 305
pulp protection 306
removal of any remaining infected dentin 306
resistance and retention form 305
retention form 306
rotary cutting instrument 308
Amalgam restorations 47
Amalgamation and resulting microstructures 235
Amalgamator 11
Amalgapins 391
Amelogenesis imperfecta 133
Anatomic form 34
Anatomic matrix (template) 289
Angle former 163
Anterior teeth 72, 76
Anticurvature filing 511
Anusavice 331
Apicocclusal taper 396
Argon laser lamps 335
Arrested caries 31
Articulating paper 169
Aspirating equipment 9
Atomized powder/spherical particles 234
Atraumatic restorative technique 440
Attrition 38, 132
Automatrix systems 287
B
Balanced force technique 511
Barbed broach and rasps 507
Basic principles in operative dentistry 3
accidents and injuries 17
airway protection 15
amalgamator 11
aspirating equipment 9
avoiding air emphysema 17
basic tenets of four-handed dentistry 14
compressor 10
dealing with accidents and accident reporting 17
dental chair 3
dental handpieces 10
dental school and practice environment 3
ergonomics in dentistry 3
illumination 9
operator's chair 5
operator's position 5
other small equipment 10
phantom head or patient position 8
principles of four-handed dentistry 13
protection from infection 17
sink 10
soft tissue protection 16
some ergonomic facts 9
Beveled conventional class III cavity preparation 354
Beveled conventional class V preparation 364
Beveled conventional preparation 344, 360
Beveling and flare preparation 423
Bibeveled instrument 161
Binary mercury-indium liquid alloy 245
Black's matrices 288
gingival extension 288
simple cases 288
Bladed cutting 192
Bleaching light 463
Bleaching therapy 457
Bleaching tray fabrication 464
Bonded amalgam 246
Bonding 310
adhesion to tooth structure 311
clinical applications of adhesion 312
enamel 312
mechanism of interfacial debonding 312
dentin adhesive system 316
adhesives 316
etchants 316
fillers 316
initiators and accelerators 316
other ingredients 316
primers 316
enamel and dentin bonding 312
adhesion-based on coupling agents 315
adhesion-based on ionic polymer 315
alternative enamel etchant 314
basic formula, M-R-X 316
challenges in dentin bonding 314
dentin bonding 314
enamel bonding agents 312, 314
etching procedure 313
goals of enamel etching 313
grafting to collagen 316
patterns of etching 313
resin tags 313
HEMA and META 323, 324
hybridization 320
pit and fissure sealant 325
clinical technique 325
indication 325
preventive resin restoration 325
scientific classification of modern adhesives 316
based on generation 317
based on number of steps 317
based on smear layer treatment 317
fifth generation 319
first generation 317
fourth generation 319
second generation 318
single step 317
sixth generation 320
smear layer dissolving 317
smear layer modifying 317
smear layer removing 317
third generation 318
three step 317
two step 317
van Meerbeek scientific classification 317
surface energy 310
contact angle of wetting 311
wetting 311
types of bonding 310
chemical bonding 310
mechanical bonding 310
physical bonding 310
wet vs dry bonding 321
amalgam bonding 322
biocompatibility 323
ceramic bonding 322
chemical 323
disadvantages 321
glass ionomer adhesives 321
mechanical 323
microleakage 323
resin-metal bond 323
silane coupling agents 322
surface treatment 322
Bonding agent application 345
Bur classification 185
Bur life 189
Burnishers 167
C
CAD/CAM restorations 431
Calcium hydroxide 148, 499
Calcium hydroxide applicator 168
Calcium hydroxide-based cements 503
Canines 72
Capping cusps 411
Carbamide peroxide bleaching process 461
Caries 304
control restorative treatment 126
diagnosis and preventive treatment 119, 121
examination 29
Cariology 114
caries diagnosis and preventive treatment 119
pit and fissure caries 119
root surface caries 119
caries preventive treatment 121
armamentarium 129
indirect pulp capping 129
procedure and armamentarium 129
restoration 127
steps 126
classification of caries 120
epidemiology of caries 114
hypotheses concerning etiology of caries 114
pathophysiology of caries 116
changes brought by dentinal caries 118
clinical sites for caries initiation 116
dentinal caries 118
histopathology of caries 117
pit and fissure 116
root surface caries 116
smooth surface caries 116
zones of dentinal caries 118
zones of incipient lesion 117
theories of etiology of dental caries 115
acidogenic theory 115
Miller's chemico-parasitic theory 115
proteolysis—chelation theory 115
Carious lesions 443
Carvers 166
Carving and contouring the restoration 307
Carving and finishing 243
Carving procedure 251
Cast onlay restoration 421
advantages 421
armamentarium 424
common pitfalls 424
features in cast metal onlay tooth preparation 424
tooth preparation 421
beveling and flare preparation 423
enhancing resistance and retention form 423
final cavity preparation 422
initial cavity preparation 422
preparation of bevels and flares 423
proximal box preparation 422
restoring occlusal plane 424
Cavity design and preparation 375, 443
Cavity preparation for cast restorations 394
Cavity preparation for direct gold restorations 370
Cavity varnish 146
Cavity walls 150, 152
Cement spatulas 168
Cementation 419
Cemented pins 380, 388
Cementoenamel junction 135
Cementum loss 470
Central fossa 75
Centric interference 112
Ceramic bonding 322
Ceramic inlays and onlays 430
Ceramic posts 506
Ceramic whiskers 334
Cerec system 432
Cervical cross-section 483
Chemical and light curing 334
Chemical bonding 310
Chemical degradation 338
Chemical methods 476
Chemically activated resin 330
Chemical-physical microabrasion 468
Chemistry of setting 434
Chemomechanical caries removal 180
Chemomechanical method 475
Chip syringe 168
Chisel vs hoe 165
Chisels 163
Circumferential filing 511
Circumferential slots 390
Circumferentially beveled instruments 162
Class I
cavity preparation 347
composite restoration 347
fissure seal 436
restoration 136
tooth preparation and restoration 371
Class II
composite restorations 348
direct filling gold restoration 372
inlay 402
inlay restoration 393
occlusal approach 437
pin retained restoration design feature 388
preparation with gingival extension 410
proximal approach 438
restorations 136
tunnel approach 438
adjusting and polishing the casting 417
advantages 393
armamentarium for temporary restoration 416
cavity preparation for class II cast metal inlays 403
facial or lingual groove extension 410
final cavity preparation 404
initial cavity preparation 403
mandibular premolar 410
maxillary premolar 410
mesiocclusal-distal cavity preparation 410
preparation of bevels and flares 406
proximal box 404
checking for occlusal high points 418
class II inlay 402
consideration for temporary restoration 403
indications and contraindications 402
indications for inlay restoration 403
local anesthesia 403
occlusion 403
other indications 402
class II preparation 410
capping cusps 411
maxillary molar 411
direct method 414
direct vs indirect technique 393
disadvantages 393
final impression 416
function of occlusal and gingival bevel 397
improving marginal adaptation (burnishing) 419
indications 401
indirect method 414
materials used for cast restorations 394
mechanical design features 398
mouth preparation prior to cast restorations 394
