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Chapter-04 Examination of the Eye

BOOK TITLE: Basic Ophthalmology

Author
1. Jogi Renu
ISBN
9788184484519
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/10076_4
Edition
4/e
Publishing Year
2009
Pages
25
Author Affiliations
1. MGM Medical College, Indore (MP), Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, India, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
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Abstract

A detailed history of present illness, past, personal and family history is obtained in the patient’s own words. Examination of anterior segment of the eye includes inspection of head, face, eyebrows, orbits, eyeballs, lids, lacrimal sac, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, anterior chamber, iris, pupil and lens. Intraocular pressure can be assessed digitally but more accurately by tonometry. Schiotz tonometer measures the depth of indentation of the cornea. Though cheap and easy, the reading may be erroneous due to ocular rigidity. Applanation tonometry is more accurate and is based on Imbert-Fick’s law. Goldmann applanation tonometer is the most popular and accurate tonometer. The angle of anterior chamber is examined by gonioscope which may be direct or indirect. Subjective examination of the posterior segment includes measurement of visual acuity usually by Snellens chart. Field of vision is tested by either kinetic or static methods. Confrontation method, Lister’s perimeter, Goldmann’s perimeter, Bjerrum screen and automated perimeters can be used. Retinal function is tested objectively by electroretinogram and electrooculogram. Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy are used to examine the ocular fundus.

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