Fig. 1.1: Common causes of painful loss of vision occurring over seconds to hours. Conditions in red boxes require immediate treatment.
Fig. 1.2: Common causes of painless vision loss occurring over seconds to hours. Conditions in red boxes require immediate treatment.Abbreviations: AION, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy; AMD, age-related macular degeneration; CRAO, central retinal artery occlusion; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HM, hand motions; NPL, no perception of light; PL, perception of light; RVO, retinal vein occlusion.
Fig. 1.3: Causes of gradual blurring of vision. Conditions in red boxes require immediate treatment.Abbreviations: AMD, age-related macular degeneration; CNS, central nervous system; CVA, cerebrovascular accident.
Fig. 1.5: Causes of eye discomfort or foreign body sensation. Intraocular foreign body requires urgent management.
Fig. 1.6: Conditions causing severe or constant eye pain without eye inflammation. Conditions in red boxes require immediate treatment.Abbreviations: VA, visual acuity; V1, first division of trigeminal nerve.
Fig. 1.8: Life-threatening causes of diplopia.Abbreviations: ANCA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; GBS, Guillain–Barré syndrome; ICP, intracranial pressure; MFS, Miller Fisher syndrome; RAPD, relative afferent pupil defect.