Revision Notes for the Final FRCR Part A Kshitij Mankad, Edward TD Hoey
INDEX
A
Abdominal
aorta 60
aortic aneurysm 64
Aberrant right subclavian artery 265
Absent pedicle 324
ACA infarction 291
Acalculous cholecystitis 145
Accelerated
bone maturation 126
skeletal maturity 271
Accessory bones 90
Acetabular fracture 109
Achalasia 157
Achilles tendon tear 114
Achondroplasia 123, 271
Acoustic schwannoma 329
Acromioclavicular joint injury grades 127
Acro-osteolysis of terminal phalanx 126
Adenocarcinoma 2, 175
Adenoid cystic carcinoma 13, 338
Adenolymphoma 337
Adenomyosis 220
Adrenal
adenomas 212
carcinoma 213
collision tumour 215
cortical failure, primary, causes of 215
cyst 213
gland 212
haemorrhage 213
hypofunction 215
lymphoma 214
metastasis 213
myelolipoma 212
Agenesis of corpus callosum 236, 282
AIDS in children 261
AIDS-related
CNS infections 287
lymphoma 40
Air space
diseases 18
parenchymal disease 24
Airways disease 11
Alcohol and CNS 309
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 36
Alveolar
microlithiasis 29
proteinosis 20
Alzheimer's disease 363
Ambiguous genitalia 252
Ameloblastoma 348
Amiodarone-induced
lung disease 27
thyroiditis 356
Amniotic fluid embolism 45
Amoebic liver abscess 137
Amyloidosis 29, 87, 96
Anaplastic carcinoma 358
Aneurysm rupture 305
Aneurysmal bone cyst 118
Angiomyolipoma 195
Ankle joint and foot 93
Ankylosing spondylitis 94, 322
Annular pancreas 148, 243
Anorectal malformation 245
Anterior
cruciate ligament 111
ethmoidal artery 331
junctional line 16
mediastinum 54
talofibular ligament tear 114
triangle 350, 352
Antrochoanal polyp 333
Aortic
arch anomalies 61, 265
arch branching patterns, left 60
dissection 62
Aortoenteric fistula 64
Apical cyst 347
Aplasia 9
Appendicitis, acute 244
Arachnoid cyst 283
Arachnoiditis 320
ARDS 18
Arnold-Chiari malformation 239, 240, 281
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 80
Arterial supply 225
Arteriovenous
fistula 318
malformation 8, 306, 318
Arthritides and connective tissue diseases 94
Asbestos-related lung disease 31
Aspergilloma 35
Aspergillosis 35, 39
Aspiration pneumonia 35
Associations of slipped femoral epiphysis 129
Assessing initial response to therapy 6
Asthma 13
Astrocytoma 274, 325
Atherosclerotic ICA stenosis 75
Atlantoaxial subluxation 322
Atrial enlargement, left 79
Atropine 70
Atypical pneumonias 34
Avascular necrosis of femoral head 124
Avulsion fractures of pelvis 110
Axial compression 105
Azygo-oesophageal line 16
Azygous continuation of IVC 59
Axonal injury, diffuse 302
B
Baker's cyst 124
Barium swallow 162
Barrett's oesophagus 162
Basal ganglia 361
Basilar artery thrombosis 292
Behçet's disease 27, 164
Benign mucinous cystadenoma 222
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 210
Benign salivary gland tumours 337
Benign serous cystadenoma 222
Benign thymoma 55
Benign tumours of
bone 115
larynx 344
pharynx 340
Berry aneurysms 305
Berylliosis 31
Bile duct
anatomy 134
variants 134
Biliary atresia 246
Black blood 86
Blount's disease 271
Blunt trauma to bowel 171
Blunt traumatic aortic injury 52
Boerhaave's syndrome 158
Bone 128
lymphoma 119
sarcoid 97
ossicles 327
Bowed long bones in children 128
Bowel obstruction, causes 178
Brachial plexus 303
Brain
abscess 286
and spinal trauma 300
herniations 303
tumours, adult 274
Brainstem glioma 238, 280
Branchial cleft cyst 352
Breast 225
abscess 229
biopsy 232
calcifications 225
cancer, mimics on mammography 232
cysts 226
MRI 226
Brenner tumour 222
Bright blood 86
Bronchial artery embolisation 74
Bronchiectasis 14
Bronchiolitis obliterans 15
Bronchitis, chronic 13
Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma 3
Bronchogenic
carcinoma 32
cyst 56, 257
Bronchospasm 69
Bucket-handle fracture 109
Budd–Chiari syndrome 141
Buerger's disease 71
C
Caffey's disease 272
Calcarine sulcus 364
Calcified metastases 5, 274
Candida oesophagitis 163
Capillary haemangioma 314
Caplan's syndrome 26
Carcinoid tumour 8, 174
Cardiac
chamber enlargement 79
CT dose reduction 88
imaging 78
MRI 85
myxoma 80
tamponade 84
Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema 18
