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Chapter-04 Chemistry of Carbohydrates

BOOK TITLE: Self Assessment and Review of Biochemistry

Author
1. Perumcheril Rebecca James
ISBN
9789386322401
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14226_5
Edition
3/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
26
Author Affiliations
1. Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Carbohydrate, mucopolysaccharidosis, lysosomal enzyme, disaccharide, glycogen, monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide, glycosaminoglycan, isomerism

Abstract

This chapter recapitulates the chemistry of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in nature. The word ‘carbohydrate’ literally means hydrate of carbon. Main (primary) source of energy for human beings is carbohydrates, as glycogen (45–65% of total energy). Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. This chapter also discusses on glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharidoses, reactions of carbohydrates, and isomerism in carbohydrates. Glycosaminoglycans are unbranched heteropolysaccharide chains composed of disaccharide repeat units. Hereditary progressive disease caused by mutation of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes needed to degrade GAGs results in intralysosomal accumulation of GAGs. Different compounds having same molecular formula are called isomers of one another. Multiple choice questions along with their explanatory answers are also provided at the end of the chapter.

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