Animal Bite Injuries in Children: Review of Literature and Case Series

JOURNAL TITLE: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

1. Aviral Agrawal
2. Ruchi Singhal
3. Virendra Singh
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
    1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College, Karnal, Haryana, India
    1. Department of Pedodontics, Postgraduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
    1. SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
    2. Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
    3. S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
    4. C 93, Shastri Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan
    5. SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
    6. Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Postgraduate, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
    7. Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
    8. Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
  • Article keywords
    Animal bite injuries, Dog bites, Facial trauma


    Introduction: Maxillofacial region in children is particularly vulnerable to animal bite injuries. These injuries may range from insignificant scratches to life-threatening neck and facial injuries. Children are the common victims, particularly of dog bites. Materials and methods: Three cases of animal bite injuries in children with their clinical presentation and their management are being presented along with review of literature. Surgical management included cleansing and primary closure of the wound. Rabies and tetanus prophylaxis were given. Discussion: The most common site of injury was the face. For the facial injuries, the most frequently affected area was the middle third (55%), also called as the “central target area.” The small stature of children, the disproportionate size of the head relative to the body, their willingness to bring their faces close to the animal, and limited motor skills to provide defense are believed to account for this. The resulting soft-tissue injuries can vary in relation to their extent. Treatment involved initial surgical exploration, and secondary repair later depending on the severity of the injury. Conclusion: Prompt assessment and treatment can prevent most bite wound complications. Early management of such injuries usually guarantees satisfactory outcome. Prevention strategies include close supervision of child-dog interactions, better reporting of bites, etc.

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