occlusal portion 401
features in class I inlay 402
tooth preparation 401
principle of cavity preparation 394
apicocclusal taper of a preparation 396
preparation features 396
preparation path 396
proximal box margin (cavosurface margin) 397
types and design features 397
removing the casting from tooth 419
rotary cutting instruments 413
soldering contacts 419
cementation 419
method 419
repair 420
tray instrument set-up 413
trying in mouth 417
types and designs 396
Class III
amalgam restoration 299
buccal/lingual approach (class III tunnel) 438
cavity preparation 359
composite restoration 354
direct filling gold restoration 374
other carious lesions 436
restorations 137, 439
tooth preparation 354
Class IV restorations 137
Class V
composite restoration 361
direct gold restoration 375
preparation for abrasion/erosion lesion 365
restorations 137
Class VI
composite restoration 354
restorations 137
Classification: ISO grouping 506
Cleaning and lubricating handpieces 177
Clearance angle 188
Clinical decisions in operative dentistry 18
about patient 22
age, gender and occupation 22
allergic manifestations 23
attitude and motivation of patient to dental treatment 25
biographic and demographic information 22
chief compliant and history of present illness 22
diet 25
family and social background 25
habits 25
medical condition of patient 22
medications 23
past dental history 23
review of systems 22
risk assessment 26
systemic disease and cardiac abnormalities 23
advantages 58
access and visibility 58
dry, clean operating field 58
improved properties of dental materials 58
operating efficiency 58
protection of patient and operator 58
certain conditions preclude use of rubber dam 58
clinical examination 26
examination of temporomandibular joint 27
extraoral examination 27
general appearance 26
intraoral examination 28
lymph node examination 27
soft tissue examination 28
vital signs 27
dental chart 48
dental record 47
examination of dental pulp and periradicular tissue 36
color 36
palpation 36
percussion 36
sinus evaluation 36
examination of dentition 29
active caries 31
arrested caries 31
caries examination 29
elements of clinical examination 29
newer technologies 32
pit and fissure caries 29
plaque and caries risk 29
proximal surface caries 30
root surface caries 31
smooth surface caries 30
examination of occlusion 37
abrasion 38
assessment of additional defects 38
attrition 38
erosion 38
esthetic evaluation 39
evaluation of periodontium 39
interarch space available 37
number and position of occlusal contacts 37
occlusal interferences 37
harm prevention 57
indications for operative treatment 46
amalgam restorations 47
direct tooth colored filling material 47
intracoronal cast restorations 47
operative preventive treatment 46
replacement of existing restoration 47
replacing restoration 47
restoration of incipient lesions 46
treatment of abrasion, attrition and erosion 46
treatment of root caries 46
long case presentation 52
additional tests 54
attitude towards dental treatment 53, 55
caries lesion 53, 55
caries risk assessment 53, 55
chief complaint 52, 54
clinical examination 53, 55
diagnosis 54, 55
dietary habits 53, 55
evaluation of dentition 53
evaluation of periodontium 53, 55
existing restorations 53, 55
extraoral examination 53, 55
family and social background 53, 55
general examination 53
history of present illness 52, 54
intraoral examination 53, 55
long case sheet format 52
lymph node examination 53
medical history 52, 54
occlusal evaluation 53, 55
oral habits 53, 54,
past dental history 52, 54
preventive management 54, 56
problem list worksheet and treatment sequencing 54
radiographic evaluation 53
short case sheet format 54
temporomandibular jaw 53
treatment planning 54, 55
vital signs 53
moisture control 57
operating field 57
patient assessment 19
problem list formulation 19
problem oriented treatment planning model 19
professionalism 18
diagnosis 18
emergency visit 19
main decisions 18
patient visits 18
preventive treatment 18
prognosis 18
recall appointment 19
revaluation appointment 19
routine initial visit 19
treatment options 18
purpose 58
radiographic examination of teeth and restorations 39
adjunctive special tests 42
amount and form of remaining tooth structure 44
control phase 45
definitive phase 46
diagnosis and prognosis 43
endodontics 46
esthetic needs of each tooth 44
evaluation of diagnostic casts 42
final objective of overall restorative treatment 45
functional needs of each tooth 44
history and examination process 42
holding phase 45
interdisciplinary considerations 46
limitations with radiographs 42
maintenance phase 46
oral surgery 46
orthodontics 46
periodontics 46
phases in treatment plan 45
planning the restoration 44
radiographic techniques 40
treatment plan 43
retraction and access 57
rubber dam holder 59
rubber dam material 58
rubber dam punch 60
absorbents and throat shields 62
advantages 63
disadvantages 64
drugs 64
ejectors 62
high volume evacuators 62
lubricant 60
mirror tip and evacuator tip for retraction 64
modeling compound 60
mouth prop 64
recent advancements in rubber dam 60
retraction cord 64
rubber dam application 60
rubber dam napkin 60
rubber dam retainer forceps 60
saliva ejectors 62
throat shields 64
rubber dam retainer (clamps) 59
symptoms of caries 32
amalgam blues 34
anatomic form 34
assessment of existing restorations 32
esthetics 35
general criteria 33
marginal opening 34
occlusion and interproximal contacts 34
restoration related periodontal health 34
secondary caries 35
structural integrity 33
teeth and investing tissues 66
enamel 66
structures of teeth 66
tooth notations 50
deciduous dentition 50
Federation Dentaire International System 50
palmer system 50
permanent dentition 50
universal numbering system 50
treatment sequencing 19
chief complaint 21
definitive care phase 21
diagnostic procedure 21
disease control phase 21
maintenance care 21
medical/systemic care 21
re-evaluation phase 21
treatment plan presentation 21
Cohesive and noncohesive gold 367
Colloidal silica 329
Color 36
Common design characteristics 183
Common infections in dentistry 196
Compaction method 368
Completion of proximal extensions 264
Complex restorations 379
Composite restoration class I to VI 342
advantages 342
armamentarium 346
tray instrument set-up 346
basic preparation designs 343
beveled conventional preparation design 344
conventional design 343
modified preparation 344
class I and II composite restoration 347
class I cavity preparation 347
class II composite restorations 348
conventional class II preparation 348
conventional preparation 347
extensive class II preparations 351
final cavity preparation 349
finishing and polishing 351
internal occlusal fossa (tunnel preparation) 352
modified class II preparation 350
modified preparation 347
proximal box preparation 348
restorative technique 350
sandwich restoration (laminate technique) 353
tooth preparations 348
tunnel restoration 352
class III and IV composite restoration 354
advantages of lingual approach 354
beveled conventional class III cavity preparation 354
beveled conventional preparation 360
class III tooth preparation 354
class IV cavity preparation 359
contouring and finishing of composite 361
contraindications 354
