Chapter-02 Carbohydrate

BOOK TITLE: Essentials of Nutrition and Biochemistry for Basic BSc Nursing

1. Clement I
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. RV College of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; Columbia College of Nursing, VSS College of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; Christian Medical Association of India, New Delhi, Indian Society of Psychiatric Nursing, Bengaluru, Medical Surgical Nursing Society of ndia, Chennai; Indian Society of Neuroscience Nursing, New Delhi; Asian Association of Cardiac Nurses, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; Indian Red Cross Society, Bengaluru, St. Johns Ambulance Association, Bengaluru; National Editorial Advisory Board, New Delhi, Nurses of India (Former) Bengaluru
Chapter keywords
Carbohydrate, macronutrient, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, glucose, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, caloric value, recommended dietary allowances, RDA, fat metabolism, blood sugar


Carbohydrates are macronutrient, containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are primary energy yielder, present in plant foods as-well-as animal foods. Polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone group occurs in some sugar units. Glucose is physiologically significant among carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are the chief, cheapest and main source of energy. Carbohydrates, all coming from the process of photosynthesis, represent the major part of organic substance on Earth, are the most abundant organic components in the major part of fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereal grains, carry out many functions in all living organisms and are the major energy source for humans in Western diet of Mediterranean type. This chapter covers the classification of carbohydrates, caloric value, recommended dietary allowances, sources of carbohydrate, functions of carbohydrate, digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, regulation of blood sugar, glucose tolerance test, deficiencies of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and nurses’ role in carbohydrate.

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