Cardiomyopathy 80, 87
Carney's complex 155
Carotid
artery imaging 294
bulb paraganglioma 342
cavernous sinus fistula 316
dissection 76, 292
Doppler ultrasound 75
imaging 75
stenting 76, 295
Carpal
injuries 106
tunnel 91
Castleman's disease 6
Catheter angiography 76, 295, 306
Cavernous
angioma 307
haemangioma 314
Cavitating metastases 5
Cement disease 123
Central
canal of spinal cord 318
pontine myelinolysis 309
sulcus of Rolando 364
venous pressure line 48
Centrilobular nodules 22
Cerebellar haemangioblastoma 277
Cerebellopontine angle lesions 328
Cerebral
and cerebellar atrophy 309
angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage 306
contusion 302
haemorrhage, primary 290, 292
sulci 364
Cervical
carcinoma 221
lymph nodes 350
spine 105, 268
spine fractures 304
Charcot's joint 96
Chest
in drowning 260
trauma 50
Childhood
chest conditions 253, 260
deafness 330
osteomyelitis 269
pneumonia 260
tuberculosis 260
Choanal atresia 257
Cholangiocarcinoma 145
Cholangiolithiasis 144
Cholangitis 146
Cholecystitis
acute 145
chronic 145
emphysematous 145
Choledochal cyst 144, 245
Cholelithiasis 144
Cholesteatoma 328
Chondroblastoma 118
Chondromyxoid fibroma 118
Chondrosarcoma 119
Chordoma 326
Chordoma of
clivus 326
sacrum 326
Choriocarcinoma 217
Choroid plexus cyst 235
Choroidal haemangioma 314
Churg–Strauss syndrome 27
Chylothorax 50
Circle of Willis 289
Cirrhosis 135
Clay Shoveller's fracture 304
Clear cell carcinoma 222
Club foot 271
CNS
infections 286
lymphoma 275
Coarctation of aorta 61, 266
Cochlear promontory paraganglioma 343
Coeliac disease 175
Colloid or mucinous carcinoma 231
Colonic
aphthoid ulceration, causes 183
polyps 181
strictures, causes 183
Colonic polyps 181
Colorectal carcinoma 182
Common
primary tumours 274, 275
sites of mandibular fractures 128
Community-acquired pneumonias 34
Congenital
absence of pericardium and pericardial sac defect 83
anomalies 216
anomalies of aortic arch 60
bronchial atresia 258
cholesteatoma 328
CNS disorders 281
cystic adenomatoid malformation 254
diaphragmatic hernia 255
heart disease 81
hypothyroidism 357
lobar emphysema 255
lung disease 7, 9
oesophageal atresia 156
scoliosis 271
syringomyelia 285
vertical talus 271
Conn's syndrome 214
Connective tissue diseases 25
Constrictive pericarditis 84
Contrast
medium extravasation 70
reactions and treatment 69
Contusion patterns in knee trauma 112
Conventional technique 16
Cord
degeneration, subacute combined 320
haemorrhage 303
oedema 303
transaction 303
Coronal views 234
Coronary
artery anomalies 79
CT angiography 87
Corpus callosum anomalies 281
Corrosive gastritis 167
Cortical necrosis, acute 191
Coxa
valga 272
vara 272
Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia 333
Craniopharyngioma 298
Craniosynostosis 235
Crazy-Paving pattern 22
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 363
Cricoarytenoid joint dislocation 346
Cricoid and thyroid fractures 346
Criteria for diagnosing ICA stenosis 76, 294
Crohn's disease 183
Cross sectional anatomy 318
Croup 259
Cryptococcoma 288
Cryptococcus neoformans infection 288
Cryptogenic
fibrosing alveolitis 25
organising pneumonia 20
Cryptorchidism 252
CT
angiography 76, 306
guided lung biopsy 4
in temporal bone imaging 327
pitfalls in aortic dissection 63
pulmonary angiography (CTPA) 43
signs of AAA rupture 64
staging 174
venography 44
CTPA, pitfalls 43
Cushing's syndrome 214
Cyanosis
with pulmonary plethora 264
without pulmonary plethora 263
Cylindroma 13, 338
Cystic
adenoid carcinoma 341
adenomatoid malformation 9
carcinomas of pancreas 152
duct variants 134
fibrosis 10, 247, 260
hygroma 353
jaw lesions 348
kidney diseases, acquired 189
lesions of mandible 347
Cystitis 204
Cystosarcoma phyllodes 227
Cytomegalovirus
encephalitis 288
oesophagitis 164
D
Dandy-Walker malformation 240, 281
De Quervain's thyroiditis 356
Deep
cerebral venous thrombosis 294
vein thrombosis 44
Degenerative
disc disease 321
spondylolisthesis 323
Delivery technique 68
Dementia 363
Demyelinating diseases 308
Dense metaphyseal bands 128
Dentigerous cyst 348
Depressed fracture 300
Dermoid 315
Developmental dysplasia of hip 270