conventional class III cavity preparation 354
facial approach 356
final cavity preparation stage 359
indications for facial approach 354
initial cavity preparation stage 355, 359
insertion of composite 361
lingual access 355
matrix application 361
modified cavity preparation 360
modified class III cavity preparation 357
restorative procedures 360
class V composite restoration 361
advantages over conventional preparation 364
beveled conventional class V preparation 364
class V preparation for abrasion/erosion lesion 365
common pitfalls in composite restorations 366
conventional preparation 364
esthetic materials 363
final cavity preparation stage 364, 365
initial cavity preparation 364
insertion of composite 365
modified class V preparation 364
nonesthetic materials 361
tooth preparation 364
class VI composite restoration 354
contraindications 342
disadvantages 342
indications 342
local anesthesia 343
moisture control 343
occlusal evaluation 343
preoperative evaluation 343
preparation of restorative site 343
problem areas in composite restorations 346
liners and bases under composite restorations 346
marginal gap 346
retention in class V lesion 346
wear 346
restorative technique 345
bonding agent application 345
contouring composite 346
etching 345
insertion of composites 345
matrix band application 345
polishing 346
rotary cutting instruments 346
shade selection 343
tooth preparation for composite restorations 343
Compound supported matrix (anatomic matrix) 287
Compressive bleaching technique 464
Compressor 10, 177
Computer assisted design (CAD) 432
Computer assisted machining (CAM) 433
Concentricity and runout 188
Condensation 242, 369
Condensers 166, 368
Conservative approach 2
Conservative cavity preparation 247
Conservative design 373
Contact and contours 272
Contact angle of wetting 311
Contact area 75, 295
Contact configuration 275
Contact size 275
Contouring and finishing 361, 375, 378
Contouring composite 346
Convenience form 263, 481
Conventional class II preparation 348
Conventional class III cavity preparation 354
Conventional design 343, 372
Coolant 189
Copper content 233, 235
Coronal cavity preparation principles 481
Cotton holder 168
coupling agents 315, 330
Crossing ridge 144
Cross-section of wedge 285
Crown depressions 75
Crown elevations 74
Crown surface form 76
Crowns 74
Curing lamps 335, 337
Cusp-fossa pattern of occlusion 112
Cusp-ridge pattern of occlusion 111
Cusps 95
Cutting instruments 162
Cutting mechanisms 192
Cutting recommendations 192
D
Dappen dish 168
Deciduous dentition 50
Definitive care phase 21, 46
Degree of conversion 336
Delayed vs immediate finishing 340
Dental anatomy, physiology, histology and occlusion 66
cementum 70
crown depressions 75
central fossa 75
contact area 75
developmental (primary) groove 75
fissures 75
fossa 75
groove 75
lobe 75
pit 75
supplemental (secondary) groove 75
triangular fossa 75
crown surface form 76
anterior teeth 76
components of occlusal surface 92
components of occlusal table 87, 108
cusps 95
facial and lingual surfaces 76
fossae 88, 94, 95
grooves 95
mandibular central incisor 78
mandibular first premolar 90
mandibular posterior teeth 76
mandibular premolars 89
mandibular second premolar 93
maxillary central incisor 77
maxillary posterior teeth 76
maxillary premolar 84
maxillary second premolar 88
maxillary vs mandibular canine 83
mesial and distal surfaces 76
permanent canines 81
permanent incisors 76
permanent mandibular canine 82
permanent mandibular first molar 103
permanent mandibular incisor 78
permanent mandibular lateral incisor 80
permanent mandibular molar 101
permanent mandibular second molar 107
permanent maxillary canine 81
permanent maxillary first molar 96
permanent maxillary first premolars 85
permanent maxillary incisor 77
permanent maxillary lateral incisor 78
permanent maxillary molar 96
permanent maxillary second molar 100
pits and grooves 88, 92, 94, 99
premolar 84
canines 72
classes of human teeth and form 71
dental structures 72
description of terms 72
incisors 71
molars 72
premolars 72
supporting structures 72
gingiva 70
pulp dentin complex 68
teeth surfaces 72
anterior teeth 72
crown elevations 74
line angle 73
mammelons 75
point angle 73
posterior teeth 73
proximal 73
roots 73, 74
thirds of teeth 74
tooth-to-tooth contacts 111
centric interference 112
clinical identification of tooth contacts 113
cusp-fossa pattern of occlusion 112
cusp-ridge pattern of occlusion 111
factors influencing occlusion 112
nonworking interference 112
occlusal interferences 112
protrusive interference 113
working interference 112
Dental burs 184
Dental chair 3
Dental chart 48
Dental handpieces 10
Dental record 47
Dental school and practice environment 3
Dental simulators 228
Dental structures 72
Dentin adhesive system 316
Dentin bonding 314
Dentin bonding agents 499
Dentin desensitization 448
Dentinal caries 118
Dentinal hypersensitivity 470, 472
Dentinoenamel junction 135
Dentinogenesis imperfecta 133
Dentitions 71
Description of terms 72
Desensitization 472
blocking pulpal sensory nerves 473
occluding dentinal tubules 472
Diamond abrasive instruments 189
Diet 25
Dietary habits 53, 55
Differential diagnosis 471
Dimensional stability 237
Direct cutting and lateral cutting instruments 160
Direct filling gold restoration 367
class I tooth preparation and restoration 371
design 371
general shape 371
instrumentation 371
restoration 371
class II direct filling gold restoration 372
conservative design 373
conventional design 372
simple design 373
class III direct filling gold restoration 374
contouring and finishing 375
restoration 374
tooth preparation 374
class V direct gold restoration 375
cavity preparation design 375
contouring and finishing 378
restoration 378
tooth preparation 376
cohesive and noncohesive gold 367
compaction method 368
condensers 368
pressure application 368
energy of condensation 369
metallurgical consideration 369
cohesive gold foil 369
mat gold 369
powdered gold 369
principles of cavity preparation 370
contraindications 370
fundamentals of cavity preparation 370
indications 370
principles of condensation 369
sealability of gold restorations 370
Direct innervation theory 470
Direct pulp capping 127, 498
Direct technique vs indirect technique 393
Direct/indirect resin inlays and onlays (semidirect) 428
Disease control phase 21
Double wedging techniques 284
Drugs 64
Dual curing resin and extraoral curing 336
E
Ejectors 62
Electric dental motors 175
Electric motor handpieces 177
Electrosurgical methods 476
Embrasures (spillways) 272
Emergency visit 19
Enamel and dentin bonding 312
Enamel bonding 312
Enamel bonding agents 314
Enamel etchant 314
Enamel loss 470
Enamel margin strength 135
Enameloplasty 132
Endodontic imaging 480
Endodontics 46
Environment 339
Enzymes 181
Ergonomics in dentistry 3
Erosion or abrasion 304
Esthetic evaluation 39
Esthetic materials 363
Esthetic operative dental procedures 451
bleaching 456
advantage 464
alternatives 467
at home 464
carbamide peroxide 460
carbamide peroxide bleaching process 461
compressive bleaching technique 464
constituents of bleaching material 460
contraindications 465
disadvantages 464
effect on restoration 466
extrinsic stains 456
