Acid erosive tooth surface loss is increasingly being reported in several countries, and also is becoming recognized as a significant cause of tooth destruction in persons with symptoms of xerostomia arising from hyposalivation. The primary etiology is related to a high consumption of dietary sources of acids, and also to an increasing awareness of gastric acid as a significant factor in both children and adults. In some instances, the presence of tooth erosion may allow dentists to make the initial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is a major cause of intrinsic acid erosion. Erosion can be exacerbated by hyposalivation induced by dehydration, many drugs and several systemic conditions. Recommended preventive dental treatments aim to neutralize the effects of acid, reduce the severity of drug-induced and other causes of hyposalivation, stimulate salivary flow and buffering capacity, and increase the acid resistance of tooth substance. Initial restorative treatments should be conservative, using adhesive dentistry techniques.