Diagnostic angiography 66
Diaphragm 51
rupture 52
Diastatic fracture 300
Diastematomyelia 284
DiGeorge's syndrome 261
Digital subtraction angiography 66
Dilated cardiomyopathy 80
Diploic space metastases 277
Disc
bulge 321
herniation 321
protrusion 321
Discitis 321
Discoid meniscus 111
Dislocation 123
Disorders of sexual developmental 252
Displaced tears 110
Diverticular disease 181
Diverticulitis 181
Doppler ultrasound of carotids 294
Double bubble sign 247
Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) 270
Drug-induced lung disease 27
Duct ectasia 229
Ductal carcinoma 229, 230
Duodenal
atresia or stenosis 243
carcinoid 175
diverticulum 172
folds, thickened, causes 173
ulcer 168
Duodenum 172
dilated, causes 173
Duplex kidneys 249
Duplication cyst 164, 242
Dysgerminoma 223
E
Ebstein's anomaly 81, 263
ECG-gated dose modulation 88
Elbow
dislocation 107
joint 91
Embryology 147, 203, 205
Emphysema 13
Empty sella syndrome 297
Encephalomyelitis, acute disseminated 309
Enchondroma 115
Endobronchial metastases 5
Endocrine diseases 98
Endodermal sinus tumour 223
Endometrial
carcinoma 218
hyperplasia 218
polyp 218
Endometrioid carcinoma 222
Endometriosis 203, 219
Endotracheal tube 48
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) 65
Enhancing
structures on CT 362
structures on MRI 362
Eosinophilic granuloma 115
Ependymoma 238, 274, 279, 324
Epidermoid 329
cysts 208
Epididymis 205
Epididymitis 206
Epidural
abscess 320
fibrosis 320
haematoma 320
metastases 326
Epiglottitis, acute 259
Epilepsy 362
Epiploic appendagitis 179
Epitympanic recess 327
Eponymous sarcoidosis syndromes 23
Erlenmeyer's flask deformity 127
Esthesioneuroblastoma 334
Ethmoid roof 331
Ewing's sarcoma 119
Excessive callus 128
Exostosis of external auditory canal 328
Extension tear-drop fracture 304
External hernia 172
Extraconal tumours 313
Extradural
haematoma 301
tumours 326
Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 146
Extralobar sequestrations 10
Extramedullary
haemopoiesis 57
intradural spinal tumours 325
plasmacytoma 345
Extrapulmonary complications 35
Extravaginal 208
Extravesical insertion of ureter 201
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis 23
Eyeball 310
F
Fat embolism 45
Fatty liver disease 140
Features of malignant head and neck nodes 351
Features of normal
CCA waveform 75, 294
ECA waveform 75, 294
ICA waveform 75, 294
Female
infertility 216
pseudohermaphroditism 252
Femoral artery 71
pseudoaneurysm 69
Femoropopliteal angioplasty and stenting 68
Fetal circulation 81, 263
Fibroadenolipoma 228
Fibroadenoma 227
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 114
Fibroid uterus 220
Fibrolamellar HCC 140
Fibrosarcoma 119
Fibrosing mediastinitis 58
Fibrothecoma 224
Fibrotic stage 24
Fibrous
cortical defect 115
dysplasia 115, 333
histiocytoma, malignant 119
Fibrosis, massive progressive 31
Fibular collateral ligament 112
Fifth cranial nerve 363
Filum terminale 318
First branchial cleft cyst 352
Fissures and junctional lines 16
Flexion tear-drop fracture 304
Focal
fat necrosis 228
nodular hyperplasia 138
radiation necrosis 278
thickening 362
Follicular carcinoma 358
Fractures 50, 123
Fractures of
distal radius 107
radius and ulna 107
Freiberg's disease 271
Functional
endoscopic sinus surgery 331
segmental anatomy 134
Fusion of cervical spine 126
G
Galactocoele 228
Gallbladder and biliary tree 144
Gastric
cancer 167
carcinoid 174
gastrointestinal stromal tumour 169
thickened mucosal folds, causes 169
ulcer 168
volvulus 168
Gastrinoma 153
Gastritis 166
Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, acute 73, 74
Gastrointestinal tumours in children 246
Gastro-oesophageal reflux 242
disease 162
Gastroschisis 244
Generalised anaphylactoid reaction 70
Genitourinary
syndrome 249
tract tuberculosis 199
Germ cell tumour 55, 223
Germinal matrix haemorrhage 234
Germinoma 364
Gestational trophoblastic disease 217
GI tract trauma 171
Giant cell
astrocytoma 239
tumour 115
Glioblastoma multiforme 274
Gliomas 274
Glomus jugulare 342
Glottic tumours 345
Glucagonoma 153
Goodpasture's syndrome 19
Gout 96