factors that affect bleaching 461
flavoring agents 460
hydrogen peroxide bleaching 461
indications for bleaching 465
intrinsic stains 456
laser assisted in-office bleaching 464
light 463
McInnes solution 464
mechanism of bleaching action 461
nonhydrogen peroxide containing materials 460
nonvital 457
over counter bleaching kits (OTC kits) 461
preservative 460
properties of ideal bleaching agent 463
rate of color change 463
safety factors 466
saturation point 461
soft tissue problem 466
surfactants 460
systemic effects and response 466
thickening agents 460
tooth and pulpal problems 466
tooth color 457
tray fabrication 464
tray wear time 465
types of bleaching therapy 457
types of stains 456
urea 460
vehicle 460
vital bleaching 460
vital in-office bleaching (power bleaching) 463
clinical aspects of endodontic materials 504
anticurvature filing 511
balanced force technique 511
barbed broach and rasps 507
biocompatibility 504
ceramic posts 506
circumferential filing 511
classification: ISO grouping 506
fiber-reinforced resin posts 505
files and reamers 507
Gates Glidden drill 512
Gates Glidden modification 513
GT profiles 509
H-file modifications 509
K-type instruments 508
K-type modifications 508
lightspeed instrument 509
mechanical instrumentation 511
metal posts 505
nickel titanium instruments 513
peesoreamer 512
physical properties 505
post and core 505
power driven instruments 512
root canal instruments 506
sealing properties 504
sonic and ultrasonic instruments 513
standardization 507
tip modification 510
types of post systems 505
U-file 509
watch winding and pull 511
dentinal hypersensitivity 470
cementum loss 470
clinical examination 471
clinical features of dentinal sensitivity 471
desensitization by blocking pulpal sensory nerves 473
desensitization by occluding dentinal tubules 472
differential diagnosis 471
direct innervation theory 470
enamel loss 470
etiology 470
hydrodynamic theory 471
management of dentin hypersensitivity 472
mechanisms of pain transmission theories 470
prevention of dentinal hypersensitivity 472
transducer mechanism 470
management of gingival tissues 473
chemical methods 476
chemomechanical method 475
electrosurgical methods 476
indication for gingival tissue management 473
lasers 477
methods of gingival tissue management 474
physicomechanical method 474
recent techniques for gingival retraction 476
retraction by dilatation of gingival sulcus 477
rotary curettage 476
surgical methods 476
microabrasion/macroabrasion 467
clinical technique 468
indications/contraindications 468, 469
macroabrasion 469
microabrasion (chemical-physical microabrasion) 468
pulp capping materials 499
dentin bonding agents 499
failure after direct pulp capping 500
root canal preparation 486
armamentarium 492
characteristic of ideal root canal filling 491
cleaning and shaping of root canal 486
common pitfalls 494
concepts and strategies for canal preparation 488
contraindications 495
guideline for adequate shaping 488
ideal requirements in intracanal medicament 490
ideal requirements of root canal filling materials 490
indications 495
intracanal medicaments 490
irrigation 489
lateral compaction of cold gutta-percha 92
method of irrigation 490
mode of application 490
objective 486
obturation 490, 494
pulpotomy 495
root canal instruments 492
rotary instruments 492
step-back technique 488
techniques of cleaning and shaping of root canal 488
treatment approaches to pulpotomy 495
various obturating techniques 491
root canal treatment 479, 500
access cavity preparation 480
advantages 501
anatomy of pulp cavity and root canal 481
brief description about pulp 481
calcium hydroxide-based cements 503
cervical cross-section 483
cleaning and debridement of root canal 485
convenience form 481
coronal cavity preparation principles 481
disadvantages 502
endodontic imaging 480
functions of pulp 481
glass ionomer cements 503
ideal requirements 500
indications 479
labiolingual section 482
master cone radiograph 480
maxillary anterior teeth access cavity preparation 483
mechanism of action 503
mesiodistal section 482
metal points 502
mid-root cross-section 483
mineral (metal) trioxide aggregate 504
obturating points 500
obturation of root canal space 480
outline form 481
polydimethyl siloxanes 503
postobturation radiograph 480
preliminary radiograph 480
preparing the root canal 485
principles in radicular cavity preparation 485
principles of access cavity preparation 481
proper access cavity preparation 479
proper diagnosis 479
pulp anatomy of maxillary incisors 482
radicular cavity preparation 483
removal of any remaining caries 481
resins 503
root canal filling materials: ADA No. 78 500
root canal sealer cement: ADA No. 57 502
root canal treatment sequence 479
sealing of access cavity preparation 480
toilet of cavity 481
working length 485
working length determination 479
working length radiograph 480
zinc oxide eugenol 503
veneers 451
advantages 453
clinical cases 453
contraindications 451
disadvantages 453
full veneer tooth preparation 452
indications 451
partial veneer tooth preparation 452
types 451
vital pulp capping 498
direct pulp capping 498
indirect pulp capping 498
Etchants 316
Etching 313, 345
Excavators 162
Exploring instruments 157
Extensive class II preparations 351
Extracted teeth for operative dental procedures 224
F
Facial and lingual concavities 275
Facial and lingual contours 275
Facial and lingual flare 397
Facial and lingual surfaces 76
Facial or lingual groove extension 410
Facial surfaces 272
Federation Dentaire International System 50
Fiber reinforced composites 334
Fiber-reinforced resin posts 505
Finishing enamel walls 250, 306
First amalgam war 233
First generation indirect composite resin systems 426
Fissures 75
Flavoring agents 460
Flowable composites 334
Fluoride containing amalgam 245
Forceps 158
Four-handed dentistry 13
Friction grip pins 386
Friction locked pins 380
Full veneer tooth preparation 452
Fundamentals in tooth preparation 130
biologic basis 154
biologic width 154
clinical considerations 154
irritating factors to periodontium 154
biological form 153
classification of tooth preparations 136
class I restorations 136
class II restorations 136
class III restorations 137
class IV restorations 137
class V restorations 137
class VI restorations 137
final cavity preparation stage 138
initial cavity preparation stage 138
operating site 138
stages and steps in cavity preparation 138
conservation of tooth structure 130
enameloplasty 132
factors affecting cavity preparation 130
initial cavity preparation stage 138
base 148
calcium hydroxide 148
cavity varnish 146
cavity wall conditioning 150
convenience form 145
factors 139, 143, 151
final procedures 152
glass ionomer cement 149
ideal requirements of a base material 146
liner 147
marginal ridge 144
mechanical features 149
Noy's structural requirements 151
outline form and initial depth for pit and fissure cavities 139
outline form and initial depth for smooth surface cavities 140
primary resistance form 141
primary retention form 144
pulp protection or lining materials 146
removal of any remaining infected dentin 145
secondary resistance and retention forms 149
sterilization of cavity walls 152
stresses on tooth structure 143
