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17 Result(s) for 'SubCategory='Anatomy''
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Chapter-01 Introduction by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Life begins at fertilization. Fertilized ovum (zygote) then grows to form the adult. Part of this growth takes place before birth inside uterus (prenatal) and part of the growth is after birth (postnatal). Prenatal period is divided in embryonic period and foetal period. Postnatal period is also divided in various parts starting from infancy to adult hood. P... [More]

Chapter-02 Gametes and Genital Tracts by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Formation of gametes (gametogenesis) involves two types of cell divisions–mitosis and meiosis. In meiosis chromosome number is reduced to half (haploid). Oogenesis is controlled by two hormones secreted by pituitary gland–F.S.H. and L.H. Cyclical changes in ovary under influence of F.S.H. and L.H. is ‘ovarian cycle’. Ovary produces two hormones oestrogen and... [More]

Chapter-03 Early Development of Embryo by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

There are certain changes in spermatozoa which must take place before fertilization. These are capacitation and acrosome raction. Fertilization is fusion of male and female gametes (both having haploid number of chromosome) to form a single cell ‘zygote’, having diploid number of chromosome. After fertilization the zygote passes through various stages of... [More]

Chapter-04 Further Development of Embryo by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Cells of primitive node move inwards and form the ‘notochord’. Ectodermal cells overlying notochord differentiate to form neuroectoderm. Neuroectoderm proliferates and form neural plate, neural groove and then ‘neural tube’. Cell at the junction of neuroectoderm and ectoderm differentiate to form ‘neural crest cells’. The neural crest cells lie dorsolateral ... [More]

Chapter-05 Placenta and Fetal Membranes by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Implantation is the process by which embryo is fixed and embedded in endometrium of uterus. Decidual reaction-under influence of hcG secreted by syncytiotrophoblast, secretary phase changes in endometrium are intensified. Decidua is divided in three parts after implantation: 1. Decidua basalis, 2. Decidua parietalis, and 3. Decidua capsularis. Chorionic vill... [More]

Chapter-06 Congenital Anomalies and their Etiology by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Congenital anomaly is defined as developmental defect present at birth. Types of congenital anomalies: 1. Structural, 2. Functional, and 3. Metabolic. Causes of congenital anomalies: 1. Genetic factors and Environmental factors. Genetic factors: chromosomal anomalies: 1. Numerical: (a) aneuploidy and (b) polyploidy. 2. Structural: (a) translocation, (b) dele... [More]

Chapter-07 Skin and Appendages by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Epidermis of skin develops from surface ectoderm. Dermis of skin develops from underlying mesoderm. Hairs develop from down growth of epidermis into dermis. Sebaceous gland develops as a diverticulum from side of the hair follicle. At few places (e.g. glands of penis labia minora) sebaceous glands develop as a diverticulum from epidermis. Sweat gland develop... [More]

Chapter-08 Limbs by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Upper limb buds appear on ventrolateral aspect of embryo opposite lower cervical segments. Lower limb buds appear on ventrolateral aspect of embryo opposite lumbar and upper sacral segments. The structure of limb bud: Each limb bud consists of central core of mesoderm covered by ectoderm. At the tip of limb bud ectoderm thickens to form apical ectodermal rid... [More]

Chapter-09 Musculoskeletal System by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

All the muscles of body develop from mesoderm except muscles of iris: which develop from ectoderm. Striated muscles develop from following sources.1. Somites: Myotome part of somites develop into muscles e.g. muscles of trunk, neck, tongue and eyeball (extra ocular muscles). 2. Local mesoderm: It is derived from somatopleural layer of lateral plate mesoderm.... [More]

Chapter-10 Development of Cardiovascular System by Sant Sudhir (2008) Edition : 2/e

Two endothelial heart tubes develop and fuse with each other to form a single heart tube with bifid caudal end. Parts of the heart tube from cranial to caudal end and their derivatives as follows: 1. Truncus arteriosus: Pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta. 2. Bulbus cordis: Outflowing part of both the ventricles. 3. Ventricles: Inflowing part of the both the... [More]