Gradenigo's syndrome 328
Graft-versus-host disease 177
Granulomatous disease, chronic 261
Granulosa cell tumour 223
Graves’ disease 356
Ground-glass opacification 22
Growing fracture 300
Growth rate assessment 7
Gynaecomastia 227
H
Haemangioblastoma 277, 325
Haemangioma 314
Haematological diseases 101
Haematoma signal on MRI 131
Haematoma, subdural 301
Haemochromatosis 136
Haemoperitoneum 171
Haemophilia 102
Haemorrhagic metastases 274
Haemothorax 50
Hair-on-end skull 362
Halo sign 21
Hamartoma 8, 228
Hangman's fracture 304
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 356
Head and neck lymph nodes 350
Heart disease, left 47
Heart valve imaging 88
Hepatic
artery 134
haemangioma 137
veins 135
veno-occlusive disease 142
Hepatitis 135
Hepatobiliary system 134
Hepatoblastoma 247
Hepatocellular
adenoma 138
carcinoma 139, 247
Hernia 172
Herpes simplex encephalitis 287
Heterotopic grey matter islands 241
Hibernating myocardium 87
High-attenuation metastases on non-contrast CT 275
High-voltage technique 16
Hip 92
Hippocampal sclerosis 362
Hirschsprung's disease 245
Histiocytosis X 299
HIV- and AIDS-related lung disease 38
HIV
encephalitis 288
oesophagitis 164
Hodgkin's lymphoma 5
Horner's syndrome 312
Horseshoe kidney 249
HRCT 21
HSV oesophagitis 164
Hyaline membrane disease 253
Hydatid disease 36
Hyoscine butylbromide 70
Hyperextension 105
Hyperflexion 105
Hyperparathyroidism
primary 98, 359
secondary 360
Hyperprolactinaemia 297
Hypoparathyroidism 360
Hypopituitarism 296
Hypoplasia 9, 282
Hypotension with bradycardia 69
Hypothalamic hamartoma 299
Hypothalamus 296
Hypothyroidism 99
Hypotympanum 327
Hypovolaemia 171
Hysterosalpingography 216
I
Iatrogenic acquired TOF 157
ICA 331
stenosis 294
Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis 19
Iliac artery 71
angioplasty and stenting 68
Image resolution 88
Immature teratoma 223
Infantile cortical hyperostosis 272
Infantile haemangioendothelioma 246
Infarction
acute 290
established 291
Inflammatory
aneurysm 65
bowel disease 164
carcinoma 231
pseudotumour 203
Infrahyoid pathology 352
Infratentorial
intra-axial tumours 277
metastases 277
Insulinoma 153
Interlobular septal thickening 22
Internal
auditory canal 327
carotid artery 289
hernia 172
Interstitial
fibrosis 25
lung diseases 28
Intervertebral disc calcification 324
Intestinal lymphoma 173
Intra- and extracardiac shunts 46
Intra-arterial thrombolysis 68
Intraconal tumours 313
Intraductal
papillary mucinous tumour of pancreas 151
papilloma 227
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 146
Intralobar sequestrations 10
Intramedullary
arteriovenous malformation 319
spinal tumours 324
Intramural haematoma 63
Intrathoracic metastasis 211
Ischaemic colitis 180
IVC filters 45
Ivory vertebra 129
J
Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome 116
Jefferson fracture 304
Jejunal and ileal carcinoid 175
Joints of
lower limb 92
upper limb 91
Jugular
bulb paraganglioma 342
vein thrombosis 352
Juvenile
angiofibroma 259, 340
chronic arthritis 94, 270
pilocytic astrocytoma 237, 279
rheumatoid arthritis 94, 270
Juxta-articular osteoporosis 126
K
Kaposi's sarcoma 39
Kidney 249
Klebsiella pneumonia 34
Knee
injuries 110
joint 92
Kruckenberg's tumour 224
L
Lacrimal apparatus 316
Lacrimal gland, enlarged 317
Lacunar infarction 291
Lamina dura 348
Large
bowel 171
bowel obstruction 178
cell carcinoma 3
Laryngeal
carcinoma 344
oedema 69
Laryngocele 345
Laryngomalacia 258
Laryngopharynx 339
Laryngotracheobronchitis 259
Larynx 344
Lateral
cervical oesophageal pouch and diverticulum 165
collateral ligament 112
pharyngeal pouch and diverticulum 165
sulcus 364
Late-stage disease 39
Left-to-right shunt 83
Legionella pneumophila 35
Leiomyoma 164, 220
Leptomeningeal
carcinomatosis 325
metastases 276
Leukaemia 6
Ligamentous injury 111
Limb and skeletal injuries 267
Limb ischaemia, acute 69
Limitations of ultrasound 76, 295
Limited form of scleroderma 26
Limping child 268
Linea aspera 92
Linear fracture 300
Lines and tubes 48
Lingual thyroid 357
Lingula 16
Linitis plastica, causes 170
Lipoma 228, 353
Lipoma of corpus callosum 281
Liver
