The chapter starts with discussion about history of hand instruments and materials used for hand instrument manufacturing viz., tungsten carbide and stainless steel. Then the chapter discusses in length about the design and parts of hand instruments, various exploring instruments. Instrument nomenclature, Cutting instrument formula, Types of cutting motions possible in hand cutting instruments viz., Direct cutting and Lateral cutting, Types of bevels in cutting edge of hand cutting instrument are explained in an elaborate manner. The chapter next discusses about classification of hand cutting instrument, each individual hand cutting instrument design is explained, each individual non-cutting instrument are also explained. Discussion on hand cutting instrument is finished with explanation about instrument grasps and sharpening of hand cutting instruments. Under section of powered cutting instruments history and development of powered cutting instruments is explained at the outset. Then the chapter discusses about the handpieces, compressors, and air turbine handpieces, Electric motors, cleaning and lubrication of handpieces, rotary speed ranges, and various characteristics of rotary instruments like speed, heat production, vibration, pressure, and torque. The section concludes with discussion about other powered instruments for caries removal like Air abrasion, Photodisinfection, Sonic and Ultrasonic caries removal, Chemo-mechanical caries removal, Lasers and Enzymes. In Rotary cutting instrument section design characteristics of rotary instrument is explained at the outset. Then historical development of dental burs is touched upon. Composition and manufacture of dental burs, Design features in dental burs like rake angle, clearance angle, tooth angle are explained in a detailed manner. The section the goes on with discussion about diamond abrasives their manufacture and design characteristics, also other abrasives and their design characteristics are explained. The chapter concludes with explanation about various types of rotary cutting mechanisms and hazards of rotary cutting.