vale experiment 144
weak areas of tooth 144
zinc phosphate cement 148
zinc polycarboxylate cement 148
noncarious terminologies 132
abfraction 133
abrasion 132
amelogenesis imperfecta 133
attrition 132
dentinogenesis imperfecta 133
erosion 132
objectives of cavity preparation 130
pulpal consideration 153
clinical considerations 153
determination of effective depth 153
irritating agents of tooth preparation 153
restorative material factors 132
extension for prevention 132
tooth preparation terminology 133
cementoenamel junction 135
dentinoenamel junction 135
enamel margin strength 135
intracoronal and extracoronal tooth preparations 135
simple, compound and complex tooth preparations 133
tooth preparation angles 134
tooth preparation walls 133
G
Gallium-based alloys 245
Galvanism 259
Gates Glidden 512
drill 512
modification 513
Gingiva 70
Gingival retention groove 301
Gingival tissue management 473
Glass ionomer 149
adhesives 321
cement 149, 503
modification 436
restoration 434
Glass ionomer restoration 434
advantages 435
chemistry of setting 434
classification 435
type I luting 435
type II restorative 435
type III liners/bases 435
clinical application 435
abrasion/erosion lesion 436
class III, class V and other carious lesions 436
clinical performance 436
dispensing, mixing and insertion 436
finishing and polishing 436
glass ionomer modification 436
isolation 436
preparation of dentinal surfaces 436
pulpal protection 436
surface protection 436
tooth preparation 435
composition 434
disadvantages 435
modifications 435
tooth preparation design 436
advantages 440
atraumatic restorative technique 440
class I/fissure seal 436
class II occlusal approach 437
class II proximal approach 438
class II tunnel approach 438
class III and class V restorations 439
class III buccal/lingual approach 438
clinical procedures 440
disadvantage 440
glass ionomers as liners and bases 440
indications 438, 440
instrument required 437, 438, 439
tooth preparation 437, 438, 439
Glass slab 168
Grafting to collagen 316
Guards 170
H
Hand cutting instruments 162, 171
Hand instrument techniques 169, 170
Handpieces 174
Harm prevention 57
Head design 184, 189
Heat generation 189
H-file modifications 509
High copper alloys 235
High intensity curing 337
High volume evacuators 62
Hoe chisel 165
Holding phase 45
Home bleaching 464
Homogenizing annealing 234
Horizontal pins 390
Hybrid composites 333
Hybridization 320
Hydrodynamic theory 471
Hydrogen peroxide bleaching 461
Hydrolysis theory 338
I
Ideal bleaching agent 463
Incipient lesion 117
Incisal retention cove 301
Incisors 71
Indirect pulp capping 129, 498
Indirect resin inlays and onlays 428
Indium containing alloy powder 245
Infection control 194
common infections in dentistry 196
infection control methods 199
infection control with regard to impression making 220
exercises in plaster square block 223
instrument audit for dental instruments 217
instrument reprocessing and sterilization monitoring 209
Infection control methods 199
Inhibitors 330
Instrument design 155
Instrument tray set-up 169
Instruments and equipment used for diagnosis 155
Instruments name or nomenclature 158
Interdisciplinary considerations 46
Internal occlusal fossa (tunnel preparation) 352
Interproximal spaces 272, 275
Intracanal medicaments 490
Intracoronal and extracoronal tooth preparations 135
Intrinsic sources 447
Intrinsic stains 456
Introduction to operative dentistry 1
conservative approach 2
considerations 1
development in field of operative dentistry 2
factors affecting operative treatment 1
functions and purposes of operative dentistry 1
history 1
Ionic polymer 315
Irrigation 489
Isthumus 261
Ivory matrix no. 1 286
K
Kidney tray 169
K-type instruments 508
K-type modifications 508
L
Labiolingual section 482
Lathe cut powder 234
Led 335
Light activated resin 330
Light activation 334
Lightspeed instrument 509
Line angle 73
Liner 147
Lingual access 355
Lingual dovetail 301
Lingual pit in maxillary incisors 253
Lingual surfaces 272
Lobe 75
Locks 392
Long case presentation 52
Low copper alloys 235
Low mercury amalgams 245
Lubricant 60
Luting procedure 426
Lymph node examination 27, 53
M
Macintosh sheet 168
Macroabrasion 469
Mammelons 75
Management of gingival tissues 473
Mandibular canine 305
Mandibular central incisor 78
Mandibular first premolar 90, 271
Mandibular posterior teeth 76
Mandibular premolar 89, 410
Mandibular second premolar 93
Marginal gap 346
Marginal leakage 337
Marginal opening 34
Marginal ridges 144, 275
armamentarium 296, 303
from left to right 296, 303
class III amalgam restoration 299
selection of restorative material 299
tooth location 299
common pitfalls 295, 303
distal cavity preparation 300
final cavity preparation 300
final procedures 302
gingival retention groove 301
incisal retention cove 301
initial cavity preparation 300
lingual dovetail 301
outline form 300
procedures for finishing external walls 302
pulp protection 301
removal of any remaining infected dentin 301
resistance and retention form 301
features in class III preparation 302
features of class II preparation 294
contact area 295
matrix retainer application 295
occlusal portion 294
proximal portion 295
hazards 275
contact configuration 275
contact size 275
contour 275
facial and lingual concavities 275
facial and lingual contours 275
interproximal spaces 275
marginal ridge 275
intraoral procedures for creation of contacts and contours 275
matrices for two and three surface restorations 279
anatomic matrix (template) 289
automatrix systems 287
Black's matrix for gingival extension 288
compound supported matrix 287
condensation of amalgam 290
cross-section of wedge 285
double wedging 284
finishing and polishing 290
Ivory matrix no. 1 286
Ivory no. 8 286
matrices for class II preparations 281
matrices for class III tooth colored restorations 289
matrices for class IV restoration 289
matrices for class V preparations 290
matrix for class I restoration 280
matrix removal 285
objectives of matrix 280
omni matrix system 287
parts of retainer 282
prewelded bands 286
procedure for carving occlusal portion 290
quadrant dentistry 292
removal of matrix band 290
sectional matrix 286
S-shaped matrix 288, 290
Steele's Siqveland self-adjusting matrix retainer 286
transparent crown form matrices 289
T-shaped matrix 289
types of matrices for class I restoration 280
wedge placement 284
wedge-wedging 284
wedging techniques 284
window matrix 290
matrix for class III preparations 302
finishing and polishing of restoration 302
procedures 302
restoration 295
rotary cutting instruments 298, 303
service 299
age of patient 299
economics 299
esthetics 299
isolation of operating site 300
local anesthesia 300
occlusion 300
size and position of carious lesion 299
tooth movement 275
advantages 277
disadvantage 277, 278
indications 277
methods 278, 279
objectives 275
rapid tooth movement 277
slow or delayed tooth movement 277, 279
wooden or plastic wedges 278
Master cone radiograph 480
Matrix application 361
Matrix band application 345
Matrix removal 285
Matrix retainer application 295
Maxillary anterior teeth access cavity preparation 483
Maxillary central incisor 77
Maxillary first molar 268, 271
Maxillary first premolar 268