abscess 136
anatomy 134
and biliary system 245
Lobar anatomy 15
Lobar collapse 16
Lobectomy 48
Lobular carcinoma 231, 232
Low
attenuation lesions in basal ganglia 361
marrow signal 131
signal on T2WI 130
Lower
gastrointestinal bleeding 73
limb trauma 109
lobe 15, 16
oesophageal perforation 159
Lung
cancer 2
diffuse disease 21
metastases 4
transplantation 48
Lymphadenopathy 24
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis 28
Lymphangitis carcinomatosis 5
Lymphocytic
hypophysitis 296
interstitial pneumonia 39
Lymphoma 5, 299, 316, 334, 358
secondary 120
Lymphoma of
colon 174
small intestine 174
stomach 174
Lymphoma versus toxoplasmosis 275
Lytic bone lesions in children 129
Lytic spondylolisthesis 323
M
M staging 4
Macroadenoma 298
Macronodular parenchymal disease 24
Malacoplakia 204
Male pseudohermaphroditism 252
Malgaigne's fracture 109
Malignant tumours of
bladder 204
bone 119
larynx 344
pharynx 340
Mallory-Weiss tear 159
Malrotation 172, 243
Mandible 347
Mandibular
fractures 347
hypoplasia 347
nerve 363
pathology 347
Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome 309
Marfan's syndrome 97
Mature teratoma 223
Maxillary nerve 363
MCA infarction 290
McDonald MRI criteria for multiple sclerosis 308
Meckel's diverticulum 178
Meconium
aspiration syndrome 254
ileus 243
Medial
cruciate ligament 112
wall 316
Mediastinal
injury 52
masses 261, 262
Mediastinitis 57
Mediastinum 54
Medullary
carcinoma 231, 358
metastases 325
sponge kidney 189
Medulloblastoma 237, 279
Megaureter 251
Melanoma 314
metastases 275
Meningioma 275, 325, 329
Meningitis, bacterial 286
Meniscal
cyst 111
tears 110
Menisci 93
Mesenteric adenitis 244
Mesenteric ischaemia 179
Mesothelioma, malignant 32
Mesotympanum 327
Metastases 175, 314, 334, 338
Metastases to
liver 140
thyroid 358
Metastatic
disease 116
invasion 341
Microadenoma 297
Micrognathia 347
Micronodular parenchymal disease 24
Microscopic polyangiitis 27
Midazolam 70
Middle
ear cavity 327
lobe 15, 16
mediastinum 56
Midgut volvulus 243
Mikulicz's syndrome 317
Miliary
metastases 5
tuberculosis 37
Mimics of breast cancer on mammography 232
Minor salivary glands 336
Mirizzi's syndrome 146
Mitral stenosis 19
Mondini malformation 330
Morphological assessment 7
Mosaic attenuation 21
Mucocele 332
Mucoepidermoid tumour 338
Mucormycosis 332
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma 167
Multicystic dysplastic kidney 249
Multifocal leukoencephalopathy, progressive 288
Multinodular goitre 356
Multiple
enchondromas 115
endocrine neoplasia 154, 215
myeloma 117
sclerosis 308, 319
Muscles of ocular motility 310
Musculoskeletal effects of phenytoin 124
Mycetoma formation 37
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex 39
Mycoplasma pneumonia 34
Myelitis 319
Myocardial
infarction 86
perfusion imaging 86
Myocarditis 87
Myositis ossificans 114
N
N staging 3
Narrow intervertebral disc spaces 324
Nasal
and paranasal sinus disease 27
polyps 333
septal perforation 332
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction 317
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma 340
Nasopharynx 339
Neck 350
Necrotising
enterocolitis 244
leukoencephalopathy 278
Neonatal
chest conditions 253
cranial ultrasound 234
pneumonia 254
pneumoperitoneum 247
spine 241
Neoplastic tracheal disease 12
Nephrocalcinosis 189
Nephrogenic adenoma 203
Nerve sheath tumours 325
Neuroblastoma 251
Neurocysticercosis 361
Neurofibroma 128, 326, 352
Neurofibromatosis 283
Neurogenic tumours 57
Neuropathic arthropathy 96
Nodal metastases 341
Non-accidental injury 267
Non-atherosclerotic pathology 71
Non-functioning islet cell tumours 153
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 5, 341
Non-infectious pulmonary disease 39
Non-neoplastic tracheal disease 11
Non-ossifying fibroma 115
Non-small cell carcinoma 2, 3
Non-thrombotic
obstruction 141
pulmonary embolism 45
Non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage 305
Normal
folds seen on imaging 178
imaging features 354
MRI appearances of pituitary 296
MRI findings in ageing brain 363
variants and pitfalls 234
Normally
calcified structures 362
