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Chapter-01 Introduction to Epidemiology by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Epidemiology is basic science of medicine and fundamental to practice of medicine and public health. History of epidemiology dates back to Hippocratus and Ayurveda in Indian system of medicine. Sir John Snow was pioneer in epidemiological investigation. E Epidemiology, Historical overview of epidemiology, Definition, Scope of epidemiology, Uses of epidemiolo... [More]

Chapter-02 Epidemiological Studies by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Epidemiology is study of distribution and determinants of disease and health related states. Answer to six questions is searched in epidemiological studies. Questions are-who, how many, when, where and how are they affected; and what can be done to preven Epidemiological studies, Descriptive epidemiology, Diagram-spot map, Type of descriptive studies, How to... [More]

Chapter-03 Measurement of Disease Frequency and Association by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Measurement of disease frequency is basic requirement of epidemiological study. Measures of disease frequency are ratio, proportion and rate. Most frequently used measures are Incidence and prevalence. Incidence can be measured from cohort studies. It is Measurement of disease frequency and association, Measures of disease frequency, Ratio, Proportion, Rate... [More]

Chapter-04 Causal Association/Cause Effect Relationship by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Epidemiological studies are done to find cause of disease. The factor must be necessary and sufficient. Additional factors required to produce disease are environmental factors and host factors. Types of association are—causal association and non-causal a Causal association or cause effect relationship, Causal association, Concept of cause and causal associa... [More]

   Chapter DOI:10.5005/jp/books/11177_5      

Diseases do not happen randomly; there are factors contribute in causation. There are two phases of infectious disease-pre pathogenesis phase and pathogenesis phase. In pre-pathogenesis phase agent, host and environment form epidemiological triad. Agents Epidemiological concept of disease and natural history of disease, Epidemiological triad, Agents of dise... [More]

Chapter-06 Epidemiological Investigations by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Epidemic is occurrence of disease in excess in a defined area. Steps in investigation of epidemic are-verification of diagnosis, defining population at risk, management of cases, collection of epidemiological data, collection of samples and analysis, anal Epidemiological investigations, Investigation of an epidemic, Investigation of non-communicable diseases... [More]

Chapter-07 Screening for Disease by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Screening means application of tests to individuals who are yet to show clinical manifestation of disease. It does not diagnose disease. It differs from early diagnosis which means detecting a disease in symptomatic persons. A disease suitable for screeni Screening for disease, Disease or conditions suitable for screening, Screening tests, How to test validi... [More]

Chapter-08 Mortality Statistics by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Reduction of mortality is major challenge of health services. Major sources of mortality statistics are—registration of births and deaths, hospital records and population surveys. It is measured by death rates. Types of death rates are—crude death rate, s Mortality statistics, Sources of mortality data, Measures of mortality, Crude death rate, Specific death... [More]

Chapter-09 Morbidity Statistics by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

Morbidity is any departure from physiological well-being. Sources of morbidity statistics are—reporting of disease, case registries, surveys, hospital records, MIS. Morbidity is described by incidence rate, prevalence rate. Attack rate and secondary are s Morbidity statistics, Sources of morbidity statistics could be following, Measurement of morbidity, Uses... [More]

Chapter-10 How to Design an Epidemiological Study by Bhattacharya Susmita (2010) Edition : 1/e

In this chapter let us understand basic steps in designing an epidemiological study. It is essential to understand what does research means. Research can be defined a systematic collection and interpretation of data collected for the defined purpose with How to design an epidemiological study, Research has definite characteristics, Steps can be as follows.