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Chapter-02 Anatomy and Physiology of Cardiac System

BOOK TITLE: Textbook of Cardiac Nursing

Author
1. George Reena
ISBN
9789386261564
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14172_3
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2017
Pages
13
Author Affiliations
1. Florence College of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Chapter keywords
Cardiac system, heart, cardiac function, valve, atrioventricular node, cardiac output, cardiac cycle, sinoatrial node, coronary artery

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to introduce the anatomy and physiology of cardiac system. Cardiac system is a highly complex system. It includes the structural and functional aspect of heart. Survival of an individual depends on the efficiency of cardiac function. Any variation in the normal anatomical and physiological aspect of cardiac system will affect the normal survival of the living being. Human heart is a four chambered muscular organ. It lies in the thoracic cavity. The heart wall is made up of three layers. They are epicardium (epi means on top, external layer) myocardium (middle layer) and endocardium (inner most layer). There are four sets of valves within the heart. These valves permit blood flow only in one direction. There are two atrioventricular valves and two semilunar valves. Atrioventricular (AV) node is a small mass of nodal tissue lies in the posterior inferior region of the intra atrial septum at right atrium.

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