enhancing structures 362
Nuclear cardiology 84
Nutritional diseases 269
O
Obstructive cholangitis 146
Occupational lung disease 31
Odontogenic keratocyst 347
Odontoid fractures 304
Oesophageal
atresia 242
cancer 157
perforation 159
ring 160
strictures 160
varices 161
web 160
Oesophagitis 163
Oesophagus 156, 242
Oligodendroglioma 274
Ollier's disease 115
Omphalocoele 243
Oncocytoma 195
Ophthalmic nerve 363
Optic
glioma 313
meningioma 314
nerve 331
Orbit and lacrimal gland 310
Orbital
foramina and contents 310
plate fracture 300
pseudotumour 312
rim fractures 316
trauma 316
tumours 313
varix 313
Orchitis 206
Oropharynx 339
Osgood–Schlatter disease 268
Osseous metastasis 211
Ossification centres 90
Osteoarthritis 94
Osteoblastoma 116
Osteochondritis dissecans 113
Osteochondroma 120
Osteogenesis imperfecta 123, 267
Osteoid osteoma 117
Osteoma 334
Osteomalacia 102
Osteomyelitis 100
Osteopetrosis 103
Osteoporosis 98
hip, transient 124
Osteosarcoma 119
Otitis
externa 328
media 327
Otosclerosis 330
Ovarian
metastases 224
tumours 222
Ovary 222
Ovary in reproductive age group 216
P
Paediatric
brain tumours 237, 279
cardiovascular radiology 263
gastrointestinal radiology 242
musculoskeletal radiology 267
neuroradiology 234
respiratory radiography 253
Paget's disease 103, 230
Pancoast's tumour 4
Pancreas 147
divisum 147
Pancreatic
anomalies 147
duct adenocarcinoma 151
islet cell tumours 153
pseudocyst 149
Pancreatitis 148
abscess 150
acute 150
chronic 150
emphysematous 150
Papillary carcinoma 230, 358
Papillitis 311
Papilloedema 311
Papilloma, inverting 334
Paraganglioma 342
Paraglottic space 344
Paranasal sinuses 331
Parapelvic cysts 189
Parapharyngeal space 342
Paraspinal abscess 57
Parasympathetic tumour 57
Parathyroid adenoma 56
Parathyroid glands 359
Parenchymal disease 22, 24
Parieto-occipital sulcus 364
Parotid
gland 336
haemangioma 338
Particle disease 123
Patella 93
Pathways of tumour invasion 340
Peliosis hepatis 142, 247
Pelvic
dislocation 109
inflammatory disease 218
injury 109
kidney 249
lipomatosis 202
Pelvis 92
Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer 63
Peptic ulcer disease 167
Percutaneous nephrostomy 77
Periarticular calcification 127
Pericardial
cyst 56, 84
effusion 83
Pericardium 83
Periosteal reaction in children 267
Peripheral vascular
anatomy 71
disease 66
Periventricular leukomalacia 235
Permeative pattern in bone 129
Persistent left SVC 59
Perthes’ disease 112, 268
Phaeochromocytoma 213
Phakomatoses 282
Pharynx 339
Phlegmonous gastritis 166
Phyllodes tumour 227
Pick's disease 363
Pigmented villonodular synovitis 121
Pilocytic astrocytoma 277
Piriform fossae 344
Pituitary
disorders 296
gland 296
metastases 299
tumours 297
Pleomorphic adenoma 337
Pleural
effusion 17, 25, 32,
plaques 31
space 50
thickening, diffuse 32
Pneumatosis intestinalis, causes 186
Pneumocystis
carinii pneunomia 38
jiroveci 38
Pneumomediastinum 58
Pneumonectomy 48
Pneumonias 35
Pneumothorax 51
Polyarteritis nodosa 72
Polycystic kidney disease
autosomal dominant 188
autosomal recessive 250
Polymyositis 26
Popliteal artery 71
entrapment syndrome 72
Popliteus muscle 93
Portal vein 134
thrombosis 142
Post-cardiac surgery 49
Posterior
cruciate ligament 112
junctional line 16
mediastinum 57
scalloping 323
triangle 350
urethral valve 251
Posterolateral corner injury 111
Postoperative chest radiography 48
Post-primary tuberculosis 37
Pre-epiglottic space 344
Preserved lung volumes 28
Pre-vertebral
abscess 341
space 341
Prostate
carcinoma 210
gland 210
Prostatitis 210
Prosthetic joint 123
Protrusio acetabuli 126
Prune belly syndrome 251
Prussak's space 327
Pseudoarthrosis 128
Pseudocoarctation 266
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 360
Pseudomembranous colitis 180
Pseudomonas pneumonia 35
Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism 360
Psoriatic arthropathy 95
Pulmonary
agenesis 9
angiography 43
aplasia 9
arterial hypertension 46
capillary haemangiomatosis 47
contusion 51
disease 27
embolism in pregnancy 44
fibrosis, patterns 28
haemorrhage 19
hypoplasia 9, 256
infections 34
Langerhans cell histiocytosis 28