Maxillary molar with unaffected oblique ridge 411
Maxillary posterior teeth 76
Maxillary premolar 84, 410
Maxillary second premolar 88
Maxillary vs mandibular canine 83
Mcinnes solution 464
Mechanical bonding 310
Mechanical design features 398
Mechanical instrumentation 511
Mechanical sharpeners 171
Medical/systemic care 21
Medications 23
Mercury free direct filling silver alloys 245
Mesial and distal bevel 161
Mesial and distal surfaces 76
Mesiocclusal-distal cavity preparation 410
Mesiodistal section 482
Metal points 502
Metal posts 505
Microabrasion/macroabrasion 467, 468
Microfilled composites 333
Microfracture theory 338
Microleakage 323
Mid root cross-section 483
Miller's chemico-parasitic theory 115
Mineral (metal) trioxide aggregate 504
Minimal invasive dentistry 442
cavity design and preparation 443
restorative materials 443
general principles of cavity design 442
new cavity classification 443
four sizes of carious lesions 443
three sites of carious lesion 443
treatment procedure 443
preparation 444, 445
restoration 443, 444, 445
site 443
Mirrors 157
Modeling compound 60
Modification of bur design 186
Modified cavity preparation 360
Modified class II preparation 350
Modified class III cavity preparation 357
Modified class V preparation 364
Moisture control 57, 343
Molars 72
Mount and Hume classification 443
Mounting 226
acrylic model 226
arch form 227
extracted teeth 226
natural teeth in typodont arch form 227
plaster model 227
single natural tooth 227
Mouth prop 64
N
Nano composites 333
Natural tooth exercises 225
Neck 184
Nickel titanium instruments 513
Noble metals 233
Noncarious cervical lesions 446
clinical features 447
diagnosis 447
isolation 447
etiology 447
treatment 448
dentin desensitization 448
restorative treatment 448
treatment options 448
types of noncarious cervical lesion and definition 446
Noncarious terminologies 132
Noncutting instruments (restorative instruments) 166
Nonesthetic materials 361
Nonhydrogen peroxide containing materials 460
Nonvital bleaching 457
Nonworking interference 112
Noy's structural requirements 151
O
Obturating points 500
Obturation materials 494
Obturation of root canal space 480
Occlusal and gingival bevel in cavosurface margin 396
Occlusal outline form (occlusal step) 263
Occlusal pits and fissures in maxillary first molar 254
Occlusal pits of mandibular first premolar 253
Occlusal portion 294
Occlusal surface 262
Occlusion and interproximal contacts 34
Occlusolingual cavity preparation and restoration 251
Office bleaching 463
Offset hatchet 165
Old restorative material 266
Omni matrix system 287
Operative cutting instrument formula 158
Operative preventive treatment 46
Operator's chair 5
Operator's position 5
Optical modifiers 331
Oral habits 53
Oral surgery 46
Orthodontics 46
P
Pac lamps 335
Packable composites 334
Palmer system 50
Palpation 36
Paper pad 168
Partial veneer tooth preparation 452
Particle treatments 234
Past dental history 54
Patient assessment 19
Patient visits 18
Patterns of etching 313
Peesoreamer 512
Percussion 36
Periodontal probes 157
Periodontics 46
Permanent canines 81
Permanent dentition 50
Permanent incisors 76
Permanent mandibular canine 82
Permanent mandibular first molar 103
Permanent mandibular incisor 78
Permanent mandibular lateral incisor 80
Permanent mandibular molar 101
Permanent mandibular second molar 107
Permanent maxillary canine 81
Permanent maxillary first molar 96
Permanent maxillary first premolars 85
Permanent maxillary incisor 77
Permanent maxillary lateral incisor 78
Permanent maxillary molar 96
Permanent maxillary second molar 100
Phantom head or patient position 8
Phases in treatment plan 45
Photo activated-disinfection 179
Photo curing with visible blue light 334
Physical bonding 310
Pin design 386
Pin hole preparation 384
Pin insertion 386
Pin placement 383
Pin retained amalgam restoration 379
advantages 379
complex restorations 379
factors to be considered 379
occlusion, esthetics and economics 379
resistance and retention form 379
role of teeth in overall treatment plan 379
status and prognosis of tooth 379
disadvantages 379
failure of pin retained restorations 388
indications 380
mechanical aspects 380
anatomical aspects 383
effect of pin on amalgam 382
retention of pins to restorative material 382
retentive capabilities of pins in dentin 382
strengths of pins 382
stressing capabilities of pins 380
mishaps during pin retained restorations 388
other alternative to pins 390
amalgapins 391
circumferential slots 390
horizontal pins 390
locks 392
slots 391
pin placement 383
cemented pins 388
friction grip pins 386
location of pins 384
number of pins 384
pin design 386
pin hole preparation 384
pin insertion 386
pin size 383
tooth preparation 388
class II pin retained restoration design feature 388
final cavity preparation 388
finishing and polishing 388
initial cavity preparation 388
inserting and carving 388
matrices 388
pin placement 388
types of pins 380
cemented pins 380
friction locked pins 380
self threading pins 380
Pin retained restoration 383
Pin size 383
Pit and fissure sealant 325
Plaque and caries risk 29
Plaster model exercises 223
Plastic instruments 167
Plastic spatula 168
Point angle 73
Polishing 346
Polydimethyl siloxanes 503
Post and core 505
Post systems 505
Postcarve burnishing 251
Posterior teeth 73
Postobturation radiograph 480
Powder particle size 233
Power bleaching 463
Power driven instruments 512
Powered cutting instruments 172
Precarve burnishing 250
Preclinical conservative laboratory exercises 223
alloy composition 232
amalgam waste management 245
amalgamation and resulting microstructures 235
admixed alloys 236
high copper alloys 235
low copper alloys 235
single composition alloys 236
classification of amalgam 233
alloyed metals 233
copper content 233
noble metals 233
powder consists of unmixed or admixed alloys 233
shape of powdered particle 233
zinc content 233
components of alloy powder 235
copper 235
silver 235
tin 235
zinc 235
dental simulators 228
extracted teeth for operative dental procedures 224
history and controversies 232
first amalgam war 233
second amalgam war 233
third amalgam war 233
manufacture of alloy powder 234
atomized powder/spherical particles 234
homogenizing annealing 234
lathe cut powder 234
metallurgical phases 235
particle treatments 234
microstructure of amalgam 236
fifth generation 237
sixth generation 237
mounting 226
acrylic model 226
arch form 227
extracted teeth 226
natural teeth in typodont arch form 227
plaster model 227
single natural tooth 227
natural tooth exercises 225
advantages 225
criteria 226
disadvantages 226
plaster model exercises 223
care of plaster models 224
exercises in plaster tooth model 223
restoration with wax 224
properties of amalgam 237
advantages of amalgam 244
bonded amalgam 246
carving and finishing 243
clinical significance 243
condensation 242
dimensional stability 237
disadvantages of amalgam 244
factors 240
fluoride containing amalgam 245
gallium-based alloys 245
indium containing alloy powder 245
low mercury amalgams 245
manipulation of amalgam 240
mercury free direct filling silver alloys 245
properties of mercury 240
recent advancements in amalgam 245
repaired amalgam restoration 244
side effects of mercury 244
