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JOURNAL TITLE: Pondicherry Journal of Nursing
Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) is a major psychiatric disorder all around the world, which is mainly characterized by frequent and recurrent episodes of mania, hypomania, and depression. A majority of complete etiology or pathogenesis of BPAD is unknown. Mania occurs for a period of 1 week or more where the affected individual may experience a change in normal behavior that drastically affects their normal functioning. The defining characteristics of mania are alteration in mood (elation and ecstasy), increased talkativeness, rapid speech, sleep disturbance, racing thoughts, increase in their goal-directed activity, increased psychomotor activity, and poor insight. Some other major signs and symptoms of mania are an elevated or expansive mood, mood changes, impulsive behavior, irritability, and grandiose ideas. The manic episode usually presents with psychotic features, which may include delusions and hallucinations. Those persons are highly intended to respond to outsiders for their psychosis as well as for their manic episode, which is mainly noticed by others, including each member of the family, friends, and even strangers. Rapid cycling of the bipolar disorder is defined as the individual may present with at least four or more episodes of mood changes for a period of 12 months.
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