lobule, secondary 21
manifestations 37
nodules 25
plethora without cyanosis 263
sequestration 9, 257
thromboembolism 41
vasculitides 26
venolobar syndrome 256
veno-occlusive disease 47
Pulse oximetry monitoring 70
Pyelonephritis
bacterial, acute 192
emphysematous 193
Pyloric stenosis 169, 242
Pyogenic
discitis 321
liver abscess 137
Pyonephrosis 193
Pyrophosphate arthropathy 96
R
Radial scar 229
Radiation enteritis 176
Radiation effects, late 278
Radiation injury of
colon and rectum 177
small intestine 177
stomach 176
Radiation necrosis versus tumour recurrence 278
Radiation-induced lung disease 29, 30
Radicular cyst 347
Radiological management 162
Radionuclide imaging 188
Radiopharmaceutical agents 85
Raised alkaline phosphatase 126
Ranula 337
Raynaud's syndrome 72
Reduction of intussusception 244
Reiter's syndrome 95
Relapsing polychondritis 12
Relations of pituitary gland 296
Relevant vascular anatomy 289
Renal
abscess 192
adenoma 195
agenesis 249
artery occlusion 192
artery stenosis 75, 191
carcinoma 196
cyst, simple 195
disease 27
failure from diffuse parenchymal disease, chronic 198
haemorrhage 190
infarction 190
lymphoma 198
metastases 198
osteodystrophy 99
papillary necrosis 198
sinus cysts 189
system 188
trauma 194
vein thrombosis 191
Residual cyst 347
Restrictive cardiomyopathy 80
Retinoblastoma 239, 315
Retroperitoneal fibrosis 201
Retropharyngeal
abscess 341
space 341
Retrorectal space, widered, causes 183
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy 361
Rhabdomyosarcoma 315
Rheumatoid arthritis 25, 94, 346
Rib fractures 50
Rickets 101, 269
Riedel's thyroiditis 357
Right
aortic arch branch patterns 61
atrial enlargement 79
Rocker bottom feet 271
Rotator cuff 91
Round atelectasis 32
Run-off vessels 71
S
Sacroiliac joint 92
Sacroiliitis 127
Salivary gland 336
stones 337
tumours, malignant 338
Salter–Harris injuries 268
Sarcoidosis 23, 87, 337
Scaphoid 91
Schatzki's ring 160
Scheuermann's disease 271
Schistosomiasis 203
Scimitar syndrome 9, 256
Scleroderma 26, 95, 164
Sclerosing cholangitis, primary 146
Sclerosing stromal cell tumour 224
Sclerotic pedicle 126, 324
Scrotum 205
Scurvy 102, 270
Second branchial cleft cyst 352
Septic
arthritis 101
emboli 45
Serous and mucinous tumours 222
Sertoli and Leydig cell tumour 224
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 34
Sex cord-stromal tumours 223
Shoulder
dislocation 108
joint 91
Sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia 103
Sigmoid volvulus 183
Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis 31
Sinusitis, bacterial 332
Sjögren's syndrome 336
Skeletal hyperostosis, diffuse idiopathic 322
Skull base fractures 300
Skull vault
fractures 300
thickening 362
Slipped
femoral epiphysis 113
upper femoral epiphysis 269
Small airways disease 21
Small bowel
aphthoid ulceration, causes 180
dilated, causes 178
nodules, causes 179
obstruction 178
strictures, causes 179
Small cell lung cancer 2
Soft trachea 258
Solitary
bone cyst 118
pulmonary nodule 7
Somatostatinoma 154
Spatial resolution 88
Spermatic cord 205
Spina bifida
aperta 284
occulta 284
Spinal
cord injury 303
dysraphism 284
fusion 322
stenosis 323
Spine 318
Spondylolisthesis 105, 323
Spondylosis 105
Squamous
cell carcinoma 2, 12, 334
papilloma 344
Staging of
non-small cell lung cancer 3
small cell lung cancer 2
Staphylococcal pneumonia 35
Sternal fracture 50
Stippled epiphysis 129
Stomach 166
Straddle fracture 109
Streptococcal pneumonia 34
Stress
fractures 113
imaging 85
Stroke 289, 290
chronic, imaging features 291
Sturge-Weber syndrome 282
Subacromial subdeltoid bursal impingement 108
Subarachnoid haemorrhage 305, 306
Subclavian steal syndrome 77, 295
Subdural
empyema 286
haematoma 301
Subfalcine herniation 303
Subglottic
stenosis 345
tumours 345
Sublingual gland 336
Submandibular gland 336
Superior mediastinum 54
Supernumerary teeth 349
Supracondylar injuries 107
Supraglottic
hypermobility syndrome 258
tumours 344
Suprahyoid pathology 352
Suprasellar
germinoma 299
mass lesions 299
meningioma 299
Supratentorial
extra-axial tumours 275
intra-axial tumours 274
metastases 274