strength 238
tarnish and corrosion 240
safety in laboratory 223
transport of extracted teeth 225
working in typodont 228
precautions 229
Premolar 72, 84
Preservative 460
Pressure application 368
Preventive resin restoration 325
Prewelded bands 286
Primary resistance form and retention form 266
Primers 316
Problem list formulation 19
Problem list worksheet and treatment sequencing 54
Problem oriented treatment planning model 19
Protection theory 338
Proteolysis—chelation theory 115
Proteolytic theory 115
Protrusive interference 113
Proximal box margin (cavosurface margin) 397
Proximal box preparation 348, 422
Proximal contact areas 272
Proximal ditch cut 263
Proximal lock 267
Proximal outline form (proximal box) 263
Proximal surface caries 30
Pulp anatomy of maxillary incisors 482
Pulp capping 498
Pulp capping materials 499
Pulp cavity and root canal 481
Pulp dentin complex 68
Pulp protection or lining materials 146
Pulpal consideration 153
Pulpal protection 436
Pulpotomy 495
Pyrogenic silica 329
Q
Quadrant dentistry 292
R
Radicular cavity preparation 483, 485
Radiopacity 338
Rake angle 187
Rapid tooth movement 277
Rebonding 340
Recall appointment 19
Recent advancements 60
in amalgam 245
in rubber dam 60
Recent techniques for gingival retraction 476
Recommended instrument kit 166
Repaired amalgam restoration 244
Resin composite 327
direct composite restoration 428
inlays and onlays 426
restorative material 327
Resin composite restorative material 327
advantages of acrylic resins 327
biocompatibility of composites 340
classification of composite resin 331
according to anusavice 331
according to sturdevant 331
ceramic whiskers 334
clinical consideration 332, 333
fiber reinforced composites 334
first generation 334
flowable composites 334
hybrid composites 333
Lutz and Phillips (1983) 332
microfilled composites 333
nano composites 333
packable composites 334
properties 332, 333
second generation 334
small particle filled composites 332
traditional composites 332
Willems classification 332
components of a composite resin 328
activator-initiator system 330
benefits of filler 328
chemically activated resin 330
colloidal silica 329
composition and function of components 328
coupling agents 330
disadvantages 330
fillers 328
inhibitors 330
light activated resin 330
optical modifiers 331
pyrogenic silica 329
resin matrix 328
uses and applications 328
curing of resin-based composite 334
advantages 334
argon laser lamps 335
chemical and light curing 334
chemical curing 334
curing lamps 335
degree of conversion 336
depth of cure and exposure time 335
disadvantages 334
dual curing resin and extraoral curing 336
led 335
light activation 334
pac lamps 335
photocuring with visible blue light 334
disadvantages 327
acrylic resins 327
silicate cements 327
evolution and history of composites 327
historical development 327
other properties of composites 337
chemical degradation 338
contraindications for composites 338
hydrolysis theory 338
marginal leakage 337
mechanism of wear 338
microfracture theory 338
principal modes of wear 338
protection theory 338
radiopacity 338
wear 338
rebonding 340
reduction of residual stresses (polymerization shrinkage) 336
high intensity curing 337
incremental build-up and cavity configuration 336
precaution for using curing lamps 337
soft start, ramped curing and delayed curing 337
repair of composites 340
selection criteria for composites 339
advantages (over ceramics) 339
composites for resin veneers 339
delayed vs immediate finishing 340
disadvantages 339
environment 339
finishing of composites 339
indirect composites 339
indirect resin inlays 339
types of material 340
Resin matrix 328
Resin tags 313
Resin-metal bond 323
Resins 503
Resistance form 260
Restoration of incipient lesions 46
Restoration related periodontal health 34
Restoration with wax 224
Retentive capabilities of pins in dentin 382
Retraction and access 57
Retraction by dilatation of gingival sulcus 477
Retraction cord 64
Root 73, 74
Root canal filling materials: ADA no. 78 500
Root canal instruments 492, 506
Root canal preparation 479, 486
Root canal sealer cement: ADA no. 57 502
Root canal treatment sequence 479
Root caries 46
Rotary curettage 476
Rotary instruments 492
Rotary speed ranges 175
Rotated tooth 269
Routine initial visit 19
Rubber dam 58
application 60
holder 59
material 58
napkin 60
punch 60
retainer (clamps) 59
retainer forceps 60
S
Safety factors 466
Safety in laboratory 223
Saliva ejectors 62
Sandwich restoration (laminate technique) 353
Saturation point 461
Sealability of gold restorations 370
Sealing properties 504
Second amalgam war 233
Second generation indirect composite resin systems 427
Secondary caries 35
Secondary polymerization 427
Sectional matrix 286
Self threading pins 380
Sensitive areas 304
Shade selection 343
Shank 183
Sharpness test 171
Short case sheet format 54
Silane coupling agents 322
Silver 235
Simple box preparation 269
Single beveled instrument 160
Single composition alloys 236
Single ended and double ended instruments 162
Single proximal cavity preparations 268
Single step 317
Sink 10
Sinus evaluation 36
Slot preparation 269
Slow or delayed tooth movement 277, 279
Small particle filled composites 332
Smear layer dissolving 317
Smear layer modifying 317
Smear layer removing 317
Smooth surface caries 30, 116, 119
Soft tissue 28
examination 28
problem 466
protection 16
Soldering contacts 419
Sonic and ultrasonic caries removal 179
Sonic and ultrasonic instruments 513
Spoon excavator 163
S-shaped matrix 288, 290
Stains 456
Stationary sharpening stones 170
Steele's Siqveland self-adjusting matrix retainer 286
Sterilization 211
Sturdevant 331
Supplemental (secondary) groove 75
Supporting structures 72
Surface cavity preparation 263
Surface energy 310
Surface protection 436
Surface treatment 322
Surfactants 460
Surgical tray 169
Systemic disease and cardiac abnormalities 23
T
Tarnish and corrosion 240
Teeth and investing tissues 66
Teeth surfaces 72
Temporomandibular jaw 53
Thickening agents 460
Third amalgam war 233
Throat shields 64
Tin 235
Tip modification 510
Toilet of cavity 481
Tooth and pulpal problems 466
Tooth color 457
Tooth colored inlays and onlays 425
ceramic inlays and onlays 430
advantages 431
CAD/CAM restorations 431
CEREC system 432
computer assisted design (CAD) 432
computer assisted machining (CAM) 433
contraindication 431
disadvantages 431
fabrication of ceramic inlay/onlay 431
indication 431
tooth preparation design 431
try-in and cementation 433
general considerations 425
luting procedure 426
resin composite inlays and onlays 426
advantages 428
contraindications 428
direct/indirect resin inlays and onlays 428
disadvantages 428
first generation indirect composite resin systems 426
indications 430
indirect resin inlays and onlays 428
laboratory process 429
materials for direct resin inlays/onlays 427
materials for indirect resin inlays/onlays 426
second generation indirect composite resin systems 427
secondary polymerization 427
tooth preparation design 426, 428
Tooth location 299
Tooth movement 275
Tooth notations 50
Tooth preparation and restoration 155
accessory instruments 168
articulating paper 169
chip syringe 168
cotton holder 168
dappen dish 168
