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Chapter-19 The Orbit

BOOK TITLE: Basic Ophthalmology

Author
1. Jogi Renu
ISBN
9788184484519
DOI
10.5005/jp/books/10076_19
Edition
4/e
Publishing Year
2009
Pages
11
Author Affiliations
1. MGM Medical College, Indore (MP), Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, India, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
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Abstract

The two orbits are pyramidal shaped bony cavities situated on either side of the nose. The apex is represented by optic foramen and base by the orbital margins of frontal and maxillary bones. Superior orbital fissure, optic foramen and inferior orbital fissure are the apertures in the orbit. Subperiosteal space, peripheral orbital space, central space and the tenon’s space are the surgical spaces in the orbit. Orbital cellulitis is purulent inflammation of the cellular tissues of the orbit which may become life threatening. Hot compresses, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstay of treatment. Cavernous sinus thrombosis may develop due to extension of thrombosis from various communicating sources like face, lips, orbit, mouth, ears, nose, pharynx, accessory sinuses or as metastasis. It requires intensive treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Proptosis is a condition of forward displacement of the eyeball by passive or mechanical means while exophthalmos is an active forward protrusion. Proptosis may be unilateral, bilateral, intermittent or pulsating. It is measured by exophthalmometer. Radiological investigations like X-rays, computerized tomography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be required for diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical. Thyroid disorders may cause anterior protrusion of the eyeballs (exopthalmos). Systemic corticosteroids may reduce the oedema, orbital decompression may be required if rapidly progressive with optic nerve involvement.

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