Surgical shunt procedures 82
Sutural bones 272
SVC obstruction 58
Swan-Ganz catheter 48
Sylvian fissure 364
Sympathetic ganglia tumour 57
Synovial
chondromatosis 121
lesions 121
sarcoma 121
Syringomyelia 285
Systemic lupus erythematosus 26, 95
T
Tachypnoea of newborn, transient 254
Takayasu's arteritis 64
Talipes equino varus 271
Teeth 349
Tegmen tympani 327
Temporal bone 327
fractures 300
Temporal resolution 88
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) 347
Tendon injuries in lower limb 114
Tension pneumothorax 51
Teratoma 56
Territorial involvement 290
Terminal ileum, causes of lesions in 180
Tertiary
contractions in oesophagus 165
hyperparathyroidism 360
Testicular
calcifications and microlithiasis 208
cysts 208
neoplasm 207
torsion 208
trauma 208
Testis 205
Tethered spinal cord 241, 285
Tetralogy of Fallot 81, 263
Thallium-201 85
Third nerve palsy 312
Thoracic
and lumbar spine injuries 105
aorta 60
aortic aneurysm 64
duct 50
spine fracture 50
Thornwald cyst 339
Thromboembolic
disease 41
pulmonary hypertension, chronic 46
stroke 290
Thrombotic obstruction 141
Thumb fractures 105
Thymic
carcinoid 55
carcinoma 55
cyst 55
hyperplasia 54
Thymolipoma 55
Thymoma 55
Thymus 261
Thyroglossal duct cyst 355
Thyroid
eye disease 312
gland 354
malignancy 358
masses 54
nodule 357
scintigraphy 354
Thyroiditis, subacute 356
Tibialis posterior tendon tear 114
TMJ
arthritis 347
subluxation 347
TOF, acquired, malignant 157
Tonsillar herniation 303
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection 82, 264
Toxoplasmosis 288
Trachea 11
Tracheal
bronchus 11
stenosis 259
Tracheobronchial
papillomatosis 12
stenosis 12
tear 53
Tracheobronchomegaly 12
Tracheoesophageal fistula 242
Tracheomalacia 258
Tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) 156
Tracheostomy 48
Trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt 77
Transposition of great arteries 82, 264
Transtentorial herniation 303
Trauma 105, 346
Traumatic
injury 303
intracranial haemorrhage 301
subarachnoid haemorrhage 302
Tree-in-bud pattern 22
Tricuspid atresia 81, 264
Trigeminal nerve 363
True hermaphroditism 252
Truncus arteriosus 82, 265
Tuberculoma 38, 287
Tuberculosis 36, 39, 287
post-primary 37
primary 275
Tuberculous
adenitis 353
discitis 321
empyema 37
meningitis 287
oesophagitis 163
osteomyelitis 100
Tuberous sclerosis 29, 196, 240, 282
Tubular cancer 230
Tumours 115
Tumours of renal tract 251
Tunica albuginea cyst 208
Type
A dissection 62
B dissection 62
Types of polyp 182
U
Ulcerative colitis 184
Undescended testis 208
Unstable injury patterns 105
Upper
airway pathologies 257
airway problems in children 253
and mid-oesophageal perforation 159
gastrointestinal bleeding 73
limb trauma 105
lobe 15, 16
tract transitional cell carcinoma 197
Ureter 249
Ureteral duplications 201
Ureteritis cystica 202
Ureters 201
Urethra 203, 251
Urinary bladder 201
Urticaria 69
Uterine
fibroid embolisation 74
tuberculosis 218
Ureterocoele, ectopic 201
Uterus 216
V
Vagus nerve paraganglioma 342
Variants of aortic dissection 63
Varicella-zoster virus 34
oesophagitis 164
Varicocoele 206
embolisation 74
Vas deferens 205
Vascular
anatomy 134
calcifications 73
complications 150
disease 21, 66
malformations 305
Vasovagal reaction 69
Vein of Galen malformation 240
Ventricular enlargement
left 79
right 80
Venous sinus anatomy 290
Vertebra
plana 127
artery 289
body metastases 321
Vertebral ossification, causes 364
Vertebrobasilar infarction 291
Vesicoureteral reflux 250
Vestibular aqueduct syndrome (enlarged) 330
VIPoma 154
Viral pneumonia 34
Virchow's triad 141
Vitreous haemorrhage 316
von Hippel–Lindau disease 196, 283
W
Warthin's tumour 337
Watershed infarct 293
Wegener's granulomatosis 26, 333
Wernicke's encephalopathy 309
Whipple's disease 176
White matter oedema, transient 277
Widened
cranial sutures 236
interpedicular distance 323
Widening of femoral intercondylar notch 126
Wilms’ tumour 251
Wormian bones 129, 272
Wrist joint 91
X
Xanthogranulomatous
cholecystitis 145
pyelonephritis 193
Z
Zenker's diverticulum 165
×
Chapter Notes

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