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Chapter-44 Basic Sciences

BOOK TITLE: Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry (2 Volumes)

Author
1. Bhardhwaj Pramodh
2. Jain Sheela
3. Joshi Uma
4. Garg Aparna
5. Chadda Sunila
6. Dadhich AP
7. Gupta LN
8. Randhawa VS
9. Mehta Geeta
10. Saxena GN
ISBN
9789351529101
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/14227_45
Edition
3/e
Publishing Year
2018
Pages
84
Author Affiliations
1. Rabindra Nath Tagore Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2. SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
3. Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
4. Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
5. Dr SN Medical College, Jodhpur; SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
6. Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
7. SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
8. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India
9. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India
10. Mahtama Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Chapter keywords
Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, psychoneuroimmunology, neurovirology, brain imaging, psychiatry, computed tomography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to focus on the basic science. This chapter is divided into seven different parts following as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, psychoneuroimmunology, neurovirology, and brain imaging in psychiatry. The nervous system relates the body with its environment through the sensory structures. In man, the sensory input is not only mingled but also recorded. Thus, consciousness evolves making possible finer adaptation of behavior. Neuropathology constitutes that branch of the clinical neuroscience which has traditionally achieved diagnoses of brain diseases by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination of the brain. It is currently a rapidly expanding discipline in which neuropathologists are beginning to implement molecular pathological methods in routine diagnosis, as well as maintaining active participation in research. The term psychoneuroimmunology refers to the study of effects of psychological status on immune function. The development of non-invasive techniques for assessing brain structure, function, and chemistry has progressed rapidly since the innovation of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s though the current generation of imaging methods. A number of neuroimaging modalities are now commonly used in both clinical situations and for research.

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