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Chapter-29 Genetics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

BOOK TITLE: CDiC Textbook of Pediatric Diabetes

Author
1. Das Ashok K
2. Kalra Sanjay
3. Dhingra Mudita
4. Jayannan J
ISBN
9789352700868
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14155_30
Edition
1/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
8
Author Affiliations
1. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
2. Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and B.R.I.D.E., Karnal 132 001, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE Karnal; Indian J Endocrinology Metabolism, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India, Indian J Endocrinology and Metabolism; J of Social Health in Diabetes (JoSH Diabetes), Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India, Bharti Research Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (BRIDE), Karnal, Haryana, India
3. Rotary Hospital, Ambala, Haryana, India, Radhakishan Hospital, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India, Radhakishan Hospital, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
4. Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
Chapter keywords
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T1DM, human leukocyte antigen, HLA, β-cell apoptosis, immunogenetics, peptide based vaccine strategy, deoxyribonucleic acid vaccine

Abstract

The main concern of this chapter is to discuss genetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is one among the chronic diseases that are more common in childhood. It is generally characterized by immune associated destruction of insulin producing b-cells of pancreatic islet cells. T1DM is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Majority of patients with T1DM test positive for autoantibodies which destroys the b-cells of pancreas. These autoantibodies develop under the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non HLA genes and epigenetic modification leads to altered gene expression. Induction of tolerance, Peptide based vaccine strategy, Deoxyribonucleic acid; vaccine, and Adjuvants as vaccines and others are different preventive implications-vaccine strategies. Genetic testing although not routinely clinically indicated in these patients may help in future for primary prevention trials in siblings or first degree relatives of T1DM with high risk HLA haplotypes with exciting possibilities.

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