Chapter-13 The Retina

BOOK TITLE: Basic Ophthalmology

1. Jogi Renu
Publishing Year
Author Affiliations
1. MGM Medical College, Indore (MP), Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, India, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Chapter keywords


Retina is the innermost layer of the eye. Fovea centralis in the centre of the macula is the most sensitive part of the retina. Eale’s disease or periphlebitis retinae is an idiopathic, inflammatory peripheral retinal vasculopathy with recurrent vitreous and retinal hemorrhages in young males. Central serous retinopathy is a localized detachment of the sensory retina at the macula secondary to local defect in the retinal pigment epithelium. Central retinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion result in sudden loss of vision from embolus or thrombosis. Systemic hypertension produces characteristic fundus changes of hypertensive retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by microvascular occlusion and leakage. It is classified as non proliferative and proliferative, maculopathy and advanced diabetic eye disease. Medical control of diabetes with photocoagulation of the retina are the mainstay of management, vitrectomy may be required in advanced stages. Age related macular degeneration may be exudative (wet) or non-exudative (dry). Treatment is not usually effective. Pigmentary retinal dystrophies are slow degenerative hereditary diseases of the retina involving the rods and cones. Retinoblastoma is a common congenital malignant tumor of the retina in children. Retinal detachment is separation of neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium. It may be rhegmatogenous due to retinal hole or tear, or non-rhegmatogenous. Main principle of treatment is to seal the retinal breaks. Fluorescein angiography is the study of retinal and choroidal vasculature using fluorescein. Ultrasonography of the eye may be done by A-scan or B-scan. Argon, diode, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers are used in ophthalmology for various indications They act by photocoagulation, photodisruption or by photoablation.

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