A Comparative Study of Dexamethasone vs Dexmedetomidine to Attenuate Propofol-induced Intravenous Pain

JOURNAL TITLE: Journal of Research & Innovation in Anesthesia

1. Sarika S Naik
2. Saraswathi P Devi
3. Sudhir M Naik
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
    1. Department of Anesthesia, KVG Medical College and Hospital, Sullia, Karnataka, India
    1. Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, KVG Medical College, Sullia, Karnataka, India
    1. Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, The Oxford Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Article keywords
    ASA grade 1, ASA grade 2, Dexamethasone, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol


    Pain experienced by the patient while the inducing dose being given in the peripheral vein is the most common drawback of this widely used agent. Seen to vary from mild to moderate pain and complained by 2/3rd of the patients around the globe. It is among one of the high-priority outcomes which need changes during general anesthesia. Propofol is supposed to directly irritate the venous tunica intima and release nitric oxide. Propofol itself in emulsion or microemulsion form or opioid adjuvants like fentanyl, alfentanyl, remifentanyl and tramadol are tried with good results. Other agents like ketamine, ketorolac, diclofenac, flurbiprofen and combination of clonidine–ephedrine are also tried but using a larger vein and using it with lignocaine seems to be the best and easiest so far. In this randomized study, we have observed that the pain alleviation was superior in dexmedetomidine (DX) group compared to dexamethasone (DM) group, however, the drop in heart rate was significantly more in DX group, but it was treated only with a single dose of atropine in four patients. Hence dexmedetomidine can be used to attenuate the propofol-induced intravenous pain.

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