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Chapter-18 Free Radicals, Xenobiotics, Metabolism of Alcohol, Biomembranes and Cell Organelle

BOOK TITLE: Self Assessment and Review of Biochemistry

Author
1. Perumcheril Rebecca James
ISBN
9789386322401
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14226_19
Edition
3/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
11
Author Affiliations
1. Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
Chapter keywords
Free radical, xenobiotic, metabolism, antioxidant, preventive antioxidant, chain-breaking antioxidant, glucuronic acid, glutathione

Abstract

This chapter discusses free radicals, xenobiotics, and metabolism of alcohol. Free radical is a molecule or molecular fragment that contains one or more unpaired electrons in its outer orbit and has an independent existence. The total body radical burden can be estimated by measuring the products of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants fall into two classes which are preventive antioxidants and chain-breaking antioxidants. A xenobiotic is a compound that is foreign to the body. Metabolism of xenobiotics categorized in two phases. In phase 1 reactions, xenobiotics are generally converted to more polar and hydroxylated derivatives. In phase 2 reactions, these derivatives are conjugated with molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or glutathione. This renders them even more water soluble, and they are eventually excreted in the urine or bile.

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