instrument tray set-up 169
kidney tray 169
Macintosh sheet 168
surgical tray 169
armamentarium and instruments 159
angle former 163
bibeveled instrument 161
chisel vs hoe 165
circumferentially beveled instruments 162
cutting instruments 162
direct cutting and lateral cutting instruments 160
excavators 162
hand cutting instruments types 160, 162
hoe chisel 165
mesial and distal bevel 161
offset hatchet 165
other instruments according to Marzouk 165
recommended instrument kit 166
right and left instruments 160
single beveled instrument 160
single ended and double ended instruments 162
spoon excavator 163
terminology and classification 162
triangular chisel 165
triple beveled instruments 161
development of rotary cutting instrument 172
advantages over air turbine 175
air abrasives 179
air turbine handpieces (airotor) 175
characteristics of rotary instruments 178
chemomechanical caries removal 180
cleaning and lubricating handpieces 177
cleaning and lubrications 178
compressor 177
disadvantages 175
electric dental motors 175
electric motor handpieces 177
enzymes 181
future developments 174
handpieces 174
instrumentation 172
lasers 180
other powered equipments 179
photo activated-disinfection 179
rotary speed ranges 175
sonic and ultrasonic caries removal 179
exploring instruments 157
explorers 157
forceps 158
instruments name or nomenclature 158
mirrors 157
periodontal probes 157
types 157, 158
hand cutting instruments 155
effects of sterilization 155
hand instruments 155
hardening and tempering heat treatments 155
instrument design 155
materials 155
hand instrument techniques 169
guards 170
material used for sharpening stones 170
mechanical sharpeners 171
principles of sharpening 171
rests 170
sharpening of hand instruments 170
sharpness test 171
stationary sharpening stones 170
sterilization and storage 171
noncutting instruments 166
amalgam carriers 166
amalgam well 166
burnishers 167
carvers 166
condensers 166
types 167
operative cutting instrument formula 158
plastic instruments 167
agate spatula or plastic spatula 168
calcium hydroxide applicator 168
cement spatulas 168
glass slab 168
paper pad 168
powered cutting instruments 172
rotary cutting instruments 183
abrasive cutting 192
additional features in head design 189
bladed cutting 192
bur classification 185
bur life 189
clearance angle 188
common design characteristics 183
composition and manufacture 185
concentricity and runout 188
coolant 189
cutting mechanisms 192
cutting recommendations 192
dental burs 184
design of dental burs 186
diamond abrasive instruments 189
evaluation of cutting 192
hazards of cutting instruments 192
head design 184
heat generation 189
historical development 184
influence of load 189
materials 192
modification of bur design 186
neck 184
number of teeth 188
rake angle 187
shank 183
shapes 185
sizes 185
terminology 189
Tooth structure 44
Tooth-to-tooth contacts 111
Traditional composites 332
Transducer mechanism 470
Transparent crown form matrices 289
Transport of extracted teeth 225
Tray instrument set-up 346, 413
Tray wear time 465
Treatment oriented model 19
Triangular chisel 165
Triangular fossa 75
Triple beveled instruments 161
Try-in and cementation 433
Trying in mouth 417
T-shaped matrix 289
Tunnel restoration 352
Typodont 228
U
U-file 509
Universal numbering system 50
Unusual outline form 270
Urea 460
V
Vale experiment 144
Van Meerbeek scientific classification 317
Vehicle 460
Veneers 451
W
Watch winding and pull 511
Wear 338, 346
Wedge placement 284
Wedge-wedging 284
Wedging techniques 284
Wet vs dry bonding 321
Wetting 311
Willems classification 332
Window matrix 290
Wooden or plastic wedges 278
Z
Zinc 233, 235
Zinc oxide eugenol 503
Zinc phosphate cement 148
Zinc polycarboxylate cement 148
×
Chapter Notes

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1Essentials of Operative Dentistry2
3Essentials of Operative Dentistry
I Anand Sherwood MDS (PhD) Reader Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics CSI College of Dental Sciences and Research Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India Foreword L Lakshmi Narayanan
4Published by
Jitendar P Vij
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd
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Essentials of Operative Dentistry
© 2010, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author and the publisher.
First Edition: 2010
9788184487794
Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit
Printed at
5
I want to thank my wife, child (Aditya) and parents for their cooperation and patience during the preparation of this book
6
Foreword
It is heartening to write the foreword for this wonderful textbook authored by a youngster. The contents of this book will go a long way in fulfilling the needs of a standard Textbook of Operative Dentistry by an Indian Author. I complement Dr I Anand Sherwood for his monumental contribution to the field of Operative Dentistry.
Regards
Dr L Lakshmi Narayanan mds
Dean
SRM Kattankulathur Dental College and Hospital
SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603203
Kancheepuram Dist.
Tamil Nadu, India
7Preface
The need of writing this book was felt when I was looking for various designs of tooth preparation for various restorative materials. It surprised me that for each restorative material different books written by different authors were needed for getting a grasp of various tooth preparation design and modification. The book is essentially a compilation of these information being presented in an easily comprehendable manner so that an undergraduate dental student could find it easier to learn.
The book contains about 1200 illustrations to depict various tooth preparation designs and fundamentals in operative dentistry. The book has also been written keeping with the requirement of preclinical conservative students in mind who have for long been facing the task of learning the more complex clinical books. The book sorted out this problem by including chapters on preclinical exercises and also about basic tooth morphology which are required to be learned by the undergraduate students in their 2nd and 3rd year syllabi.
The book starts out from explaining basic chapters like ergonomics in dentistry, instruments used in operative dentistry to more advanced topics like bleaching, tooth colored inlays/onlays, etc. The main feature of this book is the manner by which each chapter has been explained with easy point-to-point presentation of necessary details. Besides this, at end of each chapter a section of Key Terms has been added to acquaint with terms relevant to that chapters. Also a section on Questions to Think About at the end of each chapter should prepare the students for the possible questions that could be asked in their university examinations.
The book will be a tribute to the great teachers under whom I did my undergraduation and postgraduation and learned the basics of dentistry and more importantly how to lead a life as a human. The book I hope fulfill the need of undergraduate and also postgraduate students of operative dentistry. At this juncture, I want to thank M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, for designing this book.
I Anand Sherwood